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London: 47 Paternoster Row
W. & R. CHAMBERS, Limited
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Pronouncing, Explanatory, Etymological
1264 pp. Imp. 8vo, cloth, 12/6; hf.-mor., 18/-

"The best one volume dictionary in existence."
W. & R. Chambers, Limited, London and Edinburgh.


This is the third English Dictionary which the present Editor has prepared, and he may therefore lay claim to an unusually prolonged apprenticeship to his trade. It is surely unnecessary for him to say that he believes this to be the best book of the three, and he can afford to rest content if the Courteous Reader receive it with the indulgence extended to his Library Dictionary, published in the spring of 1898. It is based upon that work, but will be found to possess many serviceable qualities of its own. It is not much less in content, and its greater relative portability is due to smaller type, to thinner paper, and still more to a rigorous compression and condensation in the definitions, by means of which room has been found for many additional words.

The aim has been to include all the common words in literary and conversational English, together with words obsolete save in the pages of Spenser, Shakespeare, Milton, and the Authorised Version of the Bible. An attempt has been made also to include the common terms of the sciences and the arts of life, the vocabulary of sport, those Scotch and provincial words which assert themselves in Burns, Scott, the Bronts, and George Eliot, and even the coinages of word-masters like Carlyle, Browning, and Meredith. Numberless compound idiomatic phrases have also been given a place, in each case under the head of the significant word.

Correctness in technical matters has been ensured by consulting such books as Smyth's Sailor's Word-Book, Voyle's Military Dictionary, Wilson's Stock-Exchange Glossary, Lee's Glossary of Liturgical and Ecclesiastical Terms, &c. Besides books of this class, the Editor has made constant use of special books such as Schmidt's Shakespeare-Lexicon, Calderwood's edition of Fleming's Vocabulary of Philosophy, Jamieson's Scottish Dictionary, the Stanford Dictionary of Anglicised Words and Phrases, Yule and Burnell's Anglo-Indian Glossary, Addis and Arnold's Catholic Dictionary, and the Dictionaries of the Bible of Sir William Smith and Dr Hastings.

In Latin, his authority is Lewis and Short; in Greek, Liddell and Scott; in Romance Philology, Diez and Scheler; in French, Littr; in Spanish, Velazquez; in German, Weigand and Flgel; in Gaelic, Macleod and Dewar, and M'Bain; in Hebrew, Gesenius.

In English etymology the Editor has consulted Professor Skeat's Dictionary and his Principles of English Etymology—First and Second Series; the magistral New English Dictionary of Dr James A. H. Murray and Mr Henry Bradley, so far as completed; and the only less valuable English Dialect Dictionary of Professor Wright (begun 1896).

Two complete American English Dictionaries still hold the first place as works of reference, Professor Whitney's Century Dictionary and Funk and Wagnall's Standard Dictionary.

The Editor has great pleasure in acknowledging his personal obligations to his brothers, the Rev. Robert P. Davidson, B.A., of Trinity College, Oxford, and David G. Davidson, M.D., Edinburgh; and to his equally capable and courteous colleagues, Mr J. R. Pairman and David Patrick, LL.D., Editor of Chambers's Encyclopdia.

T. D.




The Arrangement of the Words.—Every word is given in its alphabetical order, except in cases where, to save space, derivatives are given after and under the words from which they are derived. Each uncompounded verb has its participles, when irregular, placed after it. Exceptional plurals are also given. When a word stands after another, with no meaning given, its meanings can be at once formed from those of the latter, by adding the signification of the affix: thus the meanings of Darkness are obtained by prefixing the meaning of ness, state of being, to those of Dark.

Many words from French and other tongues, current in English usage, but not yet fairly Anglicised, are inserted in the list of Foreign Phrases, &c., at the end, rather than in the body of the Dictionary.

The Pronunciation.—The Pronunciation is given immediately after each word, by the word being spelled anew. In this new spelling, every consonant used has its ordinary unvarying sound, no consonant being employed that has more than one sound. The same sounds are always represented by the same letters, no matter how varied their actual spelling in the language. No consonant used has any mark attached to it, with the one exception of th, which is printed in common letters when sounded as in thick, but in italics when sounded as in then. Unmarked vowels have always their short sounds, as in lad, led, lid, lot, but, book. The marked vowels are shown in the following line, which is printed at the top of each page:—

fāte, fr; mē, hėr; mīne; mōte; mūte; mōōn; then.

The vowel u when marked thus, , has the sound heard in Scotch bluid, gude, the French du, almost that of the German in Mller. Where more than one pronunciation of a word is given, that which is placed first is more accepted.

The Spelling.—When more than one form of a word is given, that which is placed first is the spelling in current English use. Unfortunately our modern spelling does not represent the English we actually speak, but rather the language of the 16th century, up to which period, generally speaking, English spelling was mainly phonetic, like the present German. The fundamental principle of all rational spelling is no doubt the representation of every sound by an invariable symbol, but in modern English the usage of pronunciation has drifted far from the conventional forms established by a traditional orthography, with the result that the present spelling of our written speech is to a large extent a mere exercise of memory, full of confusing anomalies and imperfections, and involving an enormous and unnecessary strain on the faculties of learners. Spelling reform is indeed an imperative necessity, but it must proceed with a wise moderation, for, in the words of Mr Sweet, 'nothing can be done without unanimity, and until the majority of the community are convinced of the superiority of some one system unanimity is impossible.' The true path of progress should follow such wisely moderate counsels as those of Dr J. A. H. Murray:—the dropping of the final or inflexional silent e; the restoration of the historical -t after breath consonants; uniformity in the employment of double consonants, as in traveler, &c.; the discarding of ue in words like demagogue and catalogue; the uniform levelling of the agent -our into -or; the making of ea = ĕ short into e and the long ie into ee; the restoration of some, come, tongue, to their old English forms, sum, cum, tung; a more extended use of z in the body of words, as chozen, praize, raize; and the correction of the worst individual monstrosities, as foreign, scent, scythe, ache, debt, people, parliament, court, would, sceptic, phthisis, queue, schedule, twopence-halfpenny, yeoman, sieve, gauge, barque, buoy, yacht, &c.

Already in America a moderate degree of spelling reform may be said to be established in good usage, by the adoption of -or for -our, as color, labor, &c.; of -er for -re, as center, meter, &c.; -ize for -ise, as civilize, &c.; the use of a uniform single consonant after an unaccented vowel, as traveler for traveller; the adoption of e for œ or in hemorrhage, diarrhea, &c.

The Meanings.—The current and most important meaning of a word is usually given first. But in cases like Clerk, Livery, Marshal, where the force of the word can be made much clearer by tracing its history, the original meaning is also given, and the successive variations of its usage defined.

The Etymology.—The Etymology of each word is given after the meanings, within brackets. Where further information regarding a word is given elsewhere, it is so indicated by a reference. It must be noted under the etymology that whenever a word is printed thus, Ban, Base, the student is referred to it; also that here the sign—is always to be read as meaning 'derived from.' Examples are generally given of words that are cognate or correspond to the English words; but it must be remembered that they are inserted merely for illustration. Such words are usually separated from the rest by a semicolon. For instance, when an English word is traced to its Anglo-Saxon form, and then a German word is given, no one should suppose that our English word is derived from the German. German and Anglo-Saxon are alike branches from a common Teutonic stem, and have seldom borrowed from each other. Under each word the force of the prefix is usually given, though not the affix. For fuller explanation in such cases the student is referred to the list of Prefixes and Suffixes in the Appendix.


aor. aorist. geol. geology. perh. perhaps.
abbrev. abbreviation. geom. geometry. pers. person.
abl. ablative. ger. gerundive. pfx. prefix.
acc. according. gram. grammar. phil., philos. philosophy.
accus. accusative. gun. gunnery. philol. philology.
adj. adjective. her. heraldry. phon. phonetics.
adv. adverb. hist. history. phot. photography.
agri. agriculture. hort. horticulture. phrenol. phrenology.
alg. algebra. hum. humorous. phys. physics.
anat. anatomy. i.e. that is. physiol. physiology.
app. apparently. imit. imitative. pl. plural.
arch. archaic. imper. imperative. poet. poetical.
archit. architecture. impers. impersonal. pol. econ. political economy.
arith. arithmetic. indic. indicative. poss. possessive.
astrol. astrology. infin. infinitive. Pr.Bk. Book of Common
astron. astronomy. inten. intensive. Prayer.
attrib. attributive. interj. interjection. pr.p. present participle.
augm. augmentative. interrog. interrogative. prep. preposition.
B. Bible. jew. jewellery. pres. present.
biol. biology. lit. literally. print. printing.
book-k. book-keeping. mach. machinery. priv. privative.
bot. botany. masc. masculine. prob. probably.
c. (circa) about. math. mathematics. Prof. Professor.
c., cent. century. mech. mechanics. pron. pronoun;
carp. carpentry. med. medicine. pronounced;
cf. compare. metaph. metaphysics. pronunciation.
chem. chemistry. mil. military. prop. properly.
cog. cognate. Milt. Milton. pros. prosody.
coll., colloq. colloquially. min. mineralogy. prov. provincial.
comp. comparative. mod. modern. q.v. which see.
conch. conchology. Mt. Mount. R.C. Roman Catholic.
conj. conjunction. mus. music. recip. reciprocal.
conn. connected. myth. mythology. redup. reduplication.
contr. contracted. n., ns. noun, nouns. refl. reflexive.
cook. cookery. nat. hist. natural history. rel. related; relative.
corr. corruption. naut. nautical. rhet. rhetoric.
crystal. crystallography. neg. negative. sculp. sculpture.
dat. dative. neut. neuter. Shak. Shakespeare.
demons. demonstrative. noun plural. sig. signifying.
der. derivation. n.sing. noun singular. sing. singular.
dial. dialect, dialectal. N.T. New Testament. spec. specifically.
Dict. Dictionary. obs. obsolete. Spens. Spenser.
dim. diminutive. opp. opposed. subj. subjunctive.
dub. doubtful. opt. optics. suff. suffix.
eccles. ecclesiastical history. orig. originally. superl. superlative.
e.g. for example. ornith. ornithology. surg. surgery.
elect. electricity. O.S. old style. term. termination.
entom. entomology. O.T. Old Testament. teleg. telegraphy.
esp. especially. p., part. participle. Tenn. Tennyson.
ety. etymology. p.adj. participial adjective. Test. Testament.
fem. feminine. paint. painting. theat. theatre; theatricals.
fig. figuratively. paleog. paleography. theol. theology.
fol. followed; following. paleon. paleontology. trig. trigonometry.
fort. fortification. palm. palmistry. ult. ultimately.
freq. frequentative. pa.p. past participle. v.i. verb intransitive.
fut. future. pass. passive. voc. vocative.
gen. genitive. pa.t. past tense. v.t. verb transitive.
gener. generally. path. pathology. vul. vulgar.
geog. geography. perf. perfect. zool. zoology.

Amer. American. Fris. Frisian. Norw. Norwegian.
Ar. Arabic. Gael. Gaelic. O. Fr. Old French.
A.S. Anglo-Saxon. Ger. German. Pers. Persian.
Austr. Australian. Goth. Gothic. Peruv. Peruvian.
Bav. Bavarian. Gr. Greek. Pol. Polish.
Beng. Bengali. Heb. Hebrew. Port. Portuguese.
Bohem. Bohemian. Hind. Hindustani. Prov. Provenal.
Braz. Brazilian. Hung. Hungarian. Rom. Romance.
Bret. Breton. Ice. Icelandic. Russ. Russian
Carib. Caribbean. Ind. Indian. Sans. Sanskrit.
Celt. Celtic. Ion. Ionic. Scand. Scandinavian.
Chal. Chaldean. Ir. Irish. Scot. Scottish.
Chin. Chinese. It. Italian. Singh. Singhalese.
Corn. Cornish. Jap. Japanese. Slav. Slavonic.
Dan. Danish. Jav. Javanese. Sp. Spanish.
Dut. Dutch. L. Latin. Sw. Swedish.
Egypt. Egyptian. Lith. Lithuanian. Teut. Teutonic.
Eng. English. L. L. Low or Late Latin. Turk. Turkish.
Finn. Finnish. M. E. Middle English. U.S. United States.
Flem. Flemish. Mex. Mexican. W. Welsh.
Fr. French. Norm. Norman.



the first letter in our alphabet, its corresponding symbol standing first also in many other alphabets derived from the Phœnician. It originated in the hieroglyphic picture of an eagle (Old Egyptian ahom), the cursive hieratic form of which was the original of the Phœnician aleph, an ox, from a fancied resemblance to its head and horns.—A, as a note in music, is the major sixth of the scale of C; A1, the symbol by which first-class vessels are classed in Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign Shipping, hence first-rate.

A, the indefinite article, a broken-down form of An, and used before words beginning with the sound of a consonant. [An was a new development, after the Conquest, of the A.S. numeral n, one.]

A, or ā, a prep., derived from the old prep. on, and still used, as a prefix, in afoot, afield, apart, asleep, nowadays, twice-a-day; also with verbal nouns, as a-building, to be a-doing, to set a-going. It is now admitted only colloquially. [Short for A.S. an, a dialectic form of on, on, in, at. See Prefixes.]

A, , a dialectic corruption of he or she, as in quotha, (Shak.) 'A babbled of green fields.'—A, usually written a', Scotch for all; A, a form of the L. prep. ab, from, of, used before consonants, as in Thomas Kempis, Thomas Becket, &c.

Aardvark, ard′vark, n. the ground-hog of South Africa. [Dut. aarde, earth; vark, found only in dim. varken, a pig.]

Aardwolf, ard′wōōlf, n. the earth-wolf of South Africa, a carnivore belonging to a sub-family of the Hynid. [Dut. aarde, earth, wolf, wolf.]

Aaronic, -al, ā-ron′ik, -al, adj. pertaining to Aaron, the Jewish high-priest, or to his priesthood.—n. Aa′ron's-rod (archit.), a rod having one serpent twined round it.—Aaron's beard, a popular name for a number of cultivated plants—among the best known, a species of Saxifrage (S. sarmentosa), usually grown in hanging pots, from which hang long stems, bearing clumps of roundish, hairy leaves.

Ab, ab, n. the eleventh month of the Jewish civil year, and the fifth of the ecclesiastical year, answering to parts of July and August. [Syriac.]

Aba, ab′a, n. a Syrian woollen stuff, of goat's or camel's hair, usually striped; an outer garment made of this. [Ar.]

Abaca, ab′a-ka, n. the native name of the so-called Manilla hemp of commerce—really a plantain, much grown in the Philippine Islands.

Aback, a-bak′, adv. (naut.) said of sails pressed backward against the mast by the wind—hence (fig.) Taken aback, taken by surprise, [A.S. on bc. See On and Back.]

Abacot. See Bycocket.

Abactinal, ab-ak′ti-nal, adj. (zool.) remote from the actinal area, without rays.—adv. Abac′tinally.

Abaction, ab-ak′shun, n. (law) the stealing of a number of cattle at once.—n. Abac′tor, one who does this. [L. abigĕre, abactum, to drive off.]


Abacus, ab′a-kus, n. a counting-frame or table: (archit.) a level tablet on the capital of a column, supporting the entablature:—pl. Ab′acī.—ns. Abacis′cus, Abac′ulus, dims. of Abacus; Ab′acist, one who counts with the abacus. [L.—Gr. abax, abakos, a board for reckoning on.]

Abaddon, a-bad′don, n. the destroyer, or angel of the bottomless pit: (Milton) the bottomless pit, or abyss of hell itself. [Heb., from ābad, to be lost.]

Abaft, a-baft′, adv. and prep. on the aft, hind, or stern part of a ship: behind. [Pfx. a-, for A.S. on, on, and bftan, after, behind; itself made up of pfx. be-, and ftan. See Aft.]

Abalienate, ab-āl′yen-āt, v.t. Same as Alienate.

Abandon, a-ban′dun, v.t. to give up: to desert: to yield (one's self) without restraint (with to).—v.t. Aband′ (Spens.), to abandon.—n. Aban′don (n to be nasalised), freedom from conventional restraints: careless freedom of manners.—adj. Aban′doned, given up, as to a vice: profligate: completely deserted: very wicked.—adv. Aban′donedly.—n. Aban′donment, act of abandoning: state of being given up: enthusiastic surrender of self to a cause: (law) the renunciation of a claim. [O. Fr. bandon, from the Teut. root ban, proclamation, came to mean decree, authorisation, permission; hence bandon—at will or discretion, abandonner, to give up to the will or disposal of some one. See Ban, Banns.]

Abase, a-bās′, v.t. to cast down: to humble: to degrade.—adjs. Abā′sed, Abaiss (her.), depressed.—n. Abase′ment, state of humiliation. [O. Fr. abaissier, to bring low—L. ad, to, and root of Base, adj.]

Abash, a-bash′, v.t. to confuse with shame or guilt.—pa.p. Abashed′ (with at, of an occasion; by, of a cause).—n. Abash′ment, confusion from shame. [O. Fr. esbhir (Fr. s'bahir), pr.p. esbahiss-ant, to be amazed—L. ex, out, and interj. bah, expressive of astonishment.]

Abate, a-bāt′, v.t. to lessen: to deduct (with of): to mitigate: (law) to put an end to, do away with, as of an action or a nuisance, to render null, as a writ.—v.i. to grow less.—adjs. Abāt′able, capable of being abated; Abāt′ed, beaten down or cut away, as the background of an ornamental pattern in relief.—n. Abate′ment, the act of abating: the sum or quantity abated: (law) the act of intruding on a freehold and taking possession before the heir, the abandonment of an action, or the reduction of a legacy: (her.) a supposed mark of dishonour on a coat of arms—apparently never actually used.—Abated arms, those whose edges have been blunted for the tournament. [O. Fr. abatre, to beat down—L. ab, from, and batĕre, popular form of batuĕre, to beat: conn. with Beat.]

Abatis, Abattis, a′bat-is, n.sing. and pl. (fort.) a rampart of trees felled and laid side by side, with the branches towards the enemy. [Fr. See Abate.]

Abattoir, a-bat-wr′, n. a public slaughter-house. [Fr. See ety. of Abate.]

Abature, ab′a-tūr, n. the trail of a beast of the chase. [Fr.]

Abb, ab, n. properly woof- or weft-yarn, but sometimes warp-yarn. [Pfx. a-, and Web.]

Abba, ab′a, n. father, a term retained in the Gr. text of the New Testament, together with its translation 'father,' hence Abba father, applied to God the Father: also a bishop in the Syriac and Coptic Churches. [L.—Gr.—Syriac and Chaldee, abbā—Heb. ab, father.]

Abbacy, ab′a-si, n. the office or dignity of an abbot: the establishment under an abbot: an abbey.—adj. Abbā′tial. [The earlier form was abbatie—said by Dr Murray to have been originally a Scotch form.]

Abbate, ab-b′te, n. a title loosely applied to ecclesiastics in Italy.—Also Abate. [It.]

Abbaye, an arch. form of Abbey.

Abb, ab′ā, n. originally the French name for an abbot, but often used in the general sense of a priest or clergyman. Before the Revolution, abbs were often merely holders of benefices, enjoying a portion of the revenues, although in minor orders, or even laymen. They were often tutors in noble families, or men of letters, and were marked by a short violet-coloured robe.

Abbess, ab′es, n. the female superior of a religious community of women. [Earlier Abbatess, fem. of Abbot.]

Abbey, ab′e, n. a monastery of persons of either sex presided over by an abbot or abbess: the church now or formerly attached to it: in Newstead Abbey, &c., the name has been retained after the abbatial building had become a private house:—pl. Abb′eys. [O. Fr. abae (Fr. abbaye)—L. abbatia, See Abba.]

Abbot, ab′ut, n. the father or head of an abbey:—fem. Abb′ess.—n. Ab′botship. [L. abbas, abbatisAbba.]

Abbreviate, ab-brē′vi-āt, v.t. to make brief or short: to abridge.—ns. Abbreviā′tion, Abbrē′viature, a shortening, a part of a word put for the whole; Abbrē′viator, one who abbreviates.—adj. Abbrē′viatory. [L. abbreviāre, -ātumab, intensive, and brevis, short. See Brief.]

Abc, Abcee, ā-bē-sē′, n. the alphabet from its first letters: a first reading-book (obs.), hence fig. the first rudiments of anything.—ABC book (Shak.), a book to teach the a, b, c, or alphabet.

Abdicate, ab′di-kāt, v.t. and v.i. formally to renounce or give up office or dignity.—adj. Ab′dicant.—n. Abdicā′tion. [L. ab, from or off, dicāre, -ātum, to proclaim.]

Abdomen, ab-dō′men, n. the belly: the lower part of the trunk.—adj. Abdom′inal.—adv. Abdom′inally.—adj. Abdom′inous, pot-bellied. [L.]

Abduce, ab-dūs′, v.t. an earlier form of Abduct.—adj. Abduc′ent, drawing back: separating. [L. abducĕreab, from ducĕre, ductum, to draw.]

Abduct, ab-dukt′, v.t. to take away by fraud or violence.—ns. Abduc′tion, the carrying away, esp. of a person by fraud or force; Abduc′tor, one guilty of abduction: a muscle that draws away. [L. abducĕre. See Abduce.]

Abeam, a-bēm′, adv. (naut.) on the beam, or in a line at right angles to a vessel's length. [Pfx. a- (A.S. on), on, and Beam.]

Abear, a-bār′, v.t. (Spens.) to bear, to behave: (prov.) to endure or tolerate.—n. Abear′ance, (obs.) behaviour. [A.S. pfx. a-, and Bear.]

Abecedarian, ā-be-se-dā′ri-an, adj. pertaining to the a, b, c: rudimentary.—Abecedarian Psalms (as the 119th) or Hymns are such as are divided into successive portions according to the letters of the alphabet.

Abed, a-bed′, adv. in bed. [Pfx. a-, on, and Bed.]

Abele, a-bēl′, n. the white poplar-tree. [Dut. abeel; O. Fr. abel, aubel—Late L. albellus, albus, white.]

Aberdevine, ab-ėr-de-vīn′, n. a bird-fancier's name for the siskin. [Ety. uncertain; prob. a fanciful coinage.]

Aberrate, ab′ėr-rāt, v.i. to wander or deviate from the right way:—pr.p. ab′errāting; pa.p. ab′errāted.ns. Aber′rance, Aber′rancy (rare forms).—adj. Aber′rant (zool. and bot.), wandering, deviating in some particulars from its group.—n. Aberrā′tion, a wandering from the right path: deviation from truth or rectitude: in science, deviation from the type: abnormal structure or development.—Aberration of light, an apparent alteration in the place of a star, arising from the motion of the earth in its orbit, combined with the progressive passage of light. [L. aberrāre, -ātumab, from, errāre, to wander.]

Abet, a-bet′, v.t. to incite by encouragement or aid (used chiefly in a bad sense):—pr.p. abet′ting; pa.p. abet′ted.ns. Abet′ment; Abet′ter, Abet′tor, one who abets. [O. Fr. abeter (—L. ad, to), and beter, to bait, from root of Bait.]

Abeyance, a-bā′ans, n. a state of suspension or expectation: temporary inactivity—also Abey′ancy.—The v. to Abey is rare. [Fr.— (—L. ad, to), and bayer, to gape in expectation, from imitative root ba, to gape.]

Abhominable, an earlier spelling of Abominable.

Abhor, ab-hor′, v.t. to shrink from with horror: to detest: to loathe:—pr.p. abhor′ring; pa.p. abhorred′.ns. Abhor′rence, extreme hatred; (obs.) Abhor′rency.—adj. Abhor′rent, detesting; repugnant (with of).—ns. Abhor′rer, one who abhors; Abhor′ring (B. and Shak.), object of abhorrence. [L. abhorrēre, from ab, from, and horrēre. See Horror.]

Abib, ā′bib, n. the first month of the Jewish ecclesiastical, the seventh of the civil year, later called Nisan, answering to parts of March and April. [Heb., 'an ear of corn'—ābab, to produce early fruit.]

Abide, a-bīd′, v.t. to bide or wait for: to endure: to tolerate.—v.i. to remain in a place, dwell or stay:—pa.t. and pa.p. abōde′.n. Abid′ance.—adj. Abid′ing, continual.—n. an enduring.—adv. Abid′ingly. [A.S. bdan—pfx. - (= Goth. us = Ger. er), and bdan, to wait.]

Abide, a-bīd′, v.t. (Shak. and Milton) to redeem, pay the penalty for, suffer. [M. E. abyen, confounded with Abide. See Aby.]

Abies, ab′i-ez, n. the silver-fir.—adj. Abiet′ic, pertaining to trees of the genus Abies. [L.]

Abigail, ab′i-gāl, n. a lady's-maid. [From Abigail, 1 Sam. xxv.]

Ability, a-bil′i-ti, n. quality of being able: power: strength: skill.— Abil′ities, the powers of the mind. [O. Fr. ablet (Fr. habilet)—L. habilitashabilis, easily handled, from habēre, to have, hold. See Able.]

Abintestate, ab-in-tes′tāt, adj. inheriting the estate of one who died without having made a will. [L. ab, from, and Intestate.]

Abiogenesis, ab-i-o-jen′es-is, n. the origination of living by not-living matter, spontaneous generation.—adj. Abiogenet′icn. Abio′genist, one who believes in such. [Coined by Huxley in 1870; Gr. a, neg., bios, life, genesis, birth.]

Abject, ab-jekt′, v.t. (obs.) to throw or cast down or away. [L. abjicĕre, -jectumab, away, jacĕre, to throw.]

Abject, ab′jekt, adj. cast away: mean: worthless: cowering: base.—n. an outcast.—ns. Abjec′tion, Ab′jectness, a mean or low state: baseness: degradation.—adv. Ab′jectly. [L. abjectus, cast away—ab, away, jacĕre, to throw.]

Abjudge, ab-juj′, v.t. (rare) to take away by judicial sentence. [L. ab, from, and Judge.]

Abjudicate, ab-jōō′di-kāt, v.t. to give by judgment from one to another. [L. ab, from, and Judicate.]

Abjure, ab-jōōr′, v.t. to renounce on oath or solemnly: to recant: to repudiate.—n. Abjurā′tion, official renunciation on oath of any principle or pretension.—adj. Abjur′atory.—n. Abjur′er. [L. ab, from, jurāre, -ātum, to swear.]

Abkari, ab-k′ri, n. the manufacture or sale of spirituous liquors: the excise duty levied on such.—Also Abka′ry. [Pers.]

Ablactation, ab-lak-tā′shun, n. a weaning. [L. ab, from, lactāre, to suckle—lac, lactis, milk.]

Ablation, ab-lā′shun, n. the act of carrying away: (geol.) the wearing away of rock by the action of water.—adj. Ablati′tious. [L. ab, from, latum, supine of ferre, to bear.]

Ablative, ab′lat-iv, adj. used as a noun. The name applied to one of the cases in the declension of nouns and pronouns in the Indo-European languages, retained as in Latin and Sanskrit, or merged in another case, as in the genitive in Greek. Its meaning was to express direction from or time when.—adj. Ablatī′val. [L. ablativusab, from, ferre, latum, to take; as if it indicated taking away, or privation.]

Ablaut, ab′lowt, n. (philol.) vowel permutation, a substitution of one root vowel for another in derivation, as in sing, sang, song, sung, distinct from the phonetic influence of a succeeding vowel, as in the Umlaut. It is especially the change of a vowel to indicate tense-change in strong verbs. [Ger., from ab, off, and laut, sound.]

Ablaze, a-blāz′, adj. in a blaze, on fire: gleaming brightly. [Prep. a, and Blaze.]

Able, ā′bl, adj. (comp. A′bler; superl. A′blest) having sufficient strength, power, or means to do a thing: skilful.—adj. A′ble-bod′ied, of a strong body: free from disability, of a sailor, labourer, &c.: robust.—adv. A′bly. [See Ability.]

Ablegate, ab′le-gāt, n. a papal envoy who carries the insignia of office to a newly-appointed cardinal.

Abloom, a-blōōm′, adv. in a blooming state. [Prep. a, on, and Bloom.]

Abluent, ab′lōō-ent, adj. washing or cleaning by a liquid.—n. a medicine which carries off impurities from the system. [L. abluens, -entis, pr.p. of abluĕre, to wash away—ab, from, away, and luĕre = lavāre, to wash. See Lave.]

Ablution, ab-lōō′shun, n. act of washing, esp. the body, preparatory to religious rites: any ceremonial washing, symbolic of moral purification: the wine and water used to rinse the chalice, drunk by the officiating priest.—adj. Ablu′tionary. [L. ablutioab, away, luĕre = lavāre, to wash.]

Abnegate, ab′ne-gāt, v.t. to deny.—ns. Abnegā′tion, renunciation; Ab′negator, one who abnegates or renounces. [L. ab, away, and negāre, to deny.]

Abnormal, ab-nor′mal, adj. not normal or according to rule: irregular—also Abnor′mous.—ns. Abnormal′ity, Abnor′mity.—adv. Abnor′mally. [L. ab, away from, and Normal.]

Aboard, a-bōrd′, adv. or prep. on board: in a ship, or in a train (Amer.). [Prep. a, on, and Board.]

Abococke. See Bycocket.

Abode, a-bōd′, n. a dwelling-place: stay. [See Abide.]

Abode, a-bōd′, pa.t. and pa.p. of Abide.

Abodement, a-bōd′ment, n. (obs.) a foreboding: an omen. [From Abode, with suff. -ment. See Bode, Forebode.]

Abolish, ab-ol′ish, v.t. to put an end to: to annul.—adj. Abol′ishable, capable of being abolished.—ns. Abol′ishment (rare); Aboli′tion, the act of abolishing; Aboli′tionism, advocacy of abolitionist principles; Aboli′tionist, one who seeks to abolish anything, esp. slavery. [Fr. abolir, aboliss—from L. abolēre, -itumab, from, olēre, to grow. The prep. ab here reverses the meaning of the simple verb.]

Abomasus, ab-ō-mā′sus, n. the fourth stomach of ruminants, lying close to the omasum or third stomach.—Also Abomā′sum. [L. ab, and omasum, paunch.]

Abominate, ab-om′in-āt, v.t. to abhor: to detest extremely.—adj. Abom′inable, hateful: detestable, an old spelling is Abhom′inable, to agree with a fancied etymology in Lat. ab homine.—n. Abom′inableness.—adv. Abom′inably.—n. Abominā′tion, extreme aversion: anything disgusting or detestable. [L. abomināri, -ātus, to turn from as of bad omen. See Omen.]

Abord, a-bōrd′, v.t. (arch.) to accost: (Spens.) astray, at a loss.—n. (Spens.) harbour: act of approaching: manner of approach. [Fr. aborder, bord. See Aboard and Border.]

Aboriginal, ab-o-rij′in-al, adj. first, primitive, indigenous.—adv. Aborig′inally.

Aborigines, ab-o-rij′in-ēz, the original inhabitants of a country. [L. See Origin.]

Abort, ab-ort′, v.i. to miscarry in birth: to remain in a rudimentary state.—n. Abor′tion, premature delivery, or the procuring of such: anything that does not reach maturity: a mis-shapen being or monster.—adj. Abort′ive, born untimely: unsuccessful: producing nothing: brought forth in an imperfect condition: rudimentary.—adv. Abort′ively.—n. Abort′iveness. [L. aborīri, abortusab, from, away, orīri, to rise.]

Abound, ab-ownd′, v.i. to overflow, be in great plenty: to possess in plenty (with in): to be filled with (used with with). [O. Fr. abunder—L. abundāre, to overflow, ab, from, unda, a wave.]

About, a-bowt′, prep. round on the outside: around: here and there in: near to: concerning: engaged in.—adv. around: nearly: here and there.—Bring about, to cause to take place; Come about, to take place; Go about, to prepare to do; Put about, disturbed; To be about, to be astir; Turn about, alternately. [A.S. on btan; on, in, btan, without, itself compounded of be, by, and tan, locative of t, out.]

Above, a-buv′, prep. on the upside: higher than: more than.—adv. overhead: in a higher position, order, or power.—adjs. Above′-board, open, honourable; Above′-ground, alive: not buried. [A.S. bfan, on, bufan, above, itself compounded of be, by, ufan, high, upwards, prop. the locative of uf, up.]

Abracadabra, ab-ra-ka-dab′ra, n. a cabbalistic word, written in successive lines, each shorter by a letter than the one above it, till the last letter A formed the apex of a triangle. It was worn as a charm for the cure of diseases. Now used generally for a spell or conjuring word: mere gibberish. [First found in 2d-cent. poem (Prcepta de Medicina) by Q. Serenus Sammonicus; further origin unknown.]

Abrade, ab-rād′, v.t. to scrape or rub off: to wear down by friction. [L. ab, off, radĕre, rasum, to scrape.]

Abraham-man, ā′bra-ham-man, n. originally a lunatic beggar from Bethlehem Hospital in London, marked by a special badge. Many sturdy beggars assumed this, hence the phrase To sham Abraham, to feign sickness, still used among sailors. [The wards in the old Bedlam are said to have been distinguished by the names of saints and patriarchs, as Abraham. Some find the origin of the name in an allusion to the parable of the beggar Lazarus, who found his rest in Abraham's bosom (Luke xvi.).]

Abranchiate, a-brang′ki-āt, adj. having no gills.—Also Abran′chial. [Gr. a, priv., and brangchia, gills.]

Abrasion, ab-rā′zhun, n. the act of rubbing off.—adj. and n. Abrā′sive. [See Abrade.]


Abraxas, a-braks′as, n. a mystic word, or an amulet, consisting of a gem engraved therewith on some part of it, often bearing a mystical figure of combined human and animal form, used as a charm. [Said to be coined by the Egyptian Gnostic Basilides in 2d century to express 365 in Greek letters; thus αβραξας used as numerals = 1 + 2 + 100 + 1 + 60 + 1 + 200. But Mr C. W. King finds its origin in Heb. ha-b'rākāh, 'the blessing,' or 'sacred name,' used as the title of a Gnostic deity representing the 365 emanations of the Divine Plērōma or fullness.]

Abray, a-brā′, Abrayd, a-brād′, v.i. (Spens.) to start out of sleep: to awake.—v.t. and v.i. to arouse, startle.—The more correct form is abraid. [Made up of pfx. a-, and abrdan. A.S. breydan, to twist. See Braid.]

Abreast, a-brest′, adv. with fronts in a line: side by side: (naut.) opposite to. [Prep. a, on, and Breast.]

Abricock. See Apricot.

Abridge, a-brij′, v.t. to make brief or short: to shorten: to epitomise: to curtail, as privileges or authority.—ns. Abridg′ment, Abridge′ment, contraction: shortening of time, labour or privileges: a compendium of a larger work: an epitome or synopsis: (law) the leaving out of certain portions Of a plaintiff's demand, the writ still holding good for the remainder. [O. Fr. abregier (Fr. abrger)—L. abbreviāre. See Abbreviate.]

Abroach, a-brōch′, adv. broached: in a condition to let the liquor run out: in a state to be diffused, afloat: astir. [Prep. a, and Broach.]

Abroad, a-brawd′, adv. on the broad or open space: out of doors: public: in another country. [Prep. a, and Broad.]

Abrogate, ab′ro-gāt, v.t. to repeal (a law): to set aside.—n. Abrogā′tion, act of repealing or setting aside.—adj. Ab′rogative. [L. ab, away, rogāre, -ātum, to ask or propose a law.]

Abrook, a-brook′, v.t. (Shak.) to brook, bear, or endure. [Pfx. a-, and Brook, v.]

Abrupt, ab-rupt′, adj. the opposite of gradual, as if broken off: sudden: unexpected: precipitous: (of style) passing from one thought to another without transitions: (of manners) short, rude.—n. an abrupt place.—n. Abrup′tion, a sudden breaking off: violent separation: (Shak.) interruption, pause.—adv. Abrupt′ly.—n. Abrupt′ness. [L. abruptusab, off, rumpĕre, ruptum, to break.]

Abscess, ab′ses, n. a collection of purulent matter within some tissue of the body. [L. abscessusabs, away, cedĕre, cessum, to go, to retreat.]

Abscind, ab-sind′, v.t. to cut off.—n. Abscis′sion, act of cutting off, or state of being cut off: (rhet.) a figure of speech in which the words demanded by the sense are left unsaid, the speaker stopping short suddenly. [L. abscindo; ab, off, scindo, to cut.]

Absciss, ab′sis, Abscissa, ab-sis′sa, n. the straight line cut off or intercepted between the vertex of a curve and an ordinate, measured along the principal axis:—pl. Absciss′es, Absciss′, Absciss′as. [L. abscissus, cut off, pa.p. of abscindĕreab, from, scindĕre, to cut.]

Abscond, abs-kond′, v.i. to hide, or quit the country, in order to escape a legal process. [L. abscondĕre, abs, from or away, condĕre, to hide.]

Absent, abs′ent, adj. being away: not present: inattentive—v.t. (abs-ent′) to keep one's self away.—ns. Abs′ence, the state of being away or not present: want: inattention; Absentee′, one who is absent on any occasion: one who makes a habit of living away from his estate or his office; Absentee′ism, the practice of absenting one's self from duty or station, esp. of a landowner living away from his estate.—adv. Ab′sently. [L. absent-, pr.p. of absumab, away from, sum, esse, to be.]

Absinth, Absinthe, ab′sinth, n. spirit combined with extract of wormwood.—adjs. Absinth′ian, Absinth′iated, impregnated with absinth. [Fr.—L. absinthium, wormwood—Gr.]

Absolute, ab′sol-ūt, adj. free from limits or conditions: complete: unlimited: free from mixture: considered without reference to other things: unconditioned, unalterable: unrestricted by constitutional checks (said of a government): (gram.) not immediately dependent: (phil.) existing in and by itself without necessary relation to any other being: capable of being conceived of as unconditioned. In the sense of being finished, perfect, it may be considered as opposed to the Infinite; but, in the sense of being freed from restriction or condition, it is evident the Infinite itself must be absolute. Opposite schools differ on the question whether the Absolute can be known under conditions of consciousness.—adv. Ab′solutely, separately: unconditionally: positively: completely.—ns. Ab′soluteness; Absolū′tion, release from punishment: acquittal: remission of sins declared officially by a priest, or the formula by which such is expressed; Ab′solutism, government where the ruler is without restriction; Ab′solutist, a supporter of absolute government.—adjs. Absol′utory, Absolv′atory.—The Absolute, that which is absolute, self-existent, uncaused. [L. absolutus, pa.p. of absolvĕre. See Absolve.]

Absolve, ab-zolv′, v.t. to loose or set free: to pardon: to acquit: to discharge (with from).—ns. Absolv′er, one who gives absolution or acquits; Absolv′itor, a decision favourable to a defender.—v.t. Assoil′zie, in Scots law, to absolve the accused on the grounds that the evidence disproves or does not establish the charge. [L. ab, from, solvĕre, solutum, to loose. See Solve.]

Absonant, ab′so-nant, adj. discordant: absurd: unnatural (with to or from)—opp. to Consonant. [L. ab, from, sonant-, pr.p. of sonāre, to sound.]

Absorb, ab-sorb′, v.t. to suck in: to swallow up: to engage wholly.—n. Absorbabil′ity.—adj. Absorb′able, that may be absorbed.—p.adj. Absorbed′, swallowed up: entirely occupied.—advs. Absorb′edly, Absorb′ingly.—adj. Absorb′ent, imbibing: swallowing.—n. that which absorbs.—n. Absorp′tion, the act of absorbing: entire occupation of mind.—adj. Absorp′tive, having power to absorb.—n. Absorptiv′ity. [Fr.—L. ab, from, sorbēre, -sorptum, to suck in.]

Abstain, abs-tān′, v.i. to hold or refrain from.—ns. Abstain′er, specially one who does not take alcoholic drinks; Absten′tion, a refraining. [Fr. abstenir—L. abs, from, tenēre, to hold. See Tenable.]

Abstemious, abs-tēm′i-us, adj. temperate: sparing in food, drink, or enjoyments.—adv. Abstem′iously.—n. Abstem′iousness. [L. abstemiusabs, from, temetum, strong wine.]

Abstersion, abs-ter′shun, n. act of cleansing or washing away impurities.—v.t. Absterge′, to cleanse, purge.—adjs. Abster′gent, serving to cleanse; Abster′sive, having the quality of cleansing: purgative. [L. abstergēre, -tersum, to wipe away.]

Abstinent, abs′tin-ent, adj. abstaining from: temperate.—n. Abs′tinence, an abstaining or refraining, especially from some indulgence (with from)—also Abs′tinency.—adv. Abs′tinently. [See Abstain.]

Abstract, abs-trakt′, v.t. to draw away: to separate: to purloin.—adj. Abstract′ed, drawn off (with from): removed: absent in mind.—adv. Abstract′edly.—ns. Abstract′edness; Abstrac′tion, act of abstracting: state of being abstracted: absence of mind: the operation of the mind by which certain qualities or attributes of an object are considered apart from the rest: a purloining.—adj. Abstract′ive, having the power of abstracting.—n. anything abstractive: an abstract.—adv. Abs′tractly.—n. Abs′tractness. [L. abs, away from, trahĕre, tractum, to draw. See Trace.]

Abstract, abs′trakt, adj. general, as opposed to particular or individual (the opposite of abstract is concrete—a red colour is an abstract notion, a red rose is a concrete notion; an abstract noun is the name of a quality apart from the thing, as redness).—n. summary: abridgment: essence. [L. abstractus, as if a quality common to a number of things were drawn away from the things and considered by itself.]

Abstruse, abs-trōōs′, adj. hidden: remote from apprehension: difficult to be understood.—adv. Abstruse′ly.—ns. Abstruse′ness; Abstrus′ity (Sir T. Browne). [L. abstrusus, thrust away (from observation)—trudĕre, trusum, to thrust.]

Absurd, ab-surd′, adj. obviously unreasonable or false: ridiculous.—ns. Absurd′ity, Absurd′ness, the quality of being absurd: anything absurd.—adv. Absurd′ly. [L. absurdusab, from, surdus, harsh-sounding, deaf.]

Abundance, ab-und′ans, n. ample sufficiency: great plenty.—adj. Abund′ant, plentiful.—adv. Abund′antly. [See Abound.]

Abuse, ab-ūz′, v.t. to use wrongly: to pervert: to revile: to violate.—ns. Abuse (ab-ūs′), ill use: misapplication: reproach: vituperation; Abū′sion (Spens.), abuse: deception: reproach.—adj. Abus′ive, containing or practising abuse: full of abuses: vituperative.—adv. Abus′ively.—n. Abus′iveness. [L. ab, away (from what is right), uti, usus, to use.]

Abut, a-but′, v.i. to end: to border (on):—pr.p. abut′ting; pa.p. abut′ted.ns. Abut′ment, that which abuts: (archit.) what a limb of an arch ends or rests on; Abut′tal, an abutment: (pl.) the boundaries.—p.adj. Abut′ting, facing each other: front to front. [Fr. abouter, lit. to join end to end (, to, bout, end). See Butt, the end.]

Aby, Abye, a-bī, v.t. or v.i. (arch.) to pay the penalty: to suffer for: to give satisfaction.—Aby occurs in Spens. with sense of 'abide.' [Pfx. a-, and A.S. bycgan. See Buy.]

Abysm, a-bizm′, n. a form of Abyss.—adj. Abys′mal, bottomless: unending.—adv. Abysm′ally. [O. Fr. abisme, from Lat. abyssimus, superl. of abyssus, bottomless.]

Abyss, a-bis′, n. a bottomless gulf: a deep mass of water.—adj. Abyss′al. [Gr. abyssos, bottomless—a, without, byssos, bottom.]

Acacia, a-kā′shi-a, n. a genus of thorny leguminous plants with pinnate leaves. [L.—Gr. akakiaakē, a sharp point.]

Academe, ak-a-dēm′, n. (obs.) an academy.

Academic, ak-ad-em′ik, n. a Platonic philosopher: a student in a college. [See Academy.]

Academy, ak-ad′em-i, n. (orig.) the school of Plato: a higher school: a society for the promotion of science or art.—adjs. Academ′ic, -al, of an academy: theoretical as opposed to practical.—adv. Academ′ically.— Academ′icals, the articles of dress worn by members of an academy or college.—ns. Academic′ian, Acad′emist, a member of an academy, or, specially, of the French Academy, or the Royal Academy in London. [Gr. Akadēmia, the name of the garden near Athens where Plato taught.]

Acadian, a-kā′di-an, adj. of or native to Nova Scotia, Acadia being the name given to the country by the first French settlers in 1604.

Acajou, ak′a-jōō, n. the gum or resin of a kind of red mahogany. [Origin doubtful. See Cashew.]

Acalepha, ak-a-lē′fa, n. a class of Radiate marine animals, consisting of soft gelatinous substance. The name was first applied to the Jelly-fish tribe, but later was made to include the true Medus or jelly-fishes, and others.—Other forms are Acaleph and Acalephan. [Gr. akalēphē, a nettle.]

Acanthopterygian, ak-an-thop-tėr-ij′i-an, adj. having spiny fins. [Gr. akantha, thorn, pteryx, pterygos, a wing, a fin.]

Acanthus (archit.).

Acanthus, a-kan′thus, n. a prickly plant, called bear's breech or brank-ursine: (archit.) an ornament resembling its leaves used in the capitals of the Corinthian and Composite orders, &c.—also Acan′tha.—adjs. Acan′thine, Acanthā′ceous. [L.—Gr. akanthosakē, a point, anthos, a flower.]

Acarpous, a-kar′pus, adj. (bot.) without, or not producing, fruit. [Gr. a, neg., and karpos, fruit.]

Acarus, ak′ar-us, n. a genus of minute insects, of the class Arachnides, embracing the mites and ticks:—pl. Ac′arī. [L.; Gr. akares, minute, too small to cut—a, neg., keirein, to cut short.]

Acatalectic, a-kat-a-lek′tik, adj. having the complete number of syllables as a verse: without defect.—n. an acatalectic verse. [L.—Gr. a, not, and Catalectic.]

Acatalepsy, a-kat-a-lep′si, n. incomprehensibility, a term of the sceptic school of Carneades, who thought nothing could be known to certainty by man.—adj. Acatalep′tic. [Gr. akatalēpsiaa, neg., kata, thoroughly, lēpsis, a seizing—lambanein, to take hold.]

Acater, a-kāt′ėr, n. (obs.) a caterer.— Acates′, provisions: food. [O. Fr. acateor, achatour (Fr. acheteur)—Low L. accaptātōr-em, accaptare, to acquire—L. ad-, to, and captāre, to seize. See Cates.]

Acaulescent, a-kaw-les′ent, adj. without a stalk: (bot.) having no stem above ground, or only a very short one.—Also Acau′lous. [a, neg., L. caulis, a stalk, formed on pattern of Arborescent.]

Accable, ak-kā′bl, v.t. (obs.) to crush, to encumber. [Fr. accabler, to crush.]

Accadian, a-kā′di-an, adj. of or belonging to Accad, an ancient city mentioned in Gen. x. 10: the language preserved in the earliest form of cuneiform writing.

Accede, ak-sēd′, v.i. to come to, or arrive at, a place or condition: to join one's self, hence to agree or assent (with to).—ns. Acced′er; Acced′ing. [L. accedĕre, accessum, to go near to—ad, to, cedĕre, to go. See Cede.]

Accelerate, ak-sel′ėr-āt, v.t. to increase the speed of: to hasten the progress of.—n. Accelerā′tion, the act of hastening: increase of speed.—adj. Accel′erative, quickening.—n. Accel′erator, one who or that which accelerates: a light van to take mails between a post-office and a railway station.—adj. Accel′eratory. [L. accelerāre, -ātumad, to, celer, swift. See Celerity.]

Accend, ak-send′, v.i. (obs.) to kindle.—ns. Accendibil′ity, Accen′sion.—adjs. Accend′ible, Accend′ing.

Accent, ak′sent, n. modulation of the voice: stress on a syllable or word: a mark used to direct this stress: any mode of utterance peculiar to a country, a province, or an individual: (poet.) a significant word, or words generally: (pl.) speech, language.—v.t. Accent′, to express or note the accent.—adj. Accent′ual, relating to accent.—n. Accentual′ity.—adv. Accent′ually.—v.t. Accent′uate, to mark or pronounce with accent: to make prominent.—n. Accentuā′tion, the act of marking or of pronouncing accents. [Fr.—L. accentus, a tone or note—ad, to, canĕre, to sing.]

Accentor, ak-sent′or, n. the so-called 'hedge-sparrow' (q.v.).

Accept, ak-sept′, v.t. to receive: to agree to: to promise to pay: (B.) to receive with favour.—adj. Acceptable (ak-sept′a-bl, or ak′sept-a-bl), to be accepted: pleasing: agreeable.—ns. Accept′ableness, Acceptabil′ity, quality of being acceptable.—adv. Accept′ably.ns. Accept′ance, a favourable reception: an agreeing to terms: an accepted bill; Accept′ancy, willingness to receive; Accept′ant, one who accepts—also adj.; Acceptā′tion, a kind reception: the received meaning of a word; Accept′er, Accept′or, one who accepts. [L. acceptāreaccipĕre, acceptumad, to, capĕre, to take.]

Acceptilation, ak-sept-il-ā′shun, n. (Roman and Scots law) the remission of a debt through an acquittance by the creditor testifying to the receipt of money which never has been paid—a kind of legal fiction for a free remission: (theol.) the doctrine that the satisfaction rendered by Christ was not in itself really a true or full equivalent, but was merely accepted by God, through his gracious good-will, as sufficient—laid down by Duns Scotus, and maintained by the Arminians. [L. acceptilatio.]

Access, ak′ses, or ak-ses′, n. liberty to come to, approach: increase.—n. Accessibil′ity.—adj. Access′ible, that may be approached.—adv. Access′ibly. [See Accede.]

Accessary, ak-ses′ar-i, or ak′ses-ar-i. Same as Accessory. Accessary is now the usual spelling of both the adjective and the noun in their legal sense.

Accession, ak-sesh′un, n. a coming to: increase.—A deed of accession (Scots law), a deed by which the creditors of a bankrupt approve of a trust settlement executed by the debtor for the general behoof, and consent to the arrangement proposed.

Accessory, ak′ses-sor-i, adj. additional: contributing to: aiding: (law) participating in a crime, as in reset of theft, and the like.—n. anything additional: one who aids or gives countenance to a crime.—adj. Accessōr′ial, relating to an accessory.—adv. Ac′cessorily, in the manner of an accessory: by subordinate means.

Accidence, ak′sid-ens, n. the part of grammar treating of the inflections of words (because these changes are 'accidentals' of words and not 'essentials').

Accident, ak′sid-ent, n. that which happens: an unforeseen or unexpected event: chance: an unessential quality or property.—adj. Accident′al, happening by chance: not essential.—n. anything not essential.—ns. Accident′alism, Accidental′ity.—adv. Accident′ally.—The chapter of accidents, the unforeseen course of events. [L. accidĕre, to happen—ad, to, cadĕre, to fall.]

Accite, ak-sīt′, v.t. (Shak.) to cite or call, to summon:—pr.p. accīt′ing; pa.p. accīt′ed. [L. accīre, -citumad, to, ciēre, citum, to call.]

Acclamation, ak-klam-ā′shun, n. a shout of applause—(poet.) Acclaim′.—v.t. Acclaim′, to declare by acclamation.—adj. Acclam′atory, expressing acclamation. [L. acclamāread, to, clamāre, -ātum, to shout. See Claim.]

Acclimatise, ak-klīm′at-īz, v.t. to inure to a foreign climate—also Acclim′ate.—n. Acclimatisā′tion, the act of acclimatising: the state of being acclimatised—also Acclimā′tion, Acclimatā′tion, the former anomalous, the second used in French. [Fr. acclimater, from and climat. See Climate.]

Acclimature, ak-klī′ma-tūr, n. Same as Acclimatisation.

Acclivity, ak-kliv′i-ti, n. a slope upwards—opp. to Declivity, a slope downwards.—adj. Acclī′vous, rising as an acclivity—also Accliv′itous. [L. ad, to, clivus, a slope.]

Accloy, ak-kloi′, v.t. (obs.) to cloy or choke: to fill to satiety: to encumber. [See Cloy.]

Accoast, ak-kōst′, v.t. (Spens.) to fly near the earth. [See Accost.]

Accoil, ak-koil′, v.i. (Spens.) to gather together. [Through Fr.—L. ad, to, colligĕere, to collect. See Coil.]

Accolade, ak-ol-ād′, n. a ceremony used in conferring knighthood, formerly an embrace, a kiss, now a slap on the shoulders with the flat of a sword. [Fr.—L. ad, to, collum, neck.]

Accommodate, ak-kom′mod-āt, v.t. to adapt: to make suitable: to adjust: to harmonise or force into consistency (to): to furnish or supply (with): to provide entertainment for.—p.adj. Accom′modating, affording accommodation: obliging: pliable: easily corrupted.—n. Accommodā′tion, convenience: fitness: adjustment: obligingness: an arrangement or compromise: (theol.) an adaptation or method of interpretation which explains the special form in which the revelation is presented as unessential to its contents, or rather as often adopted by way of compromise with human ignorance or weakness: a loan of money.—adj. Accom′modative, furnishing accommodation: obliging.—ns. Accom′modativeness; Accom′modator.—Accommodation bill, a bill drawn, accepted, or endorsed by one or more persons as security for a sum advanced to another by a third party, as a banker; Accommodation ladder, a stairway at the outside of a ship's gangway to facilitate access to boats. [L. ad, to, commodus, fitting. See Commodious.]

Accompanable, ak-kum′pan-a-bl, adj. (obs.) sociable. [From Accompany.]

Accompany, ak-kum′pan-i, v.t. to keep company with: to attend: to support a singer by singing or playing on any instrument an additional part (with, of music; on, of the instrument).—ns. Accom′panier; Accom′paniment, that which accompanies: (mus.) the assisting of a solo part by other parts, which may consist of a whole orchestra, or a single instrument, or even subservient vocal parts; Accom′panist, one who accompanies a singer on an instrument to sustain his voice. [Fr. accompagner. See Company.]

Accomplice, ak-kom′plis, n. an associate, esp. in crime, in modern use (with of and with before a person, and in or of before the crime). [L. ad, to, complex, -icis, joined.]

Accomplish, ak-kom′plish, v.t. to complete: to bring about: to effect: to fulfil: to equip.—adjs. Accom′plishable, that may be accomplished; Accom′plished, complete in acquirements, especially graceful acquirements: polished.—n. Accom′plishment, completion: ornamental acquirement. [Fr. acomplir—L. ad, to, complēre, to fill up. See Complete.]

Accompt, ak-komt′, n. an almost obsolete form of Account; Accompt′able, of Accountable; Accompt′ant, of Accountant.

Accorage. Same as Accourage.

Accord, ak-kord′, v.i. to agree: to be in correspondence (with).—v.t. to cause to agree: to reconcile: to grant (to, of a person).—n. agreement: harmony.—n. Accord′ance, agreement: conformity—also Accord′ancy.—adj. Accord′ant, agreeing: corresponding.—adv. Accord′antly.—p.adj. Accord′ing, in accordance: agreeing: harmonious.—adv. Accord′ingly, agreeably: suitably: in agreement (with what precedes).—According as, in proportion as, or agreeably as; According to, in accordance with, or agreeably to.—Of one's own accord, of one's own spontaneous motion. [O. Fr. acorder—L. ad, to, cor, cordis, the heart.]

Accordion, ak-kor′di-on, n. a portable musical instrument consisting of a hand-bellows, with keyboard on one side, the keys resting on free metal reeds so arranged that each sounds two notes, one in expanding, the other in contracting the bellows. [From Accord.]

Accost, ak-kost′, v.t. to speak first to: to address.—ns. Accost′, Accost′ing (obs.), address: greeting.—adj. Accost′able, easy of access. [O. Fr. acoster—Low L. accostāre, to be side by side—L. ad, to, costa, a side.]

Accouchement, ak-kōōsh′mong, n. delivery in childbed. [Fr. accoucher. See Couch.]

Accoucheur, ak-kōō-shėr′, n. a man who assists women in child-birth: a medical practitioner with this speciality:—fem. Accoucheuse (ak-kōō-shėz′). [Fr.]

Account, ak-kownt′, v.t. to reckon: to judge, value.—v.i. (with for) to give a reason: to give an account of money held in trust.—n. a counting: statement: value: sake: a reckoning as to money, as in phrases like, 'to render an account,' 'to settle an account,' 'to square accounts' with any one, &c.—adj. Account′able, liable to account, responsible (for, of the thing; to, of the person).—ns. Account′ableness, Accountabil′ity, liability to give account, responsibility to fulfil obligations.—adv. Account′ably.—ns. Account′ancy, the office or work of an accountant; Account′ant, one who keeps, or is skilled in, accounts; Account′antship, the employment of an accountant; Account′-book, a book in which accounts are kept.—Account current, or open account, a course of business dealings still going on between two persons, or a person and a bank.—For account of, on behalf of; For the account, for settlement on the regular fortnightly or monthly settling-day, instead of for cash (of sales on the Stock Exchange).—In account with, in business relations requiring the keeping of an account with some one.—On or To account, an instalment or interim payment.—To make account of, to set value upon; To take into account, to take into consideration; To take no account of, to overlook. [O. Fr. acconter—L. ad, to, computāre, to reckon. See Compute, Count.]

Accouple, ak-kup′l, v.t. (obs.) to couple or link together. [O. Fr. acopler, to, cople. See Couple.]

Accourage, ak-kur′āj, v.t. (Spens.) to encourage. [O. Fr. acorager (L. ad), and corage (Fr. courage). See Courage.]

Accourt, ak-kōrt′, v.t. (Spens.). Same as Court.

Accoutre, ak-kōō′tėr, v.t. to dress or equip (esp. a warrior):—pr.p. accou′tring; pa.p. accou′ Accou′trements, dress: military equipments—(Spens.) Accou′strements. [Fr. accoutrer, earlier accoustrer—of doubtful origin, prob. conn. with O. Fr. coustre, coutre, a sacristan who had charge of sacred vestments—Low L. custor—L. custos, a keeper.]

Accoy, ak-koi′, v.t. (obs.) to still or quieten: to soothe: to subdue. [O. Fr. acoyer, to, and coi, quiet—L. quiet-um. See Coy.]

Accredit, ak-kred′it, v.t. to give credit, countenance, authority, or honour to: to furnish with credentials (with to, at): to vouch for anything belonging to some one—to ascribe or attribute it to him (with).—v.t. Accred′itate (obs.).—n. Accreditā′tion, fact of being accredited.—The pa.p. Accred′ited, as adj., recognised. [Fr. accrditer, to, crdit, credit. See Credit.]

Accrescent, ak-kres′ent, adj. growing: ever-increasing.—ns. Accres′cence, gradual growth or increase; Accrē′tion, the process of growing continuously: the growing together of parts externally, or continuous coherence: that which has grown in such a way, any extraneous addition.—adj. Accrē′tive. [L. ad, in addition, crescĕre, to grow.]

Accrew, ak-krōō′ (Spens.). Same as Accrue.

Accrue, ak-krōō′, v.i. to spring or grow as a natural result (with from): to fall to any one by way of advantage (with unto, to). [O. Fr. acrewe, what grows up in a wood to the profit of the owner; acreistre—L. accrescĕre.]

Accubation, ak-ku-bā′shun, n. a lying or reclining on a couch. [L. ad, to, and cubare, to lie down.]

Accumbent, ak-kumb′ent, adj. lying down or reclining on a couch. [L. ad, to, cumbĕre, to lie.]

Accumulate, ak-kūm′ūl-āt, v.t. to heap or pile up: to amass: to take degrees by accumulation, to take a higher degree at the same time with a lower, or at a shorter interval than usual.—v.i. to increase greatly: to go on increasing.—n. Accumulā′tion, a heaping up: a heap, mass, or pile.—adj. Accum′ulative, heaping up.—n. Accum′ulator, a thing or person that accumulates, esp. an apparatus for storing electricity. [L.—ad, to, cumulus, a heap.]

Accurate, ak′kūr-āt, adj. done with care: exact.—n. Ac′curacy, correctness: exactness.—adv. Ac′curately.—n. Ac′curateness. [L. accuratus, performed with care (of things)—ad, to, cura, care.]

Accurse, ak-kurs′, v.t. to curse: to devote to misery or destruction.—adj. Accurs′ed, subjected to a curse: doomed: worthy of a curse: extremely wicked. [Pfx. -, and A.S. cursian, to curse.]

Accusative, ak-kūz′a-tiv, adj. accusing.—n. (gram.) the case which expresses the direct object of transitive verbs (in English, the objective)—primarily expressing destination or the goal of motion.—adj. Accus′atival. [Fr. accusatif—L. accusativus, 'of the nature of accusation,' a translation of the Gr. (ptōsis) aitiatikē, (the case) 'of accusing,' but also 'of or pertaining to what is caused or effected' (aitiaton, effect, aitia, cause); hence, properly, the case of the effect.]

Accuse, ak-kūz′, v.t. to bring a charge against: to blame (with of before the thing charged, sometimes for).—adj. Accus′able, that may be accused.—ns. Accus′al, accusation; Accusā′tion, the act of accusing: the charge brought against any one.—adjs. Accusatō′rial, of an accuser; Accus′atory, containing accusation.—n. Accuse (Shak.), accusation.—p.adj. Accused′, charged with a crime: usually as a n., the person accused.—ns. Accuse′ment (Spens.), a charge; Accus′er, one who accuses or brings a charge against another. [O. Fr. acuser—L. accusāread, to, causa, cause.]

Accustom, ak-kus′tum, v.t. to make familiar by custom: to habituate (with to).—adj. Accus′tomary.—p.adj. Accus′tomed, usual: frequent: habituated.—n. Accus′tomedness. [O. Fr. acostumer (Fr. accoutumer)—, to, costume, coustume—L. consuetudinem. See Custom.]

Ace, ās, n. the one at dice, also at cards, dominoes, &c.: a single point, an atom. [Fr.—L. as, unity—as, Tarentine Doric form of Gr. heis, one.]

Aceldama, a-sel′da-ma, n. a field of blood—the name given to the field outside Jerusalem bought with the blood-money of Jesus. [Gr.—Aramaic.]

Acephalan, a-sef′a-lan, n. (zool.) one of the Acephala, a class of molluscs, which present no traces of a head.—adj. Aceph′alous, without a head. [Gr. a, neg., kephalē, the head.]

Acerbity, as-ėr′bi-ti, n. bitterness: sourness: harshness: severity.—adj. Acerb′. [Fr.,—L. acerbitat-em—L. acerbus, harsh to the taste—acer, sharp.]

Aceric, a-ser′ik, adj. obtained from the maple. [From L. acer, a maple-tree.]

Acetabulum, as-ē-tab′ū-lum, n. (anat.) the cavity which receives the head of the thigh-bone: also a glandular substance found in the placenta of some animals:—pl. Acetab′ula. [L., a cup-shaped vessel.]

Acetic, as-et′ik, adj. of the nature of vinegar: sour—also Acē′tous, Acetose′.—n. Aces′cence, a tendency to sourness.—adj. Aces′cent.—n. Ac′etate, salt of acetic acid which is the sour principle in vinegar. [L. acetum, vinegar—ac-ēre, to be sour.]

Acetify, as-et′i-fī, v.t. or v.i. to turn into vinegar.—n. Acetificā′tion. [L. acetum, vinegar, and facĕre, to make.]

Acetopathy, as-et-op′a-thi, n. the treating of ailments by the external application of dilute acetic acid. [L. acētum, acid, and Gr. pathos, feeling.]

Acetylene, a-set′i-lēn, n. a powerful illuminant gas (C2H2) produced commercially from carbide of calcium by means of water.

Achan. See Achean.

Acharnement, -shrn′ment (sometimes nasalised as in French), n. thirst for blood, ferocity. [Fr. acharner, refl. sacharner, to thirst for blood.]

Achates, a-kāts′, (Spens.). Same as Cates.

Achates, -kā′tes, n. trusty comrade, from the 'fidus Achates' of Virgil's neid—the constant companion of neas in his wanderings after the fall of Troy.

Ache, āk, n. a continued pain.—v.i. to be in continued pain:—pr.p. āch′ing; pa.p. āched.—n. Ach′ing, continued pain or distress. [The verb is properly ake, the noun ache, as in speak and speech. The A.S. noun ce is from the verb ac-an, to ache.]

Achenium, a-kē′ni-um, n. (bot.) a small hard one-seeded fruit, which does not open when ripe, as in the buttercup.—Also Achene′. [From Gr. a, neg., and chainein, to gape.]

Acheron, ak′kėr-on, n. death, hell—from the name of that river in the infernal regions of classical mythology.—adj. Acheron′tic, deadly.

Achieve, a-chēv′, v.t. to bring to a head or end: to perform: to accomplish: to carry out successfully: to gain, win.—adj. Achiev′able, that may be achieved.—n. Achieve′ment, a performance: an exploit: an escutcheon or armorial shield granted in memory of some achievement, applied especially to the escutcheon over the tomb of a dead person, generally called a hatchment. [Fr. achever, from chief (venir)—Low L. ad caput venire, to come to a head. See Chief.]

Achillean, ak-il-lē′an, adj. like Achilles, the great Greek hero in the Trojan war, brave, swift of foot, unrelenting in wrath.—Achilles tendon, the attachment of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of the calf of the leg to the heel-bone, so named from the infant Achilles's mother, Thetis, having held him by the heel when she dipped him into the Styx to make him invulnerable.

Achitophel, -hit′ō-fel, n. an able but unprincipled counsellor, from the name of David's sage counsellor who treacherously abetted the rebellion of Absalom. Dryden in his famous satire applied the name to Shaftesbury.—Also Ahith′ophel.

Achromatic, a-krōm-at′ik, adj. transmitting light without colour, of a lens or telescope.—adv. Achromat′ically.—n. Achrom′atism, the state of being achromatic.—v.t. Achrom′atize, to render achromatic. [Gr. a, neg., and chrōma, chromatos, colour.]

Acicular, as-ik′ū-lar, adj. needle-shaped; slender and sharp-pointed.—Also Acic′ulate, Acic′ulated. [L. acicula, dim. of acus, a needle.]

Acid, as′id, adj. sharp: sour.—n. a sour substance: (chem.) one of a class of substances, usually sour, which turn vegetable blues to red, and combine with alkalies, metallic oxides, &c. to form salts.—adj. Acid′ifiable, capable of being converted into an acid.—ns. Acidificā′tion; Acid′ity, the quality of being acid or sour—also Ac′idness.—v.t. Acid′ulate, to make slightly acid. [L. ac-ēre, to be sour—root ak, sharp.]

Acidify, as-id′i-fī, v.t. to make acid: to convert into an acid:—pr.p. acid′ifying; pa.p. acid′ified. [L. acidus, sour, and facĕre, to make.]

Acidimeter, as-id-im′e-tėr, n. an instrument for measuring the strength of acids.—n. Acidim′etry, the act of such measurement. [Acid and Meter.]

Acidulous, as-id′ū-lus, adj. slightly sour: subacid: containing carbonic acid, as mineral waters: (fig.) caustic, sharp. [L. acidulus, dim. of acidus, sour. See Acid.]

Acierage, ā′sē-ėr-āj, n. the covering of an engraved copper-plate with a film of iron to ensure durability. [Fr. acier, steel—L. acies, a sharp point, and -age.]

Aciform, as′i-form, adj. needle-shaped. [L. acus, a needle, and Form, from forma, shape.]

Aciniform, a-sin′i-form, adj. in clusters like grapes, or having the form of grapes. [L. acinus, a grape.]

Acknow, ak-nō′, v.t. (obs.) to know, to recognise.—adj. Acknown (Shak.), known or acquainted. [A.S. on, in, on, cnwan, to Know.]

Acknowledge, ak-nol′ej, v.t. to own a knowledge of: to own as true: to confess: to admit or give intimation of the receipt of.—adj. Acknow′ledgeable.—adv. Acknow′ledgeably.—n. Acknowledgment, recognition: admission: confession: thanks: a receipt. [From the v. Acknow, with suffix -ledge.]

Aclinic, ak-lin′ik, adj. without inclination, applied to the magnetic equator, which cuts the terrestrial equator, inasmuch as on that line the magnetic needle has no dip, but lies horizontal. [Gr. aklinēsa, neg., klin-ein, to bend.]

Acme, ak′mē, n. the top or highest point: the culmination or perfection in the career of anything: crisis, as of a disease.—Acme skates, the name given to a kind of skates, formed of steel, fixed to the boot by a mechanical device, permitting them to be quickly fixed on or taken off. [Gr. akmēakē, a point.]

Acne, ak′nē, n. a common skin disease, an inflammation of the sebaceous follicles of the skin, often occurring on the nose. [A corr. of Gr. akmē, a point.]

Acock, a-kok′, adv. in a cocked manner: defiantly.—A cock-bill (naut.), having the ends pointing upward, as of an anchor hanging by its ring at the cat-head, in a position for dropping; or of the yards when topped up by one lift to an angle with the deck—the symbol of mourning. [Prep. a, and Cock.]

Acœmeti, a-sem′ē-tī, a congregation of monks founded in 460 near Constantinople, who by alternating choirs kept divine service going on day and night without intermission in their monastery. [Gr. akoimetoi, sleepless, a, neg., and koimaein, to put to sleep.]

Acold, a-kōld′, adj. (arch.) cold. [A.S. acled, pa.p. of aclian; pfx. a-, intens., and clian, to Cool.]

Acolyte, ak′o-līt, Acolyth, ak′o-lith, n. an inferior church officer: an attendant or assistant: (R. C. Church) one ordained to the fourth of the minor orders, next to the sub-deacon. [Gr. akolouthos, an attendant.]

Aconite, ak′o-nīt, n. the plant wolf's-bane or monk's-hood: poison.—adj. Aconit′ic.—n. Acon′itine, the essential principle of aconite. [L. aconitum—Gr. akoniton.]

Acop, a-kop′, adv. (obs.) on the top or head: on high. [Prep. a, and A.S. cop, copp, summit.]

Acorn, ā′korn, n. the seed or fruit of the oak.—adj. A′corned.n. A′corn-shell, a name for the Balănus (L., acorn), a genus of Cirripedes in the class Crustacea. [A.S. cern, prob. from cer, field, hence meaning 'the fruit of the unenclosed land.' The modern form is due to confusion with oak (A.S. c) and corn.]

Acosmism, a-koz′mizm, n. refusal to believe in the existence of an eternal world. [Gr., a, neg., and kosmos, the world.]

Acotyledon, a-kot-i-lē′dun, n. a plant without distinct cotyledons or seed-lobes.—adj. Acotylē′donous. [Gr. a, neg., and kotylēdōn. See Cotyledon.]

Acoustic, a-kowst′ik, adj. pertaining to the sense of hearing or to the theory of sounds: used in hearing, auditory.—n. Acoust′ics, the science of sound. [Fr.—Gr. akoustikosakouein, to hear.]

Acoy. Same as Accoy.

Acquaint, ak-kwānt′, v.t. to make or let one to know: to inform a person of a thing (with): to inform (with personal object only).—ns. Acquaint′ance, familiar knowledge: a person whom we know; Acquaint′anceship, familiar knowledge.—p.adj. Acquaint′ed (with), personally known: having personal knowledge of. [O. Fr. acointer—Low L. accognitāre—L. ad, to, cognitus, known.]

Acquest, ak-kwest′, n. an acquisition or thing acquired. [O. Fr.—L. acquisitus, acquirĕre. See Acquire.]

Acquiesce, ak-kwi-es′, v.i. to rest satisfied or without making opposition: to assent (with in).—n. Acquies′cence, quiet assent or submission.—adj. Acquies′cent, resting satisfied: easy: submissive.—advs. Acquies′cently, Acquies′cingly. [L. acquiescĕread, and quies, rest.]

Acquire, ak-kwīr′, v.t. to gain: to attain to.—n. Acquirabil′ity.—adj. Acquir′able, that may be acquired.—ns. Acquire′ment, something learned or got by effort, rather than a gift of nature; Acquisi′tion, the act of acquiring: that which is acquired.—adj. Acquis′itive, desirous to acquire.—n. Acquis′itiveness, propensity to acquire—one of the phrenologists' so-called faculties, with its special organ. [O. Fr. aquerre—L. acquirĕre, -quisitumad, to, and qurĕre, to seek.]

Acquist, ak-kwist′, n. (Milton) a form of Acquest.

Acquit, ak-kwit′, v.t. to free: to release: to settle, as a debt: to behave or conduct (one's self): to declare innocent (with of before the thing of which acquitted):—pr.p. acquit′ting; pa.p. acquit′ted.ns. Acquit′tal, a judicial discharge from an accusation; Acquit′tance, a discharge from an obligation or debt: a receipt in evidence of such a discharge.—v.t. (Shak.), to acquit, clear. [O. Fr. acquiter—L. ad, to, quietāre, to give rest. See Quit.]

Acre, ā′kėr, n. a measure of land containing 4840 sq. yards. The Scotch acre contains 6150.4 sq. yards (48 Scotch—61 imperial acres): the Irish, 7840 sq. yards (50 Irish—81 imperial acres): (pl.) for lands, estates generally: (fig.) large quantities of anything.—n. A′creage, the number of acres in a piece of land.—adj. A′cred, possessing acres or land. [A.S. cer; Ger. acker, L. ager, Gr. agros, Sans. ajras, a plain.]

Acrid, ak′rid, adj. biting to the taste: pungent: bitter.—ns. Acrid′ity, Ac′ridness, quality of being acrid: a sharp, bitter taste. [L. acer, acris, sharp—root ak, sharp.]

Acrimony, ak′ri-mun-i, n. bitterness of feeling or language.—adj. Acrimō′nious, sharp, bitter.—n. Acrimō′niousness, the state or quality of being acrimonious: severity. [L. acrimoniaacer, sharp.]

Acritochromacy, a-krit-o-krō′ma-si, n. inability to distinguish between colours: colour-blindness. [From Gr. akritos, undistinguishable (—a, neg., and krinein, to separate), and chrōma, -atos, colour.]

Acritude, ak′ri-tūd, n. the quality of being acrid: a sharp bitter taste: bitterness of temper or language. [L. acritudoacer, sharp.]

Acroamatic, -al, ak-ro-a-mat′ik, -al, adj. oral, esoteric, secret—applied to the lectures of Aristotle delivered to a select circle of students as opposed to his more popular lectures. [Gr. akroamatikosakroasthai, to hear.]

Acrobat, ak′ro-bat, n. a rope-dancer: a tumbler: a vaulter.—adj. Acrobat′ic.—n. Acrobat′ism, the art of the acrobat. [Gr. akrobatos, walking on tiptoe; akros, point, batosbainein, to go.]

Acrogen, ak′ro-jen, n. a plant that grows at the top chiefly, as a tree-fern.—adj. Acrog′enous. [Gr. akros, top, genēs, born.]

Acrolith, ak′ro-lith, n. a statue of the earlier Greek artists having the trunk made of wood and the extremities of stone. [Gr. akrolithosakros, extreme, and lithos, stone.]

Acronycal, a-kron′ik-al, adj. midnight, applied to stars that rise at sunset and set at sunrise, or opposite to the sun.—adv. Acron′ycally. [Gr. akros, summit, middle (of time), and nyx, nyktos, night.]

Acropolis, a-kro′pol-is, n. a citadel, esp. that of Athens. [Gr. akropolisakros, the highest, polis, a city.]

Acrospire, ak′ro-spīr, n. (bot.) the first leaf that appears when corn sprouts. [Gr. akros, summit, end, speira, anything twisted round.]

Across, a-kros′, prep. or adv. crosswise: from side to side. [Prep. a, and Cross.]

Acrostic, a-krō′stik, n. a poem of which, if the first or the last letter of each line be taken in succession, they will spell a name or a sentence.—adj. Acrō′stical.—adv. Acrō′stically.—n. Acrō′sticism, method of acrostics. [Gr. akros, extreme, and stichos, a line.]

Act, akt, v.i. to exert force or influence: to produce an effect: to behave one's self: to feign.—v.t. to perform: to imitate or play the part of.—n. something done or doing: an exploit: the very process of doing something: a law or decision of a prince or legislative body: an instrument in writing for verification: (theol.) something done once for all, in opposition to a work: a distinct section of a play: in universities, a public disputation or lecture maintained by a candidate for a degree.—n. Act′ing, action: act of performing an assumed or a dramatic part: feigning.—adj. performing some duty temporarily, or for another.—n. Act′or, one who acts: a stage-player:—fem. Act′ress.—Act of God, a result of natural forces, unexpected and not preventable by human foresight.—In act to, on the very point of doing something.—To act on, to act in accordance with; To act up to, to come up in practice to some expected standard: to fulfil. [L. agĕre, actum; Gr. agein, to put in motion; Sans. aj, to drive.]

Acta, ak′ta, proceedings in a court civil or ecclesiastical, or the minutes of such.—Acta Martyrum, the early accounts of the martyrs; Acta Sanctorum, a general name for collections of accounts of saints and martyrs, especially of the great collection of the Bollandists, begun in 1643, interrupted in 1794 at the fifty-third vol. (Oct. 6), but resumed in 1845.

Actinia, ak-tin′i-a, n. a genus of marine animals of the class Polypi, growing on rocks or shells, with numerous tentacles or rays like the petals of a flower, from which they are often called animal flowers or sea-anemones. [From Gr. aktis, aktinos, a ray.]

Actiniform, ak-tin′i-form, adj. having a radiated form. [Gr. aktis, aktinos, ray, and Form.]

Actinism, ak′tin-izm, n. the chemical force of the sun's rays, as distinct from light and heat.—adj. Ac′tinic. [Gr. aktis, aktinos, a ray.]

Actinolite, ak-tin′ō-līt, n. a green variety of hornblende. [Gr. aktis, aktīnos, a ray, lithos, a stone.]

Actinometer, ak-tin-om′e-tėr, n. an instrument for measuring the heat-intensity of the sun's rays or the actinic effect of light-rays. [Gr. aktis, aktinos, ray, and Meter.]

Actinomyces, ak-ti-no-mī′sez, n. the tiny ray-fungus.—n. Actinomycō′sis, an inflammatory disease in cattle, swine, and sometimes man, caused by that fungus. [Gr. aktis, aktinos, ray, and myces, mushroom.]

Actinozoa, ak′tin-ō-zō′a, one of the three classes of Cœlenterata, including sea-anemones, dead-men's fingers, corals, &c. [Gr. aktis, -inos, a ray; zōa, animals.]

Action, ak′shun, n. a state of acting: activity in the abstract: a deed: operation: gesture: a battle: a lawsuit, or proceedings in a court: the movement of events in a drama, novel, &c.—adj. Ac′tionable, liable to a lawsuit.—n. Ac′tion-tak′ing (Shak.), resenting an injury by a lawsuit instead of fighting it out like a man of honour.

Activate, ak′ti-vāt, v.t. (Bacon) to make active:—pr.p. ac′tivāting; pa.p. ac′tivāted.

Active, akt′iv, adj. that acts: busy: nimble: practical, as opposed to speculative: effective: (gram.) transitive.—adv. Act′ively.—ns. Activ′ity, Act′iveness.

Acton, ak′tun, n. a stuffed leather jacket which used to be worn under a coat of mail. [O. Fr. auqueton, through Sp. from Ar. al-qūtun.]

Actual, akt′ū-al, adj. real: existing in fact and now, as opp. to an imaginary or past state of things.—v.t. Act′ualise, to make actual: to realise in action.—n. Actual′ity.—adv. Act′ually.

Actuary, akt′ū-ar-i, n. a registrar or clerk: one who makes the calculations connected with an insurance office.—adj. Actua′rial. [L. actuarius (scriba), an amanuensis, a clerk.]

Actuate, akt′ū-āt, v.t. to put into or incite to action: to influence.—n. Actuā′tion. [L. actus, action. See Act.]

Aculeated, ak-ūl-e-āt′ed, p.adj. pointed: (fig.) pungent, incisive. [L. aculeatus, aculeus, dim. of acus, needle.]

Acumen, ak-ū′men, n. sharpness: quickness of perception: penetration. [L. See Acute.]

Acuminate, a-kū′min-āt, adj. (bot.) having a long tapering point—also Acū′minated.—v.t. Acū′minate, to sharpen: (fig.) give point to.—n. Accuminā′tion. [L. acuminatum, pa.p. of acumināre, to make pointed—acumen, a point. See Acumen.]

Acupressure, ak-ū-presh′ūr, n. a mode of arresting hemorrhage from cut arteries, by inserting a needle into the flesh so as to press across the mouth of the artery. [L. acus, a needle, and Pressure.]

Acupuncture, ak-ū-pungkt′ūr, n. an operation for relieving pain by puncturing the flesh with needles. [L. acus, a needle, and Puncture.]

Acute, ak-ūt′, adj. sharp-pointed: keen: opp. of dull: shrewd: shrill: critical.—adv. Acute′ly.—n. Acute′ness.—Acute angle, an angle less than a right angle (see Angle); Acute disease, one coming to a violent crisis, as opp. to Chronic. [L. acutus, pa.p. of acuĕre, to sharpen, from root ak, sharp.]

Adage, ad′āj, n. an old saying: a proverb. [Fr.—L. adagium, from ad, to, and root of aio, I say.]

Adagio, a-dā′gī-o, adv. (mus.) slowly.—n. a slow movement: a piece in adagio time. [It. ad agio, at ease.]

Adam, ad′am, n. the first man: unregenerate human nature: a gaoler.—n. Ad′amite, one descended from Adam: one of a 2d-century heretical sect in Northern Africa, and in the 15th in Germany, whose members, claiming the primitive innocence of Eden, went about naked.—adjs. Adamit′ic, -al.—n. Ad′amitism.

Adamant, ad′a-mant, n. a very hard stone: the diamond.—adjs. Adamantē′an (Milton), hard as adamant; Adaman′tine, made of or like adamant: that cannot be broken or penetrated. [L. and Gr. adamas, -antosa, neg., and damaein, to break, to tame. See Tame.]

Adamic, a-dam′ik, adj. relating to Adam.

Adam's-apple, ad′amz-ap′pl, n. the angular projection of the thyroid cartilage of the larynx in front of the throat, so called from an idea that part of the forbidden fruit stuck in Adam's throat.—Adam's ale or wine, water.

Adansonia, ad-an-sō′ni-a, n. the baobab, monkey-bread, or calabash-tree of West Africa. [So called from Adanson, a French botanist (1727-1806).]

Adapt, ad-apt′, v.t. to make apt or fit: to accommodate (with to or for).—ns. Adaptabil′ity, Adapt′ableness.—adj. Adapt′able, that may be adapted.—n. Adaptā′tion, the act of making suitable: fitness: (biol.) the process of advantageous variation and progressive modification by which organisms are adjusted to the conditions of their life—the perfected result of adaptation being a life in harmony with the environment. [Fr.—L. adaptāread, to, and aptāre, to fit.]

Adar, ā′dar, n. the twelfth month of the Jewish ecclesiastical, the sixth of the civil, year, corresponding to the later part of February and the first part of March. [Heb. adār.]

Adays, a-dāz′, adv. nowadays: at the present time. [Prep. a, and gen. sing. of Day, A.S. ondye.]

Add, ad, v.t. to put (one thing) to (another): to sum up (with to): to increase.—adjs. Add′able, Add′ible.—ns. Addibil′ity; Addit′ament (Charles Lamb), an addition; Addi′tion, the act of adding: the thing added: the rule in arithmetic for adding numbers together: title, honour.—adj. Addi′tional, that is added. [L.—addread, to, dre, to put.]

Addax, ad′aks, n. a species of large antelope found in Africa, with long twisted horns. [African word.]

Addeem, ad-dēm′, v.t. to deem: to adjudge: to award. [Pfx. ad-, and Deem.]

Addendum, ad-den′dum, n. a thing to be added: an appendix:—pl. Adden′da. [L. See Add.]

Adder, ad′ėr, n. the popular English name of the viper.—ns. Ad′der's-tongue, a genus of ferns the seeds of which grow on a spike resembling a serpent's tongue; Ad′der's-wort, a wort or plant, so called from its being supposed to cure the bite of serpents—also called Snakeweed. [A.S. ndre; cf. Ger. atter for natter. An adder came by mistake into use for a nadder; the reverse mistake is a newt for an ewt or eft.]

Addict, ad-dikt′, v.t. to give (one's self) up to (generally in a bad sense): (B.) to devote or dedicate one's self to.—adjs. Addict′, Addict′ed, given up to (with to).—ns. Addict′edness, Addic′tion. [L. addicĕre, addictumad, to, dicĕre, to declare.]

Addle, ad′dl, Addled, ad′dld, adj. diseased: putrid: barren, empty.—adjs. Ad′dle-head′ed, Ad′dle-pat′ed, having a head or pate with addled brains.—n. Ad′dlement. [M.E. adele—A.S. adela, mud; cf. Scot, eddle, liquid manure.]

Addoom, ad-dōōm′, v.t. (Spens.) to doom, to adjudge, to award. [Pfx. a-, and Doom.]

Addorsed, ad-dorst′, p.adj. (her.) turned back to back.

Address, ad-dres′, v.t. to direct (with to): to speak or write to: to court: to direct in writing: to arrange properly: (arch.) to don: (refl.) to turn one's skill or energies towards.—n. a formal communication in writing: a speech: manners: dexterity: direction of a letter:—pl. Address′es, attentions of a lover.—To address one's self to a task, to set about it. [Fr. adresser—Low L. addirectiāre—L. ad, to, directum, straight. See Dress, Direct.]

Adduce, ad-dūs′, v.t. to bring forward: to cite or quote.—adj. Addūc′ent, drawing forward or together, as of the adductor muscles.—n. Addūc′er.—adj. Addūc′ible.—n. Adduc′tion, the act of adducing or bringing forward: the movement by which a part of the body is drawn forward by muscles.—adj. Adduc′tive, tending to bring forward. [L. adducĕread, to, and duc˘ere, to bring.]

Adductor, ad-dukt′ur, n. a muscle which draws one part towards another. [See Abductor.]

Addulce, ad-duls′, v.t. (obs.) to make sweet. [O. Fr. adoulcir—L. ad, to, dulcis, sweet.]

Adelphous, a-del′fus, adj. (bot.) united in brotherhoods or bundles, as stamens. [Gr. adelphos, brother.]

Adenitis, ad-en-ī′tis, n. inflammation of the lymphatic glands. [Gr. adēn, a gland, -itis, denoting inflammation.]

Adenoid, -al, ad′en-oid, -al, adj. of a gland-like shape: glandular. [Gr. adēn, a gland, eidos, form.]

Adenotomy, ad-en-ot′o-mi, n. a cutting or incision of a gland. [Gr. adēn, a gland, tomē, a cutting.]

Adept, ad-ept′, or ad′ept, adj. completely skilled (in).—n. a proficient.—n. Adep′tion (Bacon), attainment. [L. adeptus (artem), having attained (an art), pa.p. of adipisci, to attain—ad, to, and apisci.]

Adequate, ad′e-kwāt, adj. equal to: proportionate: sufficient.—adv. Ad′equately.—ns. Ad′equateness, Ad′equacy, state of being adequate: sufficiency. [L. adquatus, made equal—ad, to, and quus, equal.]

Ades, n. an obsolete variant of Hades.

Adhere, ad-hēr′, v.i. to stick to: to remain fixed or attached (with to): (Shak.) to be consistent: (Scots law) to affirm a judgment.—n. Adher′ence, state of adhering: steady attachment.—adj. Adher′ent, sticking to.—n. one who adheres: a follower: a partisan (with of)—a less common form is Adher′er. [L. ad, to, hrēre, hsum, to stick.]

Adhesion, ad-hē′zhun, n. the act of adhering or sticking to: steady attachment: (path.) a vital union between two surfaces of a living body which have been either naturally or artificially separated.—adj. Adhes′ive, sticky: apt to adhere.—adv. Adhes′ively.—n. Adhes′iveness. [See Adhere.]

Adhibit, ad-hib′it, v.t. to apply to: to use: to attach: to admit: to devote to: to administer.—n. Adhibi′tion, application: use. [L. adhibēre, -itumad, to, and habēre, to hold.]

Adiantum, ad-i-an′tum, n. maidenhair, a large genus of ferns. [Gr. adiantos, a, neg., and diantos, capable of being wetted.]

Adiaphoron, a-di-af′or-on, in theology and ethics, things indifferent—any tenet or usage which is considered as non-essential—also Adiaph′ora.—n. Adiaph′orism, tolerance in regard to non-essential points in theology.—adj. Adiaph′orous. [Gr., from a, neg., and diaphoros, differing—dia, apart, pherein, to carry.]

Adiathermic, ā-dī-a-thėr′mik, adj. impervious to radiant heat. [Gr. a, neg., dia, through, thermos, heat.]

Adieu, a-dū′, adv. (I commend you) to God: farewell.—n. a farewell:—pl. Adieus or Adieux (a-dūz′). [Fr. Dieu, to God.]

Adipocere, ad′i-pō-sēr, n. a fatty, waxy substance resulting from the decomposition of animal bodies in moist places or under water, but not exposed to air. [Through Fr. from L. adeps, adipis, soft fat, and cera, wax.]

Adipose, ad′i-pōz, adj. fatty.—Adipose tissue, the vesicular structure in the animal body which contains the fat. [L. adeps, adipis, soft fat.]

Adit, ad′it, n. an opening or passage, esp. into a mine. [L. aditus—ad, to, īre, itum, to go.]

Adjacent, ad-jās′ent, adj. lying near to: contiguous.—n. Adjac′ency, the state of being near: that which is adjacent.—adv. Adjac′ently. [L. ad, to, jacēre, to lie.]

Adjective, ad′jek-tiv, n. a word added to a noun to qualify it, or limit it by reference to quality, number, or position.—adj. Adjectīv′al.—adv. Ad′jectively. [L. adjectivum (nomen), an added (noun)—adjicĕre, -jectum, to throw to, to add—ad, to, jacĕre, to throw.]

Adjoin, ad-join′, v.i. to lie next to.—adj. Adjoin′ing, joining to: near: adjacent.—n. Ad′joint, a civil officer who assists a French maire: an assistant professor in a French college. [Through Fr. from L. adjungĕre. See Join.]

Adjourn, ad-jurn′, v.t. to put off to another day: to postpone: to discontinue a meeting in order to reconstitute it at another time or place.—v.i. to suspend proceedings and disperse for any time specified, or sine die, without such time being specified.—n. Adjourn′ment, the act of adjourning: the interval it causes.—(obs.) Adjourn′al. [O. Fr. ajorner—Low L. adiurnāre—L. ad, to, Low L. jurnus, L. diurnus, daily. See Journal.]

Adjudge, ad-juj′, v.t. to decide: to assign.—n. Adjudg′ment, the act of adjudging: sentence. [O. Fr. ajuger—L. adjudicāre. See Judge.]

Adjudicate, ad-jōō′di-kāt, v.t. to determine judicially: to pronounce.—v.i. to pronounce judgment.—ns. Adjudicā′tion (Eng. law), an order of the Bankruptcy Court, adjudging the debtor to be a bankrupt, and transferring his property to a trustee; Adjū′dicator. [L. adjudicāre, -ātum.]

Adjunct, ad′junkt, adj. joined or added to.—n. the thing joined or added, as a qualifying addition to a name expressing any personal quality, or the like: a person joined to another in some office or service: (gram.) any word or clause enlarging the subject or predicate: (logic) any accompanying quality or non-essential attribute.—n. Adjunc′tion, the act of joining: the thing joined.—adj. Adjunct′ive, joining.—advs. Adjunct′ively, Adjunct′ly, in connection with. [L. See Join.]

Adjuration, ad-jōōr-ā′shun, n. the act of adjuring: the charge or oath used in adjuring.—adj. Adjur′atory, containing an adjuration.—p.adj. Adjur′ing, acting as an adjuration. [Fr.—L. adjuration-em.]

Adjure, ad-jōōr′, v.t. to charge on oath or solemnly: to cause to swear (B. and Milton). [L.—ad, to, jurāre, -ātum, to swear.]

Adjust, ad-just′, v.t. to arrange properly (with to): to regulate: to settle.—adj. Adjust′able.—n. Adjust′ment, arrangement. [O. Fr. ajouster—Low L. adjuxtāre, to put side by side—L. juxta, near].

Adjutage, ad′joo-tāj, n. Same as Ajutage.

Adjutant, ad′joot-ant, n. a regimental staff officer not above the rank of major, specially appointed to assist the commanding officer of a garrison or regiment—there are also adjutants of auxiliary forces, of depts, of brigade, &c.: a large species of stork or crane found in India.—ns. Ad′jutancy, the office of an adjutant: assistance; Ad′jutant-gen′eral, the head of his department on the general staff of the army, the executive officer of the commander-in-chief. [L. adjutāre = adjuvāread, to, juvāre, to assist.]

Admeasure, ad-mezh′ūr, v.t. to measure: to apportion:—pr.p. admeas′ūring; pa.p. admeas′ūred.n. Admeas′urement (see Measurement). [Fr.—Late L. admensurāre—L. ad, to, mensura, Measure.]

Adminicle, ad-min′i-kl, n. anything that aids or supports: an auxiliary: (law) any corroboratory evidence.—adj. Adminic′ular.—v.t. and v.i. Adminic′ulate. [L. adminiculum, a support—ad, to, manus, hand.]

Administer, ad-min′is-tėr, v.t. to manage as a steward, substitute, or executor: to supply: to conduct or execute, as offices of religion: to apply: to impose.—v.i. to bring aid (with to).—adjs. Admin′istrable, that may be administered; Admin′istrant.—n. Administrā′tion, the act of administering: management: dispensation of sacraments: the power or party that administers the government of the country.—adj. Admin′istrative, that administers.—n. Administrā′tor, one who manages or directs: the person to whom is committed, under a commission entitled Letters of Administration, the administration or distribution of the personal estate of any one dying intestate or leaving a will in which no executor is named:—fem. Administrā′trix.—n. Administrā′torship. [Through Fr. from L. administrāre—ad, to, and ministrāre, to minister.]

Admiral, ad′mir-al, n. the chief commander of a navy—the ancient English title of Lord High Admiral is now in abeyance, his functions falling to the five Lord Commissioners of the Admiralty, and the High Court of Admiralty: a naval officer of the highest rank. In the British navy, admirals are distinguished into three classes—Ad′mirals, Vice′-ad′mirals, and Rear′-ad′mirals; the admiral carrying his colour at the main, the vice-admiral at the fore, and the rear-admiral at the mizzen mast-head. In former times each grade was subdivided into three sections, known as admirals (or vice- or rear-admirals) of the Red, of the White, and of the Blue, respectively: admiral-ship (Milton's ammiral) or flag-ship: the chief ship in a fleet of merchantmen.—ns. Ad′miralship, the office of an admiral; Ad′miralty, the board of commissioners for the administration of naval affairs: the building where these transact business. [Through Fr. from Ar. amīr, a lord, a chief.]

Admire, ad-mīr′, v.t. to have a high opinion of: to love.—v.i. (arch.) to be affected with wonder at.—adj. Ad′mirable, worthy of being admired.—n. Ad′mirableness.—adv. Ad′mirably.—ns. Admir′ance (Spens.), admiration; Admirā′tion, the act of admiring: wonder, together with esteem, love, or veneration: (B., Shak., and Milton) astonishment.—adj. Ad′mirative.—n. Admīr′er, one who admires: a lover.—adv. Admīr′ingly. [Fr. admirer—L. ad, at, mirāri, to wonder.]

Admit, ad-mit′, v.t. to allow to enter: to let in: to concede: to acknowledge: to be capable of:—pr.p. admit′ting; pa.p. admit′ted.n. Admissibil′ity.—adj. Admis′sible, that may be admitted or allowed (generally, or specially as legal proof).—ns. Admis′sion, Admit′tance, the act of admitting: anything admitted or conceded: leave to enter.—adj. Admit′table, that may be admitted.—adv. Admit′tedly. [Through Fr. from L. admittĕre, -missumad, to, mittĕre, to send.]

Admix, ad-miks′, v.t. to mix with something else.—n. Admix′ture, what is added to the chief ingredient of a mixture. [L. ad, to, and Mix.]

Admonish, ad-mon′ish, v.t. to warn: to reprove mildly.—n. Admon′ishment, admonition. [O. Fr. admonester—Late L. admonestāreadmoneread, to, monere, to warn.]

Admonition, ad-mon-ish′un, n. kind reproof: counsel: advice: ecclesiastical censure.—adjs. Admon′itive, Admon′itory, containing admonition.—n. Admon′itor. [L. admonition-em. See Admonish.]

Adnascent, ad-nas′ent, adj. growing to or upon. [L. adnascens, -entis, pr.p. of adnasciad, to, nasci, natus, to grow.]

Adnate, ad-nāt′, adj. (bot.) growing close to the stem. [L. adnatus, usually agnatusad, to, (g)natus, born.]

Ado, a-dōō′, n. a to do: bustle: trouble: difficulty: stir or fuss. [Contr. of at do = to do, a form of the infin. borrowed from the Scandinavian.]

Adobe, a-dō′bā, n. and adj. a sun-dried brick, or made of such. [Sp. adobar, to plaster.]

Adolescent, ad-o-les′ent, adj. growing to manhood.—n. Adoles′cence, the period of youth, in man, from 14 to 25; in woman, from 12 to 21. [Through Fr. from L. adolescent-em, adolescĕre, to grow, adolēre, to magnify.]

Adonis, a-dō′nis, n. a beautiful youth, beloved by Aphrodite (Venus): a beau or dandy.—v.t. and v.i. Ad′onise, to make beautiful.

Adoors, a-dōrz′, adv. (obs.) at doors: at the door. [Prep, a, at, and Door.]

Adopt, ad-opt′, v.t. to choose: to take up or embrace: to take into any relationship: to take as one's own what is another's, as a child, &c.—ns. Adop′tianism, an 8th-century heresy akin to Nestorianism, that Christ, in respect of his divine nature, was doubtless the Son of God; but that, as to his human nature, he was only declared and adopted to be the first-born Son of God; Adop′tion, the act of adopting: the state of being adopted: assumption: the taking into one language of words from another: formal acceptance: choice: (theol.) an act of divine grace by which the redeemed in Christ are admitted to the privileges of the sons of God.—adjs. Adop′tious (Shak.), adopted; Adopt′ive, that adopts or is adopted. [L. adoptāread, to, and, optāre, to choose.]

Adore, ad-ōr′, v.t. to worship: to love intensely.—adj. Ador′able, worthy of being adored.—n. Ador′ableness.—adv. Ador′ably.—ns. Adorā′tion, divine worship, homage: profound regard; Ador′er, one who adores: a lover.—adv. Ador′ingly. [L. ad, to, orāre, to pray. See Oracle.]

Adorn, ad-orn′, v.t. to deck or dress: to embellish.—n. (Spens.) adornment.—adj. (Milton) adorned, ornate.—n. Adorn′ment, ornament: decoration. [O. Fr. arner, adorner—L. adornāread, to, ornāre, to furnish.]

Adown, a-down′, adv. and prep. down. [A.S. of-dneof, from, dun, a hill. See Down, a bank.]

Adrad, a-drad′, Adread, a-dred′, adj. (obs.) in a state of fear. [Prob. from A.S. of-drad, of-drede, to terrify. See Dread.]

Adrift, a-drift′, adj. or adv. floating as driven (by the wind): moving at random. [Prep. a, and Drift.]

Adroit, a-droit′, adj. dexterous: skilful.—adv. Adroit′ly.—n. Adroit′ness. [Fr. droit, according to right—L. directus, straight. See Direct.]

Adry, a-drī′, adv. thirsty. [Pfx. a-, and Dry.]

Adscititious, ad-sit-ish′us, adj. added or assumed: additional. [L. adsciscĕre, -scītum, to take or assume—ad, to, sciscĕre, to inquire—scīre, to know.]

Adscript, ad′skript, adj. written after: attached to the soil, of feudal serfs—in this sense also used as a noun. [L. adscriptusad, to, scribĕre, to write.]

Adulate, ad′ū-lāt, v.t. to fawn upon, to flatter:—pr.p. ad′ūlāting; pa.p. ad′ūlāted.n. Ad′ulator, a servile flatterer.—adj. Adulatory (ad′ū-lā-tor-i). [L. adulāri, adulatus, to fawn upon.]

Adulation, ad-ū-lā′shun, n. fawning: flattery. [L. adulāri, adulatus, to fawn upon.]

Adullamite, ad-ul′am-īt, adj. an inhabitant of Adullam, where was a cave to which flocked from all sides to David in exile men in debt, distress, or discontent (1 Sam. xxii. 1, 2). The name was applied by John Bright in 1866 to a Whig secession from the Liberal party.

Adult, ad-ult′, adj. grown: mature.—n. a grown-up person.—n. Adult′ness. [L. adultusadolescĕre, to grow. See Adolescent.]

Adulterate, ad-ult′ėr-āt, v.t. to corrupt: to make impure (by mixing).—v.i. (obs.) to commit adultery.—adj. defiled by adultery: spurious: corrupted by base elements.—ns. Adult′erant, the person or substance that adulterates; Adulterā′tion, the act of adulterating: the state of being adulterated. [See Adultery.]

Adultery, ad-ult′ėr-i, n. violation of the marriage-bed, whether one's own or another's: in Scripture applied loosely to unchastity generally.—n. Adult′erer, a man guilty of adultery:—fem. Adult′eress.—adj. Adult′erine, resulting from adultery: spurious.—n. the offspring of adultery.—v.t. and v.i. Adult′erise (arch.).—adj. Adult′erous, guilty of adultery. [O. Fr. avoutrie, avoutre, an adulterer—L. adulterum, prob. from ad, to, and alter, another. The modern form of the word is due to a later approximation to the Latin form.]

Adumbrate, ad-um′brāt, or ad′-, v.t. to give a faint shadow of: to exhibit imperfectly.—adjs. Adum′brant, Adum′brative, adumbrating or giving a faint shadow.—n. Adumbrā′tion. [L. adumbratus, adumbrāread, to, umbra, a shadow.]

Adust, a-dust′, adj. burnt up or scorched; browned with the sun. [L. adustus, pa.p. of adurĕre, to burn up.]

Advance, ad-vans′, v.t. to put forward: to promote to a higher office: to encourage the progress of: to propose: to supply beforehand: to pay before the money is legally due, to pay on security.—v.i. to move or go forward: to make progress: to rise in rank or in value.—n. progress: improvement: a rise in price or value: a giving beforehand, also the sum so given: a loan.—n. Advance′ment, promotion: improvement: payment of money in advance.—In advance, beforehand. [O. Fr. avancer—Late L. abante (Fr. avant)—L. ab ante, from before.]

Advantage, ad-vant′āj, n. superiority over another: gain or benefit: at tennis, the point gained by either side after deuce, when both sides stand at an equal score (more commonly Vant′age).—v.t. to benefit or profit.—adjs. Advan′tageable, profitable: convenient (rare); Advantā′geous, of advantage: useful (with to and for).—adv. Advantā′geously.—n. Advantā′geousness.—To have the advantage of any one, to be known by a person without one's self knowing him; To take at advantage, to avail one's self of any opportunity, often implying an unfair sense. [Fr. avantage (It. vantaggio)—Fr. avant, before. See Advance.]

Advene, ad-vēn′, v.i. to accede: to be superadded to. [Through Fr. from L. advenīre, to come to.]

Advent, ad′vent, n. a coming or arrival: the first or the second coming of Christ: the period immediately before the festival of the Nativity, including four Sundays—from the first after St Andrew's Day (November 30) to Christmas eve.—n. Ad′ventist, one who believes in the second coming of Christ to set up a kingdom on the earth: a millenarian—adj. Advent′ual (obs.), relating to Advent. [Through Fr. from L. adventusad, to, venīre, to come.]

Adventitious, ad-vent-ish′us, adj. accidental: additional: foreign: appearing casually.—adv. Adventi′tiously.—adj. Advent′ive (Bacon), adventitious.—n. a thing or person coming from without. [See Advent.]

Adventure, ad-vent′ūr, n. a risk or chance: a remarkable incident: an enterprise: trial of the issue: risk: a commercial speculation: the spirit of enterprise.—v.i. to attempt or dare.—v.t. to risk or hazard: (refl.) to venture.—v.i. to risk one's self (with on, into, upon): to dare, go so far as to.—n. Advent′urer, one who engages in hazardous enterprises: a soldier of fortune, or speculator: one who pushes his fortune by equivocal means, as false pretences, &c.:—fem. Advent′uress.—adjs. Advent′urous, Advent′uresome, enterprising: ready to incur risk.—adv. Advent′urously.—n. Advent′urousness. [O. Fr.—L. adventurus, about to happen, fut. perf. of advenīre. See Advent.]

Adverb, ad′vėrb, n. a word added to a verb, adjective, or other adverb to express some modification of the meaning or an accompanying circumstance.—adj. Adverb′ial, pertaining to an adverb—used also as a n.adv. Adverb′ially. [L. ad verbiumad, to, verbum, a word. It is so called, not because it is added to a verb, but because it is a word (verbum) joined to, or supplemental of, other words.]

Adversaria, ad-vėrs-ār′i-a, collections of miscellaneous things in a commonplace-book: consecutive notes on any book. [L., lit. things written on the opposite sides of the paper, from adversus, against.]

Adversary, ad′vėrs-ar-i, n. an opponent: an enemy: Satan, as the general adversary of mankind. [O. Fr. aversier—L. adversarius. See Adverse.]

Adversative, ad-vėrs′a-tiv, adj. denoting opposition, contrariety, or variety. [See Adverse.]

Adverse, ad′vėrs, adj. acting in a contrary direction (with to): opposed to: unfortunate: injurious.—adv. Ad′versely.—ns. Ad′verseness, Advers′ity, adverse circumstances: affliction: misfortune. [Through Fr. from L. adversusad, to, and vertĕre, versum, to turn.]

Advert, ad-vėrt′, v.i. to turn the mind to (with to): to refer to: (obs.) to regard or observe.—ns. Advert′ence, Advert′ency, attention to: heedfulness: regard.—adj. Advert′ent, attentive: heedful.—adv. Advert′ently. [O. Fr. avertir, avertiss-ant—L. advertĕread, to, and vertĕre, to turn.]

Advertise, ad-vėrt-īz′, or ad′-, v.t. to turn one's attention to: to inform: to give public information or announcement of: (obs.) to instruct.—ns. Advert′isement, the act of advertising or making known: a public notice in a newspaper or periodical: notoriety: (obs.) news; Advertīs′er, one who advertises: a paper in which advertisements are published.—p.adj. Advertīs′ing (Shak.), attentive. [Fr., from L. See Advert.]

Advice, ad-vīs′, n. counsel: intelligence (usually in pl.): formal official intelligence about anything: specially skilled opinion, as of a physician or lawyer.—n. Advice′-boat, a swift vessel employed in conveying despatches.—adjs. Advice′ful, Avize′full (Spens.).—The form Adviso, advice, counsel (Sir T. Browne), and in Caraval of adviso = an advice-boat (Fuller), is obsolete—modern form Aviso. [O. Fr. advis (Fr. avis)—L. ad visum, according to what is seen or seems best.]

Adview. Same as Aview.

Advise, ad-vīz′, v.t. to give advice or counsel to: to recommend: to inform (usually with of).—v.i. to consult (with): (obs.) to deliberate:—pr.p. advīs′ing; pa.p. advīsed′.ns. Advisabil′ity, Advis′ableness.—adj. Advis′able, that may be advised or recommended: prudent: expedient: open to advice.—adv. Advis′ably.—adjs. Advis′atory (rare); Advised′, cautious: deliberate, as in well-advised and ill-advised.—adv. Advis′edly, intentionally.—ns. Advis′edness, deliberate consideration: prudent procedure; Advise′ment (obs. or arch.), counsel, deliberation; Advis′er, one who advises or gives advice; Advis′ing (Shak.), counsel, advice. [O. Fr. aviser, from advis or avis. See Advice.]

Advocacy, ad′vo-ka-si, n. the function of an advocate: a pleading for: defence. [See Advocate.]

Advocate, ad′vo-kāt, n. an intercessor or defender: one who pleads the cause of another, esp. in a court of law in Scotland and France.—v.t. to plead in favour of: to recommend.—ns. Advocā′tion; Ad′vocator.—Lord Advocate, the first law-officer of the crown and public prosecutor of crimes for Scotland. [O. Fr. avocat—L. advocatusadvocāre, -ātumad, to, vocāre, to call: to call in (another to help, as in a lawsuit or in sickness).]

Advoutrer, ad-vow′trėr, n. (obs.) an adulterer:—fem. Advou′tress. [See Advoutry.]

Advoutry, ad-vow′tri, n. (obs.) adultery. [O. Fr. avoutrie—L. adulterium.]

Advowson, ad-vow′zun, n. the right of patronage or presentation to a church benefice.—n. Advowee′, one who has the right of advowson. [O. Fr. avoson—L. advocation-em, right of the patron—L. advocatus, a patron.]

Adynamic, ā-di-nam′ik, adj. without strength: (phys.) characterised by the absence of force. [Gr. a, neg., and dynamis, strength.]

Adytum, ad′i-tum, n. the most sacred part of a heathen temple: the chancel of a church:—pl. Ad′yta. [L.—Gr. adytona, neg., and dyein, to enter.]

Adze, Adz, adz, n. a carpenter's tool consisting of a thin arched blade with its edge at right angles to the handle. [A.S. adesa; ultimate origin unknown.]

Ae, ā, or yā, modern Scotch form of A.S. n, one, used as an adjective.

dile, Edile, ē′dīl, n. a magistrate in ancient Rome who had the charge of public buildings, games, markets, police, &c.—n. ′dileship. [L. dīlis, des, -is, a building.]

gis, ē′jis, n. (orig.) a shield given by Jupiter to Minerva: anything that protects. [L.—Gr. agis.]

glogue, an archaic form of Eclogue.

grotat, ē′grō-tt, n. in the English universities, a medical certificate of inability from illness to attend lectures or examinations.—n. ger (ē′jėr), sick, the word used at Oxford and Cambridge in excusing absence on account of illness, hence a note certifying a student to be ger or sick. [L., 'he is sick,' 3d pers. sing. pres. indic. of grotāre, to be sick; ger, sick.]

neid, ē′nē-id, n. an epic poem written by Virgil, the hero of which is neas. [L. neis, -idos.]

olian, ē-ō′li-an, adj. pertaining to or acted on by the wind: aerial: of olis or olia, a district of Asia Minor colonised by the Greeks.—Also ′ōlic. [olus, the god of the winds.]

olipile, ē-ol′i-pīl, n. an instrument consisting of a hollow ball of metal partly filled with water, and having a small orifice through which steam escapes on the application of heat, thus turning the ball. It is the first instrument on record for showing the power of steam. [From L. olus, and pila, ball.]

on, Eon, ē′on, n. a period of time, an age or one of a series of ages, eternity: the personification of an age, a power emanating from the supreme Deity, with its share in the creation and government of the universe.—adj. ō′nian, eternal. [Gr. aiōn.]

Aerate, ā′ėr-āt, v.t. to put air into: to supply, or cause to mix, with carbonic acid or other gas, as Aerated waters.—ns. A′erator, an apparatus for such purpose; Aerā′tion, exposure to the action of air: the mixing or saturating with a gas: the oxygenation of the blood by respiration. [L. ar, air.]

Aerial, ā-ēr′i-al, adj. belonging to the air: inhabiting or existing in the air: elevated, lofty, ethereal.—ns. Aerial′ity, Aer′ialness.—adv. Aer′ially.

Aerie, ā′ri, or ē′ri, n. the nest of any bird of prey, esp. an eagle: a house perched on some high or steep place: (Shak.) the brood in the nest, or a stock of children.—Also Aery, Eyrie, Eyry. [O. Fr. aire; Low L. aeria, aerea—L. area, a spot of level ground. The form Eyry seems to have been originally due to a confusion with M. E. ey, an egg.]

Aeriferous, ā-ėr-if′ėr-us, adj. carrying or containing air. [L. ar, air, and ferre, to carry.]

Aeriform, ā′ėr-i-form, adj. having the form or nature of air or gas: unsubstantial, unreal. [L. ar, air, and forma, form.]

Aerify, ā′ėr-i-fī, v.t. to change from a solid or liquid state into air or gas: to fill or combine with air.—n. Aerificā′tion, act of being aerified or changed from a solid or liquid state into air or gas: act of combining air with anything: state of being filled with air. [L. ar, air, and facĕre, to make.]

Aerobia, ā-ėr-ō′bi-a, (biol.) bacteria that require free oxygen for the maintenance of their vitality.—adj. Aerō′bic.

Aerodynamics, ā-ėr-o-di-nam′iks, n. the science of the motion of the air and other gases, and of their mechanical effects when in motion. [Gr. aēr, aeros, air, and dynamis, power.]

Aerolite, ā′ėr-o-līt, n. a meteoric stone or meteorite—also A′erolith.—n. Aerolithol′ogy, that branch of science which treats of aerolites.—adj. Aerolit′ic. [Gr. aēr, air, lithos, a stone.]

Aerology, ā-ėr-ol′o-ji, n. the branch of science which treats of the atmosphere.—adj. Aerolog′ical.—n. Aerol′ogist. [Gr. aēr, aeros, air, logos, discourse.]

Aeromancy, ā-ėr-om′an-si, n. divination by means of atmospheric phenomena: weather forecasting. [Fr.—L.—Gr. aēr, air, manteia, divination.]

Aerometer, ā-ėr-om′e-tėr, n. an instrument for measuring the weight or density of air and gases. [Gr. aēr, and Meter.]

Aerometry, ā-ėr-om′e-tri, n. the measuring of the air, now called pneumatics.—adj. Aeromet′ric. [Gr. aēr, aeros, air, metron, a measure.]

Aeronaut, ā′ėr-o-nawt, n. one who makes ascents in a balloon.—adjs. Aeronaut′ic, Aeronaut′ical.—n. Aeronaut′ics, the science or art of aerial navigation. [Gr. aēr, air, nautēs, sailor.]

Aerophyte, ā′ėr-o-fīt, n. a plant nourished by the air, as epiphytal orchids and many lichens. [Gr. aēr, air, phyton, a plant.]

Aerostat, ā′ėr-o-stat, n. a machine formed to sustain weights in the air: a flying machine—sometimes applied in the newspapers to the aeronaut himself.—adj. Aerostat′icn. Aerostā′tion, the art of raising and guiding balloons. [Gr. aēr, aeros, air, and statos, standing—histēmi, I cause to stand.]

Aerostatics, ā-ėr-o-stat′iks, n. the science of the equilibrium of air or of elastic fluids: the science of raising and guiding balloons. [Gr. aēr, air, statikos, relating to equilibrium. See Statics.]

ruginous, ē-roo′ji-nus, adj. pertaining to or like copper-rust or verdigris. [L. ruginosusrugo, ruginis, rust of copper—s, ris, brass, copper.]

Aery, ā′ėr-i, adj. aerial, incorporeal, spiritual, visionary.—adj. Ae′rylight (Milton), light as air.—As a noun, Aery is a variant spelling of Aerie.

sthetics, ēs-thet′iks, n. the feeling of beauty in objects, the principles of taste and of art: the philosophy of the fine arts.—n. s′thete, a professed disciple of stheticism, one who affects an extravagant love of art.—adjs. sthet′ic, sthet′ical, pertaining to sthetics.—adv. sthet′ically.—ns. stheti′cian, sthet′icist, one devoted to sthetics; sthet′icism, the principles of sthetics: the cult of the beautiful, applied esp. to an art movement in London in the last quarter of the 19th century, which aimed at carrying art into every home and every relation of life, but made itself ridiculous by its fantastic and superficial dogmatism, and its puerility.—v.t. sthet′icize, to render sthetic, to refine. [Gr. aisthētikos, perceptive—aisthanesthai, to feel or perceive.]

stival, es-tī′val, adj. pertaining to the summer. [L. stivalisstas, summer.]

stivation, es-ti-vā′shun, n. (bot.) the manner of folding of the petals in the flower-bud: (zool.) the act of remaining dormant during the dry season—opposed to Hibernation: (Bacon) the passing of the summer: a summer retreat. [L. stivus, relating to summer—stas, summer.]

thrioscope, ē′thri-o-skōp, n. an instrument for measuring the minute variations of temperature due to the condition of the sky. [Gr. aithria, the open sky, skopos, an observer.]

tiology, ē-ti-ol′o-ji, n. the science or philosophy of causation, esp. an inquiry into the origin and causes of a disease.—adj. tiolog′ical. [L.—Gr. aitiologiaaitia, cause, logos, discourse.]

Afar, a-fr′, adv. from a far distance (usually preceded by from): to a distance (usually followed by off). [A.S. feor, with prep. of or on. See Far.]

Afear, Affear, a-fēr′, v.t. (obs.) to terrify.—adj. Afeard′ (Shak.), affected with fear, afraid. [Pfx. a-, and A.S. fran, to frighten.]

Affable, af′fa-bl, adj. condescending: easy to be spoken to (used with to).—ns. Affabil′ity, Af′fableness.—adv. Af′fably. [Fr.—L. affabilisaffāri, to speak to—ad, to, and fāri, to speak.]

Affair, af-fār′, n. that which is to be done: business: any small matter: a battle of minor importance: a matter of intimate personal concern, as a duel—a so-called affair of honour, or an intrigue: (pl.) transactions in general: public concerns. [O. Fr. afaire (Fr. affaire)— and faire—L. ad, and facĕre, to do. Cf. Ado.]

Affamish, af-fam′ish, v.t. and v.i. (obs.) to cause to perish from hunger. [Fr. affamer—L. ad, to, fames, hunger.]

Affect, af-fekt′, v.t. to act upon: to produce a change upon: to move the feelings: to assign, apply (only in pass.).—adj. Affect′ed, touched with a feeling either for or against (with by): full of affectation: feigned.—adv. Affect′edly.—n. Affect′edness.—adj. Affect′ing, having power to move the passions: pathetic.—adv. Affect′ingly. [L. afficĕre, affectumad, to, facĕre, to do.]

Affect, af-fekt′, v.t. to make a show or pretence of, to assume, to counterfeit or pretend to, to take upon one's self to: (obs.) to aim at, seek to obtain: (arch.) have a liking for, to love: to practise, wear, or frequent: to haunt or inhabit by preference.—n. Affectā′tion, a striving after, or an attempt to assume, what is not natural or real: pretence. [L. affectāre, freq. of afficĕre. See Affect above.]

Affection, af-fek′shun, n. kindness or love: attachment: (Shak.) affectation: an attribute or property: a disposition of mind: a disease or abnormal state of body or mind.—adjs. Affec′tional; Affec′tionate, full of affection: loving: (obs.) eager, passionate, well inclined to; Affec′tionated (obs.).—adv. Affec′tionately.—n. Affec′tionateness.—adj. Affec′tioned (B.), affected, disposed: (Shak.) full of affectation. [L. See Affect.]

Affeer, af-fēr′, v.t. to fix the market value of: to reduce to a certain fixed sum.—adj. Affeered′ (Shak.), confirmed.—n. Affeer′ment. [O. Fr. affeurer—Low L. afforāre—L. ad, to, forum, a market.]

Afferent, af′fėr-ent, adj. (anat.) bringing to, applied to the nerves that convey sensations to the nerve centres. [L. afferensad, to, and ferre, to carry.]

Affettuoso, af-fet-tōō-ō′so, adj. and adv. (mus.) tender, tenderly, with feeling—used as a noun by Burke.

Affiance, af-fī′ans, n. faith pledged to: marriage contract: trust: affinity (in, on).—v.t. to pledge faith: to betroth.—adj. and n. Affī′anced, betrothed. [O. Fr. afiance, afier—L. ad, to, fides, faith.]

Affidavit, af-fi-dā′vit, n. a written declaration on oath. [Affidavit, 3d pers. sing. perf. of a Low L. affidāre, to pledge one's faith.]

Affied (arch.), pa.p. of Affy.

Affiliate, af-fil′i-āt, v.t. to receive into a family as a son, or into a society as a member: to attach to, or connect with, as minor colleges with a university: to impute paternity to, to attribute to, to father on or upon.—n. Affiliā′tion, the act of receiving into a family or society as a member: (law) the assignment of an illegitimate child to its father, the assignment of anything to its origin. [L. affiliāre, to adopt—ad, to, filius, a son.]

Affine, af-fīn′, n. (obs.) a relation, connection.—adjs. Affine′, Affined′, related, bound by some tie. [O. Fr.—L. affinis, neighbouring—ad, to, at, finis, a boundary.]

Affinity, af-fin′i-ti, n. nearness of kin, agreement, or resemblance: causal relationship: structural resemblance between languages of ultimately common origin: structural resemblance between plants, animals, or minerals pointing to identity of stock: relationship by marriage, opposed to consanguinity or relationship by blood: (B.) social relationship: the spiritual relationship between sponsors and their godchild: a mysterious attraction supposed to exist between two persons: (chem.) the peculiar attraction between the atoms of two simple substances that makes them combine to form a compound.—adj. Affin′itive. [Fr.—L. affinitasaffinis, neighbouring—ad, at, finis, boundary.]

Affirm, af-fėrm′, v.t. to assert confidently or positively: to ratify a judgment: to confirm or maintain a statement of one's own or another's: (log.) to make a statement in the affirmative: (law) to make a formal declaration or affirmation, without an oath.—adj. Affirm′able, that may be affirmed (with of).—n. Affirm′ance, affirmation, assertion, confirmation.—adj. Affirm′ant—also n., one who affirms.—n. Affirmā′tion, act of asserting: that which is affirmed: (law) the solemn declaration made by Quakers and others incapable of taking an oath.—adj. and n. Affirm′ative, that affirms or asserts: positive, not negative: dogmatic.—adv. Affirm′atively.—adj. Affirm′atory. [O. Fr. afermer—L. affirmāread, firmus, firm. See Firm.]

Affix, af-fiks′, v.t. to fix to: to add: to attach (to, on, upon).—n. Af′fix, an addition to a root, stem, or word, to modify its meaning or use, whether prefix or suffix: any appendage or addition. [L. affigĕre, -fixumad, to, figĕre, to fix. See Fix.]

Afflation, af-flā′shun, n. a breathing upon.—p.adj. Afflat′ed, inspired. [From L. afflāre, flātumad, to, and flāre, to breathe.]

Afflatus, af-flā′tus, n. inspiration, as of the poet or orator: esp. religious inspiration, the divine afflatus = L. afflatus divinus. [See Inflation.]

Afflict, af-flikt′, v.t. to give continued pain, distress, or grief: to harass, or vex.—pa.p. Afflict′ed, harassed by disease of body or mind: suffering.—adj. Afflict′ing, distressing.—n. Afflic′tion, state or cause of pain or distress: misery: loss of friends, sickness, persecution. &c.—adj. Afflict′ive, causing distress. [L. affligĕre, flictumad, to, fligĕre, to dash to the ground.]

Affluent, af′flōō-ent, adj. abounding: wealthy (with in).—n. a stream flowing into a river or lake.—ns. Af′fluence, abundance: wealth; Af′fluency (obs.).—adv. Af′fluently.—n. Af′fluentness. [L. affluĕre, affluent-emad, to, fluĕre, to flow.]

Afflux, af′fluks, Affluxion, af-flux′shun, n. a flowing to: an accession. [L. affluĕre, affluxum. See Affluent.]

Afforce, af-fōrs′, v.t. (law) to reinforce a jury or other deliberative body by specially skilled persons.—n. Afforce′ment. [O. Fr. aforcer—Low L. exfortiāre—L. fortis, strong.]

Afford, af-fōrd′, v.t. to yield or produce: to be able to sell, to expend, or to bear the expense of. [M. E. aforthen, from A.S. geforthian or forthian, to further or cause to come forth.]

Afforest, af-for′est, v.t. to turn land into forest.—n. Afforestā′tion. [Low L. afforestāre—L. ad, to, and foresta. See Forest.]

Affranchise, af-fran′chiz, v.t. to free from slavery, or from some obligation. [O. Fr. afranchir, afranchiss-, from , to, franchir, to free, franc, free. See Frank.]

Affrap, af-frap′, v.t. or v.i. (Spens.) to strike or strike down. [It. affrappareaf (ad), to, and frappāre (Fr. frapper), to strike.]

Affray, af-frā′, n. a fight causing alarm: a brawl or fray: terror (Spens.).—v.t. to startle: to frighten: esp. in pa.p. Affrayed′ = afraid. [O. Fr. afrayer, esfreer (Fr. effrayer)—Low L. exfrediāre, to break the king's peace—L. ex, and Old High Ger. fridu (Ger. friede), peace.]

Affret, af-fret′, n. (Spens.) a furious onset. [Prob. from It. affrettare, to hasten.]

Affriended, af-frend′ed, adj. (Spens.) made friends: reconciled.

Affright, af-frīt′, v.t. to frighten—also Affright′en.—n. Affright′, sudden terror.—pa.p. Affright′ed, frightened.—adv. Affright′edly.—adj. Affright′ful (arch.).—n. Affright′ment, sudden fear. [A.S. afyrhtan. See Fright.]

Affront, af-frunt′, v.t. to meet face to face: to insult openly: (Shak.) to throw one's self in the way of.—n. contemptuous treatment: an open insult: disgrace.—adj. Affront, fem. Affronte, facing each other: (her.) of animals represented front to front, or expectant—opp. to Addorsed; also looking frontwise, or toward the beholder.—p.adj. Affront′ed, insulted, offended.—adj. Affront′ive.—To put an affront upon, To offer an affront to = to openly insult a person. [O. Fr. afronter—Low L. affrontāre—L. ad, to, front-, the forehead.]

Affusion, af-fū′zhun, n. the act of pouring upon or sprinkling.—Baptism by affusion is effected by the pouring of water on the subject, as distinct from baptism by dipping, or baptism by sprinkling. [L. affusion-em, affundĕread, to, fundĕre, fusum, to pour.]

Affy, af-fī′, v.t. (obs.) to pledge one's faith to, to betroth.—v.i. to trust or confide:—pr.p. affy′ing; pa.p. affīed′. [O. Fr. afier—Low L. affīdāread, to, fides, faith. See Affiance.]

Afield, a-fēld′, adv. to, in, or on the field.

Afire, a-fīr′, adv. on fire: in a state of inflammation.

Aflame, a-flām′, adj. and adv. flaming: glowing. [Pfx. a-, and Flame.]

Afloat, a-flōt′, adv. or adj. floating: at sea: unfixed: in circulation.

Afoot, a-foot′, adv. on foot: astir.

Afore, a-fōr′, prep. (B. and Shak.) beforehand, previously.

Aforehand, a-fōr′hand, adv. before the regular time of accomplishment: in advance.

Aforesaid, a-fōr′sed, adj. said or named before.

Aforethought, a-fōr′thawt, adj. thought of or meditated before: premeditated.

Aforetime, a-fōr′tīm, adv. in former or past times.

Afoul, a-fowl′, adj. or adv. entangled: in collision (with of).

Afraid, a-frād′, adj. struck with fear: timid. [See Affray.]

Afresh, a-fresh′, adv. anew.

African, af′rik-an, adj. pertaining to Africa—also Af′ric.—ns. Af′rican, a native of Africa; Africand′er, one born of white parents in Cape Colony or other parts of South Africa. [L. Africus, AfricanusAfer, African.]

Afrit, a-frit′, n. an evil demon in Arabian mythology.—Also Afreet′. [Ar. ‛ifrīt, a demon.]

Afront, a-frunt′, adv. (obs.) in front.

Aft, aft, adj. or adv. behind: near or towards the stern of a vessel. [A.S. ft-an.]

After, aft′ėr, prep. and adv. behind in place: later in time: following in search of: in imitation of: in proportion to, or in agreement with: concerning: subsequent to, or subsequently: afterward: after the manner of, or in imitation of.—adj. behind in place: later in time: more toward the stern of a vessel. [A.S. fter, comp. of af, or of, the primary meaning being 'more off,' 'farther away;' -ter as a comparative affix is seen in L. al-ter, Eng. o-ther. See Of.]

Afterbirth, aft′ėr-bėrth, n. the placenta and membranes which are expelled from the uterus of the mother after the birth.

Afterclap, aft′ėr-klap, n. an unexpected event happening after an affair is supposed to be at an end.

Aftercrop, aft′ėr-krop, n. a second crop in the same year.

After-damp, aft′ėr-damp, n. choke-damp, arising in coal-mines after an explosion of fire-damp.

Aftereye, aft-ėr-ī′, v.t. (Shak.) to look after.

Aftergame, aft′ėr-gām, n. a second game played to reverse the issue of the first, hence the means employed after the first turn of affairs.

Afterglow, aft′ėr-glō, n. the glow often seen in the sky after sunset.

Afterguard, aft′ėr-grd, n. the men on the quarter-deck and poop who work the after sails, not needing to go aloft: a drudge or person in a mean capacity.

After-hands, af′ter-handz, (Tenn.) future labourers.

After-image, aft′ėr-im′āj, n. the image that remains for a brief period after the eye has been withdrawn from the object.

Afterings, aft′ėr-ingz, n. the last milk drawn in milking.

Aftermath, aft′ėr-math, n. a second mowing of grass in the same season. [See Mow, Meadow.]

Aftermost, aft′ėr-mōst, adj. hindmost. [A.S. ftemest; Goth. af-tuma, -tuma, being equiv. to L. -tumus in op-tumus, best. Goth. has also af-tum-ists = A.S. f-tem-est, which is thus a double superlative.—Thus in aftermost, r is intrusive and -most is not the adv. most.]

Afternoon, aft′ėr-nōōn, n. the time between noon and evening.—n. Aft′er-morn (Tenn.), the morrow.

Afterpains, aft′ėr-pānz, n. the pains which succeed childbirth and the expulsion of the afterbirth.

Afterpiece, aft′ėr-pēs, n. a farce or other minor piece performed after a play.

Aftersupper, aft′ėr-sup-pėr, n. the time between supper and bedtime.

Afterthought, aft′ėr-thawt, n. thought or reflection after an action: a later thought.

Afterward, aft′ėr-ward, Afterwards, aft′ėr-wardz, adv. in after-time: later: subsequently. [A.S. ftenweard.]

Aga, Agha, ā′ga, n. a Turkish commander or chief officer. [Turk. aghā, Pers. ak, aka, a lord.]

Again, a-gen′, adv. once more: in return: back. [A.S. on-gen, again, opposite; Ger. ent-gegen.]

Against, a-genst′, also a-gānst′, prep. opposite to: in opposition to: in contact or collision with: in provision for: in exchange for, instead of: (B. and Shak.) by the time that, elliptically for 'against (the time) at which' or 'that I come.' [Formed from again, with genitive ending -es, as whilst from while—the -t being a later addition, as in amongs-t, amids-t, &c.]

Agami, ag′a-mi, n. the golden-breasted trumpeter, a grallatorial bird of South America. [Native name.]

Agamogenesis, a-gam-o-jen′e-sis, n. reproduction without sex, found among lower animals and in plants. [Gr. a, priv., gamos, marriage, genesis, reproduction.]

Agamous, ag′a-mus, adj. (bot.) having no visible flowers or organs of fructification. [Gr. agamosa, neg., and gamos, marriage.]

Agape, ag′a-pē, n. a love-feast, held by the early Christians at communion time, when contributions were made for the poor:—pl. Ag′ap.—n. Agapem′onē (Gr., 'love abode'), a community of religious visionaries with unedifying ideas about the sexual relations, founded in 1859 at Charlinch, near Bridgwater, by one H. J. Prince, formerly an Anglican clergyman. [Gr. agapē, love.]

Agape, a-gāp′, adj. or adv. gaping from wonder, expectation, or attention. [Lit., 'on gape.']

Agaric, ag′ar-ik, n. a family of fungi, including the mushroom. [Gr. agarikon.]

Agastric, a-gas′trik, adj. having no stomach. [Gr. a, neg., and gastēr, stomach.]

Agate, ag′āt, n. a precious stone composed of layers of quartz, of different tints.—adj. Agatif′erous. [Gr. achatēs, said to be so called because first found near the river Achates in Sicily.]

Agate, a-gāt′, adv. agoing, on the way. [Prep. a, and Gate; a northern word.]

Agave, a-gā′ve, n. a genus of herbaceous plants, natives of the warmer parts of America, which in Mexico usually flower about the seventh or eighth year, the stem rising to a height of forty feet. It is called also the American Aloe and Century Plant, receiving the latter name from the number of years (40-60, popularly a hundred) it takes to flower in our hot-houses.

Agazed, a-gāzd′, adj. (Shak.) struck with amazement. [Prob. a variant of Aghast.]

Age, āj, n. the ordinary length of human life: the time during which a person or thing has lived or existed: mature years: legal maturity (at 21 years), or time of life with regard to crime, contracts, marriage, &c.: a period of time: any great period of human history, as the Golden Age, the Bronze Age, the Middle Ages, or of individual history, as the age of infancy, the five—or seven—so-called ages of man: a generation of men: a century.—v.i. to grow old:—pr.p. āg′ing; pa.p. āg′ed.adj. Aged (āj′ed), advanced in age: having a certain age.— old people.—n. Agedness (āj′ed-nes), condition of being aged or old.—adjs. Age′less; Age′long. [O. Fr. edage (Fr. ge)—L. tas = vitas—L. vum, age; cog. with Ever.]

Agen, a-gen′, adv. Same as Again.

Agenda, aj-end′a, n. things to be done: a memorandum-book: (obs.) a ritual. [L. agendus, fut. perf. pass. of agĕre, to do.]

Agent, āj′ent, n. a person or thing that acts or exerts power: any natural force acting on matter: one authorised or delegated to transact business for another.—n. Ag′ency, the office or business, operation or action, of an agent; instrumentality.—Law agent, a general term in Scotland, including Writers to the Signet, Solicitors to the Supreme Court, and Procurators in the sheriff courts—the requirements are an indentured apprenticeship of five years to a law agent, the passing of examinations in general knowledge and in law, and formal admission by the Court of Session. [L. agĕre, to do. See Act.]

Agglomerate, ag-glom′ėr-āt, v.t. to make into a ball: to collect into a mass.—v.i. to grow into a mass.—adjs. Agglom′erate, Agglom′erated, collected into a heap or mass.—n. Agglomerā′tion, a growing or heaping together: a mass: a cluster.—adj. Agglom′erative. [Agglomerāre, -ātumad, to, L. glomus, glomeris, a ball. See Clew, Globe.]

Agglutinate, ag-glōōt′in-āt, v.t. to cause to adhere by glue or cement.—adj. Agglut′inant, uniting or causing to stick together.—ns. Agglut′inate, Agglut′inative, a classification formerly much used in contrast to inflectional, to describe such languages as Turkish, which show, in the words of Whitney, an inferior degree of integration in the elements of their words, or of unification of words, the suffixes and prefixes retaining a certain independence of one another and of the root or stem to which they are added; Agglutinā′tion, the act of uniting, as by glue: adhesion of parts.—adj. Agglut′inative, tending to or having power to cause adhesion. [L. agglutināread, to, gluten, glue. See Glue.]

Aggrace, ag-grās′, v.t. (Spens.) to grace, to favour.—n. kindness: favour. [Low L. aggratiāre—L. ad, to, gratia, grace.]

Aggrandise, ag′grand-īz, v.t. to make great or larger: to make greater in power, rank, or honour.—ns. Aggrandisā′tion; Aggrandisement (ag′grand-īz-ment, or ag-grand′iz-ment), act of aggrandising: state of being aggrandised. [Fr., from L. ad, to, and grandis, large.]

Aggrate, ag-grāt′, v.t. (obs.) to gratify or please. [It. aggratare—L. ad, to, gratus, pleasing. See Grace.]

Aggravate, ag′grav-āt, v.t. to make worse: to provoke.—adj. Ag′gravating.—adv. Ag′gravatingly.—n. Aggravā′tion, a making worse: any quality or circumstance which makes a thing worse: an exaggeration. [L. aggravāread, to, gravis, heavy. See Grave.]

Aggregate, ag′greg-āt, v.t. to collect into a mass: to accumulate.—v.i. (rare) to add as a member to a society: to combine with.—adj. formed of parts taken together.—n. the sum total.—adv. Ag′gregately.—n. Aggregā′tion, act of aggregating: state of being collected together: an aggregate.—adj. Ag′gregative. [L. aggregāre, -ātum, to bring together, as a flock—ad, to, grex, gregis, a flock.]

Aggress, ag-gres′, v.i. to make a first attack: to begin a quarrel: to intrude.—adj. Aggress′ive, making the first attack, or prone to do so: offensive as opposed to defensive.—ns. Aggress′iveness; Aggress′or, one who attacks first. [L. aggredi, -gressusad, to, gradi, to step.]

Aggression, ag-gresh′un, n. first act of hostility or injury: a breach of the peace: an attack on public privileges. [L. aggredi, -gressusad, to, gradi, to step.]

Aggrieve, ag-grēv′, v.t. to press heavily upon: to pain or injure. [O. Fr. agrever (Sp. agraviar)—L. ad, to, and gravis, heavy. See Grief, Grieve.]

Aghast, a-gast′, adj. stupefied with horror. [Properly agast; M. E. agasten, to terrify; A.S. intens. pfx. -, and gstan, to terrify. The primary notion of the root gs- (Goth. gais-) is to fix, stick; to root to the spot with terror. See Gaze.]

Agile, aj′il, adj. active: nimble.—n. Agil′ity, quickness of motion: nimbleness—also Ag′ileness. [Fr.—L. agilisagĕre, to do or act.]

Agio, ā′ji-o, n. the difference between the real and nominal value of money, or between metallic and paper money: the variations from fixed pars or rates of exchange: discount. [It. agio, aggio, ease, convenience.]

Agiotage, aj′i-o-tāj, n. exchange business, hence the manœuvres of speculators to raise or depress the funds: stock-jobbing.

Agist, a-jist′, v.t. to take in the cattle of others to graze for a certain sum: to charge lands or the like with any public burden.—ns. Agist′ment, the action of agisting: the price paid for cattle pasturing on the land: a burden or tax; Agist′or, Agist′er, an officer who takes charge of cattle agisted. [O. Fr. agister—L. jacitāre, jacēre, to lie.]

Agitate, aj′i-tāt, v.t. to keep moving: to stir violently: to disturb: to discuss, or keep up the discussion of a question.—n. Agitā′tion, commotion: perturbation of mind: discussion: public excitement.—adj. Ag′itative.—n. Ag′itator, one who excites or keeps up a public agitation. [L. agitāre, freq. of agĕre, to put in motion. See Act.]

Aglet, Aiglet, ā′glet, n. the tag or point of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were fastened together, orig. to facilitate passing through the eyelet-holes, afterwards themselves ornamental, like Shakespeare's aglet-baby, and still surviving in the so-called aiguillettes or tagged points of braid hanging from the shoulder in some military and naval uniforms: a technical name for white stay-laces. [Fr. aiguillette, dim. of aiguille, a needle—from L. acucula = acicula, dim. of acus, a needle.]

Agley, Aglee, a-glē′, adv. (Scot.) off the right line: wrong. [Pfx. a-, and Scot. gley, gleg, squint.]

Aglimmer, a-glim′ėr, adv. in a glimmering state.

Aglow, a-glō′, adj. and adv. very warm: red-hot.

Agnail, ag′nāl, n. an inflammation round the toe- or finger-nail: a whitlow: a hangnail. [A.S. angnglang, tight, and ngl, a nail; confounded in meaning by the dictionary-makers with Fr. angonailles, blotches, sores—Low L. anguinalia, carbuncles.]

Agname, ag′nām, n. a name over and above the name and surname.—adj. Ag′named, styled by such a name. [L. ag = ad, and Name; formed after L. agnomen.]

Agnate, ag′nāt, adj. related on the father's side: allied.—n. a relation by the father's side.—adjs. Agnat′ic, Agnat′ical.—adv. Agnat′ically.—n. Agnā′tion. [L. agnat-usad, to, nasci, to be born. See Cognate.]

Agnise, ag-nīz′, v.t. (arch.) to acknowledge, to confess. [L. agnoscĕread, to, gnoscĕre, noscĕre, to know.]

Agnomen, ag-nō′men, n. a surname added to the family name, generally on account of some great exploit, as Africanus to P. Cornelius Scipio. [L.—ad, to, and gnomen, nomen, a name.]

Agnostic, ag-nos′tik, n. one who holds that we know nothing of things beyond material phenomena—that a First Cause and an unseen world are things unknown and apparently unknowable.—n. Agnos′ticism. [Coined by Prof. Huxley in 1869 from the word in Acts, xvii. 23; a, privative, and Gr. gnōstikos, good at knowing. See Gnostic.]

Agnus Dei, ag′nus-dē′ī, a part of the Mass beginning with the words Agnus Dei, also the music set to it: a figure of a lamb emblematic of Christ, bearing with its right foot the banner of the cross, and having the nimbus inscribed with the cross around its head: a round cake of wax stamped with such a figure, and blessed by the Pope. [L., lit. 'lamb of God.']

Ago, a-gō′, Agone, a-gon′, adv. gone: past: since. [Pa.p. of A.S. āgān, to pass away—inten. pfx. ā-, and gān, to go.]

Agog, a-gog′, adj. or adv. eager: astir. [Perh. connected with O. Fr. en gogues; estre en ses gogues, to be frolicsome, or Fr. vivre gogo, to live in abundance. The ultimate origin is unknown.]

Agoing, a-gō′ing, adv. going on: current.

Agone. See Ago.

Agonic, ag′on-ik, adj. having or making no angle.—Agonic line, the line of no magnetic variation—an irregular line passing through the magnetic poles of the earth, along which the magnetic needle points directly north or south. [Gr. agōnos; a, neg., gōnia, angle.]

Agonist, ag′o-nist, n. one who contends for a prize in public games.—adjs. Agonist′ic, -al, relating to athletic contests: combative.—adv. Agonist′ically.—n. Agonist′ics, the art and theory of games and prize-fighting. [See Agony.]

Agony, ag′o-ni, n. a violent struggle: extreme suffering: the death struggle in particular: Christ's anguish in Gethsemane.—v.t. Ag′onise, to struggle, suffer agony: to subject to agony.—adj. Ag′onising, causing agony.—adv. Ag′onisingly.—Agony column, the part of a newspaper containing special advertisements, as for missing friends and the like. [Gr.—agōn, contest.]

Agood, a-good′, adv. (obs.) in good earnest, heartily. [A.S. pfx. a-, and Good.]

Agora, ag′o-ra, n. an assembly, hence a place of assembly, the market-place. [Gr.]

Agouta, a-gōō′ta, n. a rat-like animal of Hayti.

Agouti, a-gōō′ti, n. a small South American rodent allied to the guinea-pig. [Native word.]

Agraffe, a-graf′, n. a kind of clasp or hook. [Fr. agrafe, a clasp—Low L. grappa, Old High Ger. chrapfo (Ger. krappen), a hook.]

Agrarian, ag-rā′ri-an, adj. relating to land, or its management, as in 'agrarian crime,' &c., applied esp. to Roman laws for the equal distribution of the public lands: rural.—n. Agrā′rianism, an equal division of lands: a political movement in favour of interference with the ordinary conditions of private property in land. [L. agrariusager, a field. See Acre.]

Agree, a-grē′, v.i. to be of one mind: to concur: to assent to: to be consistent, to harmonise: to determine, to settle: to resemble, to suit: (gram.) to be in concord with—taking the same gender, number, case, or person: to do well with climate, &c. (followed by with before the person or thing agreeing: by upon, on, for, to, in before the condition of the agreement):—pa.p. agreed′.adj. Agree′able, suitable: pleasant: favourable to, consenting to.—n. Agree′ableness, suitableness: conformity: quality of pleasing—also Agreeabil′ity.—adv. Agree′ably.—n. Agree′ment, concord: conformity: harmony: a bargain or contract. [O. Fr. agrer, to accept kindly—L. ad, to, and gratus, pleasing.]

Agrestic, a-gres′tik, adj. pertaining to the fields: rural: unpolished. [L. agrestisager, a field.]

Agriculture, ag′ri-kult-ūr, n. the art or practice of cultivating the land.—adj. Agricult′ural, relating to agriculture.—n. Agricult′urist, one skilled in agriculture: a farmer—also Agricult′uralist. [L. agriculturaager, a field, cultura, cultivation. See Culture.]

Agrimony, ag′ri-mun-i, n. a genus of plants of the rose-group, with small yellow flowers and bitter taste. [L. agrimonia, for argemonia, Gr. argemōnē.]

Agrin, a-grin′, adv. on the grin.

Agrise, a-grīz′, v.t. (obs.) to terrify, to make frightful. [A.S. āgrīsan, to dread.]

Agronomial, ag-rō-nō′mi-al, adj. relating to the management of farms—also Agronom′ic.—n. Agron′omy, agricultural pursuits. [Gr. agronomos; agros, a field, nemein, to deal out.]

Aground, a-grownd′, adv. stranded.

Aguardiente, a-gwr-di-ėn′tė, n. a kind of grape-brandy made in Spain and Portugal: any spirituous liquor, applied even to Mexican pulque. [Sp., from agua ardiente, burning water; agua—L. aqua; ardiente, arder—L. ardēre, to burn.]

Ague, ā′gū, n. a fever coming in periodical fits, accompanied with shivering: chilliness: quaking.—adj. A′gued, struck with ague: shivering: cold; A′guish. [O. Fr. aigue (Fr. aigu, sharp)—L. acutus. See Acute.]

Aguerried, a-ger′id, adj. inured to war, or instructed in it. [Fr. aguerrir, to make warlike; —Lat. ad, to, and guerre, war.]

Aguise, a-gīz′, v.t. (Spens.) to dress, to adorn. [Pfx. a-, and Guise.]

Ah, , interj. an exclamation of surprise, joy, pity, complaint, &c.

Aha, -h′, interj. an exclamation of exultation, pleasure, surprise, or contempt.

Ahead, a-hed′, adv. farther on: in advance: headlong, as in the phrase 'to go ahead.'

Aheap, a-hēp′, adv. in a heap: in a state of collapse through terror or astonishment.

Aheight, a-hīt′, adv. (arch.) on high, aloft.

Ahem, a-hem′, interj. a lengthened form of Hem.

Ahithophel. See Achitophel.

Ahigh, a-hī′, adv. an obsolete form of On high.

Ahold, a-hōld′, adv. (Shak.) near the wind, so as to keep clear of the land.

Ahorseback, a-hors′bak, adv. on horseback.

Ahoy, a-hoi′, interj. a nautical term used in hailing. [Form of interj. Hoy.]

Ahull, a-hul′, adv. (naut.) with sails furled, and helm lashed to the lee-side, driving before the wind, stern foremost.

Ahungered, a-hung′gėrd, adj. oppressed with hunger. [Erroneously written an hungered, as in Bible.]

Aiblins, āb′linz, adv. (Scot.) perhaps, possibly. [See Able.]

Aid, ād, v.t. to help, assist.—n. help: assistance, as in defending an action: an auxiliary: subsidy or money grant to the king.—n. Aid′ance, aid, help, support.—adj. Aid′ant, (arch.) aiding, helping.—n. Aid′er, one who brings aid: a helper.—adjs. Aid′ful; Aid′less.—Court of Aids, the court that supervised the customs duties. [O. Fr. aider—L. adjutāread, and juvāre, jutum, to help.]

Aide-de-camp, ād′-de-kong, n. an officer who carries the orders of a general on the field, and brings him intelligence:—pl. Aides′-de-camp. [Fr., assistant on the field.]

Aiery, a variant of Aerie.

Aigrette, ā′gret, n. (zool.) a small white heron: (bot.) the down attached to vegetable seeds, as in the thistle: a plume composed of feathers, or of precious stones, like a heron's crest. [Fr. aigrette.]

Aiguille, ā-gwēl′, n. a sharp, needle-like peak of rock, applied esp. to many of the peaks near Mont Blanc: a slender boring-drill for blasting. [Fr. See Aglet.]

Aiguillette. See Aglet.

Ail, āl, v.i. to feel pain: to be in trouble.—v.t. to trouble, afflict—obs. except in impers. phrase 'What ails you?'—n. trouble: indisposition.—n. Ail′ment, pain: indisposition: disease. [A.S. eglan, to pain. See Awe.]

Ailanto, ēl-an′to, n. a lofty and beautiful tree, native to South-eastern Asia, but grown to shade public walks in France and Italy. Its leaves give food to a species of silkworm—it is sometimes called the Vernis du Japon, or Japan Varnish, apparently by confusion with certain species of Rhus.—Also Ailan′tus. [Native Amboyna name, meaning 'tree of the gods.']

Ailette, āl-let′, n. an iron plate once worn by men-at-arms for defence on the shoulder. [Fr., dim. of aille—L. ala, a wing.]

Aim, ām, v.i. to point at with a weapon: to direct the intention or endeavour (at): (obs.) to conjecture.—v.t. to point, as a weapon or firearm.—n. the pointing of a weapon: the thing pointed at: design: intention.—adj. Aim′less, without aim.—adv. Aim′lessly.—n. Aim′worthiness, good aim.—To cry aim, in old writers, to encourage archers when shooting by crying 'aim,' hence to applaud or encourage. [O. Fr. esmer, to reckon—L. stimāre, to estimate. See Estimate.]

Ain't, ānt, a colloquial contracted form of are not—also An't = aren't, are not.—An't (Shak.) occurs as a variant of on't = on it, of it.

Air, ār, n. the fluid we breathe: the atmosphere: any special condition of atmosphere, as in 'the night-air,' 'to take the air:' a light breeze: publicity: the bearing of a person: outward appearance, manner, look: an assumed or affected manner: (mus.) a rhythmical melody: a song, also specially a sprightly song: the soprano part in a harmonised composition, being that which gives it its character: (pl.) affectation.—v.t. to expose to the air: to dry: to expose to warm air: (obs.) to take an airing.—ns. Air′-bath, an arrangement for drying substances in air of any desired temperature; Air′-bed, a bed for the sick, inflated with air; Air′-blad′der, in some fishes, an organ containing air, by which they maintain their equilibrium in the water; Air′-brake, a railway brake worked by compressed air.—adj. Air′-built, built in air: having no solid foundation.—ns. Air′-cell, a cavity containing air; Air′-cush′ion, an air-tight cushion, which can be inflated; Air′-drain, an ample space at the foot of foundation walls, for the sake of dryness.—adj. Air′drawn, drawn in air: visionary: (Shak.) imaginary.—ns. Air′-en′gine, an engine put in motion by air expanded by heat; Air′-gas, illuminating gas made by charging atmospheric air with vapour of petroleum or other hydrocarbon; Air′-gun, a gun which discharges bullets by means of compressed air.—adv. Air′ily, gaily.—ns. Air′iness, state of being airy; openness: liveliness; Air′ing, exposure to the air or fire: a short excursion in the open air; Air′-jack′et, a jacket with air-tight cavities, which being inflated renders a person buoyant in water.—adj. Air′less, void of air: not having free communication with the open air.—ns. Air′-lock, a small chamber for the entrance and exit of men and materials, at the top of the caisson or hollow cylinder used for founding the piers of bridges under water; Air′-pump, an instrument for pumping the air out of a vessel; Air′-sac, an air-cell or air-space, esp. in the bones of birds; Air′-shaft, a passage for air into a mine; Air′-ship, a navigable balloon; Air′-space, the cubic content of a room, hospital-ward, or the like, with reference to the respirable air contained in it.—adj. Air′-tight, so tight as not to admit air.—n. Air′-ves′sel, a vessel or tube containing air.—adv. Air′wards, up in the air.—adj. Air′y, consisting of or relating to air: open to the air: like air: unsubstantial: light of heart: sprightly.—To take air, to get wind, to become publicly known. [Fr.—L. ar—Gr.]

Airling, ār′ling, n. (obs.) a thoughtless, gay person.

Airt, ārt, n. (Scot.) direction, quarter. [Gael. aird, rd; Ir. ard.]

Aisle, īl, n. any lateral division of any part of a church, whether of nave, choir, or transept. The word is often erroneously applied to the passage in a church between the pews or seats.—adj. Aisled, (īld), having aisles. [O. Fr. ele, aisle (Fr. aile)—L. axilla, ala, a wing.]

Ait, āt, n. a small island in a river or lake. [A.S. forms, get, geoth, supply the key to the word, but its history is obscure.]

Aitchbone, āch′bōn, n. the bone of the rump: the cut of beef over this bone. [Orig. nache- or nagebone; O. Fr. nache, nage—L. nates, buttock; a nache became aitch, and erroneously edge-bone.]

Ajar, a-jr′, adv. partly open. [A.S. on, on, cyrr, a turn.]

Ajee, Agee, a-jē′, adv. (Scot. and prov.) aside, off the straight, ajar. [Prep. a, and gee, to move to one side; jee, a call to a horse to move to one side.]

Ajutage, Adjutage, ad′joo-tāj, n. a tube adjusted to an orifice through which water is discharged. [Fr.—Fr. ajouter. See Adjust.]

Ake, āk, old form of Ache.

Akee, a-kē′, n. the fruit of a small African sapindaceous tree, now common in the West Indies.

Akimbo, a-kim′bo, adj. with hand on hip and elbow bent outward. [Ety. uncertain; Skeat suggests the Ice. kengboginn, bent into a crook, from kengr, a crook, twist, kink, and boginn, bowed. Others connect the -kim with Keen.]

Akin, a-kin′, adj. of kin: related by blood: having the same properties. [Of and Kin.]

Alabaster, al′a-bas-tėr, n. a semi-transparent kind of gypsum or sulphate of lime: the fine limestone deposited as stalagmites and stalactites.—adj. made of alabaster.—adj. Alabas′trian. [Gr. alabastros, said to be derived from Alabastron, a town in Egypt.]

Alack, a-lak′, interj. an exclamation denoting sorrow.

Alack-a-day, a-lak′-a-dā, interj. (rare) an exclamation of sadness. [Interj. ah, lak (Lack), and Day.]

Alacrity, a-lak′ri-ti, n. briskness: cheerful readiness: promptitude. [L. alacris, brisk.]

Alalia, a-lā′li-a, n. loss of speech. [Gr. a, priv., and lalein, to talk.]

Alameda, a-la-mē′da, n. a public walk or promenade between two rows of trees. [Sp.]

Alamode, a-la-mōd′, adv. and adj. according to the mode or fashion.—n. a light kind of glossy silk for scarfs, hat-bands, &c.—n. Alamodal′ity (rare).—Alamode beef, beef larded and stewed with vegetables. [Fr. la mode.]

Alamort, a-la-mort′, adj. half-dead: in a depressed condition: dejected. Sometimes erroneously All amort. [Fr. la mort, to death. See Mortal.]

Aland, a-land′, adv. on or to land: landed.

Alar, ā′lar, adj. of, or having, wings.—Also A′lary. [L. ala, a wing.]

Alarm, a-lrm′, n. notice of danger: sudden surprise with fear: a mechanical contrivance to arouse from sleep: a call to arms.—v.t. to call to arms: to give notice of danger: to fill with dread.—adv. Alarm′ingly.—n. Alarm′ist, one who excites alarm: one given to prophesy danger.—adj. alarming. [Fr. alarme—It. all' arme, to arms—L. ad, to, arma, arms.]

Alarum, al-r′um, n. and v.t. same as Alarm—now used, except poetically, only of an alarum-clock.

Alas, a-las′, interj. expressive of grief.—Alas the day, Alas the while (in old writers), ah! unhappy day, or time. [O. Fr. ha las, a las (mod. Fr. hlas); ha! and las, lasse, wretched, weary—L. lassus, wearied.]

Alate, a-lāt′, adv. (arch.) lately. [A.S. pfx. a-, on, and Late.]

Alate, al′āt, adj. winged: (bot.) bordered by a leafy expansion.—Also Al′ated. [L. alatusala, a wing.]

Alb, alb, n. in R.C. churches, a white linen vestment with tight sleeves, reaching to the feet, worn by the officiating priest at the celebration of the eucharist, under the chasuble, cope, or dalmatic. [A.S. albe—Low L. alba, L. albus, white.]

Albacore, al′ba-kōr, n. a large species of the tunny fish, found in West Indian waters. [Port.—Ar. al, the, bukr, pl. bakārat, a young camel.]

Albata, al-bā′ta, n. a white silvery alloy of nickel, zinc, and copper—also British plate and German Silver. [L., albāre, to whiten, albus, white.]

Albatross, al′ba-tros, n. a large, long-winged, web-footed sea-bird of remarkable powers of flight, found abundantly in the Southern Ocean, particularly near the Cape of Good Hope. [Corr. from Alcatras (q.v.), perh. with reference to albus, white, from its colour.]

Albe, Ale-be, awl-bē′, obs. forms of Albeit.

Albeit, awl-bē′it, adv. although it be: notwithstanding: even if, although. [All be it (that) = all though it be that]

Albert, al′bert, n. a short kind of watch-chain. [Named from Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria.]

Albescent, al-bes′ent, adj. becoming white: whitish.—n. Albes′cence. [L. albescens, -entis, pr.p. of albescĕre, to grow white—albus, white.]

Albespyne, Albespine, al′be-spīn, n. whitethorn, hawthorn. [O. Fr. albespine, aubespine (Fr. aubpine)—L. alba spina, white thorn.]

Albigenses, al-bi-jen′sēz, a name applied to antisacerdotal sects in the south of France during the 12th and 13th centuries, infected with Manichan heresy, and extirpated with the most horrible cruelties. [The town Albi.]

Albino, al-bī′no, n. a human being or animal whose skin and hair are abnormally white, and the pupil of the eye of pink colour:—fem. Albī′ness:—pl. Albī′nos.—n. Al′binism, state or condition of being an albino. [Sp. albino, whitish—L. albus, white.]

Albite, al′bīt, n. a species of mineral of the felspar family, of a white colour, and forming a constituent of many kinds of rocks. [From L. albus, white.]

Albugineous, al-bū-jin′e-us, adj. like the white of an egg or of the eye. [L. albugo, albuginis, whiteness, from albus, white.]

Album, al′bum, n. among the Romans, a white tablet or register on which the prtor's edicts and such public notices were recorded: a blank book for the insertion of portraits, autographs, poetical extracts, memorial verses, postage-stamps, or the like.—adj. Al′bumē′an, and n. Al′bumess, whimsical coinages of Charles Lamb. [L. albus, white.]

Albumen, al-bū′men, n. the white of eggs: a like substance found in animal and vegetable bodies.—ns. Albū′min, one of the classes of albuminoids, such as are soluble in water, or in dilute acids or alkalis; Albū′minate, one of a class of bodies in which albumin appears in weak combination with a base.—v.t. Albuminise′ (phot.), to cover or impregnate with albumen: to coat paper with an albuminous solution.—adj. Albū′minous, like or containing albumen: insipid. [L.—albus, white.]

Albuminoid, al-bū′min-oid, adj. like albumen.—n. one of a class of nitrogenous compounds derived from animal tissues. [Albumen, and Gr. eidos, form.]

Alburnum, al-burn′um, n. in trees, the white and soft parts of wood between the inner bark and the heart-wood.—adj. Alburn′ous. [L.—albus, white.]

Alcahest. See Alkahest.

Alcaic, al-kā′ik, adj. of or pertaining to the Greek lyrical poet, Alcus (c. 600 B.C.), or to the kind of verse invented by him. The most common form consists of an anacrusis, a trochee, a spondee, and two dactyls; a second, of a catalectic iambic pentameter, the third foot always being a spondee; a third, of two dactyls followed by two trochees. The most common arrangement was two lines of (1), followed by one of (2) and one of (3). Cf. Tennyson's 'O mighty-mouth'd inventor of harmonies.'

Alcaid, Alcayde, al-kād′, n. a governor: a chief magistrate: a gaoler. [Sp. and Port.—Ar. alkāīdal, the, qāīd, a leader, qāda, to lead.]

Alcalde, al-kal′dā, n. a judge. [Sp.—Ar. al-qādī.]

Alcatras, al′ka-tras, n. a name applied loosely to several large ocean birds, as the pelican, gannet, frigate-bird, and even the albatross. [Sp. alcatraz, a white pelican.]

Alchemy, Alchymy, al′ki-mi, n. the infant stage of chemistry, as astrology was of astronomy.—A chief pursuit of the alchemists was to transmute the other metals into gold, and to discover the elixir of life.—adj. Alchem′icn. Al′chemist, one skilled in alchemy. [Ar. Al-kīmīāal, the, and kīmīā—late Gr. chēmeia, 'transmution,' prob. as specially an Egyptian art, from Khem, the native name of Egypt; confused with Gr. chūmeia, pouring, from chein, to pour, hence the old spellings alchymy, chymistry.]

Alcohol, al′kō-hol, n. pure spirit, a liquid generated by the fermentation of sugar and other saccharine matter, and forming the intoxicating element of fermented liquors.—adj. Alcohol′ic, of or like alcohol.—n. Alcoholisā′tion.—v.t. Al′coholise, to convert into alcohol, or saturate with it: to rectify.—n. Al′coholism, a term employed to denote the symptoms of disease produced by alcoholic poisoning.—Absolute alcohol, alcohol entirely free from water. [Ar. al-koh'lal, the, koh'l, fine powder of antimony used in the East to stain the eyelids.]

Alcoholometer, al-kō-hol-om′e-tėr, n. an instrument for ascertaining the strength of spirits.—n. Alcoholom′etry, the process of such measurement. [Alcohol and Meter.]

Alcoran, al′kō-ran, n. the Koran. [Al, the Arabic article.]

Alcove, al′kōv, or al-kōv′, n. a recess in a room: any recess: a shady retreat. [Sp. alcoba, a place in a room railed off to hold a bed—Ar. al, the, qobbah, a vault.]

Aldehyde, al′dē-hīd, n. a volatile fluid with a suffocating smell, obtained by the oxidation of alcohol: a large class of compounds intermediate between alcohols and acids. [From Al. dehyd., a contr. for Alcohol dehydrogenatum.]

Alder, awl′dėr, n. a tree related to the birch, usually growing in moist ground. [A.S. alor; Ger. erle; L. alnus.]

Alder-liefest, awl-dėr-lēf′est, adj. (Shak.) most beloved of all. [The M. E. gen. pl. forms alra, alre, aller, alder, survived till about 1600; for liefest, see Lief.]

Alderman, awl′dėr-man, n. in English and Irish boroughs, a civic dignitary next in rank to the mayor.—They are usually chosen for three years; those of London are chosen for life.—The name was assumed incongruously enough for superior members of the county councils set up in England in 1888: in Anglo-Saxon times, the governor of a shire until by Canute displaced by the earl; thenceforward, any head man of a guild.—adjs. Alderman′ic, Al′dermanlike, Al′dermanly, pompous and portly. [A.S. ealdor (from eald, old), senior, chief; ealdorman, ruler, king, chief magistrate.]

Aldern, awl′dėrn, adj. made of alder.

Aldine, al′dīn, adj. applied to books printed by Aldus Manutius of Venice, in 16th century.

Ale, āl, n. a beverage made from an infusion of malt by fermentation: a festival, so called from the liquor drunk.—ns. Ale′berry, a beverage made from ale; Ale′conner, an ale-taster, a civic officer appointed to test the quality of the ale brewed—A.S. cunnere, a trier; Ale′-house, a house in which ale is sold. [A.S. alu; Ice. l.]

Aleatory, ā′lē-a-tō-ri, adj. depending on the throw of the dice: dependent on certain contingencies. [L. āleātōrius, ālea, a die.]

Alee, a-lē′, adv. on the lee-side. [See Lee.]

Aleft, a-left′, adv. on or to the left hand.

Alegar, al′e-gar, n. sour ale. [Ale, and Fr. aigre—L. acer, sour.]

Aleger, al′e-jėr, adj. (Bacon) lively, cheerful. [O. Fr. algre—L. alācr-em.]

Alegge, an obsolete form of Allege.

Alembic, al-em′bik, n. a vessel used by the old chemists in distillation. [Ar. al, the, anbīq—Gr. ambiks, a cup.]

Alength, a-length′, adv. at full length. [A.S. pfx. a-, on, and Length.]

Alerce, a-lers′, n. the wood of the sandarac-tree: the Chilian Arbor vit—both of the pine family. [Sp.—Ar. al arza, cedar.]

Alert, al-ėrt′, adj. watchful: brisk.—n. a sudden attack or surprise.—adv. Alert′ly.—n. Alert′ness.—Upon the alert, upon the watch. [Fr.—It. all' erta, on the erect—erto, L. erectus, erect.]

Alew, a-lū′ (Spens.) an obsolete form of Halloo.

Alewife, āl′wīf, n. a fish of the same genus as the shad, about a foot in length, common on the east coast of North America. [Said to be a corr. of aloofe, the Indian name of a fish.]

Alexandrian, al-egz-an′dri-an, adj. relating to Alexandria in Egypt, or its school of philosophy: relating to Alexander.

Alexandrine, al-egz-an′drin, n. a rhyming verse of twelve syllables, six iambic feet, so-called from its use in old French poems on Alexander the Great. It is the ordinary verse of French tragedy. French Alexandrines are arranged in couplets, alternately acatalectic with masculine rhymes, and hypercatalectic with feminine rhymes.

Alfa, al′fa, n. an African name for esparto grass—also spelt Halfa.

Alfalfa, al-fal′fa, n. a Spanish name for a variety of lucerne—used also in some parts of the United States. [Sp. alfalfa, three-leaved grass; Ar. alfacfacah.]

Alfresco, al-fresk′o, adv. on the fresh, as to paint al fresco = on the fresh plaster: in the fresh or cool air. [It.]

Alg, al′jē, n. (bot.) a division of plants, embracing seaweeds. [L., pl. of alga, seaweed.]

Algates, al′gāts, adv. (obs.) always, altogether, at all events, nevertheless.—Also Al′gate. [Lit. alle gate, every way. See Gate.]

Algebra, al′je-bra, n. a method of calculating by symbols—by means of letters employed to represent the numbers, and signs to represent their relations, thus forming a kind of universal arithmetic.—adjs. Algebrā′ic, -al, pertaining to algebra.—n. Algebrā′ist, one skilled in algebra. [It. and Sp., from Ar. al-jebr, the resetting of anything broken, hence combination; jabara, to reunite.]

Algerine, al′je-rēn, adj. of or belonging to Algeria in Northern Africa.—n. a native of Algeria: a pirate.

Algorism, al′go-rizm, n. the Arabic system of numeration: arithmetic.—Also Al′gorithm [Through O. Fr. and Late L. from Ar. al-khowārazmī, the native of Khwārazm, the mathematician Abu Ja'far Mohammed Ben Musa (9th century).]

Algous, al′gus, adj. relating to or like the alg or seaweeds.

Alguazil, al-gwaz′il, n. in Spain, a warrant officer or sergeant. [Sp.—Ar. al-wazīr. See Vizier.]

Algum, al′gum. Same as Almug.

Alhambresque, al-ham′bresk, adj. after the style of the rich ornamentation of the Alhambra, a palace of the Moorish kings of Granada in Spain.

Alias, ā′li-as, adv. otherwise.—n. an assumed name:—pl. A′liases. [L. alias, at another time, otherwise—alius, Gr. allos, other.]

Alibi, al′i-bī, n. the plea that a person charged with a crime was elsewhere when it was committed. [L.—alius, other, ibi, there.]

Alicant, al′i-kant, n. a Spanish wine formerly much esteemed, said to have been made near Alicante in Spain.

Alien, āl′yen, adj. foreign: different in nature: adverse to.—n. one belonging to another country: one not entitled to the rights of citizenship.—n. Al′ienage, state of being an alien. [L. alienusalius, other.]

Alienate, āl′yen-āt, v.t. to transfer a right or title to another: to withdraw the affections: to misapply.—adj. withdrawn: estranged.—n. Alienabil′ity.—adj. Al′ienable, capable of being transferred to another.—ns. Alienā′tion; Alienā′tor.—adj. Al′iened, made alien, estranged.—n. Al′ienism, the position of being a foreigner. [L. See Alien.]

Alienist, āl′yen-ist, n. one who specially treats mental diseases. [Fr.]

Alife, a-līf′, adv. (obs.) on my life, as one's life, excessively.

Alight, a-līt′, v.i. to come down, as from a horse (from): to descend: to land anywhere (upon): to fall upon. [A.S. alhtan, to come down. See Light, v.]

Alight, a-līt′, adj. on fire: lighted up. [a, on, and Light. See Light, n.]

Align, a-līn′, v.t. to regulate by a line: to arrange in line, as troops.—n. Align′ment, a laying out by a line: arrangement of soldiers in a line or lines: the ground-plan of a railway or road. [Fr. aligner—L. ad, and linea, a line.]

Alike, a-līk′, adj. like one another: having resemblance.—adv. in the same manner or form: equally: similarly. [A.S. gelc, anlc, onlc. See Like.]

Aliment, al′i-ment, n. nourishment: food: provision for maintenance, alimony: support.—v.t. to support, sustain: make provision for the maintenance of.—adjs. Aliment′al, supplying food; Aliment′ary, pertaining to aliment: nutritive.—ns. Alimentā′tion, the act or state of nourishing or of being nourished; Aliment′iveness (phrenol.), desire for food or drink; Al′imony, an allowance for support made to a wife when legally separated from her husband, or temporarily while the process is pending.—Alimentary canal, the principal part of the digestive apparatus of animals, in man extending, with convolutions, about 30 feet from the mouth to the anus—including pharynx, œsophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, &c. [L. alimentum—alĕre, to nourish.]

Alineation. See Allineation.

Aliped, al′i-ped, adj. wing-footed.—n. an animal whose toes are connected by a membrane serving as a wing, as the bat. [L. alipesala, a wing, and pes, pedis, a foot.]

Aliquant, al′i-kwant, adj. an aliquant part of a number is one that will not divide it without a remainder, thus 5 is an aliquant part of 12. [L. aliquantum, somewhat, alius, another, and quantus, how great.]

Aliquot, al′i-kwot, adj. such a part of a number as will divide it without a remainder. [L. aliquot, some, several—alius, other, quot, how many.]

Alisma, al-iz′ma, n. a small genus of aquatic plants, the chief being the common water-plantain. [Gr.]

Alive, a-līv′, adj. in life: susceptible. [Prep. a = on, and A.S. lfe, dat. of lf, life.]

Alizarin, a-liz′a-rēn, n. a colouring matter used in the dyeing of Turkey red, formerly extracted from madder, the commercial name of which in the Levant is alizari. [Fr.; Ar. al, the, and 'aārah, juice pressed out.]

Alkahest, Alcahest, al′ka-hest, n. the universal solvent of the alchemists. [A coinage of Paracelsus—on Arabic analogies.]

Alkali, al′ka-li, or -lī, n. (chem.) a substance which combines with an acid and neutralises it, forming a salt. Potash, soda, and lime are alkalies; they have an acrid taste (that of soap), and turn vegetable blues to green:—pl. Al′kalies.—n. Alkales′cency, tendency to become alkaline.—adj. Alkales′cent, tending to become alkaline: slightly alkaline.—n. Alkalim′eter, an instrument for measuring the strength of alkalies.—adj. Alkaline (al′ka-līn, or -lin), having the properties of an alkali.—n. Alkalin′ity.—v.t. Al′kalise, to render alkaline:—pr.p. al′kalīsing; pa.p. al′kalīsed. See Acid. [Ar. al-qalīy, ashes.]

Alkalify, al′ka-li-fī, v.t. to convert into an alkali.—v.i. to become alkaline:—pr.p. al′kalifying; pa.p. al′kalifīed.adj. Alkalifī′able, capable of being converted into an alkali. [Alkali, and L. facĕre, to make.]

Alkaloid, al′ka-loid, n. a vegetable principle possessing in some degree alkaline properties.—adj. pertaining to or resembling alkali. [Alkali, and Gr. eidos, form or resemblance.]

Alkanet, al′ka-net, n. a plant, native of the Levant and Southern Europe, cultivated for its root, which yields a red colouring matter: the dye itself. [Sp. alcaneta.]

Alkoran, n. Same as Alcoran.

All, awl, adj. the whole of: every one of: any whatever.—adv. wholly: completely: entirely: (Shak.) only, alone.—n. the whole: everything: the totality of things—the universe.—n. All′-Fath′er, God.—All (obs.), entirely, altogether, as in 'all to-brake' (Judges, ix. 53). The prefix to- originally belonged to the verb (t brecan), but as verbs with this prefix were rarely used without all, the fact was forgotten, and the to was erroneously regarded as belonging to the all. Hence came into use all-to = wholly, utterly; All but, everything short of, almost; All in all, all things in all respects, all or everything together—(adverbially) altogether; All over, thoroughly, entirely; All over with, finished, done with (also coll., All up with); All right, a colloquial phrase expressing assent or approbation; All's one, it is just the same; All to one (obs.), altogether.—After all, when everything has been considered, nevertheless; And all, and everything else; And all that, and all the rest of it, et cetera; At all, in the least degree or to the least extent.—For all, notwithstanding; For good and all, finally.—Once for all, once only. [A.S. all, eal; Ger. all, Gael. uile, W. oll.]

Allah, al′la, n. the Arabic name of the one God. [Ar. al-ilh, 'the worthy to be adored.']

Allantois, a-lan′tō-is, n. a membranous sac-like appendage for effecting oxygenation in the embryos of mammals, birds, and reptiles.—adjs. Allantō′ic, Allan′toid. [Gr. allas, a sausage.]

Allay, al-lā′, v.t. to lighten, relieve: to make quiet or calm.—n. Allay′ment (obs.), state of being allayed: state of rest: that which allays. [M. E. forms, aleggen, aleyen (A.S. a-lecgan; lecgan, causal of licgan, to lie); identical in form, and accordingly confounded in meaning with M. E. words of Latin origin; alegge (later allege, now obs.)—L. alleviāre; alaye (modern allay, alloy)—L. alligāre; aleye (obs.)—L. allegāre; alegge (modern allege)—Low L. ex-litigāre.]

Allay, an obsolete form of Alloy.

Alledge. Old spelling of Allege.

Allege, al-lej′, v.t. to produce as an argument or plea: to assert: (B.) to give proofs—n. Allegā′tion, an assertion.—p.adj. Alleged′, cited, quoted. [Through O. Fr. forms from Low L. ex-litigāre, to clear at law. See Allay above.]

Allegiance, al-lēj′i-ans, n. the duty of a subject to his liege or sovereign.—adj. Allē′giant. [L. ad, to, and Liege.]

Allegory, al′le-gor-i, n. a description of one thing under the image of another.—adjs. Allegor′ic, -al, in the form of an allegory: figurative.—adv. Allegor′ically.—v.t. Al′legorise, to put in form of an allegory.—v.i. to use allegory.—ns. Al′legorist, one who uses allegory; Allegorizā′tion. [Gr. allēgoria; allos, other, and agoreuein, to speak.]

Allegro, al-lē′grō, adv. and adj. (mus.) a word denoting a brisk movement.—adv. and adj. Allegret′to, somewhat brisk. [It.—L. alacer, brisk.]

Alleluia, Alleluiah, al-le-lōō′ya. Same as Halleluiah.

Allemande, al′le-mand, n. a name given to various Germain dances: (mus.) the first movement after the prelude in a suite. [Fr. Allemande, German.]

Allenarly, al-len′ar-li, adv. solely, only—obsolete save only in Scotch conveyancing. [All, and anerly, formed from ane, one.]

Alleviate, al-lēv′i-āt, v.t. to make light: to mitigate.—ns. Alleviā′tion; Allev′iātor. [L. ad, levis, light.]

Alley, al′li, n. a walk in a garden or shrubbery: a passage in a city narrower than a street: a long narrow enclosure for playing at bowls or skittles:—pl. All′eys. [O. Fr. alee (Fr. alle), a passage, from aller, to go, O. Fr. aner, most prob. from L. adnāre, to go to by water, or aditāre, adīre.]

Alley, Ally, al′li, n. a name given by boys to a choice taw or large marble. [Contraction of alabaster, of which it was originally made.]

All-fired, awl-fīrd′, adj. (slang) infernal.—adv. excessively. [A softening of hell-fired, U.S.]

All-fools′-day, awl-fōōlz′-dā, n. April first. [From the sportive deceptions practised on that day.]

All-fours, awl-fōrz′, (preceded by on) on four legs, or on two hands and two feet: a game at cards played by two, so called from the four particulars by which the reckoning is made—high, low, Jack, and the game: also a game at dominoes.

All-hail, awl-hāl′, interj. all health! a phrase of salutation. [See Hail, interj.]

All-hallow, awl-hal′lō, All-hallows, awl-hal′lōz, n. the day of all the holy ones. See All-saints. [All and Hallow.]

All-hallow-mass. See Hallow-mass.

All-hallown, awl-hal′lōn, n. (Shak.) fine summer weather late in the season—near All-hallows-day.

All-hallow-tide, awl-hal′lō-tīd, n. the time near All-hallows-day. [See Hallow and Tide.]

Allheal, awl-hēl′, n. (obs.) a balsam for all wounds, a panacea—applied to various plants, as the mistletoe, the great valerian, &c.

Alliaceous, al-li-ā′shus, adj. pertaining to, or having the properties of allium or garlic. [L. allium, garlic.]

Alliance, al-lī′ans, n. state of being allied: union by marriage or treaty. [See Ally.]

Alligation, al-li-gā′shun, n. (arith.) a rule for finding the price of a compound of ingredients of different values. [L. alligatio, a binding together—ad, to, and ligāre, to bind.]

Alligator, al′li-gā-tur, n. an animal of the crocodile genus, found in America. [Sp. el lagarto—L. lacerta, a lizard.]

Allineation, Alineation, al-lin-e-ā′shun, n. the position of two or more bodies in a straight line with a given point.

Allision, al-lizh′un, n. a striking against. [L. allisio, from allidĕread, and ldĕre, to hurt.]

Alliteration, al-lit-ėr-ā′shun, n. the recurrence of the same letter at the beginning of two or more words following close to each other, as in Churchill's 'apt alliteration's artful aid:' the recurrence of the same initial sound in the first accented syllables of words: initial rhyme—the characteristic structure of versification of Old English and Teutonic languages generally. Every alliterative couplet had two accented syllables, containing the same initial consonants, one in each of the two sections.—v.i. Allit′erate, to begin with the same letter: to constitute alliteration.—adj. Allit′erative. [Fr.—L. ad, to, and litera, a letter.]

Allocate, al′lo-kāt, v.t. to place: to assign to each his share.—n. Allocā′tion, act of allocating: allotment: an allowance made upon an account. [L. allocāre, ad, to, and locāre, locus, a place.]

Allocution, al-lo-kū′shun, n. a formal address, esp. of the Pope to his clergy. [L. allocutionemad, to, and loqui, locutus, to speak.]

Allodial, al-lō′di-al, adj. held independent of a superior: freehold—opp. to Feudal.

Allodium, al-lō′di-um, n. freehold estate: land held in the possession of the owner without being subject to a feudal superior.—Also Allod, Alod. [Low L. allōdium—Ger. ald, alld.]

Allograph, al′lō-graf, n. a writing made by one person on behalf of another. [Gr. allos, other, graphē, writing.]

Allopathy, al-lop′a-thi, n. a name given by homeopathists to the current or orthodox medical practice, to distinguish it from their own Homeopathy.—adj. Allopath′icns. Allop′athist, Allopath. [Coined by Hahnemann (1755-1843), Ger. allopathie—Gr. allos, other, patheia, pathos, suffering.]

Allophylian, al-lō-fīl′i-an, adj. of another race, alien—applied by Prichard (1786-1848) to the Turanian or non-Aryan and non-Semitic languages of Europe and Asia.—n. Allophyle′. [L.—Gr. allophylos, of another tribe; allos, other, phy, a tribe.]

Allot, al-lot′, v.t. to divide as by lot: to distribute in portions: to parcel out:—pr.p. allot′ting; pa.p. allot′ted.n. Allot′ment, the act of allotting: part or share allotted: a portion of a field assigned to a cottager to labour for himself. [O. Fr. aloter; lot is Teut., seen in Goth. hlauts, A.S. hlot.]

Allotropy, al-lot′ro-pi, n. the property in some elements, as carbon, of existing in more than one form.—adj. Allot′ropic. [Gr.; allos, another, and tropos, form.]

Alloverishness, awl-ō′vėr-ish-nes, n. a general sense of indisposition over the whole body, a feeling of discomfort, malaise.—adj. Allō′verish.

Allow, al-low′, v.t. to grant: to permit: to acknowledge: to abate: make allowance for: (obs.) invest, entrust: assert, say (coll. in U.S.).—adj. Allow′able, that may be allowed: not forbidden: lawful.—n. Allow′ableness.—adv. Allow′ably.—n. Allow′ance, that which is allowed: a limited portion of anything: a stated quantity—of money, &c., to meet expenses: abatement: approbation: permission.—v.t. to put any one upon an allowance: to supply anything in limited quantities.—To make allowance for, to take excusing circumstances into account. [O. Fr. alouer, to grant—L. ad, to, and locāre, to place.—Allow, in the sense of approve or sanction, as used in B. and by old writers, has its root in L. allaudāread-, and laudāre, to praise.]

Alloy, al-loi′, v.t. to mix one metal with another: to reduce the purity of a metal by mixing a baser one with it: (fig.) to debase: to temper or qualify.—n. a mixture of two or more metals (when mercury is one of the ingredients, it is an amalgam): a baser metal mixed with a finer: anything that deteriorates.—n. Alloy′age, the act of alloying or mixing metals: a mixture of different metals. [O. Fr. alei (Fr. aloi), aleier—L. alligāre. The modern Fr. words aloi and aloyer were confounded with Fr. loi, to law, and the same confusion was transferred into English.]

All-saints'-day, awl-sānts′-dā, n. November 1, a feast of the Church in honour of all the saints collectively. [See All-hallows.]

All-souls'-day, awl-sōlz′-dā, n. November 2, a feast of the Roman Catholic Church kept in commemoration of all the faithful departed, for the eternal repose of their souls.

Allspice, awl′spīs, n. a name given to a kind of spice called Pimenta or Jamaica pepper, from its being supposed to combine the flavour of cinnamon, nutmeg, and cloves. [All and Spice.]

Allude, al-lūd′, v.i. to mention slightly, or convey an indirect reference to, in passing: to refer to.—n. Allū′sion, an indirect reference.—adj. Allus′ive, alluding to: hinting at: referring to indirectly.—adv. Allus′ively.—Allusive arms (her.), also canting or punning arms, and armes parlantes, those in which the charges convey reference to the bearer's name or title, as the column of the Colonna family, the Vele calf (O. Fr. vel, a calf), the Arundel martlets (O. Fr. arondel, a young swallow). [L. alludĕread, at, ludĕre, lusum, to play.]

Allumette, al-ū-mėt′, n. a match for lighting. [Fr.]

Allure, al-lūr′, v.t. to draw on as by a lure or bait: to entice.—n. Allure′ment.—adj. Allur′ing, enticing: seductive: charming.—adv. Allur′ingly. [O. Fr. alurer, to, lurer, to Lure.]

Alluvion, al-lū′vi-un, n. land gained from the sea by the washing up of sand and earth. [L. alluvioalluĕre. See Alluvium.]

Alluvium, al-lū′vi-um, n. the mass of water-borne matter deposited by rivers on lower lands:—pl. Allū′via.—adj. Allū′vial. [L.—alluĕre, to wash to or on—ad, and luĕre = lavāre, to wash.]

Ally, al-lī′, v.t. to form a relation by marriage, friendship, treaty, or resemblance.—pa.p. and adj. Allied′.—n. Ally (al-lī′, or al′lī), a confederate: a prince or state united by treaty or league:—pl. Allīes′, or Al′līes. [O. Fr. alier—L. alligāread, to, ligāre, to bind.]

Alma, Almah, al′ma, n. an Egyptian dancing-girl.—Also Alme, Almeh. [Ar. ‛almah, learned, ‛alamah, to know.]

Almacantar, al-mak-an′tar, n. a name for circles of altitude parallel to the horizon, and hence for an astronomical instrument for determining time and latitude. [Ar. almuqantarāt, qantarah, an arch.]

Almagest, al′ma-jest, n. a collection of problems in geometry and astronomy, drawn up by the Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy (about 140 A.D.), so named by the Arabs as the greatest and largest on the subject. [Ar. al, the, and Gr. megistos, greatest.]

Almain, al′mān, n. (obs.) an inhabitant of Germany: a kind of dance music in slow time. [Fr. AllemandAllemanni, an ancient German tribe.]

Almanac, al′ma-nak, n. a register of the days, weeks, and months of the year, &c.—n. Almanog′rapher, an almanac-maker. [Most prob. the original of the word as in Fr., It., and Sp. was a Spanish-Arabic al-manākh. Eusebius has almenichiaka, an Egyptian word, prob. sig. 'daily observation of things,' but the history of the word has not been traced, and it is hazardous without evidence to connect this with the Arabic word.]

Almandine, al′man-dīn, n. a red transparent variety of the garnet.—Also Al′mandin. [Earlier Alabandine—Low L. alabandinaAlabanda, a town in Caria, a province of Asia Minor, where it was found.]

Almighty, awl-mīt′i, adj. possessing all might or power: omnipotent: very powerful generally: (slang) mighty, great.—Older form Almight′.—adv. Almight′ily.—ns. Almight′iness, Almight′yship.—The Almighty, God; The almighty dollar, a phrase of Washington Irving's, expressive of the greatness of the power of money. [A.S. lmeahtig. See All and Mighty.]

Almner, an old spelling of Almoner.

Almond, ′mund, n. the fruit of the almond-tree.— Almonds (′mundz), the tonsils or glands of the throat, so called from their resemblance to the fruit of the almond-tree. [O. Fr. almande (Fr. amande)—L. amygdalum—Gr. amygdalē.]

Almoner, al′mun-ėr, n. a distributer of alms.—n. Al′monry, the place where alms are distributed. [O. Fr. aumoner, aumonier (Fr. aumnier)—Low L. eleemosynarius (adj.). See Alms.]

Almost, awl′mōst, adv. nearly, all but, very nearly. [All and Most.]

Almry, m′ri, n. Same as Almonry.

Alms, mz, n. relief given out of pity to the poor.—ns. Alms′-deed, a charitable deed; Alms′-drink (Shak.), leavings of drink; Alms′-fee, an annual tax of one penny on every hearth, formerly sent from England to Rome, Peter's pence; Alms′house, a house endowed for the support and lodging of the poor; Alms′-man, a man who lives by alms. [A.S. lmysse, through Late L., from Gr. eleēmosynēeleos, compassion. Dr Murray notes the Scot. and North Country almous, awmous, as an independent adoption of the cognate Norse almusa; and the legal Almoign, Almoin, perpetual tenure by free gift of charity, from O. Fr., perhaps due to a confusion with alimonium.]

Almuce, an early form of Amice.

Almug, al′mug, n. the wood of a tree described in the Bible as brought from Ophir in the time of Solomon, for the house and temple at Jerusalem, and for musical instruments—probably the red sandalwood of India. [Heb. algummm, almuggm. The better form is Algum.]

Aloe, al′ō, n. a genus of plants of considerable medicinal importance, of the 200 species of which as many as 170 are indigenous to the Cape Colony.—The so-called American Aloe is a totally different plant (see Agave).—adj. Al′oed, planted or shaded with aloes.—The Aloes wood of the Bible was the heart-wood of Aquilaria ovata and Aquilaria Agallochum, large spreading trees. The wood contains a dark-coloured, fragrant, resinous substance, much prized for the odour it diffuses in burning. [The word was used erroneously in the Septuagint and New Testament as a translation of the Heb. ahālīm, ahālōth (Gr. agallochon), an aromatic resin or wood—called later in Gr. xylaloē, from which descend lignum aloes, lign-aloes, wood-aloes, and aloes-wood.—A.S. aluwan—L. aloē—Gr. aloē.]

Aloes, al′ōz, a purgative bitter drug, the inspissated juice of the leaves of several almost tree-like species of aloe. Used both as a sing. n., and as a pl. of Aloe.—n. and adj. Aloet′ic, a medicine containing a large proportion of aloes.

Aloft, a-loft′, adv. on high: overhead: at a great height: (naut.) above the deck, at the masthead: sometimes used as equivalent to aloof (Mad. D'Arblay). [Scand.; Icel. lopt (pron. loft), expressing motion; lopti, expressing position. Pfx. a- = Icel. = A.S. on, in. See Loft.]

Alone, al-ōn′, adj. single: solitary: alone of its kind: of itself, or by themselves.—adv. singly, by one's self only.—n. Alone′ness [All and One.]

Along, a-long′, adv. by or through the length of: lengthwise: throughout: onward: (fol. by with) in company of.—prep. by the side of: near.— Along′shore-men, labourers employed about the docks or wharves in the Thames and other rivers.—prep. Along′side, by the side, beside.—Along of, (arch. or dial.) owing to. [A.S. andlang—pfx. and-, against, and lang, Long.]

Alongst, a-longst′, prep. (obs. except dial.) along: by the length. [M. E. alongest, from along, with adv. gen. -es.]

Aloof, a-lōōf′, adv. at a distance: apart.—n. Aloof′ness, withdrawal from common action or sympathy. [Pfx. a- (—A.S. on), on, and Loof, prob. Dut. loef. See Luff.]

Alopecia, al-o-pē′si-a, n. baldness: a skin-disease producing this. [Gr. alopekia, fox-mange.]

Aloud, a-lowd′, adv. with a loud voice: loudly. [Prep. a (—A.S. on), and hld, noise; Ger. laut.]

Alow, a-lō′, adv. in a low place—opp. to Aloft.

Alow, al-low′, adv. (Scot.) ablaze. [Prep. a, and Low, a flame.]

Alp, alp, n. a high mountain:—pl. Alps, specially applied to the lofty ranges of Switzerland.—adjs. Alp′en; Alpine (alp′in, or alp′īn), pertaining to the Alps, or to any lofty mountains: very high.—ns. Al′pinist, Alpes′trian, one devoted to Alpine climbing. [L.; of Celtic origin; cf. Gael. alp, a mountain; allied to L. albus, white (with snow).]

Alpaca, al-pak′a, n. the Peruvian sheep, akin to the llama, having long silken wool: cloth made of its wool. [Sp. alpaca or al-paco, from al, Arab. article, and paco, most prob. a Peruvian word.]

Alpenhorn, al′pen-horn, n. a long powerful horn, wide and curved at the mouth, used chiefly by Alpine cowherds.—Also Alp′horn. [Gr. Alpen, of the Alps, horn, horn.]

Alpenstock, alp′n-stok, n. a long stick or staff used by travellers in climbing the Alps. [Ger. Alpen, of the Alps; stock, stick.]

Alpha, al′fa, n. the first letter of the Greek alphabet: the first or beginning. [Gr. alpha—Heb. aleph, an ox, the name of the first letter of the Phœnician and Hebrew alphabet. See A.]

Alphabet, al′fa-bet, n. the letters of a language arranged in the usual order.—n. Alphabetā′rian, one learning his alphabet, a beginner: a student of alphabets.—adjs. Alphabet′ic, -al, relating to or in the order of an alphabet.—adv. Alphabet′ically.—v.t. Al′phabetise, to arrange alphabetically:—pr.p. al′phabetīsing; pa.p. al′phabetīsed. [Gr. alpha, beta, the first two Greek letters.]

Alphonsine, al′fons-īn, adj. of Alphonso (X.) the Wise, king of Castile, pertaining to his planetary tables, completed in 1252.

Already, awl-red′i, adv. previously, or before the time specified.—Sometimes used adjectively = present. [All and Ready.]

Als, an old form of Also.

Alsatian, al-sā′shi-an, adj. of or pertaining to Alsatia (Ger. Elsass), a province between France and Germany.—n. a rogue or debauchee, such as haunted Alsatia—a cant name for Whitefriars, a district in London between the Thames and Fleet Street, which enjoyed privileges of sanctuary down to 1697, and was consequently infested with lawless characters. See Scott's Fortunes of Nigel.

Also, awl′so, adv. in like manner: further. [Compounded of all and so; A.S. al and sw.]

Alt, alt, n. high tone, in voice or instrument.—In alt, in the octave above the treble stave beginning with G; (fig.) in an exalted and high-flown mood.

Altaltissimo, alt-al-tis′si-mo, n. the very highest summit. [It. reduplicated comp. of alto, high, and altissimo, highest.]

Altar, awlt′ar, n. an elevated place or structure, block or stone, or the like, on which sacrifices were anciently offered: in Christian churches, the table on which the officiating priest consecrates the eucharist: the communion table: (fig.) a place of worship.—ns. Alt′arage, offerings made upon the altar during the offertory, provided for the maintenance of the priest; Alt′ar-cloth, the covering of the altar, placed over and around it, of silk, velvet, satin, or cloth, often used as including the frontal (antependium), and the super-frontal; Alt′arpiece, a decorative screen, retable, or reredos, placed behind an altar—a work of art, whether a sacred painting or sculpture.— Alt′ar-rails, rails separating the sacrarium from the rest of the chancel.—ns. Alt′ar-stone, the slab forming the top or chief part of an altar; Alt′ar-tomb, a monumental memorial, in form like an altar, often with a canopy. These were often placed over the vaults or burying-place, and frequently on the north and south walls of choirs, aisles, and chantry chapels.—adj. Alt′arwise, placed like an altar—north and south, at the upper end of the chancel.—Family altar, the practice or the place of private devotional worship in the family; High altar, the principal altar in a cathedral or other church having more than one altar; Portable altar, a small tablet of marble, jasper, or precious stone, used by special license for Mass when said away from the parish altar, in oratories or other similar places. It was termed super-altare, because commonly placed upon some other altar, or some fitting construction of wood or stone. [L. altārealtus, high.]

Altazimuth, alt-az′i-muth, n. an instrument devised by Sir G. B. Airy for determining the apparent places of the heavenly bodies on the celestial sphere. [A contr. for 'altitude and azimuth instrument.']

Alter, awl′tėr, v.t. to make different: to change: (U.S.) to castrate.—v.i. to become different: to vary.—ns. Alterabil′ity, Al′terableness.—adj. Al′terable, that may be altered.—adv. Al′terably.—adj. Al′terant, altering: having the power of producing changes.—n. Alterā′tion, change.—adj. Al′terative, having power to alter.—n. a medicine that makes a change in the vital functions.—n. Alter′ity (Coleridge), the state of being other or different. [L. alter, another—al (root of alius, other), and the old comp. suffix -ter = Eng. -ther.]

Altercate, al′tėr-kāt, v.i. to dispute or wrangle.—n. Altercā′tion, contention: controversy.—adj. Altercā′tive. [L. altercāri, -catus, to bandy words from one to the other (alter).]

Alter ego, al′tėr ē′go, n. second self, counterpart, double. [L. alter, other; ego, I.]

Alternate, al′tėr-nāt, or al-tėr′nāt, v.t. to cause to follow by turns or one after the other.—v.i. to happen by turns: to follow every other or second time—also Al′ternise.—adjs. Al′tern (Milton), alternate, acting by turns; Alter′nant (geol.), in alternate layers; Alter′nate, one after the other: by turns.—adv. Alter′nately.—ns. Alter′nateness, Alter′nacy (rare); Alternā′tion, the act of alternating: interchange: reading or singing antiphonally.—adj. Alter′native, offering a choice of two things.—n. a choice between two things.—adv. Alter′natively. [L. alter, other.]

Altha, al-thē′a, n. a genus of plants including the marsh mallow and the hollyhock. [Gr.]

Although, awl-thō′, conj. admitting all that: notwithstanding that. [See Though.]

Altimeter, al-tim′e-tėr, n. an instrument for measuring heights.—adj. Altimet′rical.—n. Altim′etry. [L. altus, high, and Meter.]

Altissimo, al-tis′si-mo, adj. (mus.) in phrase 'in altissimo,' in the second octave above the treble stave beginning with G. [It. altissimo, superl. of alto, high.]

Altitude, alt′i-tude, n. height: a point or position at a height above the sea: high rank or eminence.— Alt′itudes, passion, excitement.—adj. Altitū′dinal.—n. Altitudinā′rian, one given to flightiness in doctrine or belief. [L. altitudoaltus, high.]

Alto, alt′o, n. (mus.) properly the same as counter-tenor, the male voice of the highest pitch (now principally falsetto), and not the lowest female voice, which is properly contralto, though in printed music the second part in a quartet is always called alto. [It.—L. altus, high.]

Altogether, awl-too-geth′ėr, adv. all together: wholly: completely: without exception.

Alto-relievo, Alto-rilievo, alt′o-re-lē′vo, n. high relief: figures projected by at least half their thickness from the background on which they are sculptured. [It. alto, high. See Relief.]

Altruism, al′trōō-ism, n. the principle of living and acting for the interest of others.—adj. Altruist′ic.—adv. Altruist′ically. [Fr. altruisme, formed by Comte from It. altrui—L. alter, another.]

Alum, al′um, n. a mineral salt, the double sulphate of alumina and potash, used as a mordant in dyeing and for many purposes.—adj. Al′umish, having the character or taste of alum.—ns. Al′um-shale, or -slate, a slate consisting mainly of clay, iron pyrites, and coaly matter, from which alum is obtained. [L. alumen.]

Alumina, al-ū′min-a, Alumine, al′ū-min, n. one of the earths, the characteristic ingredient of common clay—the oxide of aluminium.—adj. Alū′minous, containing alum or alumina. [L. alumen, alum.]

Aluminium, al-ū-min′i-um, n. the metallic base of alumina; a metal somewhat resembling silver, and remarkable for its lightness, now made from Bauxite.—Aluminium bronze, an alloy lighter than gold, but like it in colour. [First called Aluminum by the discoverer, Sir H. Davy (1778-1829).]

Alumnus, al-um′nus, n. one educated at a college is called an alumnus of it:—pl. Alum′ni.—n. Alum′niate, the period of pupilage. [L.,—alĕre, to nourish.]

Alunite, al′un-īt, n. a mineral consisting of common alum together with normal hydrate of aluminium.—Also Alum-stone, Alumin′ilite.

Alure, al-lūr′, n. (obs.) a place to walk in, a gallery, a covered passage. [O. Fr. aleure, aller, to go.]

Alveary, al′ve-ar-i, n. a beehive: (anat.) the hollow of the external ear.—adj. Al′veolate, pitted like a honeycomb. [L. alvearium, beehive—alveus, a hollow vessel.]

Alveolar, al′ve-o-lar, adj. (anat.) of or belonging to the sockets of the teeth, as the alveolar arch, the part of the upper jaw in which the teeth are placed—also Al′veolary.—n. Al′veole, the hollow or socket of a tooth—more common Alvē′olus.

Alvine, al′vin, adj. of or from the belly. [From L. alvus, belly.]

Always, awl′wāz, Alway, awl′wā, adv. through all ways: continually: for ever. [Gen. case of Alway.]

Am, am, the 1st pers. sing, of the verb To be. [A.S. eom; Gr. ei-mi; Lat. s-u-m (as-(u)-mi); Goth. -im; Sans. as-mi.]

Amadou, am′a-dōō, n. a soft spongy substance, growing as a fungus on forest trees, used as a styptic and as tinder. [Fr. amadouer, to allure (as in the phrase 'to coax a fire'); prob. of Scand. origin; cf. Norse mata, to feed.]

Amain, a-mān′, adv. with main force or strength: violently: at full speed: exceedingly. [Pfx. a- = on, and Main.]

Amalgam, a-mal′gam, n. a compound of mercury with another metal: any soft mixture: a combination of various elements: one of the ingredients in an alloy.—v.t. Amal′gamate, to mix mercury with another metal: to compound.—v.i. to unite in an amalgam: to blend.—n. Amalgamā′tion, the blending of different things: a homogeneous union of diverse elements.—adj. Amalgamā′tive. [L. and Gr. malagma, an emollient—Gr. malassein, to soften.]

Amandine, am′an-din, n. a kind of cold cream prepared from sweet almonds. [Fr.—amande, almond.]

Amanuensis, a-man-ū-en′sis, n. one who writes to dictation: a copyist: a secretary:—pl. Amanuen′sēs. [L.—ab, from, and manus, the hand.]

Amaracus, a-mar′a-kus, n. (Tennyson) marjoram. [L.—Gr.]

Amaranth, -us, am′ar-anth, -us, n. a genus of plants with richly-coloured flowers, that last long without withering, as Love-lies-bleeding, early employed as an emblem of immortality.—adj. Amaranth′ine, pertaining to amaranth: unfading. [Through Fr. and L. from Gr. amarantos, unfading—a, neg., and root mar, to waste away; allied to L. mori, to die.]

Amaryllis, am-a-ril′is, n. a genus of bulbous-rooted plants, including the narcissus, jonquil, &c. [Amaryllis, the name of a country girl in Theocritus and Virgil.]

Amass, a-mas′, v.t. to gather in large quantity: to accumulate.—adjs. Amass′able.—pa.p. Amassed′.—n. Amass′ment. [Fr. amasser—L. ad, to, and massa, a mass.]

Amasthenic, am-as-then′ik, adj. uniting all the chemical rays of light into one focus, applied to a lens perfect for photographic purposes. [Gr. hama, together, sthenos, force.]

Amate, a-māt′, v.t. to accompany: (Spens.) to match. [Pfx. a-, and Mate.]

Amate, a-māt′, v.t. (arch.) to subdue, to daunt, to stupefy. [O. Fr. amatir, to subdue.]

Amateur, am′at-ūr, or am-at-ār′, n. one who cultivates a particular study or art for the love of it, and not professionally: in general terms, one who plays a game for pleasure, as distinguished from a professional who plays for money—nearly every game has its special definition to meet its own requirements.—adjs. Amateur; Amateur′ish, imperfect and defective, as the work of an amateur rather than a professional hand.—adv. Amateur′ishly.—ns. Amateur′ishness; Amateur′ism, Amateur′ship. [Fr.—L. amator, a lover, amāre, to love.]

Amative, am′at-iv, adj. relating to love: amorous.—n. Am′ativeness, propensity to love or to sexuality. [From L. amāre, -ātum, to love.]

Amatory, am′at-or-i, adj. relating to or causing love: affectionate.—adjs. Am′atory, Amatō′rial, Amatō′rian (obs.).—adv. Amatō′rially.

Amaurosis, am-aw-rō′sis, n. total blindness when no change can be seen in the eye sufficient to account for it; Amblyopia being partial loss of sight under similar circumstances. The old name was Gutta serena—the 'drop serene' of Paradise Lost, iii. 25.—adj. Amaurō′tic. [Gr. amaurōsis, amauros, dark.]

Amaze, a-māz′, v.t. to confound with surprise or wonder.—n. astonishment: perplexity (much less common than Amaze′ment).—adv. Amaz′edly, with amazement or wonder.—n. Amaze′ment, Amaz′edness (rare), surprise mingled with wonder: astonishment.—p.adj. Amaze′ing, causing amazement, astonishment: astonishing.—adv. Amaz′ingly. [Pfx. a-, and Maze.]

Amazon, am′az-on, n. one of a fabled nation of female warriors: a masculine woman: a virago.—adj. Amazō′nian, of or like an Amazon: of masculine manners: warlike. [Popular Gr. ety. from a, neg., mazos, a breast—they being fabled to cut off the right breast that they might draw the bow to its head (of course all this is idle); some have suggested an original in the Circassian maza, the moon.]

Ambage, am′bāj, n. roundabout phrases: circuitous paths, windings: dark and mysterious courses:—pl. Am′bages.—adj. Ambā′gious, circumlocutory: circuitous.—adv. Ambā′giously.—n. Ambā′giousnessadj. Ambā′gitory (rare).

Ambassador, am-bas′a-dur, n. a diplomatic minister of the highest order sent by one sovereign power to another:—fem. Ambass′adress.—adj. Ambassadō′rial.—n. Ambass′adorship.—n. Ambass′age—now usually Embassage, the position, or the business, of an ambassador: a number of men despatched on an embassy or mission.—Ambassador Extraordinary, an ambassador sent on a special occasion, as distinguished from the ordinary or resident ambassador. [It. ambasciadore—L. ambactus, derived by Grimm from Goth. andbahts, a servant, whence Ger. amt, office; by Zeuss and others traced to a Celtic source, and identified with W. amaeth, a husbandman.]

Ambe, am′bē, n. an old mechanical contrivance, ascribed to Hippocrates, for reducing dislocations of the shoulder. [Gr. ambē, Ionic for ambōn, a ridge.]

Amber, am′bėr, n. a yellowish fossil resin, used in making ornaments.—adjs. Am′bered (obs.), flavoured with amber or ambergris; Amb′ery. [Fr.—Ar. ‛anbar, ambergris.]

Ambergris, am′bėr-grēs, n. a fragrant substance of an ash-gray colour, found floating on the sea or on the seacoast of warm countries, and in the intestines of the spermaceti whale. [Fr. ambre gris, gray amber.]

Amberite, am′be-rīt, n. a smokeless powder.

Ambidexter, am-bi-deks′tėr, adj. and n. able to use both hands with equal facility: double-dealing, or a double-dealer.—n. Ambi′dexter′ity, superior cleverness or adaptability.—adj. Ambidex′trous. [L. ambo, both, dexter, right hand.]

Ambient, am′bi-ent, adj. going round: surrounding: investing.—n. an encompassing sphere: the air or sky. [L. ambi, about, iens, ientis, pr.p. of eo, īre, to go.]

Ambiguous, am-big′ū-us, adj. of doubtful signification: indistinct: wavering or uncertain: equivocal.—n. Ambigū′ity, uncertainty or dubiousness of meaning—also Ambig′uousness.—adv. Ambig′uously. [L. ambiguusambigĕre, to go about—ambi, about, agĕre, to drive.]

Ambit, am′bit, n. a circuit: a space surrounding a house or town: extent of meaning of words, &c.

Ambition, am-bish′un, n. the desire of power, honour, fame, excellence.—n. Ambi′tionist (Carlyle), an ambitious man.—adj. Ambi′tious, full of ambition (with of, formerly for): strongly desirous of anything—esp. power: aspiring: indicating ambition: showy or pretentious.—adv. Ambi′tiously.—n. Ambi′tiousness. [Fr.—L. ambition-em, the going about—that is, the canvassing for votes practised by candidates for office in Rome—ambi, about, and īre, itum, to go.]

Amble, am′bl, v.i. to move as a horse by lifting together both legs on one side alternately with those on the other side: to move at an easy pace affectedly.—n. a pace of a horse between a trot and a walk.—n. Am′bler, a horse that ambles: one who ambles in walking or dancing.—n. and adj. Am′bling. [Fr. ambler—L. ambulā-re, to walk about.]

Amblygon, am′bli-gon, adj. obtuse-angled. [Gr. amblus, obtuse, gonia, angle.]

Amblyopia, am-bli-ō′pi-a, n. dullness of sight (see Amaurosis).—n. Amblyop′sis, the bony fish found in the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky, the rudimentariness of whose eyes is due to darkness and consequent disuse. [Gr.—amblys, dull, ōps, eye.]

Amblystoma, am-blis′tō-ma, n. a genus of tailed amphibians in the gill-less or salamandroid sub-order—the adult form of axolotl. [Gr. amblys, blunt, stoma, mouth.]

Ambo, am′bō, n. a kind of reading-desk or pulpit, which in early Christian churches was placed in the choir. The ambo had two ascents—one from the east, and the other from the west. [Gr. ambōn, a rising.]

Ambrosia, am-brō′zhi-a, n. the fabled food of the gods, which gave immortal youth and beauty to those who ate it: the anointing oil of the gods: any finely-flavoured beverage: something delightfully sweet and pleasing.—adj. Ambrō′sial, fragrant: delicious: immortal: heavenly.—adv. Ambrō′sially.—adj. Ambrō′sian, relating to ambrosia: relating to St Ambrose, bishop of Milan in the 4th century. [L.—Gr. ambrosios = ambrotos, immortal—a, neg., and brotos, mortal, for mrotos, Sans. mrita, dead—mri (L. mori), to die.]


Ambry, am′bri, n. a niche in churches in which the sacred utensils were kept: a cupboard for victuals. [O. Fr. armarie, a repository for arms (Fr. armoire, a cupboard)—L. armarium, a chest for arms—arma, arms.]

Ambs-ace, āmz′-ās, n. double ace: the lowest possible throw at dice: ill-luck: worthlessness. [O. Fr. ambes as—L. ambas as. See Ace.]

Ambulacrum, am-bū-lā′krum, n. a row of pores in the shell of an echinoderm, as a sea-urchin, through which the tube-feet protrude.—adj. Ambulā′cral. [L., a walk—ambulāre, to walk.]

Ambulance, am′būl-ans, n. a carriage which follows an army and serves as a movable hospital for the wounded—also used as an adj., as in ambulance wagon.—n. Ambulan′cier, a man attached to an ambulance.—adj. Am′bulant, walking: moving from place to place: (rare) unfixed.—v.t. and v.i. Am′bulate (rare), to walk.—p.adj. Am′bulating.—n. Ambulā′tion.—adj. Am′bulatory, having the power or faculty of walking: moving from place to place, not stationary: mutable.—n. any part of a building intended for walking in, as the aisles of a church, or the cloisters of a monastery: any kind of corridor. [Fr.—L. ambulans, -antis, pr.p. of ambulāre, to walk about.]

Ambuscade, am′busk-ād, n. a hiding to attack by surprise: a body of troops in concealment: the hidden place of ambush—used also as a verb.—n. Ambuscā′do, a now archaic form of Ambuscade (common in 17th century):—pl. Ambuscā′does. [Fr. embuscade. See Ambush.]

Ambush, am′boosh, n. and v. same meanings as Ambuscade.—n. Am′bushment (B.), ambush. [O. Fr. embusche (mod. embche), embuscher, Low L. emboscārein-, in, and boscus, a bush.]

Ameer, or Amere, a-mēr′, n. a title of honour, also of an independent ruler in Mohammedan countries. [Ar. amīr. See Admiral.]

Ameliorate, a-mēl′yor-āt, v.t. to make better: to improve.—v.i. to grow better.—n. Ameliorā′tion, the condition of being made better: improvement or the means of such.—adj. Amel′iorative. [L. ad, to, and melior, better.]

Amen, ā′men′, or ′men′, interj. so let it be!—v.t. to say amen to anything, to ratify solemnly. [Gr.—Heb. āmēn, firm, true.]

Amenable, a-mēn′a-bl, adj. easy to be led or governed: liable or subject to.—ns. Amenabil′ity, Amen′ableness.—adv. Amen′ably. [Fr. amener, to lead—a = L. ad, and mener, to lead—Low L. mināre, to lead, to drive (as cattle)—L. mināri, to threaten.]

Amenage, am′e-nāj, v.t. (Spens.) to manage. [O. Fr. amenager. See Manage.]

Amenance, am′e-nans, n. (Spens.) conduct, behaviour. [O. Fr. amenance, from root of Amenable.]

Amend, a-mend′, v.t. to correct: to improve: to alter in detail, as a bill before parliament, often so fundamentally as to overthrow entirely the thing originally proposed.—v.i. to grow or become better.—adjs. Amend′able, Amend′atory, corrective.—n. Amend′ment, correction: improvement: an alteration proposed on a bill under consideration: a counter-proposal put before a public meeting: a counter-motion.— Amends′, supply of a loss: compensation: reparation. [Fr. amender for emender—L. emendāre, to remove a fault—e, ex, out of, and menda, a fault.]

Amende, -mend′, n. a fine, penalty.—Amende honorable, a public confession and apology made for any offence. [Fr. See Amend.]

Amenity, am-en′i-ti, n. pleasantness, as regards situation, climate, manners, or disposition. [Fr. amnit—L. amœnitasamœnus, pleasant, from root of am-āre, to love.]

Amenorrhœa, Amenorrhea, a-men-ō-rē′a, n. absence of menstruation. [From Gr. a, priv., mēn, month, roia, a flowing.]

Amentum, a-men′tum, Ament, am′ent, n. a scaly sort of spike, as of the willow: a catkin:—pl. Amen′ta.—adjs. Amentā′ceous, Amen′tal. [L. amentum, thong.]

Amerce, a-mėrs′, v.t. to punish by a fine: to deprive of anything, or inflict loss upon.—n. Amerce′ment, a penalty inflicted—also Amerc′iament. [O. Fr. amercier, to impose a fine—L. merces, wages, fine.]

American, a-mer′ik-an, adj. pertaining to America, esp. to the United States.—n. a native of America.—v.t. Amer′icanise, to render American.—n. Amer′icanism, a custom, characteristic, word, phrase, or idiom peculiar to Americans: condition of being an American citizen: devotion to American institutions. [From America, so called unfairly from Amerigo Vespucci, a navigator who explored a small part of South America seven years after the first voyage of Columbus.]

Amethyst, a′meth-ist, n. a bluish-violet variety of quartz of which drinking cups used to be made, which the ancients supposed prevented drunkenness.—adj. Amethyst′ine, [Gr. amethystosa, neg., methy-ein, to be drunken—methū, wine, cog. with Eng. mead, Sans. madhu, sweet.]

Amiable, ām′i-a-bl, adj. lovable: worthy of love: of sweet disposition.—ns. Amiabil′ity, Am′iableness, quality of being amiable, or of exciting love.—adv. Am′iably. [O. Fr. amiable, friendly—L. amicabilis, from amicus, a friend; there is a confusion in meaning with O. Fr. amable (mod. Fr. aimable), lovable—L. amabilisam-āre, to love.]

Amiantus, a-mi-ant′us, n. the finest fibrous variety of asbestos—it can be made into cloth which when stained is readily cleansed by fire.—Also Amianth′us. [Gr. amiantos, unpollutable—a, neg.,and miain-ein, to soil.]

Amicable, am′ik-a-bl, adj. friendly.—ns. Amicabil′ity, Am′icableness.—adv. Am′icably. [L. amicabilisamicus, a friend, am-āre, to love.]

Amice, am′is, n. a flowing cloak formerly worn by priests and pilgrims: a strip of fine linen, with a piece of embroidered cloth sewn upon it, worn formerly on the head, now upon the shoulders, by Roman Catholic priests in the service of the Mass. [O. Fr. amit—L. amictus, amic-ĕre, to wrap about—amb, about, and jac-ĕre, to throw.]

Amice, am′is, n. a furred hood with long ends hanging down in front, originally a cap or covering for the head, afterwards a hood, or cape with a hood, later a mere college hood. [O. Fr. aumuce, of doubtful origin; but at any rate cog. with Ger. mutse, mtze, Scot. mutch.]

Amid, a-mid′, Amidst, a-midst′, prep. in the middle or midst: among.—adv. Amid′most (W. Morris), in the very middle of.—adv. and n. Amid′ships, half-way between the stem and stern of a ship, [a, on, and Mid.]

Amide, am′īd, n. one of the compound ammonias derived from one or more molecules of common ammonia, by exchanging one or more of the three hydrogen atoms for acid radicals of equivalent acidity.

Amine, am′īn, n. one of the compound ammonias, in which one or more of the three hydrogen atoms in ammonia are exchanged for alcohol or other positive radicals, or for a metal.

Amildar, am′il-dar, n. a factor or manager in India: a collector of revenue amongst the Mahrattas. [Hind. ‛amaldār—Ar. ‛amal, work.]

Amir, a-mēr′. Same as Ameer.

Amiss, a-mis′, adj. in error: wrong.—adv. in a faulty manner.—n. Amiss′ibility.—adjs. Amiss′ible; Amiss′ing, wanting, lost. [a, on, and Miss, failure.]

Amity, am′i-ti, n. friendship: good-will. [Fr. amitiami—L. amicitia, friendship, amicus, a friend. See Amicable.]

Ammiral, an old spelling of Admiral.

Ammonia, am-mōn′i-a, n. a pungent gas yielded by smelling-salts, burning feathers, &c.: a solution of ammonia in water (properly liquid ammonia): a name of a large series of compounds, analogous to ammonia, including amines, amides, and alkalamides.—adjs. Ammon′iac, Ammonī′acal, pertaining to, or having the properties of, ammonia.—ns. Ammon′iac, Ammonī′acum, a whitish gum resin of bitter taste and heavy smell, the inspissated juice of a Persian umbelliferous plant—used in medicine for its stimulant and expectorant qualities; Ammon′iaphone, an instrument invented about 1880, said to improve the quality of the singing and speaking voice, being an apparatus for inhaling peroxide of hydrogen and free ammonia.—adj. Ammōn′iated, containing ammonia.—n. Ammon′ium, the hypothetical base of ammonia. [From sal-ammoniac, or smelling-salts, first obtained by heating camel's dung in Libya, near the temple of Jupiter Ammon.]

Ammonite, am′mon-īt, n. the fossil shell of an extinct genus of molluscs, so called because they resemble the horns on the statue of Jupiter Ammon, worshipped as a ram.

Ammunition, am-mūn-ish′un, n. anything used for munition or defence: military stores, formerly of all kinds (as still in the word used adjectively, as in ammunition wagon, &c.), now esp. powder, balls, bombs, &c.—v.t. to supply with ammunition. [O. Fr. amunition. See Munition.]

Amnesia, am-nē′si-a, n. loss of memory. [Gr. amnesia]

Amnesty, am′nest-i, n. a general pardon of political offenders: an act of oblivion.—v.t. to give amnesty to. [Gr. a-mnestos, not remembered.]

Amnion, am′ni-on, n. the innermost membrane enveloping the embryo of reptiles, birds, and mammals. [Gr.—amnos, a lamb.]

Amœba, a-mēb′a, n. a name given to a number of the simplest animals or Protozoa, which consist of unit masses of living matter. They flow out in all directions in blunt processes (pseudopodia, 'false feet'), and have thus an endlessly varying form, hence the name:—pl. Amœb′.—adjs. Amœb′iform, Amœb′oid. [Gr. amoibē, change.]

Amœban, am-e-bē′an, adj. answering alternately, responsive, as in some of Virgil's eclogues. [L.—Gr. amoibaios, amoibē, change, alternation.]

Amomum, a-mō′mum, n. a genus of herbaceous tropical plants (nat. ord. Scitamine), allied to the ginger-plant, several species yielding the cardamoms and grains of paradise of commerce. [Gr. amōmon.]

Among, a-mung′, Amongst, a-mungst′, prep. of the number of: amidst. [A.S. on-gemangmengan, to mingle.]

Amontillado, a-mon-til-y′do, n. a dry or little sweet kind of sherry of a light colour and body. [Sp.]

Amoret, am′or-et, n. (obs.) a sweetheart. [O. Fr. amorette—L. amor-em.]

Amoretto, am-or-et′to, n. a lover: a cupid:—pl. Amoret′ti. [It.]

Amornings, a-morn′ingz, adv. (obs.) of mornings. [Of and Morning.]

Amoroso, am-or-ro′so, adj. (mus.) tender: descriptive of love.—n. one in love, a gallant:—pl. Amorō′si.—n. Amorō′sity (rare), fondness.

Amorous, am′or-us, adj. easily inspired with love: fondly in love (with of): relating to love.—n. Am′orist, a lover: a gallant.—adv. Am′orously.—n. Am′orousness. [O. Fr. amorous (Fr. amoureux)—L. amoros-um, amor, love.]

Amorpha, a-mor′fa, n. a genus of North American shrubs of the bean family, the false indigoes or lead-plants—also bastard or wild indigo.

Amorphism, a-mor′fizm, n. a state of being amorphous or without crystallisation even in the minutest particles.—adj. Amor′phous, without regular shape, shapeless, uncrystallised. [Gr. a, neg., morphē, form.]

Amort, a-mort′, adj. (obs. or arch. merely) spiritless, dejected.—n. Amortisā′tion.—v.t. Amort′īse, to alienate in mortmain: to convey to a corporation:—pr.p. amort′īsing; pa.p. amort′īsed. [Fr. , to, mort, death. See Mortal.]

Amount, a-mownt′, v.i. to mount or rise to: to result in: to come in meaning or substance to (with to).—n. the whole sum: the effect or result. [O. Fr. amonter, to ascend—L. ad, to, mont, mons, a mountain.]

Amour, am-ōōr′, n. a love intrigue, or illicit affection: a love affair (humorously only, for the old innocent sense is now obsolete).—n. Amourette′, a petty love affair: the love-grass, or quaking-grass: a cupid.—Amour propre, self-esteem ready to take offence at slights. [Fr.—L. amor, love.]

Amove, a-mōōv′, v.t. (Spens.) to stir up: to affect:—pr.p. amov′ing; pa.p. amoved′. [L. admovēread, to, and mov-ēre, to move.]

Amove, a-mōōv′, v.t. to remove, esp. from a place (obsolete except in law). [O. Fr. amover—L. amovēre, ab, from, mov-ēre, to move.]

Ampre, am-pehr′, n. in electricity, unit of current. [From Ampre, a French electrician who died in 1836.]

Ampersand, am′pėrs-and, n. a name formerly in use for the character & (also called short and), commonly placed at the end of the alphabet in primers.—Also Am′perzand, Am′pussy-and, and simply Am′passy. [A corr. of and per se and—that is, & standing by itself means and.]

Amphibalus, am-fib′a-lus, n. an ecclesiastical vestment like the chasuble. [L.—Gr., from amphi, around, ball-ein, to cast.]

Amphibia, am-fib′i-a, Amphibials, Amphibians, animals capable of living both under water and on land.—n. Amphib′ian.—adj. Amphib′ious. [L.—Gr., from amphi, both, bios, life.]

Amphibole, am-fib′ol-ē, n. the name of a group of minerals which are essentially silicates of lime and magnesia, but these bases are often partly replaced by alumina, and oxides of iron and manganese—tremolite, nephrite (jade), and hornblende. [Gr.]

Amphibology, am-fib-ol′o-ji, n. the use of ambiguous phrases or such as can be construed in two senses. A good example is Shakespeare's 'The duke yet lives that Henry shall depose' (2 Henry VI., I. iv. 33)—also Amphib′oly.—adjs. Amphib′olous, Amphibol′ic. [Gr., from amphi, on both sides, ball-ein, to throw.]

Amphibrach, am′fi-brak, n. in prosody, a foot of three syllables—a short, a long, and a short, as ămārĕ. The name is sometimes applied in English to such a word as amusement, where an accented syllable falls between two unaccented. [L.—Gr., made up of Gr. amphi, on each side, brachys, short.]

Amphictyonic, am-fik-ti-on′ik, adj. The Amphictyonic Council was an old Greek assembly composed of deputies (Amphictyons) from twelve of the leading states.—n. Amphic′tyony, an association of such states. [Gr. amphiktyones, 'those dwelling around.']

Amphimacer, am-fim′a-sėr, n. in prosody, a foot of three syllables, the middle one short, and the first and last long, as cārĭtās. Sometimes applied to such Eng. words as runaway. [Gr., 'long at both ends;' amphi, on both sides, makros, long.]

Amphioxus, am-fī-oks′us, n. the lancelet, one of the lowest backboned animals, found on the sandy coasts of warm and temperate seas. The body is about two inches long and pointed at both ends. [Gr. amphi, on both sides, and oxys, sharp.]

Amphipods, am′fi-pods, n. an order of small sessile-eyed crustaceans—a familiar example is the sand-hopper. [Gr. amphi, both ways, pous, podos, a foot.]

Amphisbna, am-fis-bē′na, n. a family of lizard-snakes, chiefly found in tropical America, which have their tails so rounded as to give them the appearance of having a head at both ends.—adj. Amphisbē′nic. [Gr. amphisbainaamphi, amphis, both ways, and bain-ein, to go.]

Amphiscians, am-fish′i-anz, the inhabitants of the torrid zone, whose shadows are thrown both ways—that is, to the north one part of the year, and to the south the other part, according as the sun is north or south of the equator. [Gr. amphiskiosamphi, both ways, skia, a shadow.]

Amphistomous, am-fis′tō-mus, adj. having a mouth-like orifice at either end, as some parasitic worms. [Gr., amphistomos, double mouthed.]

Amphitheatre, am-fi-thē′a-tėr, n. an oval or circular edifice having rows of seats one above another, around an open space, called the arena, in which public spectacles are exhibited: anything like an amphitheatre in form.—adjs. Amphitheat′rical, Amphitheat′ral.—adv. Amphitheat′rically. [Gr. amphi, round about, theatron, a place for seeing—theaomai, to see.]

Amphitryon, am-fit′ri-on, n. a host or entertainer. [From Amphitryon in Molire's comedy, who gives a great dinner. Amphitryon in Gr. mythology was husband of Alcmene, who was deceived by Zeus in her husband's semblance, and so became the mother of Hercules.]


Amphora, am′fō-ra, n. a two-handled vessel or jar used by the Greeks and Romans for holding liquids.—adj. Am′phoric (med.), like the sound produced by speaking into an amphora or any large vessel with a small mouth. [Gr. amphoreus, amphiphoreusamphi, on both sides, pher-ein, to bear.]

Ample, am′pl, adj. spacious: large enough: abundant: liberal: copious, or of great length.—ns. Am′pleness; Ampliā′tion, enlarging, an enlargement.—adj. Ampliā′tive (rare).—adv. Am′ply. [Fr.—L. amplus, large.]

Amplexicaul, am-pleks′i-kawl, adj. (bot.) nearly surrounding the stem—said of sessile leaves. [Modern L. amplexicaulis—L. amplexus, embrace, and caulis, stem.]

Amplify, am′pli-fī, v.t. to make more copious in expression: to add to.—n. Amplificā′tion, enlargement.—adj. Amplificā′tory.—n. Am′plifier, one who amplifies: a lens which enlarges the field of vision. [L. amplus, large, and fac-ĕre, to make.]

Amplitude, am′pli-tūd, n. largeness: abundance: width: splendour: wide range of mind: the distance from the east point of a horizon at which a heavenly body rises, or from the west point at which it sets. [Fr.—L. amplitudo.]

Ampul, am′pul, n. a small earthenware or glass vessel of an oblong globular form, used for containing consecrated oil or wine and water for the eucharistic service—now more commonly Ampul′la. [O. Fr. ampole—L. ampulla.]


Ampulla, am-pul′la, n. a small two-handled flask or bottle for holding liquids or unguents: a vessel for holding consecrated oil or chrism, esp. at the coronation of kings: a kind of cruet of transparent glass for holding the wine and water used at the altar: (biol.) the dilated end of any canal or duct in an animal body, also the spongiole of a root in plants.—adjs. Ampullā′ceous, Am′pullar, Am′pullary, Am′pullate.—n. Ampullos′ity, turgidity of language, bombast. [L.; made up of amb, on both sides, and olla, a jar; or an irregular dim. of amphora, a flagon.]

Amputate, am′pūt-āt, v.t. to cut off, as a limb of an animal.—n. Amputā′tion. [L. amb, round about, putāre, to cut.]

Amrita, am-rē′ta, n. the drink of the gods in Hindu mythology. [Sans.]

Amuck, a-muk′, adv. madly: in murderous frenzy—hardly ever used save in the phrase 'to run amuck.' [Malay, amoq, intoxicated or excited to madness.]

Amulet, am′ū-let, n. a gem, scroll, or other object carried about the person, as a charm against sickness, harm, or witchcraft. [Fr.—L. amulētum, a word of unknown origin; curiously like the mod. Ar. himalat, lit. 'a carrier,' applied to a shoulder-belt, by which a small Koran is hung on the breast.]

Amuse, a-mūz′, v.t. to occupy pleasantly: to divert: to beguile with expectation: (obs.) occupy the attention with: (arch.) to beguile.—adj. Amus′able, capable of being amused.—n. Amuse′ment, that which amuses: pastime.—adj. Amus′ing, affording amusement: entertaining.—adv. Amus′ingly.—n. Amus′ingness.—adj. Amus′ive (rare), having the power to amuse or entertain.—n. Amus′iveness. [Fr. amuser.]

Amusette, am-ū-zėt′, n. a light field-gun invented by Marshal Saxe. [Fr.]

Amutter, a-mut′ėr, adv. in a muttering state.

Amygdalate, a-mig′da-lāt, adj. pertaining to, like, or made of almonds.—adj. Amygdalā′ceous, akin to the almond. [L. amygdala—Gr. amygdalē, an almond.]

Amygdalin, Amygdaline, a-mig′da-lin, n. a crystalline principle existing in the kernel of bitter almonds.

Amygdaloid, a-mig′da-loid, n. a variety of basaltic rock containing almond-shaped nodules of other minerals, as quartz, felspar.—adj. Amygdaloi′dal. [Gr. amygdalē, and eidos, form.]

Amyl, am′il, n. the fifth in the series of the alcohol radicals, a natural product of the distillation of coal. As thus found, two molecules are united together, usually called diamyl, being a colourless liquid with an agreeable smell and burning taste.—n. Am′ylene. [Gr. amylon, starchy, fine meal.]

Amylaceous, am-i-lā′shus, adj. pertaining to or resembling starch. [L. amylum, starch—Gr. amylon.]

Amyloid, am′i-loid, n. a half-gelatinous substance like starch, found in some seeds.—adj. Amyloid′al. [Gr. amylon, the finest flour, starch; lit. 'unground'—a, neg., mylē, a mill, and eidos, form.]

An, an, adj. one: the indefinite article, used before words beginning with the sound of a vowel. [A.S. ān. See One.]

An, an, conj. if. [A form of And.]

Ana, ā′na, a suffix to names of persons or places, denoting a collection of memorable sayings, items of gossip, or miscellaneous facts, as Johnsoniana, Tunbrigiana, &c.: applied also to the literature of some special subject, as Boxiana, Burnsiana, Shakespeariana.— specially a collection of the table-talk of some one. [The neut. pl. termination of L. adjectives in -anus = pertaining to.]

Anabaptist, an-a-bapt′ist, n. one who holds that baptism ought to be administered only to adults (by immersion), and therefore that those baptised in infancy ought to be baptised again.—The name is disclaimed by recent opponents of infant baptism both in England and the Continent.—v.i. Anabap′tise.—n. Anabapt′ism.—adj. Anabaptist′ic. [Gr. ana, again, baptiz-ein, to dip in water, to baptise.]

Anabasis, an-ab′a-sis, n. a military advance into the interior of a country—specially the title of the famous story of the unfortunate expedition of Cyrus the Younger against his brother Artaxerxes, and of the retreat of his 10,000 Greek allies under the conduct of Xenophon. [Gr.; made up of ana, up, and bain-ein, to go.]

Anableps, an′a-bleps, n. a genus of bony fishes with open air-bladders, and projecting eyes divided into an upper and lower portion, so that each eye has two pupils. [Gr. anablepsis, 'a looking up.']

Anabolism, an-ab′ol-izm, n. the constructive processes within the protoplasm, by which food or other material, at a relatively low level, passes through an ascending series of ever more complex and unstable combinations, till it is finally worked up into living matter. [Gr. anabolē, 'rising up.']

Anacanthous, an-a-kan′thus, adj. without spine. [Gr. an-, without, akantha, spine.]

Anacard, an′a-kard, n. the cashew-nut, the fruit of the Anacardium occidentale. [Gr., made up of ana, according to, and kardia, heart, from the shape of the fruit.]

Anacatharsis, an-a-kath-ar′sis, n. vomiting or expectoration.—n. Anacathar′tic, a medicine with this effect—expectorants, emetics, sternutatorics, &c. [Gr.; made up of ana, up, and kathair-ein, to cleanse.]

Anacharis, an-ak′ar-is, n. a North American weed found in ponds and slow streams, which was first found in Britain in 1842, and is now very troublesome in the Trent, Derwent, and other rivers. [Made up of Gr. ana, up, and charis, grace.]

Anachorism, a-nak′ō-rizm, n. (rare) something incongruous with the spirit of the country. [Coined on the analogy of anachronism, from Gr. ana, back, and chōrion, country, with suff. ism.]

Anachronism, an-a′kron-izm, n. an error in regard to time, whereby a thing is assigned to an earlier or to a later age than it belongs to: anything out of keeping with the time.—v.t. Ana′chronise.—n. Ana′chronist.—adjs. Anachronist′ic, Ana′chronous.—adv. Ana′chronously. [Gr. ana, backwards, chronos, time.]

Anaclastic, an-a-klas′tik, adj. pertaining to refraction: bending back. [Gr. ana, back, klaein, break off.]

Anacoluthon, an-a-ko-lū′thon, n. want of sequence in the construction of a sentence, when the latter part does not grammatically correspond with the former: a sentence exhibiting an Anacoluthia, or the passing from one construction to another before the former is completed. [Gr. anakolouthosa, an, neg., and akolouthos, following.]

Anaconda, an-a-kon′da, n. a large South American water-snake of the Python family, closely related to the boa-constrictor. [Singhalese (?).]

Anacreontic, an-a-kre-ont′ik, adj. after the manner of the Greek poet Anacreon: free, convivial, erotic.—n. a poem in this vein.—adv. Anacreont′ically.

Anacrusis, an-a-krōō′sis, n. (pros.) an upward beat at the beginning of a verse, consisting of one or two unaccented syllables introductory to the just rhythm. [Gr. from ana, up, krou-ein, to strike.]

Anadem, an′a-dem, n. a band or fillet bound round the head: a wreath or chaplet of flowers. [Gr. anadēmaana, up, and de-ein, to bind.]

Anadromous, an-ad′rō-mus, adj. ascending rivers to spawn. [Gr. ana, up, dromos, running.]

Anmia, an-ēm′i-a, n. a term employed to denote those conditions in which there is a deficiency of blood or of its red corpuscles: lack or poverty of blood marked by paleness and languor.—adj. Anm′ic. [Gr.; made up of an, neg., haima, blood.]

Anaerobia, an-ā-ėr-ō′bi-a, (biol.) bacteria which flourish without free oxygen.—adj. Anaerō′bic.

Ansthetic, an-ēs-thet′ik, adj. producing insensibility to external impressions.—n. a substance, as chloroform or cocaine, that produces insensibility, whether general or local.—ns. Ansthē′sia, Ansthē′sis, loss of feeling, insensibility.—adv. Ansthet′ically.—v.t. Ans′thetise. [Gr. a, an, neg., aisthēsis, sensation—aisthanomai, to feel.]

Anaglyph, an′a-glif, n. an ornament carved in low relief.—adj. Anaglypt′ic. [Gr.; ana, up, glyph-ein, to carve.]

Anaglyptography, an-a-glip-tog′ra-fi, n. the art of engraving so as to give the subject the appearance of being raised from the surface of the paper as if embossed—used in representing coins, &c. [Gr. anaglyptos, embossed, and graphia, writing.]

Anagogy, an′a-goj-i, n. the mystical interpretation or hidden sense of words.—adjs. Anagog′ic, Anagog′ical.—adv. Anagog′ically. [Gr. anagōgē, elevation, an-ag-ein, to lift up.]

Anagram, an′a-gram, n. a word or sentence formed by rewriting (in a different order) the letters of another word or sentence: as, 'live' = 'evil,' 'Quid est veritas? = 'Est vir qui adest,' and 'Florence Nightingale' = 'Flit on, cheering angel.'—Many pseudonyms are merely anagrams, as 'Voltaire' = 'Arouet l. i.'—that is, 'Arouet le jeune (the younger).'—adjs. Anagrammat′ic, Anagrammat′ical.—adv. Anagrammat′ically.—v.t. Anagram′matīse, to transpose, so as to form an anagram.—ns. Anagram′matism, the practice of making anagrams; Anagram′matist, a maker of anagrams. [Gr. ana, again, graph-ein, to write.]

Anagraph, an′a-graf, n. a catalogue or inventory: a description. [Gr. anagraphēana, up, out, graph-ein, to write.]

Anal, ān′al, adj. pertaining to or near the anus.

Analects, an′a-lekts, collections of literary fragments—also Analec′ta.—adj. Analec′tic. [Gr. analektosanalegein, to collect—ana, up, legein, to gather.]

Analeptic, an-a-lep′tik, adj. restorative: comforting. [Gr. analēptikos, restorative—analēpsis, recovery—ana, up, and lambanō, lēpsomai, to take.]

Analgesia, an-al-jē′zi-a, n. painlessness, insensibility to pain. [Gr. an-, priv., and algein, to feel pain.]

Analogy, an-al′o-ji, n. an agreement or correspondence in certain respects between things otherwise different—a resemblance of relations, as in the phrase, 'Knowledge is to the mind what light is to the eye:' relation in general: likeness: (geom.) proportion or the equality of ratios: (gram.) the correspondence of a word or phrase with the genius of a language, as learned from the manner in which its words and phrases are ordinarily formed: similarity of derivative or inflectional processes.—adjs. Analog′ical, Anal′ogic.—adv. Analog′ically.—v.t. Anal′ogise, to explain or consider by analogy:—pr.p. anal′ogīsing; pa.p. anal′ogīsed.ns. Anal′ogism (obs.), investigation by analogy: argument from cause to effect; Anal′ogist, one who adheres to analogy; Anal′ogon = analogue.—adj. Anal′ogous, having analogy: bearing some correspondence with or resemblance to: similar in certain circumstances or relations (with to).—adv. Anal′ogously.—ns. Anal′ogousness; An′alogue, a word or body bearing analogy to, or resembling, another: (biol.) a term used to denote physiological, independent of morphological resemblance.—Organs are analogous to one another, or are analogues, when they perform the same function, though they may be altogether different in structure; as the wings of a bird and the wings of an insect. Again, organs are homologous, or homologues, when they are constructed on the same plan, undergo a similar development, and bear the same relative position, and this independent of either form or function. Thus the arms of a man and the wings of a bird are homologues of one another, while the wing of a bird and the wing of a bat are both analogous and homologous. [Gr. ana, according to, and logos, ratio.]

Analphabete, an-al′fa-bēt, n. and adj. one who does not know his alphabet, an illiterate.—adj. Analphabet′ic. [Gr. an, neg., and Alphabet.]

Analysis, an-al′is-is, n. a resolving or separating a thing into its elements or component parts—the tracing of things to their source, and so discovering the general principles underlying individual phenomena. Its converse is synthesis, the explanation of certain phenomena by means of principles which are for this purpose assumed as established. Analysis as the resolution of our experience into its original elements, is an artificial separation; while synthesis is an artificial reconstruction: (gram.) the arrangement into its logical and grammatical elements of a sentence or part of a sentence:—pl. Anal′yses.—adj. Analys′able.—n. Analysā′tion.—v.t. An′alyse, to resolve a whole into its elements: to separate into component parts.—n. An′alyst, one skilled in analysis, esp. chemical analysis.—adjs. Analyt′ic, -al, pertaining to analysis: resolving into first principles.—adv. Analyt′ically.— Analyt′ics, the name given by Aristotle to his treatises on logic.—Analytical geometry, geometry treated by means of ordinary algebra, with a reference, direct or indirect, to a system of co-ordinates; Analytic method (logic) proceeds regressively or inductively to the recognition of general principles, as opposed to the Synthetic method, which advances from principles to particulars. [Gr. analysis, analy-ein, to unloose, ana, up, ly-ein, to loose.]

Anamnesis, an-am-nēs′is, n. the recalling of things past to memory: the recollection of the Platonic pre-existence: the history of his illness given by the patient to his physician. [Gr.]

Anamorphosis, an-a-mor′fo-sis, n. a figure, appearing from one view-point irregular or deformed, but from another regular and in proportion: (bot.) a gradual transformation, or an abnormal development of any part.—adj. Anamor′phous. [Gr.; ana, back, morphōsis, a shaping—morphē, shape.]

Ananas, an-an′as, n. the pine-apple: the West Indian penguin.—Also Anan′a. [Peruvian.]

Anandrous, an-an′drus, adj. without stamens, or male organs, applied to female flowers. [Gr. an, neg., and anēr, andros, a man.]

Anantherous, an-an′thėr-us, adj. without anthers. [Gr. an, neg., and Anther.]

Ananthous, an-an′thus, adj. without flowers. [Gr. an, neg., and anthos, a flower.]

Anapst, Anapest, an′a-pest, n. (in verse) a foot consisting of three syllables, two short and the third long, or (in Eng.) two unaccented and the third accented, as colonnad—a familiar example of a poem in this metre is Byron's Destruction of Sennacherib.—adjs. Anaps′tic, -al. [Gr. anapaistos, reversed, because it is the dactyl reversed.]

Anaphora, an′af-or-a, n. (rhet.) the repetition of the same word or phrase in several successive clauses, as in 1 Cor. i. 20. [Gr.; ana, back, pher-ein, to bear.]

Anaphrodisiac, an-af-rō-diz′i-ak, adj. and n. tending to diminish sexual desire, or a drug supposed to have that effect. [Fr. an, neg., and adj. from Aphrodite.]

Anaplasty, an′a-plas-ti, n. the reparation of superficial lesions by the use of adjacent healthy tissue, as by transplanting a portion of skin.—adj. An′aplastic. [Gr.; that may be formed anew, ana, again, plass-ein, to form.]

Anaplerosis, an′a-plē-rō′sis, n. the filling up of a deficiency, esp. in medicine: the filling up of parts that have been destroyed, as in wounds, cicatrices, &c.—adj. Anaplerot′ic. [Gr.; from ana, up, and plēro-ein, to fill up.]

Anaptotic, an-ap-tot′ik, adj. (philol.) again uninflected—a term sometimes applied to languages which have lost most of their inflections through phonetic decay. [Gr. ana, again, aptōtos, without case, indeclinable, aptōs, -ōtos, not falling, pipt-ein, to fall.]

Anarchy, an′ark-i, n. the want of government in a state: political confusion: conflict of opinion.—adjs. Anarch′al (rare); Anarch′ic, Anarch′ical.—v.t. Anarch′ise.—ns. An′archism, anarchy: the negation of government—the name adopted by a phase of revolutionary socialism associated with the names of Proudhon and Bakunin. Their ideal of society was of one without government of any kind, when every man should be a law unto himself; An′archist, An′arch, one who promotes anarchy. [Gr. a, an, neg., archē, government.]

Anarthrous, an-r′thrus, adj. without the article, of Greek nouns: (entom.) having neither wings nor legs.—adv. Anar′thrously. [Gr. an, neg., arthron, a joint, the article.]

Anastatic, an-a-stat′ik, adj. furnished with characters standing up, or raised in relief—esp. of the anastatic printing process, in which copies of drawings are printed from fac-similes produced in relief on zinc plates. [Gr. anastatikosana, up, statikos, causing to stand—histēmi, to make to stand.]

Anastomosis, an-as-to-mō′sis, n. the union or intercommunication of vessels with each other, as seen in the junction of the branches of the arteries.—v.i. Anas′tomose, to communicate in such a way.—adj. Anastomot′ic.

Anastrophe, an-as′tro-fi, n. an inversion of the natural order of words, as 'Loud roared the thunder,' for 'The thunder roared,' &c. [Gr.; ana, back, and streph-ein, to turn.]

Anathema, an-ath′em-a, n. a solemn ecclesiastical curse or denunciation involving excommunication: any person or thing anathematised: generally, any imprecation or expression of execration.—n. Anathematisā′tionv.t. Anath′ematise, to pronounce accursed.—Anathema maranātha, as in 1 Cor. xvi. 22; maranatha (Syr. māran ethā, 'our Lord hath come') is properly a mere solemn formula of confirmation, like Amen, having no other connection with the antecedent anathema—it is so printed in the Revised Version.—It seems to have been used by the early Christians as a kind of watchword of mutual encouragement and hope. So the words in 1 Cor. xvi. 22 are nearly equivalent to the similar expressions in Phil. iv. 5; Rev. xxii. 20. [The classical Gr. anathēma meant a votive offering set up in a temple, ana, up, tithenai, to place; the anathĕma of the Septuagint and New Testament meant something specially devoted to evil, as in Rom. ix. 3.]

Anatomy, an-a′tom-i, n. the art of dissecting any organised body: science of the structure of the body learned by dissection: a skeleton, a shrivelled and shrunken body, a mummy: (fig.) the lifeless form or shadow of anything: humorously for the body generally: the detailed analysis of anything, as in Burton's famous treatise, The Anatomy of Melancholy.—adjs. Anatom′ic, -al, relating to anatomy.—adv. Anatom′ically.—v.t. Anat′omise, to dissect a body: (fig.) to lay open minutely.—n. Anat′omist, one skilled in anatomy. [Gr. ana, up, asunder, temnein, to cut.]

Anatopism, an-at′op-izm, n. (rareColeridge) a faulty arrangement. [Gr. ana, up, topos, a place.]

Anatta, an-at′ta, n. the reddish pulp surrounding the seeds of the Bixa orellana, a medium-sized tree growing in Guiana and elsewhere. It yields a dye which gives a bright orange tint to cloth, and is much used to add colour to butter and cheese.—Also Anat′to, Annat′to, Arnot′to. [Supposed to be a native Amer. word.]

Anbury, an′bėr-i, n. a disease in turnips, produced by one of the slime-fungi, and usually the result of improper cultivation. It is often confounded with Finger-and-toe (dactylorhiza), which is rather a degeneration of the plant than a disease, the bulb branching out into a number of taproots, while the skin remains unbroken. Anbury causes a scabbed and broken skin, and tubercular growths on the roots and at the base of the bulb. [Often explained as a disguised form of A.S. ampre, a crooked swelling vein; more probably, a variant of anbury = angberry, A.S. ang-, pain, as in ang-nail.]

Ancestor, an′ses-tur, n. one from whom a person has descended: a forefather:—fem. An′cestress.—adj. Ances′tral.—ns. An′cestor-wor′ship, the chief element in the religion of China and other countries—erroneously supposed by Herbert Spencer to be the foundation of all religion; An′cestry, a line of ancestors: lineage. [O. Fr. ancestre—L. antecessorante, before, cedĕre, cessum, to go.]


Anchor, ang′kor, n. an implement for retaining a ship in a particular spot by temporarily chaining it to the bed of a sea or river. The most common form has two flukes, one or other of which enters the ground, and so gives hold; but many modifications are used, some with movable arms, some self-canting.—Anchors are distinguished as the starboard and port bowers, sheet, spare, stream, kedge, and grapnel, or boat anchors: (fig.) anything that gives stability or security.—v.t. to fix by an anchor: to fasten.—v.i. to cast anchor: to stop, or rest on.—ns. Anch′orage, the act of anchoring: the place where a ship anchors or can anchor: (Shak.) the anchor and all the necessary tackle for anchoring: a position affording support: (fig.) anything that gives a resting-place or support to the mind: duty imposed on ships for anchoring; Anch′or-hold, the hold of an anchor upon the ground: (fig.) security.—adj. Anch′orless, without such: unstable.—n. Mushroom-anchor, an anchor with a saucer-shaped head on a central shank, used for mooring.—At anchor, anchored.—To cast anchor, to let down the anchor, to take up a position; To weigh anchor, to take up the anchor so as to be able to sail away. [A.S. ancor—L. ancora—Gr. angkyra, angkos, a bend. Conn. with Angle.]

Anchoret, ang′kor-et, Anchorite, ang′kor-īt, n. one who has withdrawn from the world, especially for religious reasons: a hermit.—The form Anach′oret occurs in many books on church history for the recluses of the East in the early history of the church.—ns. Anch′or (Shak.), an anchorite—earlier still also an anchoress, as in the book-title Ancren Riwle, the 'Rule of Nuns;' Anch′orage, the retreat of a hermit; Anch′oress, a female anchorite: a nun—also Anc′ress, Ank′ress, Anch′oritess.—adjs. Anch′oretic, -al. [Gr. anachōrētēsana, apart, chōrein, to go.]

Anchovy, an-chō′vi, n. a small fish of the herring family, much fished in the Mediterranean for pickling, and for a sauce made from it, anchovy-paste, &c.—n. Anchō′vy-pear, the fruit of a myrtaceous Jamaica tree, pickled and eaten like the East Indian mango, which it much resembles in taste. [Sp. and Port. anchova; Fr. anchois. Of doubtful etymology. The Basque anchoa, anchua, has been connected with antzua, dry.]

Anchylosis, Ankylosis, ang-kī-lō′sis, n. the coalescence of two bones, or the union of the different parts of a bone: stiffness in a joint through destruction of the articular cartilages, or a thickening and shortening of the natural fibrous tissues around the joint. [Gr.; angkylos, crooked.]

Ancient, ān′shent, adj. old: belonging to former times, specifically, of times prior to the downfall of the western Roman empire (476 A.D.): of great age or duration: of past times in a general sense: venerable: antique, old-fashioned.—n. an aged man, a patriarch: a superior in age or dignity.—adv. An′ciently.—ns. An′cientness; An′cientry, ancientness, seniority: ancestry: dignity of birth: (Shak.) old people.— An′cients, those who lived in remote times, esp. the Greeks and Romans of classical times: (B.) elders.—The Ancient of days, a title in the Holy Scriptures for the Almighty, applied by Byron to Athens. [Fr. ancien—Low L. antianus, old—L. ante, before. See Antique.]

Ancient, ān′shent, n. (obs.) a flag or its bearer: an ensign. [Corr. of Fr. enseigne. See Ensign.]

Ancillary, an′sil-ar-i, adj. subservient, subordinate (with to). [L. ancilla, a maid-servant.]

Ancipital, an-sip′i-tal, adj. two-headed: double: doubtful: (bot.) two-edged and flattened.—Also Ancip′itous. [L. anceps, ancipit-is, double—an for amb, on both sides, and caput, the head.]

Ancome, ang′kum, n. (prov.—Scot. income) a small inflammatory swelling, coming on suddenly. [Same as Income.]

And, and, conj. signifies addition, or repetition, and is used to connect words and sentences, to introduce a consequence, &c.—in M. E. (but not A.S.) it was used for if, and often also with added if, as in Luke xii. 45. An became common for and in this sense, as often in Shakespeare.—It sometimes expresses emphatically a difference in quality between things of the same class, as 'there are friends ... and friends.' [A.S., and in the other Teut. lang.; prob. allied to L. ante, Gr. anti, over against.]

Andante, an-dan′te, adj. and n. (mus.) moving with moderate and even expression: a movement or piece composed in andante time.—adj. Andanti′no, of a movement somewhat slower than andante, but sometimes meaning 'with less of andante' = somewhat quicker.—Andante affettuoso, slow but pathetically; Andante cantabile, slow, but in a singing style; Andante con moto, slow, but with emotion; Andante grazioso, slow, but gracefully; Andante maestoso, slow, with majesty; Andante non troppo, slow, but not too much so. [It.—pr.p. of andare, to go.]

Andean, an-dē′an, adj. of or like the Andes Mountains.


Andiron, and′ī-urn, n. the iron bars which support the ends of the logs in a wood fire, or in which a spit turns. [O. Fr. andier (Mod. Fr. landierl'andier); Low. L. anderius, andena; further ety. dubious, perhaps ultimately cog. with End. The termination was early confused with iron, hence the spellings and-iron, hand-iron.]

Androcephalous, an-dro-sef′a-lus, adj. having a human head, as a sphinx or Assyrian bull. [Gr. anēr, andros, a man, kephalē, a head.]

Androgynous, an-droj′i-nus, adj. having the characteristics of both male and female in one individual: hermaphrodite: (bot.) having an inflorescence of both male and female flowers—also Androg′ynal (rare).—n. Androg′yny, hermaphroditism. [Gr.; anēr, andros, a man, and gynē, woman.]

Android, an′droid, n. an automaton resembling a human being.—Also Andrō′ides.

Andromeda, an-drom′e-da, n. a genus of shrubs of the heath family: the name of a northern constellation. [Andromeda, in Greek mythology, a maiden bound to a rock, and exposed to a sea-monster, but delivered by Perseus.]

Ane, ān, or yin, Scotch form of One.

Aneal, Anele, an-ēl′, v.t. to anoint with oil: to administer extreme unction. [M. E. anele, from an A.S. verb compounded of A.S. on, on, and ele, oil.]

Anear, a-nēr′, adv. nearly: near.—prep. near.—v.t. to approach, to come near to.

Anecdote, an′ek-dōt, n. an incident of private life: a short story.—n. An′ecdotage, anecdotes collectively: garrulous old age.—adjs. An′ecdotal, Anecdot′ical, in the form of an anecdote. [Gr.; 'not published'—a, an, neg., and ekdotos, published—ek, out, and didonai, to give.]

Anelace. See Anlace.

Anelectrotonus, an′el-ek-trot′on-us, n. (phys.) the diminished excitability of a nerve near the anode of an electric current passing through it.—adj. An′elec′tric, parting readily with its electricity.—n. a body which readily gives up its electricity.—n. Anelec′trode, the positive pole of a galvanic battery.—adj. An′electrot′onic. [Gr. an, up, elektron, amber.]

Anemograph, a-nem′ō-graf, n. an instrument for measuring and recording the direction and velocity of the wind. [Gr. anemos, wind, graphein, to write.]

Anemometer, a-ne-mom′et-ėr, n. an instrument for measuring the velocity or pressure of the wind.—adj. Anemomet′ric.—n. Anemom′etry, the measurement of the force or velocity of the wind. [Gr. anemos, wind, and Meter.]

Anemone, a-nem′o-ne, n. a plant of the crowfoot family.—n. Sea′-anem′one, a popular name of Actinia and some allied genera of Actinoza. [Gr. anemōne, said to be from anemos, wind, because some of the species love exposed and wind-swept situations.]

An-end, an-end′, prep. phrase, to the end, continuously: upright.—Most an-end, almost always.

Anent, a-nent′, prep. and adv. in a line with: against: towards: in regard to, concerning, about. [Mainly prov. Eng. and Scot., M.E. anent—A.S. on- efen, 'on even with' (dat.).]

Aneroid, an′e-roid, adj. denoting a barometer by which the pressure of the air is measured without the use of quicksilver or other fluid.—n. a contr. of 'aneroid barometer.' [Fr.—Gr. a, neg., nēros, wet.]

Aneurism, an′ūr-izm, n. a soft tumour arising from the dilatation of an artery acting on a part weakened by disease or injury: (fig.) any abnormal enlargement—adjs. An′eurismal, An′eurismatic. [Gr. aneurysmaana, up, eurys, wide.]

Anew, a-nū′, adv. afresh: again. [Of and New.]

Anfractuous, an-fract-ū′us, adj. winding, involved, circuitous.—n. Anfractuos′ity. [L. anfractusus, anfract-us.]

Angel, ān′jel, n. a divine messenger: a ministering spirit: an attendant or guardian spirit: a person possessing the qualities attributed to such—gentleness, purity, &c.: one supposed to have a special commission, as the head of the Church in Rev. ii. and iii., or the angel of the Catholic and Apostolic Church, who corresponds in a limited sense to the bishop of other Christian denominations: (poet.) a messenger generally: in art, the conventional figure attributed to the angel—a figure of great beauty, youthful, clothed in flowing garments, with wings: an old Eng. coin = 10s., bearing the figure of an angel.—n. An′gel-fish, a voracious fish, allied to the shark, from six to eight feet long, with large, wing-like pectoral fins.—adjs. Angel′ic (an-), Angel′ical.—adv. Angel′ically.—ns. Angelol′atry (ān-), angel-worship; Angelol′ogy, the doctrine regarding angels; Angeloph′any, the manifestation of an angel to man. [Gr. angelos, a messenger.]

Angelica, an-jel′i-ka, n. a genus of umbelliferous plants, the roots and seeds of some species of which are used in making gin, bitters, &c.—the tender stalks and midribs of the leaves are candied and used as a confection: confections.—n. An′gel-wat′er, a perfumed liquid, at first made largely from angelica, then from ambergris, rose-water, orange-flower water, &c. [From their supposed magical properties.]

Angelus, an′je-lus, n. the 'Hail, Mary,' or prayer to the Virgin, containing the angelic salutation: the bell rung in Roman Catholic countries at morning, noon, and sunset, to invite the faithful to recite the Angelic Salutation. [From its first words, 'Angelus domini nuntiavit Mari.']

Anger, ang′ger, n. a strong emotion excited by a real or fancied injury, and involving a desire for retaliation.—v.t. to make angry: to irritate.—adj. An′gerless.—advs. An′gerly, a 17th-cent. form (still used in an archaic sense) for Angrily; Ang′rily.—n. Ang′riness.—adj. Ang′ry, excited with anger: inflamed: lowering. [Ice. angr; allied to Anguish.]

Angevin, an′je-vin, adj. pertaining to Anjou: relating to the Plantagenet house that reigned in England from 1154 to 1485, its first king, Henry II., being son of Geoffrey V., Count of Anjou, and Matilda, daughter of Henry I. of England. By some the term Angevin is only allowed until the loss of Anjou under John (1204); by others, till the deposition of Richard II. in 1399.

Angina, an-jī′na, n. any inflammatory affection of the throat, as quinsy, croup, &c.: usually in medical phraseology with adjective, as Angina rheumatica = rheumatic sore throat.—Angina pectoris, a disease of the heart marked by paroxysms of intense pain, beginning at the breastbone and radiating thence mainly towards the left shoulder and arm. [L. angĭna. See Anguish.]

Angiocarpous, an-ji-ō-kar′pus, adj. having the fruit in an envelope distinct from the calyx. [Gr. angeion, a case, karpos, fruit.]

Angiosperm, an′ji-o-sperm, n. a plant whose ovules or future seeds are enclosed in a closed ovary, and fertilised through the medium of a stigma, while in Gymnosperms the ovule is naked, and the pollen is applied directly to its surface.—adjs. Angiosperm′ous, Angiosperm′al, Angiosper′matous.

A, right angle; B, acute angle; C, obtuse angle.

Angle, ang′gl, n. a corner: the point where two lines meet: (geom.) the inclination of two straight lines which meet, but are not in the same straight line: any outlying corner or nook.—adj. Ang′ular, having an angle or corner: (fig.) stiff in manner: the opposite of easy or graceful: bony and lean in figure.—n. Angular′ity.—adj. Ang′ulated, formed with angles. [Fr.—L. angulus; cog. with Gr. angkylos; both from root ank, to bend, seen also in Anchor, Ankle.]

Angle, ang′gl, n. a hook or bend: a fishing-rod with line and hook.—v.i. to fish with an angle.—v.t. to entice: to try to gain by some artifice.—ns. Ang′ler, one who fishes with an angle: a voracious fish about three feet long, not uncommon on British shores, and called also the Fishing-frog, the Sea-devil, and by the Scotch, Wide-gab; Ang′ling, the art or practice of fishing with a rod and line. [A.S. angel, a hook, allied to Anchor.]

Angles, ang′glz, the Low German stock that settled in Northumbria, Mercia, and East Anglia.

Anglican, ang′glik-an, adj. English: belonging to, or characteristic of, the Church of England.—n. Ang′licanism, attachment to English institutions, esp. the English Church: the principles of the English Church.—v.t. Ang′licise, to express in English idiom.—n. Ang′licism, an English idiom or peculiarity of language.—v.t. Ang′lify, to make English.

Anglo-, ang′glo, pfx. English—used in composition, as Anglo-Saxon, &c.—ns. Ang′lo-Cath′olic, one who calls himself a Catholic of the Anglican pattern, refusing the name of 'Protestant;' used adjectively, as in 'Anglo-Catholic Library;' Ang′lo-Catho′licism.—adj. and n. Ang′lo-Sax′on, applied to the earliest form of the English language—the term Old English is now preferred. Properly it should have referred only to the Saxons of Wessex, Essex, Middlesex, and Sussex, as distinct from the Angles.—ns. Ang′lo-Sax′ondom; Anglo-Sax′onism.—Anglo-Israelite theory, an opinion held by not a few well-meaning persons, innocent of scientific ethnology, that the English are descended from the Israelites who were carried into captivity by the Assyrians under Sargon in 721 B.C.

Anglomania, ang′glo-mān′i-a, n. a mania for what is English: an indiscriminate admiration of English institutions.—ns. Ang′loman (rare), Ang′lomān′iac.

Anglophobia, ang-glō-fō′bi-a, n. fear and dislike of England.—ns. An′glophobe, Anglophō′bist.—adj. Anglophō′bic. [Fr. Anglophobe—L. Anglo-, English, Gr. phobein, to fear.]

Angora, ang-gō′ra, n. cloth made from the wool of the Angora goat.—Angora Wool, the long white silky hair of the Angora goat, highly valued in manufactures. [Angora, a city of Asia Minor, famous for its breed of goats.]

Angostura, ang-gos-tōō′ra, n. a town of Venezuela, on the Orinoco (renamed Ciudad Bolivar in 1819), giving its name to an aromatic bitter bark, valuable as a febrifuge and tonic.—Angostura bitters is an essence containing angostura, canella, cinchona, lemon peel, and other aromatics, but much of what is sold under that name contains no angostura, but consists mainly of cheretta or other simple tonic.

Angry. See Anger.

Anguine, ang′gwīn, adj. of or like a snake. [L. anguis, anguin-is, a snake.]

Anguish, ang′gwish, n. excessive pain of body or mind: agony.—n. Ang′uishment. [O. Fr. angoisse—L. angustia, a strait, straitness—ang-u-ĕre, to press tightly: to strangle. See Anger.]

Anharmonic, an-har-mon′ik, adj. not harmonic: in geometry, a term applied to the section of a line by four points, A, B, C, D, when their mutual distances are such that AB divided by CB is unequal to AD divided by CD; the ratio between these two quotients being called the anharmonic ratio of AC.

Anhelation, an-he-lā′shun, n. difficult respiration: shortness of breath. [L. anhelatioanhelāre, from an, for amb, around, and hal-āre, to breathe.]

Anhungered. See Ahungered.

Anhydrous, an-hī′drus, adj. a term applied to a chemical substance free from water.— Anhy′drides, a term now commonly given to the compounds formerly known as anhydrous acids—in some cases the result of the dehydration of acids, and in all cases representing in their composition the acid minus water.—n. Anhy′drite, a mineral consisting of anhydrous sulphate of lime, with some slight addition of sea-salt, appearing in several varieties—granular, fibrous, radiated and translucent, compact and of various shades—white, blue, gray, red. [Gr. a, an, neg., hydōr, water.]

Anight, a-nīt′, adv. (Shak.) of nights, at night. [Of and Night.]

Anil, an′il, n. a plant from whose leaves and stalks indigo is made. [Sp. anil; Ar. an-nil for al-nil, the indigo plant.]

Anile, an′īl, adj. old womanish: imbecile.—n. Anil′ity, imbecile dotage. [L. anus, an old woman.]

Aniline, an′il-in, n. a product of coal-tar extensively used in dyeing and other industrial arts. [Port. anil, indigo, from which it was first obtained.]

Animadvert, an-im-ad-vėrt′, v.i. to criticise or censure.—n. Animadver′sion, criticism, censure, or reproof. [L., to turn the mind to—animus, the mind, ad, to, and vertĕre, to turn.]

Animal, an′im-al, n. an organised being, having life, sensation, and voluntary motion—it is distinguished from a plant, which is organised and has life, but not sensation or voluntary motion: the name sometimes implies the absence of the higher faculties peculiar to man.—adj. of or belonging to animals: sensual.—n. Animalisā′tion, the act of converting into animal substance, or of endowing with animal attributes: brutalisation.—v.t. An′imalise, to endow with animal life: to convert into animal matter:—pr.p. an′imalīsing; pa.p. an′imalīsed.n. An′imalism, the state of being actuated by animal appetites only: the exercise or enjoyment of animal life, as distinct from intellectual: brutishness: sensuality: (rare) a mere animal being.—adv. An′imally, physically merely.—Animal spirits, nervous force: exuberance of health and life: cheerful buoyancy of temper: (Milton) the spirit or principle of volition and sensation. [L.—anima, air, life, Gr. anemos, wind—, aēmi, Sans. an, to breathe, to blow.]

Animalcule, an-im-al′kūl, n. a small animal, esp. one that cannot be seen by the naked eye:—pl. Animal′cules, Animal′cula.—adj. Animal′cular. [L. animalculum, dim. of Animal.]

Animate, an′im-āt, v.t. to give life to: to enliven or inspirit: to actuate.—adj. living: possessing animal life.—adj. An′imated, lively: full of spirit: endowed with life.—adv. Animat′edly.—p.adj. An′imating.—adv. Animat′ingly.—ns. Animā′tion, liveliness: vigour; An′imator, he who, or that which, animates. [See Animal.]

Anime, an′im, n. the resin of the West Indian locust-tree—used also for other gums and resins. [Said to be Fr. anim, living, from the number of insects in it; but perhaps a native name.]

Animism, an′im-izm, n. a theory which regards the belief in separate spiritual existences as the germ of religious ideas. It is adopted by E. B. Tylor in his Primitive Culture as the minimum definition of religion, being considered to have arisen simply from the evidence of the senses, interpreted by the crude and child-like science of the savage: the theory of Stahl, which regarded the vital principle and the soul as identical.—n. An′imist.—adj. An′imistic. [L. anima, the soul.]

Animosity, an-im-os′i-ti, n. bitter hatred: enmity. [L. animositas, fullness of spirit.]

Animus, an′im-us, n. intention: actuating spirit: prejudice against. [L. animus, spirit, soul, as distinguished from anima, the mere life.]

Anise, an′is, n. an umbelliferous plant, the aromatic seeds of which are used in making cordials. The anise of Matt. xxiii. 23 (Gr. anēthon) is properly the dill.—ns. An′iseed; Anisette′, a cordial or liqueur prepared from anise seed. [Gr. anison.]

Anker, angk′ėr, n. a liquid measure used in Northern Europe, formerly in England, varying considerably—that of Rotterdam having a capacity of 10 old wine gallons, or 8⅓ imperial gallons. [Dut.]

Ankle, Ancle, angk′l, n. the joint connecting the foot and leg.—adj. Ank′led, having, or pertaining to ankles.—n. Ank′let, an ornament for the ankle. [A.S. anclow, cog. with Ger. enkel, and conn. with Angle.]

Ankylosis. See Anchylosis.

Anlace, Anelace, an′lās, n. a short two-edged knife or dagger, tapering to a point, formerly worn at the girdle. [Low L. anelacius; perh. the old Welsh anglas.]

Anna, an′a, n. an Indian coin worth nominally 1d sterling, but always the sixteenth part of a rupee. [Hind. ānā.]

Annals, an′alz, records of events under the years in which they happened: any historical work that follows the order of time in its narrations, separating them off into single years, as the Annals of Tacitus: historical records generally: year-books.—v.t. Ann′alise, to write annals: to record.—n. Ann′alist, a writer of annals. [L. annalesannus, a year.]

Annat, an′at, Annate, an′āt, n. the first-fruits, or one year's income, or a specified portion of such, paid to the Pope by a bishop, abbot, or other ecclesiastic, on his appointment to a new see or benefice. It was abolished in England in 1534, and next year the right was annexed to the crown, the fund thus arising being administered for the benefit of the Church of England, afterwards transferred to the governors of Queen Anne's Bounty, next to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners: (Scots law) the half-year's stipend payable for the vacant half-year after the death of a parish minister, to which his family or nearest of kin have right under an act of 1672. [Low L. annata—L. annus, a year.]

Annatto. See Anatta.

Anneal, an-ēl′, v.t. to temper glass or metals by subjecting them to great heat and gradual cooling: to heat in order to fix colours on, as glass.—n. Anneal′ing. [Pfx. an-, and A.S. lan, to burn.]

Annelida, an-el′i-da, n. a class of animals comprising the red-blooded worms, having a long body composed of numerous rings.—n. Ann′elid. [L. annellus, dim. of annulus, a ring.]

Annex, an-neks′, v.t. to add to the end: to join or attach: to take permanent possession of additional territory: to affix: append (with to).—n. something added: a supplementary building—often with the Fr. spelling annexe.—n. Annexā′tion, act of annexing.—n. and adj. Annexā′tionist.—ns. Annex′ion, Annex′ment (Shak.), addition: the thing annexed. [Fr. annexer—L. annex-um, annectĕre: ad, to, nect-ĕre, to tie.]

Annihilate, an-nī′hil-āt, v.t. to reduce to nothing: to put out of existence: to render null and void, to abrogate.—ns. Annihilā′tion, state of being reduced to nothing: act of destroying: (theol.) the destruction of soul as well as body; Annihilā′tionism, the belief that the soul dies with the body.—adj. Annihilā′tive.—n. Annihilā′tor, one who annihilates. [L. annihilatus, annihilāre; ad, to, nihil, nothing.]

Anniversary, an-ni-vėrs′ar-i, adj. returning or happening every year: annual.—n. the day of the year on which an event happened or is celebrated: the celebration proper to such, esp. a mass or religious service. [L. anniversarius; annus, a year, and vertĕre, versum, to turn.]

Annotate, an′not-āt, v.t. to make notes upon.—ns. An′notation, a note of explanation: comment; An′notator, a writer of notes, a commentator. [L. annotāread, to, notāre, -ātum, to mark.]

Announce, an-nowns′, v.t. to declare: to give public notice of: to make known.—n. Announce′ment. [O. Fr. anoncer—L. annuntiāread, to, nunti, -āre, to deliver news.]

Annoy, an-noi′, v.t. to trouble: to vex: to tease: to harm, esp. in military sense:—pr.p. annoy′ing; pa.p. annoyed′.ns. Annoy (now poetic only), Annoy′ance, that which annoys.—adv. Annoy′ingly. [O. Fr. anoier (It. annoiare); noun, anoi (mod. ennui), acc. to Diez from L. phrase, in odio, as in 'est mihi in odio' = 'it is to me hateful.']

Annual, an′nū-al, adj. yearly: coming every year: requiring to be renewed every year: performed in a year.—n. a plant that lives out one year: a book published yearly, esp. applied to the sumptuous books, usually illustrated with good engravings, much in demand in the first half of the 19th century for Christmas, New Year, and birthday presents.—adv. An′nually. [Through Fr. from L. annualisannus, a year.]

Annuity, an-nū′i-ti, n. a payment generally (but not necessarily) of uniform amount falling due in each year during a given term, such as a period of years or the life of an individual, the capital sum not being returnable.—n. Annū′itant, one who receives an annuity.—Certain annuity, one for a fixed term of years, subject to no contingency whatever; Contingent annuity, one that depends also on the continuance of some status, as the life of a person whose duration is calculated by the theory of probabilities. An annuity is usually held payable to the end of each year survived; but when, in addition, a proportion of the year's annuity is payable up to the day of death, the annuity is said to be Complete—the ordinary annuity being sometimes, for distinction, referred to as a Curtate annuity. When the first payment is due in advance, the annuity is known as an Annuity due; when the first payment is not to be made until the expiry of a certain number of years, it is called a Deferred or Reversionary annuity.

Annul, an-nul′, v.t. to make null, to reduce to nothing: to abolish:—pr.p. annul′ling; pa.p. annulled′.n. Annul′ment, the act of annulling. [Fr. annuler—Low L. annullā-re, to make into nothing—L. ad-, to, nullus, none.]

Annular, an′nūl-ar, adj. ring-shaped.—adjs. An′nulate, An′nulated, formed or divided into rings.—ns. Annulā′tion, a ring or belt: a circular formation; An′nulet, a little ring: (archit.) a small flat fillet, encircling a column, &c., used either by itself or in connection with other mouldings: (her.) a little circle borne as a charge on coats of arms.—adj. An′nulose, having rings: composed of rings. [L. annularis; annulus or anulus, a ring—dim. of anus, a rounding or ring.]

Annunciation, an-nun-si-ā′shun, n. the act of announcing.—v.t. Annun′ciate, to proclaim.—n. Annunciā′tion-day, the anniversary of the Angel's salutation to the Virgin Mary, the 25th of March, Lady-day. [See Announce.]

Anode, an′ōd, n. a term in electrolysis introduced by Faraday to designate the positive pole, or that surface by which the galvanic current enters the body undergoing decomposition (electrolyte)—as opp. to Cathode, the negative pole. [Gr. ana, up, hodos, way.]

Anodyne, an′o-dīn, n. a medicine that allays pain, whether acting on the nerves and nerve terminations (aconite, belladonna, cocaine), on the brain (chloral, Indian hemp), or on all these parts (opium, bromide of potassium). [Gr.; a, an, neg., and odynē, pain.]

Anoint, an-oint′, v.t. to smear with ointment or oil: to consecrate with oil.—n. Anoint′ment, the act of anointing or state of being anointed.—The Anointed, the Messiah. [= an+oint. See Ointment.]

Anomaly, an-om′al-i, n. irregularity: deviation from rule: (astron.) the angle measured at the sun between a planet in any point of its orbit and the last perihelion.—adjs. Anomalist′ic, -al, anomalous: departing from established rules: irregular.—n. Anom′alite, an irregular mineral.—adj. Anom′alous, irregular: deviating from rule.—Anomalistic year, the interval that elapses between two successive passages of the earth through its perihelion, or point of nearest approach to the sun = 365 days 6 hr. 13 min. 49 sec., being 4 min. 39 sec. longer than the sidereal year. [Gr. anōmalosa, an, neg., and homalos, even—homos, same.]

Anon, an-on′, adv. in one (instant): immediately.

Anonymous, an-on′im-us, adj. wanting a name: not having the name of the author, as distinguished from pseudonymous, when another than his real name has been given.—ns. An′onym, a person whose name is not given: a pseudonym; Anonym′ity, the quality or state of being anonymous.—adv. Anon′ymously. [Gr. anōnymosa, an, neg., and onoma, name.]

Another, an-uth′ėr, adj. not the same: a different or distinct (thing or person): one more: a second: one more of the same kind: any other.—One another, now used as a compound reciprocal pronoun (of two or more); One with another, taken all together, taken on the average.—You're another, the vulgar Tu quoque. [Orig. an other.]

Anserine, an′sėr-īn, or -in, adj. relating to the goose or goose-tribe: stupid, silly. [L. anserinus, anser.]

Answer, an′sėr, v.t. to reply to: to satisfy or solve: to repay: to suit: to suffer the consequences of.—v.i. to reply: to reply favourably: to act in conformity with, as 'to answer the helm:' to be accountable for (with for): to correspond: to be advantageous to: to turn out well.—n. a reply: a solution.—adj. An′swerable, able to be answered: accountable: suitable: equivalent: proportional (with to).—adv. An′swerably.—n. An′swerer.—adv. An′swerless. [A.S. andswar-ianandswaru; and-, against, swerian, to swear.]

Ant, ant, n. a small insect: the emmet or pismire.—ns. Ant′-bear, one of the largest species of the ant-eaters, found in the swampy regions in Central and Southern America, also called the Great Ant-eater; Ant′-cow (see Aphides); Ant′-eat′er, a genus of edentate South American quadrupeds, feeding on insects, and chiefly on ants, which they procure by means of their very long cylindrical tongue covered with a viscid saliva; Ant′-hill, the hillock raised by ants to form their nest: also figuratively applied, as to the earth; Ant′-thrush, a general name applied to birds of tropical and sub-tropical countries which feed to a large extent on ants. [A contr. of Emmet—A.S. mete.]

An't, a contr. of aren't, are not; colloquial for am not, is not, has not.—An't = on't, on it (Shak.).

Antacid, ant-as′id, n. a medicine which counteracts acidity.—adj. possessing such quality. [Gr. anti, against, and Acid.]

Antagonism, ant-ag′on-izm, n. a contending or struggling against: opposition (with to, and also with).—n. Antagonisā′tion.—v.t. Antag′onise, to struggle violently against: to counteract the action of an opposite muscle.—p.adj. Antag′onised, made antagonistic, opposed beyond hope of reconciliation.—n. Antag′onist, one who contends or struggles with another: an opponent.—adjs. Antag′onist, Antagonist′ic, contending against: opposed to.—adv. Antagonis′tically. [Gr. anti, against—agōn, contest. See Agony.]

Antalkali, ant-al′ka-li, n. anything that counteracts the action of an alkali. [Ant- and Alkali.]

Antarctic, ant-rkt′ik, adj. opposite the Arctic: relating to the south pole or to south polar regions.—adj. Antarct′ical.—adv. Antarct′ically (obs.). [Gr. anti, opposite, and Arctic.]

Antarthritic, ant-ar-thrit′ik, adj. counteracting gout. [Gr. anti, against, and Arthritic.]

Antasthmatic, ant-ast-mat′ik, adj. counteracting asthma. [Gr. anti, against, and Asthmatic.]

Antecedent, an-te-sēd′ent, adj. going before in time: prior.—n. that which precedes in time: (gram.) the noun or pronoun to which a relative pronoun refers: (logic) a statement or proposition from which another is logically deduced: (math.) the antecedent of a ratio is the first of two terms which compose the ratio—the first and third in a series of four proportionals: (pl.) previous principles, conduct, history, &c.—n. Anteced′ence.—adv. Anteced′ently. [L. antecedent-em; ante, before, cedĕre, cessum, to go.]

Antecessor, an-te-ses′sor, n. (rare) a predecessor.

Antechamber, an′te-chām-bėr, n. a chamber or room leading to the chief apartment. [Fr. anti-chambre, ante-chambre.]

Antechapel, an′te-cha-pl, n. the outer part of the west end of a college chapel. [L. ante, before, and Chapel.]

Antedate, an′te-dāt, n. a date assigned which is earlier than the actual date.—v.t. to date before the true time: to assign an event to an earlier date: to bring about at an earlier date: to be of previous date: to accelerate: to anticipate. [L. ante, before, and Date.]

Antediluvian, -al, an-te-di-lū′vi-an, -al, adj. existing or happening before the Deluge or Flood: resembling the state of things before the Flood: very old-fashioned, primitive.—adv. Antedilū′vially.—n. Antedilū′vian, one who lived before the Flood: one who lives to be very old. [See Deluge.]

Antefix, an′te-fiks, n. (usually in pl.) term in ancient architecture, used of the ornamental tiles placed on the eaves of buildings to conceal the ends of the common or roofing tiles:—pl. An′tefixes, An′tefixa.—adj. An′tefixal. [L. ante, before, in front, and fixum, figĕre, to fix.]

Antelope, an′te-lōp, n. a quadruped belonging to the hollow-horned section of the order of Ruminants, differing from the goat in its beardless chin—a gregarious, peaceable animal, remarkable for grace, agility, and swiftness. [O. Fr. antelop—L. antalopus—Gr. antholops, of which the origin is uncertain, perhaps from Gr. anthein, to blossom, shine, and ōps, eye, and thus equivalent to 'bright-eyes.']

Antelucan, an-te-lōō′kan, adj. before dawn or daylight. [L. antelucanusante, before, lux, luc-is, light.]

Antemeridian, an-te-me-ri′di-an, adj. before midday or noon. [See Meridian.]

Antemundane, an-te-mun′dān, adj. before the existence or creation of the world. [L. ante, before, and Mundane.]

Antenatal, an-te-nā′tal, adj. existing before birth.—n. An′te-na′ti, those born before a certain time, as opposed to Post′-na′ti, those born after it—of Scotsmen born before 1603, and Americans before the Declaration of Independence (1776). [L. ante, before, and Natal.]

Ante-nicene, an′te-nī′sēn, adj. before the first general council of the Christian Church held at Nice or Nica in Bithynia, 325 A.D.

Antenn, an-ten′ē, the feelers or horns of insects, crustaceans, and myriopods.—adjs. Antenn′al, Antenn′ary, Antenn′iform, Antennif′erous. [L. antenna, a sailyard, the L. translation of Aristotle's keraiai, horns of insects, a word also used of the projecting ends of sailyards.]

Antenuptial, an-te-nupsh′al, adj. before nuptials or marriage. [L. ante, before, and Nuptial.]

Anteorbital, an-te-or′bit-al, adj. situated in front of the eyes. [L. ante, before, and Orbit, eye-socket.]

Antepaschal, an-te-pas′kal, adj. relating to the time before Easter. [L. ante, before, and Paschal.]

Antepast, an′te-past, n. (obs.) something to whet the appetite: a foretaste. [L. ante, before, and pastum, pascĕre, to feed.]

Antependium, an-te-pend′i-um, n. a frontlet, forecloth, frontal, or covering for an altar, of silk, satin, or velvet, often richly embroidered. [L. ante, before, and pend-ĕre, to hang.]

Antepenult, an-te-pen′ult, n. the syllable before the penult or next ultimate syllable of a word: the last syllable of a word but two.—adj. Antepenult′imate. [L. ante, before, and Penult.]

Anteprandial, an-te-prand′i-al, adj. before dinner. [L. ante, before, and prandium, dinner.]

Anterior, an-tē′ri-or, adj. before, in time or place: in front.—ns. Anterior′ity, Antē′riorness.—adv. Antē′riorly. [L.; comp. of ante, before.]

Anteroom, an′te-rōōm, n. a room before another: a room leading into a principal apartment. [L. ante, before, and Room.]

Antevenient, an-te-vē′ni-ent, adj. coming before, preceding. [L. antevenient-em; ante, before, ven-īre, to come.]

Anthelion, ant-hēl′yun, n. a luminous coloured ring observed by a spectator on a cloud or fog-bank over against the sun:—pl. Anthel′ia. [Gr. anti, opposite, hēlios, the sun.]

Anthelmintic, an-thel-mint′ik, adj. destroying or expelling worms. [Gr. anti, against, and helmins, helminthos, a worm.]

Anthem, an′them, n. a piece of sacred music sung in alternate parts: a piece of sacred music set to a passage from Scripture: any song of praise or gladness.—v.t. to praise in an anthem.—adv. An′themwise. [A.S. antefn—Gr. antiphonaanti, in return, phōne, the voice. See Antiphon.]

Anthers of Wall-flower.

Anther, an′thėr, n. the top of the stamen in a flower which contains the pollen or fertilising dust.—adjs. An′theral; Antherif′erous, bearing anthers; Anth′eroid, resembling an anther. [L. anthera, which meant a medicine extracted from flowers, and consisting esp. of the internal organs of flowers—Gr. anthēros, flowery—anthos, a flower.]

Antheridium, an-ther-id′i-um, n. the male reproductive organs of many cryptogams, as ferns, horse-tails, mosses, &c. [L. anthera, and -idium, Gr. dim. ending.]

Antherozooid, an-ther-o-zō′oid, n. a minute moving body in the antheridia of cryptogams. [L. anthera, and zooid—Gr. zōōeidēs, like an animal—zōon, animal, and eidos, shape.]

Anthocarpous, an-tho-kr′pus, adj. (bot.) bearing fruit resulting from many flowers, as the pine-apple. [From Gr. anthos, a flower, karpos, fruit.]

Anthoid, an′thoid, adj. flower-like. [Gr. anthos, a flower, and -eidēs, like.]

Antholite, an′tho-līt, n. a flower turned into stone, a fossil flower. [Gr. anthos, a flower, lithos, stone.]

Anthology, an-thol′oj-i, n. (lit.) a gathering or collection of flowers: a collection of poems or choice literary extracts, esp. epigrams, orig. applied to the collections of Greek epigrams so called.—adj. Antholog′ical. [Gr. anthos, a flower, legein, to gather.]

Anthomania, an-thō-mān′ya, n. a madness for flowers.——n. Anthomān′iac. [Gr. anthos, and mania, madness.]

Anthony (St), an′ton-i, the patron saint of swineherds: the smallest pig in a litter.—Anthony's fire, a popular name for erysipelas.

Anthozoa, an′tho-zō-a, another name for Actinozoa, one of the three classes of Cœlenterates, including sea-anemones, corals, &c. [Gr. anthos, a flower, zōa, animals.]

Anthracene, an-thra-sēn′, n. a hydrocarbon obtained as one of the last products in the distillation of coal-tar, of value as the source of artificial alizarin. [Gr. anthrax, coal, and -ene.]

Anthracite, an′thras-īt, n. a kind of coal that burns nearly without flame, smell, or smoke, consisting almost entirely of carbon, and not readily ignited.—adjs. Anthracif′erous, yielding anthracite; Anthracit′ic.—n. Anthracit′ism. [Gr. anthrakitēs, coal-like—anthrax, coal.]

Anthrax, an′thraks, n. a widely distributed and very destructive disease, most common among sheep and cattle, the first infectious disease proved to be due to the presence of microscopic vegetable organisms (bacilli)—other names are Splenic Apoplexy, Splenic Fever, and as it occurs in man, Malignant Pustule and Woolsorter's Disease: a carbuncle or malignant boil.—adjs. Anthra′cic, An′thracoid. [L.—Gr. anthrax; coal, a carbuncle.]

Anthropical, an-throp′ik-al, adj. (rare) connected with human nature. [Gr. anthropikos, human, anthrōpos, man.]

Anthropinism, an-thrōp′in-ism, n. the looking at things in their relation to man. [Gr. anthropinos, human (anthrōpos), and -ism.]

Anthropocentric, an-thrō-po-sent′rik, adj. centring all the universe in man. [Gr. anthrōpos, man, and kentron, centre.]

Anthropography, an-thro-pog′ra-fi, n. that branch of anthropology which treats of the human race according to its geographical distribution. [Gr. anthrōpos, man, graphia, description—graphein, to write.]

Anthropoid, an′throp-oid, adj. in the form of or resembling man.—n. the anthropoid ape, the highest and most man-like monkey.—adj. An′thropoidal. [Gr. anthrōpos, man, eidos, form.]

Anthropolatry, an-thro-pol′a-tri, n. the giving of divine honours to a human being, a term always employed in reproach. It was used by the Apollinarians against the orthodox Christians of the 4th and 5th centuries, with reference to the doctrine of the perfect human nature of Christ. [Gr. anthrōpos, man, latreia, worship.]

Anthropolite, an-throp′o-līt, n. human remains turned into stone, fossil human remains. [Gr. anthrōpos, man, lithos, stone.]

Anthropology, an-throp-ol′oj-i, n. the science of man, more especially considered as a social animal: the natural history of man in its widest sense, treating of his relation to the brutes, his evolution, the different races, &c.—adj. Anthropolog′ical.—adv. Anthropolog′ically.—n. Anthropol′ogist, one versed in anthropology. [Gr. anthrōpos, man, and logos, discourse—legein, to say.]

Anthropometry, an-thrō-pom′et-ri, n. the measurement of the human body to discover its exact dimensions and the proportions of its parts, for comparison with its dimensions at different periods, or in different races and classes.—adj. Anthropomet′ric. [Gr. anthrōpos, man, and metrein, to measure.]

Anthropomorphism, an-throp-o-morf′izm, n. the representation of the Deity in the form of man or with bodily parts: the ascription to the Deity of human affections and passions.—adj. Anthropomorph′ic.—v.t. Anthropomorph′ise, to regard as or render anthropomorphous.—ns. Anthropomorph′ist; Anthropomorph′ite; Anthropomorph′itism. [Gr. anthrōpos, man, morphē, form.]

Anthropomorphosis, an-thrō-po-morf-os′is, or -morf′os-is, n. transformation into human shape.—adj. Anthropomorph′ous, formed like or resembling man. [Gr. anthropomorphōsisanthrōpos, man, and a verb of action, formed from morphē, shape.]

Anthropopathism, an-thro-pop′a-thizm, n. the ascription to the Deity of human passions and affections—also Anthropop′athy.—adj. Anthropopath′ic.—adv. Anthropopath′ically. [Gr. anthrōpos, man, pathos, suffering, passion.]

Anthropophagy, an-thro-pof′aj-i, n. cannibalism.— Anthropoph′agi, man-eaters, cannibals.—ns. Anthropophagin′ian (Shak.) a cannibal; Anthropoph′agite.—adj. Anthropoph′agous. [Gr. anthrōpos, man, phag-ein, to eat.]

Anthropophuism, an-thrō-pof′ū-izm, n. the ascription of a human nature to the gods. [Gr. anthrōpos, man, and phuē, nature, and -ism.]

Anthroposophy, an-thrō-pos′o-fi, n. the knowledge of the nature of men: human wisdom.—n. Anthropos′ophist, one furnished with the wisdom of men. [Gr. anthrōpos, man, and sophia, wisdom.]

Anthropotomy, an-thrō-pot′om-i, n. anatomy of the human body. [Gr. anthrōpos, man, and temnein, to cut.]

Anti, ant′i, pfx. against, in opposition to, rivalling, simulating. It forms numerous derivatives, alike nouns and adjectives, as antichrist, antipope, anticlimax, anti-tobacconist; anti-Ritualistic, anti-Semite. [Gr. anti, against, instead of, &c.]

Antiar, an′ti-ar, n. the upas-tree (see Upas). [Jav. antjar.]

Anti-attrition, an′ti-at-trish′on, n. anything which counteracts attrition or friction—also figuratively. [Pfx. Anti- and Attrition.]

Antibilious, an′ti-bil′yus, adj. of use against biliousness. [Anti- and Bilious.]

Antiburgher, an-ti-burg′ėr, n. that section of the Scottish Secession Church which parted from the main body (the Burghers) in 1747, holding it unlawful to take the oath administered to burgesses in Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Perth, because of the reference to 'the true religion presently professed within this realm.' They read into it an allusion to the Church as by law established, while others interpreted it as signifying simply the Protestant religion. [Anti- and Burgher.]

Antic, ant′ik, adj. grotesque: odd: ridiculous in shape, dress, &c.—n. a fantastic or ancient figure, caricaturing or combining grotesquely animal or vegetable forms, or both together: (Shak.) a grotesque pageant: a buffoon, clown, mountebank: a trick, mostly in pl.v.t. (Shak.) to make grotesque.—v.i. An′ticize (Browning), to play antics. [It. antico, equivalent to It. grottesco, and orig. used of the fantastic decorations composed of human and other forms found in the remains of ancient Rome—L. antiquus.]

Anticatholic, an-ti-kath′o-lik, adj. opposed to what is Catholic. [Anti- and Catholic.]

Antichlor, an′ti-klōr, n. a substance used in the making of paper to free the pulp from the injurious after-effects of chlorine. [Anti- and Chlor-ine.]

Antichrist, an′ti-krīst, n. the great opposer of Christ and Christianity: the name of a great enemy of Christ always expected to appear by the early Church, applied by some to the Pope and his power.—adj. Antichristian (-krist′-), relating to Antichrist: opposed to Christianity.—n. Antichrist′ianism.—adv. Antichrist′ianly. [Gr.; anti, against, and Christ-os.]

Anticipate, an-tis′ip-āt, v.t. to be beforehand with (another person or thing), to forestall or preoccupy: to take in hand, or consider, before the due time: to foresee: realise beforehand, or count upon as certain: to expect.—v.t. and v.i. to accelerate: to occur earlier than.—adj. and n. Antic′ipant, anticipating, anticipative.—n. Anticipā′tion, act of anticipating: assignment to too early a time: foretaste: previous notion, or presentiment: expectation.—adjs. Anti′cipātive, Anti′cipātory.—advs. Anticipā′tively, Anticipā′torily (rare). [L. anticipāre, -ātumānte, before, cap-ĕre, to take.]

Anticivic, an-ti-siv′ik, adj. opposed to citizenship, esp. the conception of it engendered by the French Revolution.—n. Anticiv′ism.

Anticlimax, an-ti-klīm′aks, n. the opposite of climax: a sentence in which the ideas become less important towards the close: also of any descent as against a previous rise—e.g. Waller's

'Under the Tropicks is our language spoke,

And part of Flanders hath receiv'd our yoke.'

[Gr. anti, against, and Climax.]

Anticlinal, an-ti-klīn′al, adj. sloping in opposite directions.—n. (geol.) applied to strata which are inclined in opposite directions from a common axis—in a roof-like form. [Gr. anti, against, klin-ein, to lean.]

Anticyclone, an-ti-sī′klōn, n. name given to the rotatory flow of air from an atmospheric area of high pressure.—adj. Anticyclon′ic. [Anti- and Cyclone.]

Antidote, an′ti-dōt, n. that which is given against anything that would produce bad effects: a counter-poison: (fig.) anything that prevents evil (with against, for, to).—adj. An′tidotal. [Gr. antidotosanti, against, didōmi, to give.]

Antient. See Ancient.

Antifebrile, an-ti-feb′rīl, adj. efficacious against fever.—n. a substance with such properties.—Also Antifebrif′ic.

Anti-federal, an-ti-fed′e-ral, adj. opposed to federalism; applied to the U.S. party whose fundamental principle was opposition to the strengthening of the national government at the expense of the States. Later names for the party were Republican, Democratic Republican, and Democratic alone.—ns. Anti-fed′eralism; Anti-fed′eralist.

Antifriction, an-ti-frik′shun, n. anything which prevents friction. [Anti- and Friction.]

Anti-Gallican, an-ti-gal′ik-an, adj. and n. opposed to what is French: or esp. opposed to the Gallican liberties of the French Church.—n. Anti-Gall′icanism. [Anti- and Gallican.]

Antigropelos, an-ti-grōp′el-os, n. waterproof leggings. [Said to be made up from Gr. anti, against, hygros, wet, and pēlos, mud. Prob. this barbarous word was orig. an advertisement.]

Antihelix, an′ti-hē-liks, n. the inner curved ridge of the pinna of the ear:—pl. Antihēl′ices.—Also An′thelix.

Anti-Jacobin, an′ti-jak′o-bin, adj. opposed to the Jacobins, a party in the French Revolution, hence an opponent of the French Revolution, or of democratic principles.—n. one opposed to the Jacobins: a weekly paper started in England in 1797 by Canning and others to refute the principles of the French Revolution.—n. An′ti-Jac′obinism. [Anti- and Jacobin.]

Antilegomena, an-ti-leg-om′en-a, a term applied to those books of the New Testament not at first accepted by the whole Christian Church, but ultimately admitted into the Canon—the seven books of 2 Peter, James, Jude, Hebrews, 2 and 3 John, and the Apocalypse.—The other books were called Homologoumena, 'agreed to.' [Gr., lit. 'spoken against.']

Antilogarithm, an-ti-log′a-rithm, n. the complement of the logarithm of a sine, tangent, or secant. [Anti- and Logarithm.]

Antilogy, an-til′o-ji, n. a contradiction. [Gr. antilogia, contradiction, antilegein, to contradict.]

Antimacassar, an-ti-mak-as′ar, n. a covering for sofas, cushions, &c., to protect them from grease, esp. in the hair, also for ornament. [Anti- and Macassar.]

Antimask, Antimasque, an′ti-mask, n. a ridiculous interlude dividing the parts of the more serious mask. [Gr. anti, against, and Mask.]

Antimetabole, an-ti-me-tab′ol-e, n. (rhet.) a figure in which the same words or ideas are repeated in inverse order, as Quarles's 'Be wisely worldly, but not worldly wise.' [Gr.]

Antimetathesis, an′ti-me-tath′e-sis, n. inversion of the members of an antithesis, as in Crabbe's 'A poem is a speaking picture; a picture, a mute poem.' [Gr.]

Antimnemonic, an-ti-ne-mon′ik, adj. and n. tending to weaken the memory. [Anti- and Mnemonic.]

Antimonarchical, an-ti-mon-ark′i-kal, adj. opposed to monarchy and monarchical principles.—n. Antimon′archist. [Anti- and Monarchical.]

Antimony, an′ti-mun-i, n. a brittle, bluish-white metal of flaky, crystalline texture, much used in the arts and in medicine.—adjs. Antimōn′ial, Antimon′ic. [Through Fr. from Low L. antimonium, of unknown origin, prob. a corr. of some Arabic word.]

Anti-national, an-ti-nash′un-al, adj. hostile to one's nation.

Antinephritic, an-ti-ne-frit′ik, adj. acting against diseases of the kidney. [Gr. anti, against, and Nephritic.]

Antinomianism, an-ti-nōm′i-an-izm, n. the belief that Christians are emancipated by the gospel from the obligation to keep the moral law—a monstrous abuse and perversion of the Pauline doctrine of justification by faith, esp. applied to the party of Johann Agricola in the German Reformation.—n. and adj. Antinom′ian, against the law: pertaining to the Antinomians. [Gr. anti, against, nomos, a law.]

Antinomy, an′ti-nom-i, or an-tin′o-mi, n. a contradiction in a law: a conflict of authority: conclusions discrepant though apparently logical.—adjs. Antinō′mic, Antinō′mical. [Gr. anti, against, nomos, a law.]

Antinous, an-tin′ō-us, n. an ideal of youthful manly beauty, from the name of the favourite of the Roman emperor Hadrian so famous in ancient art.

Antiochian, an-ti-ō′ki-an, adj. of or pertaining to the city of Antioch, or the eclectic system in philosophy of Antiochus of Ascalon.—n. Antiō′chianism, a school of theology in the 4th and 5th centuries which spread over the whole Grco-Syrian Church, and was a revolt against the allegorical interpretation of Scripture favoured by the Alexandrian school.

Antiodontalgic, an-ti-ō-dont-alj′ik, adj. of use against toothache. [Gr. anti, against, odous, tooth, and algein, to suffer pain.]

Antipathy, an-tip′ath-i, n. dislike: repugnance: opposition: the object of antipathy (with against, to, between of persons).—adjs. Antipathet′ic, -al; Antipath′ic, belonging to antipathy: opposite: contrary.—n. Antip′athist, one possessed by an antipathy. [Gr. anti, against, pathos, feeling.]

Antiperiodic, an-ti-pē-ri-od′ik, adj. destroying the periodicity of diseases, such as ague, whose attacks recur at regular intervals: a drug with such an effect, esp. cinchona bark and its alkaloids (quinine), and arsenic.

Antiperistaltic, an-ti-per-i-stal′tik, adj. contrary to peristaltic motion: acting upwards. [Anti- and Peristaltic.]

Antiperistasis, an-ti-per-ist′a-sis, n. opposition of circumstances: resistance exerted against any train of circumstances. [Gr.; anti, against, and peristasis, a circumstance—peri, around, and histēmi, make to stand.]

Antiphlogistic, an-ti-floj-ist′ik, adj. of remedies acting against heat, or inflammation, as blood-letting, purgatives, low diet.—n. a medicine to allay inflammation. [Anti- and Phlogistic.]

Antiphon, an′tif-ōn, n. alternate chanting or singing: a species of sacred song, sung by two parties, each responding to the other—also Antiph′ony.—adj. Antiph′onal, pertaining to antiphony.—n. a book of antiphons or anthems—also Antiph′onary and Antiph′oner.—adjs. Antiphon′ic, Antiphon′ical, mutually responsive.—adv. Antiphon′ically. [Gr.; anti, in return, and phōnē, voice. A doublet of Anthem.]

Antiphrasis, an-tif′ra-sis, n. (rhet.) the use of words in a sense opposite to the true one.—adjs. Antiphras′tic, -al, involving antiphrasis: ironical.—adv. Antiphras′tically. [Gr.; anti, against, phrasis, speech.]

Antipodes, an-tip′od-ēz, those living on the other side of the globe, and whose feet are thus opposite to ours: the inhabitants of any two opposite points of the globe: places on the earth's surface exactly opposite each other, the region opposite one's own: the exact opposite of a person or thing:—sing. An′tipode.—adjs. Antip′odal, Antipodē′an.—At antipodes, in direct opposition. [Gr. anti, opposite to, pous, podos, a foot.]

Antipole, an′ti-pōl, n. the opposite pole: direct opposite. [Anti- and Pole.]

Antipope, an′ti-pōp, n. a pontiff elected in opposition to one canonically chosen, e.g. those who resided at Avignon in the 13th and 14th centuries. [Gr. anti, against, and Pope.]

Antipopular, an-ti-pop′ū-lar, adj. adverse to the people or the popular cause. [Anti- and Popular.]

Antipyrin, an-ti-pī′rin, n. a white crystalline powder, tasteless, colourless, and soluble in water, obtained from coal-tar products by a complex process, with valuable qualities as a febrifuge, but not as an antiperiodic.—adj. Antipyret′ic.

Antiquary, an′ti-kwar-i, n. one who studies or collects old things, esp. the monuments and relics of the past—but not very ancient things, and rather from curiosity than archological interest.—adj. (Shak.) ancient.—adj. and n. Antiquār′ian, connected with the study of antiquities, also one devoted to the study.—n. Antiquār′ianism. [See Antique.]

Antique, an-tēk′, adj. ancient: of a good old age, olden (now generally rhetorical in a good sense): old-fashioned, after the manner of the ancients.—n. anything very old: ancient relics: an American name for a kind of type of thick and bold face in which the lines are of equal thickness—Egyptian in England.—v.t. An′tiquate, to make antique, old, or obsolete: to put out of use:—pr.p. an′tiquāting; pa.p. an′tiquāted.adj. An′tiquated, grown old, or out of fashion: obsolete: superannuated.—n. Antiquā′tion, the making obsolete: abrogation: obsoleteness.—adv. Antique′ly.—n. Antique′ness.—adj. Antiq′uish, somewhat antique.—The Antique, ancient work in art, the style of ancient art. [Fr.—L. antiquus, old, ancient—ante, before.]

Antiquity, an-tik′wi-ti, n. ancient times, esp. the times of the ancient Greeks and Romans: great age: (Shak.) old age, seniority: ancient style: the people of old time: (pl.) manners, customs, relics of ancient times.—n. Antiquitār′ian, one attached to the practices and opinions of antiquity. [Fr.—L. antiquitat-emantiquus, ancient.]

Antirrhinum, an-tir-rī′num, n. the genus of plants to which Snapdragon belongs. [Neo-Latin, from Gr. anti, opposite, and ris, rinos, nose; from its resemblance to a beast's mouth.]

Antiscian, an-tish′i-an, adj. of or pertaining to people living on different sides of the equator, whose shadows at noon fall in opposite directions.— Antis′ciī. [Gr.; anti, opposite, skia, a shadow.]

Antiscorbutic, an-ti-skor-būt′ik, adj. acting against scurvy.—n. a remedy for scurvy. [Gr. anti, against, and Scorbutic.]

Antiscriptural, an-ti-skrip′tūr-al, adj. opposed to Holy Scripture. [Anti- and Scriptural.]

Anti-Semites, an′ti-sem′īts, the modern opponents of the Jews in Russia, Roumania, Hungary, and Eastern Germany.—adj. Antisemit′ic.

Antiseptic, an-ti-sept′ik, adj. and n. counteracting putrefaction and analogous fermentive changes: preventing moral decay.—adv. Antisept′ically. [Gr. anti, against, and sēpein, to rot.]

Antisocial, an-ti-sōsh′al, adj. opposed to the principles and usages of society. [Anti- and Social.]

Antispasmodic, an-ti-spaz-mod′ik, adj. opposing spasms or convulsions.—n. a remedy for spasms or convulsions. [Gr. anti, against, and Spasmodic.]

Antispast, an′ti-spast, n. in metre, a foot composed of an iambus and a trochee.—adj. Antispast′ic. [Gr. antispastos, antispa-ein, to draw into a contrary direction.]

Antistrophe, an-tis′trōf-e, n. (poet.) the returning movement from left to right in Greek choruses and dances, the movement of the strophe being from right to left: the stanza of a song alternating with the strophe: an inverse relation.—adj. Antistroph′ic, pertaining to the antistrophe. [Gr.; anti, against, and streph-ein, to turn.]

Antitheism, an-ti-thē′izm, n. the doctrine which denies the existence of a God.—n. Antithē′ist.—adj. Antitheist′ic.

Antithesis, an-tith′e-sis, n. a figure in which thoughts or words are set in contrast: a counter-thesis, counter-proposition: opposition: the contrast:—pl. Antith′esēs.—n. Ant′ithet (rare), an instance of antithesis.—adjs. Antithet′ic, -al.—adv. Antithet′ically. [Gr.; anti, against, tithēmi, to place.]

Antitoxin, an-ti-tok′sin, n. the name applied to substances present in the blood of an animal which neutralise the action of toxins or bacterial poisons.—adj. Antitox′ic.

Antitrade, an′ti-trād, n. a wind that blows in the opposite direction to the trade-wind—that is, in the northern hemisphere from south-west, and in the southern hemisphere from north-west.

Antitrinitarian, an-ti-trin-it-ār′i-an, n. and adj. opposed to the doctrine of the Trinity.—n. Antitrinitar′ianism.

Antitype, an′ti-tīp, n. that which corresponds to the type: that which is prefigured by the type, as Christ by the paschal lamb.—adjs. Antityp′al, -typ′ical.

Antler, ant′lėr, n. a bony outgrowth from the frontal bones of deer—restricted to males, except in the reindeer: branch of a stag's horn.—adj. Ant′lered. [O. Fr. antoillier—Late L. ant(e)ocular-em (ramum), the branch of a stag's horn in front of the eyes.]

Ant-lion, ant′-lī′on, n. the larva of an insect of the order Neuroptera, remarkable for the ingenuity of its insect-catching habits. [Trans. of Gr. murmēkoleōn in the Septuagint; murmēx, ant, leōn, lion.]

Antonomasia, ant-on-om-āz′i-a, n. a figure of speech which uses an epithet on the name of an office or attributive for a person's proper name, e.g. his lordship for an earl; and conversely, e.g. a Napoleon for a great conqueror. [Gr.; anti, instead, and onomazein, to name, onoma, a name.]

Antonym, ant′ō-nim, n. a word which is the opposite of another. [Gr. anti, against, onoma, a name.]

Antre, an′tėr, n. a cave or grotto. [Fr.; L. antrum, a cave.]

Anura, a-nū′ra, tailless amphibia, as the frog and toad.—Also Anou′ra. [Gr. an-, priv., oura, tail.]

Anus, ān′us, n. the lower orifice of the bowels. [L., for as-nus, 'sitting-part,' from root as, to sit.]

Anvil, an′vil, n. an iron block on which smiths hammer metal into shape.—On or Upon the anvil, in preparation, under discussion. [A.S. anfilte, on filte; on, on, and a supposed filtan, to weld, appearing also in Felt.]

Anxious, angk′shus, adj. uneasy regarding something doubtful: solicitous.—n. Anxī′ety, state of being anxious—adv. An′xiously.—n. An′xiousness. [L. anxiusang-ĕre, to press tightly. See Anger, Anguish.]

Any, en′ni, adj. one indefinitely: some: whoever. n. An′ybody, any single individual.—adv. Anyhow, in any way whatever: in any case, at least.—ns. An′ything, a thing indefinitely, as opposed to nothing: any whit, to any extent; Anythingā′rian, one with no beliefs in particular; Anythingā′rianismadvs. An′yway, An′yways, in any manner: anyhow: in any case; An′ywhere, An′ywhen, in any place whatever, at any time; An′ywise, in any manner, to any degree.—Any one, any single individual, anybody.—At any rate, whatever may happen, at all events.—If anything, if in any degree. [A.S. nigan, one.]

Aonian, ā-ō′ni-an, adj. pertaining to Aonia in Greece, or to the Muses supposed to dwell there.—Aonian fount, the fountain Aganippe, on a slope of Mount Helicon—the onian mount.

Aorist, ā′or-ist, n. the name of certain tenses in the Greek verb expressing indefinite time.—adj. Aorist′ic. [Gr. aoristos, indefinite—a, neg., and horistos, horizein, horos, a limit.]

Aorta, ā-or′ta, n. the great arterial trunk which, rising from the left ventricle of the heart, sends its branches ramifying through the whole body—in man subdivided into the arch, the thoracic aorta, and the abdominal aorta.—adjs. Aor′tal, Aor′tic. [Gr. aortēaeir-ein, to raise up.]

Apace, a-pās′, adv. at a quick pace: swiftly: fast: said of the flight of time generally. [Prep. a, and Pace.]

Apagogic, -al, ap-a-goj′ik, -al, adj. proving indirectly by an apagoge or reduction to an absurdity, the truth of the thesis being evinced through the falsehood of its opposite—opposed to direct or ostensive proof. [Gr. apagōgē, leading away, abduction, apagein, to lead off.]

Apanage. See Appanage.

Apart, a-prt′, adv. separately: aside: asunder, parted: separate: away from all employment: out of consideration, not considered for the moment (with from).—n. Apart′ness.—To set apart, to separate, consecrate. [Fr. part—L. a parte, from the part or side.]

Apartment, a-prt′ment, n. a separate room in a house occupied by a particular person or party: (arch.) a suite or set of such rooms—now in this sense the pl.: (obs.) a compartment.—adj. Apartment′al. [Fr. appartement, a suite of rooms forming a complete dwelling, through Low L., from L. ad, and partīre, to divide—pars, a part.]

Apathy, ap′ath-i, n. want of feeling: absence of passion: indifference.—adjs. Apathet′ic, Apathet′ical (rare).—adv. Apathet′ically. [Gr.; a, neg., pathos, feeling.]

Apatite, ap′a-tīt, n. a phosphate of lime of great variety of colour. [Gr. apatē, deceit, its form and colour being deceptive.]

Apay, a-pā′, v.t. (arch.) to satisfy, content: (obs.) to repay. [O. Fr. apayer, from L. ad, and pacāre pac-em, peace.]

Ape, āp, n. a monkey: a monkey without a tail or with a very short one: a simian proper, linking man and the lower animals, and hence termed Anthropoid—gorilla, chimpanzee, orang-outang, or gibbon: one who plays the ape, a silly imitator: (Shak.) an imitator in a good or neutral sense.—v.t. to imitate as an ape.—ns. Ape′dom; Ape′hood; Ap′ery, conduct of one who apes, any ape-like action: a colony of apes.—adj. Ap′ish, like an ape: imitative: foppish.—adv. Ap′ishly.—ns. Ap′ishness, Ap′ism (Carlyle).—God's ape, a born fool.—To lead apes in hell, believed to be the lot of old maids there; To make any one his ape, To put an ape in his hood (obs.), to make a fool of any one. [A.S. apa; Ger. affe.]

Apeak, Apeek, a-pēk′, adv. (naut.) vertical—the anchor is apeak when the cable is drawn so as to bring the ship's bow directly over it. [a, to, and Peak.]

Apelles, a-pel′ez, n. any consummate artist, from the great Greek painter Apelles, under Alexander the Great.

Apepsy, a-pep′si, Apepsia, a-pep′si-a, n. weakness of digestion. [Gr. apepsia, indigestion; a, priv., peptein, to digest.]

Aperu, a-per′sōō, n. a summary exposition: a brief outline. [Fr. aperu, pa.p. of apercevoir, to perceive.]

Aperient, a-pē′-ri-ent, adj. opening: mildly purgative.—n. any laxative medicine. [L. aperientem, aperīre, to open.]

Apert, a-pert′, adj. (arch.) open, public—opp. to Privy.—n. Apert′ness. [L. apert-um, pa.p. of aperīre, to open.]

Aperture, a′pėrt-ūr, n. an opening: the space through which light passes in an optical instrument: a hole. [L. aperturaaperīre, to open.]

Apetalous, a-pet′al-us, adj. (bot.) without petals. [Gr. a, neg., and petalon, a petal.]

Apex, ā′peks, n. the summit or point: the vertex of a triangle: the culminating point, climax of anything:—pl. Apexes (ā′peks-ez), Apices (ap′i-sēz). [L. apex, the peak of the flamen's cap.]

Aphresis, Apheresis, a-fer′i-sis, n. (gram.) the taking away of a letter or syllable at the beginning of a word. [Gr. aphairesis, a taking away, apo, away, and haire-ein, to take.]

Aphaniptera, af-an-ip′tėr-a, a small order of insects having but rudimentary scales in place of wings.—adj. Aphanip′terous. [Gr. aphanēs, invisible, pteron, wing.]

Aphasia, a-fā′zi-a, n. inability to express thought in words by reason of some brain disease: or, more widely still, the loss of the faculty of interchanging thought, without any affection of the intellect or will.—adj. Aphas′ic. [Gr.; a, neg., phasis, speech—phanai, to speak.]

Aphelion, a-fē′li-on, n. the point of a planet's orbit farthest away from the sun:—pl. Aphē′lia. [Gr. apo, from, hēlios, the sun.]

Apheliotropic, a-fē-li-o-trop′ik, adj. turning away from the sun. [Gr. apo, away, hēlios, sun, and tropikos, belonging to turning—trep-ein, to turn.]

Aphemia, a-fēm′i-a, n. loss of speech caused by difficulty in articulation due to paralysis. [Gr. a, neg., and phēmē, voice, fame—phanai, to speak.]

Apheresis. See Aphresis.

Aphesis, af′es-is, n. the gradual loss of an unaccented vowel at the beginning of a word, as in squire = esquire—a special form of Aphresis.—adj. Aphet′ic. [Coined by Dr Murray. Gr.]

Aphis, ā′fis, n. a family of small 'plant-lice' belonging to the order of hemipterous insects, occurring in temperate regions as parasites on the roots, leaves, stems, &c. of plants. Some kinds are tended, protected, and imprisoned by ants for the 'honey-dew' which they secrete, hence called Ant-cows:—pl. Aphides (af′i-dēz).adj. and n. Aphid′ian. [Ety. unknown; one conjecture connects the word with Gr. apheideis, unsparing (a, neg., and pheidomai, to spare), from the remarkable rapidity of propagation.]

Aphony, af-on-i, n. loss of voice: dumbness—the more common form is Aphō′nia.—adjs. Aphon′ic, Aphon′ous, voiceless. [Gr. a, neg., phōnē, voice.]

Aphorism, af′or-izm, n. a concise statement of a principle in any science: a brief, pithy saying: an adage.—v.t. and v.i. Aph′orise, to coin or use aphorisms.—ns. Aph′oriser; Aph′orist, a writer of aphorisms.—adj. Aphoris′tic, in the form of an aphorism.—adv. Aphorist′ically. [Gr. aphorizein, to mark off by boundaries—apo, from, and horos, a limit.]

Aphrodisiac, af-ro-diz′-i-ak, adj. exciting to sexual intercourse.—n. that which excites to sexual intercourse.—adj. Aphrodis′ian, belonging to Venus, devoted to sensual love. [Gr. aphrodisiakosAphroditē, Venus, the goddess of love.]

Aphth, af′thē, small whitish ulcers on the surface of a mucous membrane. [Gr. aphtha, mostly in pl. aphthai, usually connected with hapt-ein, to set on fire.]

Aphyllous, a-fil′us, adj. (bot.) destitute of leaves. [Gr. a, neg., phyllon, a leaf.]

Apiary, āp′i-ar-i, n. a place where bees are kept.—adjs. Apiar′ian, Ap′ian, relating to bees or bee-keeping.—n. Ap′iarist, one who keeps an apiary: one who studies the habits of bees. [L. apiariumapis, a bee.]

Apical, ap′ik-al, adj. relating to the apex, or top.—adv. Ap′ically. [See Apex.]

Apices. See Apex.

Apician, a-pish′yan, adj. relating to Apicius, the Roman epicurean in the time of Tiberius: luxurious and expensive in diet.

Apiculture, ā′pi-cult-ūr, n. bee-keeping. [L. apis, bee, and cultura, keeping—colĕre, to keep.]

Apiece, a-pēs′, adv. for each piece, thing, or person: to each individually.—adv. Apiec′es (obs.), in pieces.

Apinch, a-pinsh′, adv. pinching, so as to pinch. [Prep. a, and Pinch.]

Aplacental, ap-la-sen′tal, adj. having no placenta. [a and Placental. See Placenta.]

Aplomb, a-plom′, n. the perpendicular, perpendicularity: self-possession, coolness. [Fr. aplomb, perpendicular position— plomb, according to plummet.]


Aplustre, ap-lus′tėr, n. the ornament rising above the stern of ancient ships, often a sheaf of volutes. [L.—Gr. aphlaston.]

Apnœa, ap-nē′a, n. a cessation of breathing. [Gr. apnoia.]

Apocalypse, a-pok′al-ips, n. the name of the last book of the New Testament containing the 'revelation' granted to St John: any revelation or disclosure.—ns. Apoc′alypst, Apoc′alypt, a revealer of the future.—adjs. Apocalypt′ic, -al.—adv. Apocalypt′ically.—n. Apocalypt′ist, the writer of the Apocalypse.—Apocalyptic number, the mystical number 666, spoken of in the Apocalypse. The best solution of the riddle is Neron Kesar—Hebrew form of the Latin Nero Csar. The vowels e and a are not expressed in the ancient Hebrew writing: accordingly NeRON KeSaR gives

50 + 200 + 6 + 50 + 100 + 60 + 200 = 666.

[Gr.; a revelation, an uncovering—apo, from, kalypt-ein, to cover.]

Apocarpous, ap-o-kr′pus, adj. (bot.) having the carpels distinct. [Gr. apo, from, karpos, fruit.]

Apocatastasis, a-po-ka-tast′a-sis, n. (theol.) the final restitution of all things, when at the appearance of the Messiah the kingdom of God shall be extended over the whole earth—an idea extended by Origen to imply the final conversion and salvation of all created beings, the devil and his angels not excepted. [Gr.; apo-kathistanai, to set up again.]

Apocopate, a-pok′o-pāt, v.t. to cut off the last letter or syllable of a word:—pr.p. apoc′opāting; pa.p. apoc′opāted.ns. Apocopā′tion; Apocope (a-pok′op-ē), n. the cutting off of the last letter or syllable of a word. [Gr. apo, off, koptein, to cut.]

Apocrypha, a-pok′rif-a, n. as applied to religious writings = (1) those suitable for the initiated only; (2) those of unknown date and origin; (3) those which are spurious—the term generally means the fourteen books or parts of books known as the Apocrypha of the Old Testament—found in the Septuagint but not the Hebrew or Palestinian canon:—(1) First, or Third, Esdras; (2) Second, or Fourth, Esdras; (3) Tobit; (4) Judith; (5) the parts of Esther not found in Hebrew or Chaldee; (6) The Wisdom of Solomon; (7) The Wisdom of Jesus, the son of Sirach, or Ecclesiasticus; (8) Baruch; (9) The Song of the Three Holy Children; (10) The History of Susannah; (11) Bel and the Dragon; (12) The Prayer of Manasses, king of Judah; (13) First Maccabees; (14) Second Maccabees. The Apocryphal books of the New Testament, as the Protevangelium of James, the Gospel of Thomas, the Gesta Pilati, &c., stand on quite a different footing, never having been accepted by any as canonical, or in any way authoritative: hidden or secret things.—adj. Apoc′ryphal, of doubtful authority. [Gr., 'things hidden'—apo, from, krypt-ein, to hide.]

Apodal, ap′od-al, adj. without feet: without ventral fins. [Gr. a, neg., pous, podos, a foot.]

Apodeictic, a-po-dīk′tik, adj. a logical term signifying a proposition which is necessarily true—demonstrative without demonstration, beyond contradiction—opp. to Dialectic.—adj. Apodeic′tical.—adv. Apodeic′tically. [Gr. apodeiktikosapodeiknunai (apo and deiknunai), to show off, demonstrate.]

Apodiabolosis, a-po-di-a-bol′o-sis, n. (rareHare) lowering to the rank of a devil. [Gr. apo, and diabolos, devil. Formed like Apotheosis.]

Apodosis, a-pod′o-sis, n. (gram.) the consequent clause in a conditional sentence, as opp. to the Protasis. [Gr.; apo, back, didonai, to give.]

Apodyterium, a-po-di-tēr′i-um, n. the apartment in an ancient bath where the clothes were deposited. [Gr.; apodyein (apo, from, and dy-ein), to undress.]

Apogee, ap′o-jē, n. properly the greatest distance of the earth from any of the heavenly bodies (the earth being regarded as the centre of the universe in the old Ptolemaic astronomy), now restricted to the sun and moon, the sun's apogee corresponding to the earth's aphelion, and the moon's being the point of its orbit farthest from the earth: the highest point, climax—opp. to Perigee.—adjs. Apog′ic, Apogē′an; Apogeotrop′ic, turning away from the ground (of leaves, &c.).—adv. Apogeotrop′ically.—n. Apogeōt′ropism. [Gr. apogaion; apo, from, , the earth.]

Apograph, a′po-graf, n. an exact copy. [Gr. apographon, a copy—apo-graph-ein, to write off, copy.]

Apolaustic, a-po-law′stik, adj. devoted to the search of enjoyment.—n. the philosophy of the pleasurable. [Gr. apolaustikosapolau-ein, to enjoy.]

Apollinarianism, a-pol-i-nā′ri-an-izm, n. the doctrine that the Logos, or divine nature in Christ, took the place of the rational human soul or mind, and that the body of Christ was a spiritualised and glorified form of humanity—taught by Apollinaris the younger, Bishop of Laodicea in Syria (died 390 A.D.), condemned as denying the true human nature of Christ by the second Œcumenical Council at Constantinople (381).—adj. Apollinā′rian.

Apollonian, a-po-lōn′i-an, adj. having the characteristics of Apollo, sun-god of the Greeks and Romans, patron of poetry and music: named from Apollonius of Perga, who studied conic sections in the time of Ptolemy Philopator.—Also Apollon′ic.

Apollonicon, a-pol-ōn′i-kon, n. a chamber organ of vast power, supplied with both keys and barrels, first exhibited in 1817. [Formed from Apollonic, as harmonicon from harmonic.]

Apollyon, a-pol′yun, n. the destroyer: Satan (same as Abaddon, Rev. ix. 11). [Gr. apollyōn, destroying utterly; apolly-ein, apo-, and ollynai, to destroy.]

Apologetic, -al, a-pol-oj-et′ik, -al, adj. excusing: regretfully acknowledging: said or written in defence.—adv. Apologet′ically.—n. Apologet′ics, that branch of theology concerned with the defence of Christianity. It falls under the two heads of natural and revealed theology—in the former it proves the existence of God, of the soul in man, a future state; in the latter, the canonicity, inspiration, and trustworthiness of Scripture.

Apologue, a′pol-og, n. a fable, parable, or short allegorical story, intended to serve as a pleasant vehicle for some moral doctrine—applied more particularly to one in which the actors are animals or inanimate things, e.g. the apologue of Jotham in Judges, ix. 7-15. [Fr.—Gr. apologos, a fable—apo, from, logos, speech.]

Apology, a-pol′oj-i, n. something spoken to ward off an attack: a defence or justification: frank acknowledgment of an offence: a poor substitute (with for; of is obsolete).—v.i. Apol′ogise, to make excuse: to express regret for a fault (with for).—n. Apol′ogist, one who makes an apology: a defender by argument. [Gr.; apo, from, -logia, speaking—leg-ein, to speak.]

Apomorphia, a-po-morf′i-a, n. an alkaloid prepared from morphia by heating hydrochloric acid—a rapid and powerful emetic. [Gr. apo, from, and Morphia.]

Apoop, a-pōōp′, adv. on the poop, astern.

Apopetalous, ap-o-pet′al-us, adj. (bot.) having distinct or free petals. [Gr. apo, away, and petalon, a leaf.]

Apophlegmatic, a-po-fleg-mat′ik, adj. and n. promoting the removal of phlegm. [Gr. apo-, and Phlegmatic.]

Apophthegm, Apothegm, a′po-them, n. a pithy saying, more short, pointed, and practical than the aphorism need be, e.g. 'God helps them that help themselves.'—-adjs. Apophthegmat′ic, -al, pertaining to the nature of an apophthegm, pithy, sententious.—adv. Apophthegmat′ically.—v.i. Apophtheg′matise, to speak in apophthegms.—n. Apophtheg′matist. [Gr. apophthegmaapo, forth, and phthengesthai, to utter.]

Apoplexy, a′po-pleks-i, n. loss of sensation and of motion by a sudden stroke, generally applied by modern medical writers to rupture of a blood-vessel, with hemorrhage in the brain or its membranes, whether with or without consciousness—also figuratively.—adjs. Apoplec′tic, -al, pertaining to or causing apoplexy: suffering from, or likely to suffer from, apoplexy.—adv. Apoplec′tically.—n. Ap′oplex (arch.), apoplexy.—adj. Ap′oplexed (Shak.), affected with apoplexy. [Gr. apoplēxiaapo, from, away, and plēss-ein, to strike.]

Aposiopesis, a-po-si-o-pē′sis, n. a figure by which the speaker suddenly stops as though unable or unwilling to proceed, e.g. Virgil, neid, i. 135, 'Quos ego——' [Gr.;—apo-siōpa-ein, to keep silent, apo and siōpē, silence.]

Apostasy, Apostacy, a-post′a-si, n. abandonment of one's religion, principles, or party: a revolt from ecclesiastical obedience, from a religious profession, or from holy orders.—n. Apost′ate, one guilty of apostasy: a renegade from his faith from unworthy motives.—adj. false: traitorous: fallen.—adjs. Apostat′ic, -al.—v.i. Apost′atise. [Gr. 'a standing away;' apo, from, stasis, a standing.]

A posteriori, ā pos-tē-ri-ō′ri, adj. applied to reasoning from experience, from effect to cause, as opposed to a priori reasoning, from cause to effect: empirical: gained from experience. Synthetic and analytic, deductive and inductive, correspond in a general way to a priori and a posteriori. [L. a = ab, from, posteriori, abl. of posterior, comp. of posterus, after.]

Apostil, -ille, a-pos′til, n. a marginal note. [Fr. apostille. See Postil.]

Apostle, a-pos′l, n. one sent to preach the gospel: specially, one of the twelve disciples of Christ: the founder of the Christian Church in a country, e.g. Augustine, the apostle of the English; Columba, of the Scots; Boniface, of Germany, &c.: the principal champion or supporter of a new system, or of some cause: the highest in the fourfold ministry of the Catholic and Apostolic Church: one of the twelve officials forming a presiding high council in the Mormon Church.—ns. Apos′tleship, the office or dignity of an apostle; Apost′olate, the office of an apostle: leadership in a propaganda.—adjs. Apostol′ic, -al.—ns. Apostol′icism, profession of apostolicity; Apostolic′ity, the quality of being apostolic—Apostles' creed, the oldest form of Christian creed that exists, early ascribed to the apostles, and indeed substantially, if not strictly, apostolic; Apostle spoons, silver spoons with handles ending in figures of the apostles, a common baptismal present in the 16th and 17th centuries; Apostles, Teaching of the Twelve—often called merely the Didachē (Gr. 'teaching')—the title of a treatise discovered in 1883 on Christian doctrine and government, closely connected with the last two books (vii.-viii.) of the Apostolic Constitutions.—Apostolic Constitutions and Canons, notes of ecclesiastical customs held to be apostolical, written in the form of apostolic precepts, and erroneously ascribed by tradition to Clement of Rome; Apostolic Fathers, the immediate disciples and fellow-labourers of the apostles, more especially those who have left writings behind them (Barnabas, Clement of Rome, Ignatius, Hermas, Polycarp); Apostolic see, the see of Rome; Apostolic Vicar, the cardinal representing the Pope in extraordinary missions.—Apostolical succession, the derivation of holy orders by an assumed unbroken chain of transmission from the apostles through their natural successors, the bishops—the theory of the Catholic Church: the assumption that a ministry so ordained enjoy the succession of apostolic powers and privileges. [Gr.; one sent away, apo, away, stell-ein, to send.]

Apostrophe, a-pos′trof-e, n. (rhet.) a sudden turning away from the ordinary course of a speech to address some person or object present or absent, explained by Quintilian as addressed to a person present, but extended by modern use to the absent or dead: a mark (') showing the omission of a letter or letters in a word, also a sign of the modern Eng. genitive or possessive case—orig. a mere mark of the dropping of the letter e in writing.—adj. Apostroph′ic.—v.t. Apos′trophise, to address by apostrophe. [Gr. apo, from, and Strophe, a turning.]

Apothecary, a-poth′ek-ar-i, n. one who prepares and sells drugs for medicinal purposes—a term long since substituted by druggist, although still a legal description for licentiates of the Apothecaries' Society of London, or of the Apothecaries' Hall of Ireland. [Through Fr. and L. from Gr. apothēkē, a storehouse—apo, away, and tithe-nai, to place.]

Apothecium, ap-ō-thē′si-um, n. the spore-case in lichens. [Gr. apothēkē, a storehouse. See Apothecary.]

Apothegm. See Apophthegm.

Apotheosis, a-po-thē′o-sis, or a-po-the-ō′sis, n. deification, esp. the formal attribution of divine honours to a deceased Roman emperor, or special object of the imperial favour—a logical corollary to the worship of ancestors, degenerating naturally by anticipation into the adoration of the living: the glorification of a principle or person: ascension to glory, release from earthly life: resurrection.—v.i. Apothē′osise, Apoth′eosise. [Gr.; apotheo-ein, apo, away from what he was, theos, a god.]

Apozem, a′po-zem, n. a decoction or infusion. [Gr. apozemaapo, off, and ze-ein, to boil.]

Appal, ap-pawl′, v.i. (Spens.) to wax faint, fail, decay.—v.t. and v.i. (obs.) to dim, weaken: to terrify, dismay:—pr.p. appal′ling; pa.p. appalled′.p.adj. Appal′ling, shocking.—adv. Appal′lingly. [Perh. from O. Fr. apalir, apallir, to wax pale, also to make pale. See Pall and Pale.]

Appanage, Apanage, ap′pan-āj, n. the assignation or conveyance by the crown of lands and feudal rights to the princes of the royal family, a provision for younger sons, a dependency: any perquisite: an adjunct or attribute.—p.adj. Ap′panaged, endowed with an appanage. [Fr. apanage—L. ad, and pan-is, bread.]

Apparatus, ap-par-ā′tus, n. things prepared or provided, material: set of instruments, tools, natural organs, &c.: materials for the critical study of a document. [L.; ad, to, parātus (parāre), prepared.]

Apparel, ap-par′el, n. covering for the body, dress: aspect, guise: (arch.) the rigging of a ship.—v.t. to dress, adorn:—pr.p. appar′elling or appar′eling; pa.p. appar′elled or appar′eled.ns. Appar′elling, Appar′eling. [O. Fr. apareiller, through obscure Low L. forms from L. par, equal, like.]

Apparent, ap-pār′ent, adj. that may be seen: evident: palpable: seeming, as opposed to what really is: (Shak.) by ellipsis for heir-apparent.—adv. Appar′ently.—ns. Appar′entness; Heir′-appar′ent, applied to one who will undoubtedly inherit if he survives the present possessor. [Through Fr. from L. apparent-em, apparē-re.]

Apparition, ap-par-ish′un, n. an appearance—of a visitor, a comet, the appearance in history: an immaterial appearance—of a spirit of the departed, as of a real being, a ghost: (astron.) the first appearance of a celestial body after occultation.—adj. Appari′tional. [See Appear.]

Apparitor, ap-par′it-or, n. an officer who attends on a court, or on a magistrate, to execute orders: still applied to the officer of an archiepiscopal, episcopal, archidiaconal, or other ecclesiastical court, sometimes to the beadle of a university bearing the mace: (rare) one who appears. [L. See Appear.]

Appay, ap-pā′, v.t. See Apay.

Appeach, ap-pēch′, v.t. (obs.) to accuse, censure, or impeach.—n. Appeach′ment. [O. Fr. empechier—L. impedicāre, to catch by the feet—in, in, and pedica, a fetter. See Impeach.]

Appeal, ap-pēl′, v.i. to call upon, have recourse to (with to): to refer (to a witness or superior authority): make supplication or earnest request to a person for a thing: to resort for verification or proof to some principle or person.—v.t. to remove a cause (to another court).—n. act of appealing: a supplication: removal of a cause to a higher tribunal.—adjs. Appeal′able; Appeal′ing, relating to appeals.—adv. Appeal′ingly.—n. Appeal′ingness. [O. Fr. apelerappellāre, -ātum, to address, call by name; also to appeal to, impeach.]

Appear, ap-pēr′, v.i. to become visible: to present one's self formally before an authority or tribunal, hence to act as the representative or counsel for another: to be manifest: to be in one's opinion, to seem: to come into view, to come before the public, to be published (of a book): to seem though not real.—ns. Appear′ance, the act of appearing, e.g. in court to prosecute or answer a charge: the publication of a book: the effect of appearing conspicuously, show, parade: the condition of that which appears, form, aspect: outward look or show: a natural phenomenon: an apparition; Appear′er, one that appears: one who puts in an appearance in court.—It appears (impers.).—To all appearance, so far as appears to any one; To keep up appearances, to keep up an outward show with intent to conceal the absence of the inward reality; To put in an appearance, to appear in person. [Through Fr. from L. apparē-read, to, parēre, paritum, to come forth.]

Appease, ap-pēz′, v.t. to pacify: propitiate one who is angry: to quiet: to allay: to pacify by granting demands.—adj. Appeas′able.—n. Appease′ment, the action of appeasing: the state of being appeased.—adv. Appeas′ingly. [O. Fr. apese-r, to bring to peace—L. pac-em, peace.]

Appellant, ap-pel′ant, n. one who makes an appeal from the decision of a lower court to a higher: one who makes earnest entreaty of any kind: (obs.) one who challenges another to single combat: one of the clergy in the Jansenist controversy who rejected the bull Unigenitus issued in 1713, appealing to a pope 'better informed,' or to a general council.—adj. Appell′ate, relating to appeals. [See Appeal.]

Appellation, ap-pel-ā′shun, n. that by which anything is called: a name, especially one attached to a particular person.—adj. Appellā′tional.—n. Appell′ative, a name common to all of the same kind, as distinguished from a proper name: a designation.—adj. common to many: general: of or pertaining to the giving of names.—adv. Appell′atively. [See Appeal.]

Append, ap-pend′, v.t. to hang one thing to another: to add.—n. Append′age, something appended.—adj. Append′ant, attached, annexed, consequent.—n. an adjunct, quality.—n. Appendicī′tis, inflammation of the vermiform appendix of the ccum.—adj. Appendic′ular, of the nature of or belonging to an appendix.—n. Appendiculā′ria, a genus of Ascidians whose members retain the larval vertebrate characters which are lost in the more or less degenerate sea-squirts.—adj. Appendic′ulate, furnished with appendages.—n. Append′ix, something appended or added: a supplement: an addition to a book or document, containing matter explanatory, but not essential to its completeness: (anat.) a process, prolongation, or projection:—pl. Append′ixes, Append′ices.—Appendix auricul, the appendix of the auricle of the heart; Appendices epiploic, saccular processes, containing fat attached to the serous covering of the large intestine; Appendix vermiformis, or Vermiform appendix, a blind process terminating the ccum in man. [L. ad, to, pendĕre, to hang.]

Appentice, a-pen′tis, n. (archit.) a pent-house.

Apperception, ap-er-sep′shun, n. the mind's perception of itself as a conscious agent: an act of voluntary consciousness, accompanied with self-consciousness.

Apperil, a-per′il, n. (Shak.) peril. [L. ad, and Peril.]

Appertain, ap-pėr-tān′, v.i. to belong to, as a possession, a right, or attribute.—n. Apper′tainance.—p.adj. Appertain′ing, proper, appropriate (with to).—n. Appertain′ment (Shak.), that which appertains to any rank or dignity.—adj. Apper′tinent, pertaining or belonging to.—n. (Shak.) that which pertains to anything else. [Through Fr. from L. ad, to, pertinē-re, to belong. See Pertain.]

Appetency, ap′pet-ens-i, n. a seeking after: craving or appetite: desire, especially sensual desire—also Ap′petence.—adj. Ap′petent. [L. appetent-em, appetĕread, to, petĕre, to seek.]

Appetite, ap′pet-īt, n. physical craving, accompanied with uneasy sensation (hunger, thirst, sex): natural desire: inclination: desire for food: hunger (with for).—adjs. Ap′petible, Ap′petitive.—v.t. Ap′petise, to create or whet appetite.—ns. Appetise′ment; Appetis′er, something which whets the appetite.—p.adj. Appetis′ing.—adv. Appetis′ingly. [Through Fr., from L. appetitus, appetĕre.]

Applaud, ap-plawd′, v.t. to praise by clapping the hands: to praise loudly: to express loudly approval of anything: to extol.—n. Applaud′er.—p.adj. Applaud′ing.—adv. Applaud′ingly.—n. Applause′, praise loudly expressed: acclamation.—adj. Applaus′ive.—adv. Applaus′ively. [L. applaud-ĕread, to, plaudĕre, plausum, to clap. See Explode.]

Apple, ap′l, n. the fruit of the apple-tree.—ns. Ap′ple-blight, the rotting substances found on apple-trees, caused by the Apple-aphis (see Aphis); Ap′ple-John (Shak.) a variety of apple considered to be in perfection when shrivelled and withered—also John′-ap′ple; Ap′ple-pie, a pie made with apples; Ap′ple-wife, Ap′ple-wom′an, a woman who sells apples at a stall.—Apple of discord, any cause of envy and contention, from the golden apple inscribed 'for the fairest,' thrown by Eris, goddess of discord, into the assembly of the gods, and claimed by Aphrodite (Venus), Pallas (Minerva), and Hera (Juno). The dispute being referred to Paris of Troy, he decided in favour of Aphrodite, to the undying and fatal wrath of Hera against his city; Apple of Sodom, or Dead Sea fruit, described by Josephus as fair to look upon, but turning, when touched, into ashes: any fair but disappointing thing; Apple of the eye, the eyeball: something especially dear; Apple-pie order, complete order. [A.S. ppel; cf. Ger. apfel, Ice. epli, Ir. abhal, W. afal.]

Appliqu, ap′lik-ā, n. work applied to, or laid on, another material, either of metal-work or of lace or the like. [Pa.p. of Fr. appliquer.]

Apply, ap-plī′, v.t. to lay or put to: to administer a remedy: to bring a general law to bear on particular circumstances: (obs.) to ascribe: to employ: to fix the mind on: to bring (a ship) to land.—v.i. to suit or agree: to have recourse to: to make request: (Milton) to assign or impute blame to:—pr.p. apply′ing; pa.p. applīed′.adj. Applī′able, that may be applied: compliant, well disposed.—ns. Applī′ableness; Applī′ance, anything applied: means used: (Shak.) compliance.—ns. Applicabil′ity, Ap′plicableness.—adj. Ap′plicable, that may be applied: suitable.—adv. Ap′plicably.—n. Ap′plicant, one who applies: a petitioner.—adj. Ap′plicate, put to practical use, applied.—n. Applicā′tion, the act of applying, e.g. the administration of a remedy: diligence: employment, use of anything in special regard to something else, as in the 'application' of a story to real life, the lesson or moral of a fable: close thought or attention: request: a kind of needlework, appliqu: (obs.) compliance.—adj. Ap′plicative, put into actual use in regard to anything: practical.—adj. and n. Ap′plicatory, having the property of applying. [O. Fr. aplier—L. applicāre, ātumad, to, plicāre, -ātum, to fold.]

Appoggiatura, ap-pod-ja-tū′ra, n. an Italian musical term, designating a form of embellishment by insertion of notes of passage in a melody. [It. appoggiare, to lean upon. See Appui.]

Appoint, ap-point′, v.t. to fix: to settle: assign, grant: to name to an office: to destine, devote: to equip (obs. except in pa.p..).—p.adj. Appoint′ed, established: furnished.—n. Appoint′ment, settlement: engagement: direction: situation: arrangement: (obs.) allowance paid to a public officer: (pl.) equipments. [O. Fr. apointer, Low L. appunctare—L. ad, to, punctum, a point. See Point.]

Apportion, ap-pōr′shun, v.t. to portion out: to divide in just shares: to adjust in due proportion.—n. Appor′tionment. [L. ad, to, and Portion.]

Appose, a′pōz, v.t. to apply one thing to another, e.g. a seal to a document: to place side by side. [Formed from L. apponĕre, -positum.]

Apposīte, ap′poz-īt, adj. adapted: suitable.—adv. Ap′positely.—n. Ap′positeness. [L. appositus, pa.p. of apponĕre, to put to—ad, to, ponĕre, to put.]

Apposition, ap-poz-ish′un, n. the act of adding: state of being placed together or against: juxtaposition: (gram.) the annexing of one noun to another, in the same case or relation, in order to explain or limit the first: also used of a public disputation by scholars, and still the word in use for the 'Speech Day' at St Paul's School, London.—adjs. Apposi′tional; Appos′itive, placed in apposition. [See Apposite.]

Appraise, ap-prāz′, v.t. to set a price on: to value with a view to sale: to estimate the amount and quality of anything.—adj. Apprais′able.—ns. Apprais′al, appraisement; Appraise′ment, a valuation: estimation of quality; Apprais′er, one who values property: one who estimates quality. [Late in appearing; for some time used in the same sense as praise. Perh. formed on analogy of the synonymous Prize, Apprize.]

Appreciate, ap-prē′shi-āt, v.t. to estimate justly, to be fully sensible of all the good qualities in the thing judged: to estimate highly: to raise in value, to advance the quotation or price of, as opposed to depreciate.—v.i. to rise in value.—adj. Apprē′ciable.—adv. Apprē′ciably.—n. Appreciā′tion, the act of setting a value on, also specially of a work of literature or art: just—and also favourable—estimation: rise in exchangeable value: increase in value.—adjs. Apprē′ciative, Apprē′ciatory, implying appreciation.—n. Appreciā′tor, one who appreciates, or estimates justly. [L. appretiātus, pa.p. of appretiāread, to, and pretium, price.]

Apprehend, ap-pre-hend′, v.t. to lay hold of: to seize by authority: to be conscious of by means of the senses: to lay hold of by the intellect: to catch the meaning of: to consider or hold a thing as such: to fear.—n. Apprehensibil′ity.—adj. Apprehens′ible.—n. Apprehen′sion, act of apprehending or seizing: arrest: (arch.) conscious perception: conception: ability to understand: fear: (obs.) sensitiveness, sensibility to.—adj. Apprehens′ive, pertaining to the laying hold of sensuous and mental impressions: intelligent, clever: having an apprehension or notion of: fearful: anticipative of something adverse.—n. Apprehens′iveness. [L. apprehendĕread, to, prehendĕre, -hensum, to lay hold of.]

Apprentice, ap-prent′is, n. one bound to another to learn a trade or art: one learning the rudiments of anything, a novice.—v.t. to bind as an apprentice.—ns. Apprent′icehood (Shak.), apprenticeship; Apprent′iceship, the state of an apprentice: a term of practical training: specially, a period of seven years.—To serve apprenticeship, to undergo the training of an apprentice. [O. Fr. aprentis, aprendre, to learn—L. apprehendĕre. See Apprehend.]

Apprise, ap-prīz′, v.t. to give notice: to inform. [Fr. apprendre, pa.p. appris—L. adprendĕre. See Apprehend.]

Apprize, -ise, a-prīz′, v.t. (Scots law) to put a selling price on: to value, appreciate.—n. Appriz′er, a creditor for whom an appraisal is made. [O. Fr. apriser, to, and prisier, to price, prize. See Appraise, Praise, and Prize.]

Approach, ap-prōch′, v.i. to draw near: to draw nigh (of time or events): to come near in quality, condition, &c.: (arch.) to come into personal relations with a person.—v.t. to come near to: to resemble: attain to: to bring near in any sense.—n. a drawing near to in military attack, in personal relations: access: a path or avenue: approximation: (pl.) trenches, &c., by which besiegers strive to reach a fortress.—n. Approachabi′lty.—adj. Approach′able. [O. Fr. aprochier, Low L. adpropiare—L. ad, to, prope, near.]

Approbation, ap-prob-ā′shun, n. formal sanction: approval: (Shak.) confirmation.—v.t. Ap′probate, to approve authoritatively (obs. except in U.S.): (Scots law) to approve of as valid.—adjs. Ap′probatory, Ap′probative, of or belonging to one who approves.—To approbate and reprobate, a phrase in Scotch law which means that no one can be permitted to accept and reject the same deed or instrument, analogous in the law of England to Election. [See Approve.]

Approof, ap-prōōf′, n. trial, proof: sanction, approbation.

Appropinquate, ap-pro-pink′wāt, v.i. to come near to.—ns. Appropinquā′tion, Appropin′quity. [L. appropinquāre, to approach—ad, to, and propinquus, near (prope).]

Appropriate, ap-prō′pri-āt, v.t. to make the private property of any one: to take to one's self as one's own: to set apart for a purpose: (arch.) to select as suitable (with to).—adj. set apart for a particular purpose: peculiar: suitable.—adv. Appropriately.—ns. Apprō′priateness; Appropriā′tion, the act of appropriating: in Church law, the making over of a benefice to an owner who receives the tithes, but is bound to appoint a vicar for the spiritual service of the parish: in Constitutional law, the principle, that supplies granted by parliament are only to be expended for particular objects specified by itself.—adj. Apprō′priative.—ns. Apprō′priativeness; Apprō′priator, one who appropriates.—Appropriation clause, a clause in a parliamentary bill, allotting revenue to any special purpose or purposes. [L. appropriāre, -ātumad, to, proprius, one's own. See Proper.]

Approve, a-prōōv′, v.t. to show, demonstrate (also reflexively): to sanction or ratify: to think well of, to be pleased with, to commend: (Shak.) to put to the trial, hence also, to convict upon proof.—v.i. to judge favourably, to be pleased (with of).—adj. Approv′able, deserving approval—ns. Approv′al, the act of approving: approbation; Approv′er, one who approves: (law) an accomplice in crime admitted to give evidence against a prisoner.—adv. Approv′ingly. [O. Fr. aprover—L. approbāread, to, and probāre, to test or try—probus, good.]

Approve, a-prōōv′, v.t. (law) to turn to one's profit, increase the value of. [Confused with Approve, but from O. Fr. aproer, approuer, to (L. ad), and pro, prou, advantage. See Prow-ess.]

Approven, ap-prōōv′n, old pa.p. of Approve.

Approximate, ap-proks′im-āt, adj. nearest or next: approaching correctness.—v.t. to bring near.—v.i. to come near, to approach.—adv. Approx′imately.—n. Approximā′tion, an approach: a result in mathematics not rigorously exact, but so near the truth as to be sufficient for a given purpose.—adj. Approx′imative, approaching closely. [L. approximāre, -atumad, to, proximus, nearest, superl. of prope, near.]

Appui, ap-wē′, n. the reciprocal action between the mouth of the horse and the rider's hand.—vs.t. Appui, Appuy, to support, e.g. to post troops in order to support.—Point d'appui, a point at which troops form as a base of operations. [O. Fr. apuyer—Low L. appodia-re—L. ad, to, and podium, support (Fr. puy, a hill).]

Appulse, ap-puls′, n. a striking against: the approach of a planet to a conjunction with the sun or a star.—n. Appul′sion.—adj. Appul′sive. [L. appuls-usappell-ĕre, ad, towards, pell-ĕre, to drive.]

Appurtenance, ap-pur′ten-ans, n. that which appertains to: an appendage or accessory: (law) a right belonging to a property.—adj. and n. Appur′tenant. [O. Fr. apurtenance. See Appertain.]

Apricate, ap′ri-kāt, v.i. to bask in the sun.—v.t. (rare) to expose to sunlight.—n. Apricā′tion. [L. appricat-, apricāri, to bask in the sun, apricus, open to the sun.]

Apricot, ā′pri-kot, n. a fruit of the plum kind, roundish, pubescent, orange-coloured, of a rich aromatic flavour—older form A′pricock. [Port. albricoque (Fr. abricot)—Ar. al-birquq. But bīrquq is a corr. of Late Gr. praikokion, which is simply the L. prcoquum or prcox, early ripe; the form is perh. due to a fancied connection with L. apricus, sunny. See Precocious.]

April, ā′pril, n. the fourth month of the year.—n. A′pril-fool, one sent upon a bootless errand on the 1st of April, perhaps a relic of some old Celtic heathen festival. In Scotland called gowk (a cuckoo, a fool). [L. Aprilis, usually regarded as from aperire, as the month when the earth opens to bring forth new fruits.]

A priori, ā pri-ō′rī, a term applied to reasoning from what is prior, logically or chronologically, e.g. reasoning from cause to effect; from a general principle to its consequences; even from observed fact to another fact or principle not observed, or to arguing from pre-existing knowledge, or even cherished prejudices; (Kant) from the forms of cognition independent of experience.—ns. Apriō′rism, Apriō′rity; Apriō′rist, one who believes in Kant's view of a priori cognition. [L. a, ab, from, priori, abl. of prior, preceding.]

Apron, ā′prun, n. a cloth or piece of leather worn before one to protect the dress, or as part of a distinctive official dress, as by Freemasons, &c.—aprons of silk or the like are often worn by ladies for mere ornament: the short cassock ordinarily worn by English bishops: anything resembling an apron in shape or use, as a gig-apron, &c.—v.t. to cover with, as with an apron.—adj. A′proned.—ns. A′pron-man (Shak.), a man who wears an apron, a mechanic; A′pron-string, a string by which an apron is attached to the person.—To be tied to a woman's apron-strings, to be bound to a woman as a child is bound to its mother. [O. Fr. naperonnappe, cloth, tablecloth—L. mappa, a napkin.]

Apropos, a-pro-pō′, adv. to the purpose: appropriately: in reference to (with to and of).—adj. opportune. [Fr. propos. See Propose.]

Apse, aps, n. an arched semicircular or polygonal recess at the east end of the choir of a church—here, in the Roman basilica, stood the prtor's chair.—adj. Ap′sidal.—n. Apsid′iole, a secondary apse, as one of the apses on either side of the central or main apse in a church of triapsidal plan. [See Apsis.]

Apsis, ap′sis, n. one of the two extreme points in the orbit of a planet, one at the greatest, the other at the least distance from the sun: one of the two points in the orbit of a satellite—one nearest to, the other farthest from, its primary; corresponding, in the case of the moon, to the perigee and apogee:—pl. Apsides (ap′si-dēz).adj. Ap′sidal. [L. apsis—Gr. hapsis, a connection, an arch—hapt-ein, to connect. See Apt.]

Apt, apt, adj. liable: ready for or prone to anything: prompt, open to impressions (with at).—adv. Apt′ly.—n. Apt′ness. [L. apt-us, fit, suitable, apposite; cog. with Gr. hapt-ein.]

Apterous, ap′tėr-us, adj. without wings.—adj. Ap′teral, without wings: (archit.) without lateral columns. [Gr. a, neg., pteron, a wing.]

Apteryx, ap′tėr-iks, n. a bird found in New Zealand, wingless and tailless, reddish-brown, about the size of a large hen. [Gr. a, neg., pteryx, wing.]

Aptitude, apt′i-tūd, n. fitness: tendency: readiness, teachableness, talent (with for). [Low L. aptitudo—L. apt-us.]

Aptote, ap′tōt, n. a noun without any variation of cases. [Gr. aptōtosa, priv., ptōsis, a falling, a case—pipt-ein, to fall.]

Apyretic, a-pir-et′ik, adj. without pyrexia or fever, especially of those days in which the intermission of fevers occurs in agues—n. Apyrex′ia. [Gr. a, neg., and pyretos, fever.]

Aqua-fortis, ā′kwa-for′tis, n. nitric acid, a powerful solvent, hence used figuratively.—ns. Aquafort′ist, one who prepares etchings or engravings by means of aqua-fortis; A′qua-mirab′ilis, a preparation distilled from cloves, nutmeg, ginger, and spirit of wine; A′qua-rē′gia, a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids, so called because it dissolves the royal metal, gold; A′qua Tofa′na, a poisonous fluid (prepared from arsenic) made in Palermo in the 17th cent. by a woman Tofana; A′qua-vi′t, an old name for alcohol, used of brandy, whisky, &c.; cf. Fr. eau de vie, and usquebaugh. [L. aqua, water, fortis, strong.]

Aquamarine, ā′kwa-ma-rēn′, n. the beryl.—adj. bluish-green, sea-coloured. [L. aqua, water, marīnamare, the sea.]

Aquarelle, ak-wa-rel′, n. water-colour painting, or a painting in water-colours.—n. Aquarel′list. [Fr.,—It. acquerella, acqua—L. aqua.]

Aquarium, a-kwā′ri-um, n. a tank or series of tanks for keeping aquatic animals, usually made mostly of glass, filled with either fresh or salt water, having rocks, plants, &c. as in nature: an artificial pond or cistern for cultivating water-plants:—pl. Aquā′riums, Aquā′ria. [L.—aqua, water.]

Aquarius, a-kwā′ri-us, n. the water-bearer, the eleventh sign of the zodiac, which the sun enters about 21st January, so called from the constellation of the same name, supposed to represent a man holding his left hand upward, and pouring with his right water from a vase into the mouth of the Southern Fish. [L.—aqua, water.]

Aquatic, a-kwat′ik, adj. relating to water: living or growing in water.— Aquat′ics, amusements on the water, as boating, &c.

Aquatint, ā′kwa-tint, n. a mode of etching on copper, by which imitations are produced of drawings in Indian ink, &c.—also Aquatint′a.—v.t. and v.i. A′quatint, to engrave in aquatint. [It. acqua tinta—L. aqua, water, and tingĕre, tinctum, to wet, to colour.]

Aqueduct, ak′we-dukt, n. an artificial channel for conveying water, most commonly understood to mean a bridge of stone, iron, or wood for conveying water across a valley: also a bridge carrying a canal for the purposes of navigation. [L. aqua, water—ducĕre, ductum, to lead.]

Aqueous, ā′kwe-us, adj. watery: deposited by water.—adv. A′queously.—Aqueous humour, the watery fluid which fills the space between the cornea and the crystalline lens in the eye; Aqueous rocks, in geology, rocks composed of matter deposited by water.

Aquiferous, ak-wif′ėr-us, adj. bearing water. [L. aqua, water, fero, I bear.]

Aquiform, ā′kwi-form, adj. having the form of water. [L. aqua, water, and Form.]

Aquiline, ak′wil-in, or -īn, adj. relating to or like the eagle: curved or hooked, like an eagle's beak. [L. aquila.]

Aquilon, ak′wi-lon, n. (Shak.) the north wind. [L. aquilo, -onis.]

Arab, ar′ab, n. a native of Arabia: an Arab horse, noted for its gracefulness and speed: a neglected or homeless boy or girl—usually Street or City Arab.—adj. of or belonging to Arabia.—adj. Arāb′ian, relating to Arabia.—n. a native of Arabia.—adj. Ar′abic, relating to Arabia, or to its language.—n. the language of Arabia.—ns. Ar′abism, an Arabic idiom; Ar′abist, one skilled in the Arabic language or literature; Ar′aby, a poetical form of Arabia. [L. Arabs, Arab-em—Gr. Araps.]

Araba, ar-′ba, n. a heavy screened wagon used by the Tartars.—Also Ar′ba and Arō′ba. [Ar. and Pers. arābah.]

Arabesque Ornament. From the Mosque at Cordova.

Arabesque, ar′ab-esk, adj. after the manner of Arabian designs.—n. a fantastic painted or sculptured ornament among the Spanish Moors, consisting of foliage and other parts of plants curiously intertwined.—adj. Ar′abesqued, so ornamented. [Fr.—It. arabesco; -esco corresponding to Eng. -ish.]

Arabine, ar′ab-in, n. the essential principle of gum-arabic.

Arable, ar′a-bl, adj. fit for ploughing or tillage. [L. arabilisara-re, cog. with Gr. aro-ein, to plough, A.S. erian, Eng. Ear (v.t.), Ir. araim.]

Arachnida, a-rak′ni-da, a sub-class of Tracheate Arthropoda, embracing spiders, scorpions, mites, &c., first separated by Lamarck from the Insecta of Linnus.—adj. Arach′nidan.—n. and adj. Arach′noid, like a cobweb.—adjs. Arachnoi′dal, Arachnolog′ical.—n. Arachno′logist, one who devotes himself to the study of arachnida.—Arachnoid membrane, one of the three coverings of the brain and spinal cord, situated between the dura-mater and the pia-mater, non-vascular, transparent, thin. [Gr. arachnē, spider.]

Aragonite, ar′a-gon-īt, n. a variety of calcium carbonate. [Aragon, in Spain.]

Araise, a-rāz′, v.t. (Shak.) to raise from the dead. [Pfx. a-, and Raise.]

Aramaic, ar-a-mā′ik, adj. relating to Arama, the whole of the country to the north-east of Palestine, or to its language—also Aramē′an, Ar′amite.—n. Aramā′ism, an Aramaic idiom.

Araneiform, ar-a-nē′i-form, adj. in the form of a spider.—adj. Aranē′idan.—n. Araneol′ogist = Arachnol′ogist.—adj. Aran′eous, like a spider's web. [L. arānea, spider, and Form.]

Araphorostic, ar-af-or-os′tik, adj. (Lytton) seamless.—Also Arophos′tic. [Formed from Gr. arraphos, unsewed—a, neg., and hropt-ein, to sew.]

Araucaria, ar-aw-kā′ri-a, n. a genus of lofty evergreen trees of the natural order Conifer or Pines, natives of S. America and Australasia. [Arauco, name of a province, whence Araucania, a district in S. Chili.]

Arbalest, r′bal-est, n. a crossbow of steel or horn used in war and the chase—also Ar′balist, Ar′blast, Arcū′balist.—ns. Ar′balister, Ar′balester, one armed with an arbalest. [O. Fr. arbaleste—L. arcuballistaarcus, bow, and ballista, engine for throwing missiles.]

Arbiter, r′bit-ėr, n. one chosen by parties in controversy to decide between them: a judge having absolute power of decision: an arbitrator: umpire:—fem. Ar′bitress.—ns. Ar′bitrage, exercise of the functions of the arbiter; Arbit′rament, Arbit′rement, the decision of an arbiter: determination: choice.—v.i. Ar′bitrate, to act as an arbiter: to determine.—ns. Arbitrā′tion; Ar′bitrātor (same as Arbiter):—fem. Ar′bitrātrix.—Arbitration of exchange, the determination of the rate of exchange between two currencies when there are one or more intermediate places through which the operations must pass.—To submit to arbitration, to defer a matter of private, public, or international controversy to the judgment of certain persons selected. [L.—ar = ad, to, and bit-ĕre (cog. with Gr. bai-nein), to go or come; sig. one who comes to look on, a witness, a judge.]

Arbitrary, r′bi-trar-i, adj. not bound by rules: despotic, absolute, arising from accident rather than from rule, varying, uncertain.—adv. Ar′bitrarily.—n. Ar′bitrariness. [L. arbitrarius, arbiter.]

Arblast. See Arbalest.

Arbor, r′bur, n. the Latin word for tree.—adjs. Arborā′ceous, Arbōr′eal, of tree-like character.—n. Arbor-day, in many of the United States, a day yearly set apart for the general planting of trees by school children—in Canada, the first Friday in May.—adj. Arbōr′eous, of or belonging to trees.—ns. Arbores′cence, Arborisā′tion, tree-like growth.—adj. Arbores′cent, growing or formed like a tree: (archit.) branching like a tree.—ns. Ar′boret (obs.), shrubbery: (Spens.) a little tree, shrub; Arborē′tum, a place in which specimens of trees and shrubs are cultivated:—pl. Arborē′ta.—adj. Arboricul′tural.—ns. Ar′boriculture, forestry, the culture of trees, esp. timber-trees; Arboricul′turist; Ar′borist, one who studies trees.—adj. Ar′borous, formed by trees.—Arbor vit, a popular name of several evergreen shrubs of the genus Thuja. When the human cerebellum is cut vertically, a tree-like appearance seen receives this name.

Arbor, r′bur, n. the main support of a machine: an axis or spindle on which a wheel revolves. [L.]

Arbour, r′bur, n. an enclosed seat in a garden, covered with branches of trees, plants, &c.: a bower: a shaded walk.—adj. Ar′boured. [See Harbour.]

Arbute, r′būt, n. the strawberry-tree: an evergreen shrub, which bears a scarlet fruit somewhat resembling the strawberry.—Also Ar′butus. [L. arbutus, akin to arbor, tree.]

Arc, rk, n. a segment of a circle or other curve. [O. Fr.—L. arcus, a bow.]

Arcade, rk-ād′, n. a row of arches supported by columns—the Gothic counterpart to the classical colonnade: the row of piers, or columns and arches, by which the aisles are divided from the nave of a church, or by which cloisters are enclosed: a walk arched over: a long arched gallery lined with shops on both sides. [Fr.—L. arcata, arched. See Arch.]

Arcadian, ark-ād′i-an, adj. pertaining to Arcadia (poet. Ar′cady), a district in Greece whose people were primitive in manners and given to music and dancing: pastoral: simple, innocent.—n. Arcad′ianism.—adv. Arcad′ianly.

Arcanum, rk-ān′um, n. a secret: a mystery: a secret remedy or elixir:—pl. Arcan′a.—adj. Arcane′ (rare). [L.—arcanusarca, a chest.]

Arcature, ar-ka-tūr, n. French for arcade, a small arcade: a blind arcade for decorating wall spaces.

Arch, rch, n. a concave construction of stones or other materials, built or turned on a centering over an open space, so as by mutual pressure to support each other and sustain a superincumbent weight.—v.t. to cover with an arch: to bend into the form of an arch.—p.adj. Arched, made with an arch, or like an arch.—ns. Arch′let, a little arch; Arch′way, an arched or vaulted passage, esp. that leading into a castle.—Arches, or Court of Arches, the ecclesiastical court of appeal for the province of Canterbury, formerly held at the church of St-Mary-le-Bow (or 'of the Arches'), from the arches that support its steeple. [O. Fr.,—L. arca, chest.]

Arch, rch, adj. cunning: waggish: roguish: shrewd, now mostly of women and children.—adv. Arch′ly.—n. Arch′ness. [Derived from the prefix arch-, in its use in words like arch-rogue, &c.]

Arch, rch (rk in archangel), adj. used as a prefix, now chiefly as an intensive in an odious sense: the first or chief.—ns. Arch′-en′emy, a chief enemy: Satan—also Arch′-foe; Arch′-fiend, the supreme fiend: Satan; Arch′-flā′men, a chief flamen or priest; Arch-he′resy; Arch′-he′retic, a leader of heresy; Arch′-mock′ (Shak.), the height of mockery; Arch′-pī′rate, a chief pirate; Arch′-pō′et, a chief poet: (obs.) a poet-laureate; Arch′-prel′ate, a chief prelate; Arch′-priest′, a chief priest: in early times, a kind of vicar to the bishop—later, a rural dean: the title given to the superiors appointed by the Pope to govern the secular priests sent into England from the foreign seminaries during the period 1598-1621; Arch′-trait′or, a chief traitor, sometimes applied esp. to the devil, or to Judas. [A.S. arce, rce, through L. from Gr. archi, cog. with arch-ein, to begin.]

Archology, rk-e-ol′oj-i, n. a knowledge of ancient art, customs, &c.: the science which deduces a knowledge of past times from the study of their existing remains.—adj. Archolog′ical.—adv. Archolog′ically.—n. Archol′ogist. [Gr. archaios, ancient—archē, beginning, and logos, discourse.]

Archopteryx, ār-kē-op′tėr-iks, n. the oldest known fossil bird, found in the Jurassic limestone of Bavaria, having a long bony tail of twenty vertebr. [Gr. archaios, ancient, pteryx, wing.]

Archaic, -al, rk-ā′ik, -al, adj. ancient: obsolete, esp. of language.—adj. Archan (rk-ē′an), of or belonging to the earliest zoological period.—n. Archog′raphy.—adj. Archozō′ic. (Gr. zōē, life), pertaining to the era of the earliest living beings on the earth.—adv. Archā′ically.—n. Archā′icism.—v.t. Ar′chāise, to imitate the archaic.—ns. Archā′ism, an archaic or obsolete word or phrase; Archā′ist (Mrs Browning).—adj. Archāis′tic, affectedly or imitatively archaic. [Gr. archaikosarchaios, ancient—archē, beginning.]

Archangel, rk-ān′jel, n. an angel of the highest order.—adj. Archangel′ic. [Arch, chief, and Angel.]

Archbishop, rch-bish′up, n. a chief bishop: a metropolitan bishop who superintends the conduct of the suffragan bishops in his province, and also exercises episcopal authority in his own diocese.—n. Archbish′opric. [Arch, chief, and Bishop.]

Archdeacon, rch-dē′kn, n. a chief deacon: the ecclesiastical dignitary having the chief supervision of a diocese or part of it, next under the bishop—the 'bishop's eye.'—ns. Archdeac′onry, the office, jurisdiction, or residence of an archdeacon; Archdeac′onship, the office of an archdeacon.—adj. Archidīac′onal.—n. Archidīac′onate. [Arch, chief, and Deacon.]

Archdiocese, rch-dī′o-sēz, n. the diocese of an archbishop. [Arch, chief, and Diocese.]

Archduke, rch-dūk′, n. a duke of specially exalted rank: a prince of Austria:—fem. Archduch′ess.—adj. Archdū′cal.—ns. Archduch′y, Archduke′dom, the territory of an archduke or archduchess. [Arch, chief, and Duke.]

Archer, rch′ėr, n. one who shoots with a bow and arrows:—fem. Arch′eress.—ns. Arch′er-fish, an acanthopterygious fish of India which catches insects by shooting water at them from its mouth; Arch′ery, the art of shooting with the bow: a company of archers. [O. Fr. archier—L. arcari-um, arcus, a bow.]

Archetype, rk′e-tīp, n. the original pattern or model, a prototype.—adj. Archetyp′al. [Gr. archetypon, archi-, and typos, a model.]

Archiepiscopal, rk-i-ep-is′kop-al, adj. belonging to an archbishop.—ns. Archiepis′copacy, Archiepis′copate, dignity or province of an archbishop. [See Episcopal.]

Archil, r′kil, n. a colouring substance obtained from various species of lichens. [Corrupt form of Orchil—O. Fr. orchel, orseil (Fr. orseille)—It. orcello, origin undetermined.]

Archilochian, r-ki-lō′ki-an, adj. pertaining to the Greek lyric poet Archilochus of Paros (714-676 B.C.), the supposed originator of iambic metre, noted for the bitterness of his satire—hence the proverbial phrases, 'Archilochian bitterness' and 'Parian verse:' a lesser Archilochian verse = a dactylic hexameter alternating with a penthemim; a greater Archilochian, a verse consisting of four dactyls and three trochees.

Archimage, r′ki-māj, n. a chief magician or enchanter. [Gr. archi-, chief, and L. magus, a magician.]

Archimandrite, r-ki-man′drīt, n. in the Greek Church, the superior of a monastery, an abbot: sometimes the superintendent of several monasteries. [Late Gr. archimandritēs—pfx. archi, first, and mandra, an enclosure, a monastery.]

Archimedean Screw.

Archimedean, rk-i-me-dē′an, adj. pertaining to Archimedes, a celebrated Greek mathematician of Syracuse (287-212 B.C.).—Archimedean screw, a machine for raising water, in its simplest form consisting of a flexible tube bent spirally round a solid cylinder, the ends of which are furnished with pivots, so as to admit of the whole turning round its axis.—Principle of Archimedes, a fundamental law in Hydrostatics, that a body when immersed in a fluid weighs less than it does in vacuo by the weight of the fluid it displaces.

Archipelago, rk-i-pel′a-gō, n. the chief sea of the Greeks, or the gean Sea: a sea abounding in small islands, also a group of such islands:—pl. Archipel′agoes.—adj. Archipelagic (-aj′ik). [An Italian compound from Gr. archi-, chief, pelagos, sea.]

Architect, rk′i-tekt, n. a master-builder: one who designs buildings and superintends their erection: a maker: any contriver, as the Creator.—adjs. Architecton′ic, pertaining to architecture: constructive: controlling, having direction: (metaph.) pertaining to the arrangement of knowledge.—n. the science of architecture: the systematic arrangement of knowledge.—adj. Architect′ural.—n. Architect′ure, the art or science of building: structure: in specific sense, one of the fine arts, the art of architecture—also used of any distinct style, e.g. Gothic, Byzantine architecture. [Gr. architektōnarchi-, chief, and tektōn, a builder.]

Architrave, rk′i-trāv, n. (archit.) the lowest division of the entablature resting immediately on the abacus of the column: collective name for the various parts, jambs, lintels, &c. which surround a door or window.—p.adj. Arch′itraved. [It. from Gr. archi-, chief, and L. trab-em, trabs, a beam.]

Archives, rk′īvz, n. the place in which government records are kept: (pl.) public records—also figuratively in both senses.—adj. Arch′ival, pertaining to, or contained in, archives or records.—n. Arch′ivist, a keeper of archives or records. [Fr.—Gr. archeion, magisterial residence—archē, government.]

Archivolt, r′ki-volt, n. the band or moulding which runs round the lower part of the archstones of an arch. [Fr. archivolte, It. archivolto—L. arcus, an arch, volta, a vault.]

Archology, rk-ol′oj-i, n. (rare) doctrine of the origin of things: the science of government. [Gr. archē, beginning, logos, discourse.]

Archon, rk′on, n. one of nine chief magistrates of ancient Athens.—ns. Arch′onship, the office of an archon; Arch′ontate, the archon's tenure of office. [Gr. arch-ein, to be first, to rule.]

Archwise, rch′wīz, adv. in the form of an arch. [Arch, and Wise, way.]

Arctic, rk′tik, adj. relating to the constellation the Great Bear, or to the north, used figuratively to express extreme cold.—Arctic Circle, a circle drawn round the North Pole, at a distance of 23 degrees. [O. Fr. artique—L. arcticus—Gr. arktikosarktos, a bear.]

Arcturus, rk-tū′rus, n. the Bear-ward, a yellow star in the northern hemisphere, fourth in order of brightness in the entire heavens. [Gr. arktourosarktos, a bear, and ouros, ward, guard (from its situation at the tail of the bear).]

Arcuate, r′kū-āt, Arcuated, r′kū-āt-ed, adj. bent in the form of a bow.—n. Arcuā′tion. [L. arcuatus, pa.p. of arcu-āre, to bend like a bow—arcus, a bow.]

Arcubalist. See Arbalest.

Ardeb, r′deb, n. an Egyptian dry measure of 5 bushels. [Ar. irdab.]

Ardent, rd′ent, adj. burning: fiery: passionate: zealous: fervid.—adv. Ard′ently.—n. Ard′our, warmth of passion or feeling: eagerness: enthusiasm (with for)—also Ard′ency.—Ardent spirits, distilled alcoholic liquors, whisky, brandy, &c. The use of the word as = 'inflammable, combustible,' is obsolete, except in this phrase. [L. ardent-em, ardē-re, to burn.]

Arduous, rd′ū-us, adj. deep, difficult to climb: difficult to accomplish: laborious.—adv. Ard′uously.—n. Ard′uousness. [L. arduus, high; cog. with Celt. ard, high.]

Are, ar, n. the unit of the French land measure, containing 100 sq. metres = 119.6 English sq. yards. [Fr.—L. area.]

Are, r, the plural of the present indicative of the verb To be. [Old Northumbrian aron, of Scand. origin. This form ousted the older A.S. sind, sindon. Both are cog. with Sans. s-anti, Gr. eis-in, L. sunt, Ger. s-ind.]

Area, ā′rē-a, n. any plane surface or enclosed space: the sunken space around the basement of a building: (fig.) extent conceived by the mind: (geom.) the superficial contents of any figure. [L. area.]

Aread, Arede, a-rēd′, v.t. (obs.) to make known, utter: guess: interpret, explain: to counsel, advise. [A.S. ardan. See Read.]

Arear, a-rēr′, adv. in the rear. [A.S. pfx. a-, on, to, and Rear.]

Areca, ar′ē-ka, n. a genus of palm, one species of which, the Betel-nut Palm, or Penang Palm (Areca catechu), bears nuts with austere and astringent properties, which are chewed by the Malays with a little lime in a leaf of the betel-pepper, making the lips and spittle red.

Arefaction, ar-e-fak′shun, n. (obs.) the action of drying.—v.t. and v.i. Ar′efy, to dry up, wither. [L. arefacĕre, to make dry—arēre, to be dry, and facĕre, to make.]

Arena, a-rē′na, n. part of the ancient amphitheatre strewed with sand for the combats of gladiators and wild beasts: any place of public contest: a battlefield: place of action of any kind.—adj. Arenā′ceous, sandy: dry: (geol.) applied to rocks composed entirely or largely of grains of quartz.—ns. Arenā′ria, the sandwort, a genus of low herbs allied to the chickweeds; Arenā′tion, the application of hot sand to the body as a remedy. [L. arēna, sand.]

Areography, ā-re-ō′gra-fi, n. description of the physical features of the planet Mars. [Gr. Arēs, Mars, and graphein, to write.]

Areola, a-rē′o-la, n. a small area: (bot.) any slightly sunk spot, on the surface: (physiol.) the interstice in the tissue of an organised substance: any circular spot such as that around the human nipple:—pl. Arē′ol.—adj. Arē′olate, divided into small areas.—n. Areolā′tion, division into areol. [L. areola, a dim. of Area.]

Areometer, Arometer, ā-re-om′e-tėr, n. an instrument for determining specific gravity, called also Hydrometer.—n. Areom′etry, the measuring the specific gravity of bodies. [Gr. araios, thin, and Meter.]

Areopagus, ar-e-op′ag-us, n. Mars' Hill, on which the supreme court of ancient Athens was held: the court itself: also used of any important tribunal.—n. Areop′agite, a member of the Areopagus.—adj. Areopagit′ic, pertaining to the Areopagus.—n. a speech on the model of Isocrates's oration of that name addressed to the Areopagus. [Gr. Areios pagos, hill of Ares, or Mars.]

Aret, Arette, a-ret′, v.t. (Spens.) to entrust, commit a charge to. [O. Fr. arete-r, -, to, reter—L. reputāre, to reckon.]

Arte, ar-āt′, n. a sharp ridge: esp. in French Switzerland, a rocky edge on a mountain. [Fr.—L. arista, an ear of corn, fish-bone, spine.]

Arew, a-rōō′, adv. (Spens.) arow, in a row.

Argal, ar′gal, adv. (Shak.) corruption of L. ergo, therefore: hence as a noun = a clumsy piece of reasoning.

Argali, r′ga-li, n. the great wild sheep of Siberia and Central Asia. [Mongol.]

Argand, ar′gand, n. applied to a lamp and gas-burner invented by Aim Argand (1755-1803).

Argent, rj′ent, adj. and n. silver, or like silver, silvery-white: (her.) the silver or white colour in armorial bearings: (poet.) esp. in compounds like argent-clear, argent-lidded.adjs. Argent′al; Argentif′erous, bearing or containing silver; Ar′gentine, relating to or like silver: sounding like silver.—n. (nat. hist.) white metal coated with silver: a genus of small bony fishes with silvery sides, fished for the nacre which they contain. [Fr.—L. argentum, silver.]

Argil, r′jil, n. potter's clay: pure clay or alumina.—adjs. Argillā′ceous, of the nature of clay; Argillif′erous, bearing or abounding in clay. [L. argilla, Gr. argilos, white clay—argēs, white.]

Argive, ar′jīv, adj. belonging to Argos: Greek.

Argol, r′gol, n. a hard crust formed on the sides of wine-vessels, from which cream of tartar and tartaric acid are obtained—generally of a reddish tinge. [Prob. conn. with Gr. argos, white.]

Argon, ar′gon, n. a constituent element of our atmosphere, discovered in 1894 by Rayleigh and Ramsay.

Argonaut, r′go-nawt, n. one of those who sailed in the ship Argo in search of the golden fleece: also (nat. hist.) a name of the nautilus, a mollusc of the octopod type.—adj. Argonaut′ic. [Gr. Argō, and nautēs, a sailor.]

Argosy, r′go-si, n. a large merchant-vessel richly laden, esp. those of Ragusa and Venice: also figuratively. [The forms ragosie, rhaguse, used equally with argosie, argosey, &c., point to the derivation from It. Ragusea, a ship belonging to Ragusa, a great medieval port on the Adriatic, spelt in 16th-cent. English as Aragouse, Arragosa.]

Argot, r′go, or r′got, n. slang, originally that of thieves and vagabonds: cant. [Fr.; of unknown origin.]

Argue, rg′ū, v.t. prove or evince: to prove by argument: to discuss: (obs.) to accuse.—v.i. to offer reasons: to dispute (with against, for, with, about):—pr.p. arg′ūing; pa.p. arg′ūed.adj. Arg′ūable, capable of being argued.—n. Arg′ūer, one who argues: a reasoner.—To argue (a person) into, or out of, to persuade him into, or out of, a certain course of action. [O. Fr. arguer—L. argutāre, freq. of arguĕre, to prove.]

Argufy, rg′ū-fī, v.i. to be evidence of something: to be of importance: to argue, wrangle.—v.t. to weary with wrangling. [Illiterate corr. of Argue.]

Argument, rg′ū-ment, n. a statement, or reason based on such, offered as proof: a series of reasons or a step in such: discussion: subject of a discourse: summary of the subject-matter of a book: (obs.) matter of controversy.—adjs. Argument′able, Argument′al.—n. Argumentā′tion, an arguing or reasoning.—adj. Argument′ative.—adv. Argument′atively.—n. Argument′ativeness. [L. argumentum. See Argue.]

Argumentum, rg-ū-ment′um, n. an argument.—The following are forms of indirect argument:—Argumentum ad hominem, an appeal to the known prepossessions or previous admissions of an opponent; Argumentum ad ignorantiam, an argument founded on the ignorance of an opponent; Argumentum ad invidiam, an argument appealing to the prejudices of the person addressed; Argumentum ad judicium, an appeal to the common-sense of mankind; Argumentum ad verecundiam, an appeal to our reverence for some respected authority; Argumentum baculinum, the argument of the cudgel—most concise of arguments, an appeal to force; Argumentum per impossibile, or Reductio ad absurdum, the proof of a conclusion derived from the absurdity of a contradictory supposition.—For the Ontological, Cosmological, Teleological, and Moral arguments in Theism, see under these adjectives.

Argus, rg′us, n. any very quick-eyed or watchful person, from Argus, described in Greek mythology as having had a hundred eyes, some of which were always awake: a genus of gallinaceous birds, remarkable for magnificence of plumage—the only known species, the Argus pheasant, native to Sumatra, &c. [Gr.—argos, bright.]

Argute, r-gūt′, adj. shrill in sound: keen: shrewd.—adv. Argute′ly.—n. Argute′ness. [L. argutus.]

Argyria, ar-jir′i-a, n. silver poisoning. [Gr. argyros, silver.]

Aria, ā′ri-a, n. an air or rhythmical song introduced in a cantata, oratorio, or opera, and intended for one voice supported by instruments. [It., from root of Air.]

Arian, ā′ri-an, adj. pertaining to Arius of Alexandria (died 336), who denied the divinity of Christ.—n. one who adheres to the doctrines of Arius: a Unitarian.—v.t. A′rianise.—n. A′rianism, the doctrines of the Arians.

Arid, ar′id, adj. dry: parched.—ns. Arid′ity, Ar′idness. [L. aridus.]

Ariel, ā′ri-el, n. a man's name in the Old Testament, variously explained as 'lion of God,' 'hearth of God:' in later demonology, a water-spirit: an angel: a spirit of the air. [Heb. ariēl.]

Ariel, ā′ri-el, n. a species of gazelle in Western Asia. [Ar. aryil.]

Aries, ā′ri-ēz, n. the Ram, the first of the signs of the zodiac, which the sun enters on 21st March. [L.]

Arietta, ar-i-et′ta, n. a little aria or air.—Also Ariette′. [It. arietta, dim. of aria.]

Aright, a-rīt′, adv. in a right way: rightly.

Aril, ar′il, Arillus, a-ril′lus, n. a peculiar covering of the seed of some plants, formed by an expansion of the cord (funiculus) which attaches the ovule to the placenta, or of the placenta itself.—adjs. Ar′illary, Ar′illated, having an aril. [Low L. arillus.]

Arimaspian, ar-im-as′pi-an, adj. pertaining to the Arimaspi, described by Herodotus as a one-eyed and fierce people inhabiting the most northern region in the world, waging perpetual warfare with the neighbouring griffins for their hoarded gold.

Ariot, -rī′ot, adv. in riot, riotously.

Aripple, -rip′l, adv. in a ripple, rippling.

Arise, a-rīz′, v.i. to rise up: to come up so as to be heard: to ascend: to come into view: to spring:—pa.t. arose′; pa.p. aris′en. [Pfx. a-, up, out, and Rise.]

Aristarch, ar′is-trk, n. a severe critic. [From Aristarchus, a grammarian of Alexandria about 160 B.C.]

Aristate, a-ris′tāt, adj. (bot.) having awns. [L. arista, an awn.]

Aristocracy, ar-is-tok′ras-i, n. government by the men of best birth or condition: political power of a privileged order: the nobility or chief persons of a state: the upper classes generally, also the persons noted for superiority in any quality, taken collectively—also Aristarch′y (rare).—n. Aristocrat (ar′is-to-krat, or ar-is′-), one who belongs to or favours an aristocracy: a haughty person.—adjs. Aristocrat′ic, -al, belonging to aristocracy: gentlemanly, stylish.—adv. Aristocrat′ically.—n. Aristocrat′ism. [Gr. aristos, best, and kratos, power.]

Aristolochia, ar-is-tō-lō′ki-a, n. a genus of shrubs, many climbers, specially abundant in tropical South America. [Gr.; aristos, best, locheia, child-birth, the roots of several species being formerly thought useful in parturition.]

Aristotelian, ar-is-to-tē′li-an, adj. relating to Aristotle or to his philosophy.

Arithmancy, ar′ith-man-si, n. divination by numbers.—Also Arith′momancy. [Gr. arithmos, number, and manteia, divination.]

Arithmetic, ar-ith′met-ik, n. the science of numbers: the art of reckoning by figures: a treatise on reckoning.—adj. Arithmet′ical.—adv. Arithmet′ically.—n. Arithmetic′ian, one skilled in arithmetic—Arithmetical progression, a series of numbers that increase or diminish by a common difference, as 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22; or 12, 10, 9, 7, 6. To find the sum of such a series, multiply the sum of the first and last terms by half the number of terms. [Gr. arithmētikē (technē, art), relating to numbers—arithmos, number.]

Arithmocracy, ar-ith-mok′ras-i, n. a democracy of mere numbers.—adj. Arithmocrat′ic. [A coinage of Kingsley—Gr. arithmos, number, kratia, rule.]

Arithmometer, ar-ith-mom′et-ėr, n. an instrument for working out arithmetical calculations. [Gr. arithmos, number, metron, measure.]

Ark, rk, n. a chest or coffer: in Jewish history, the wooden coffer in which the Tables of the Law were kept—hence To touch or Lay hands on the ark, to touch irreverently what is sacred (2 Sam. vi. 6): a large floating vessel, like that in which Noah escaped the Deluge (Gen. vi.-viii.).—adj. and n. Ark′ite. [A.S. arc—L. arca, a chest—arcēre, to guard.]

Arles, rlz, or ārlz, n. earnest money given in confirmation of a bargain, or of the engagement of a servant.—ns. Arle′-pen′ny, Arles′-pen′ny. [Scot. and northern Eng.; M. E. erles—O. Fr. erres (mod. Fr. arrhes)—L. arrha.]

Arm, rm, n. the limb extending from the shoulder to the hand: anything projecting from the main body, as an inlet of the sea, a rail or support from a chair, sofa, or the like: one of the branches into which a main trunk divides: (fig.) power.—ns. Arm′-chair, a chair with arms; Arm′ful; Arm′-hole, the hole in a garment through which the arm is put.—adv. Arm′-in-arm, with arms interlinked, in close communion.—adj. Arm′less.—ns. Arm′let, a bracelet; Arm′-pit, the pit or hollow under the shoulder.—At arm's length, away from any friendliness or familiarity.—Right arm, the main support or assistant; Secular arm, the secular or temporal authority, as distinguished from the spiritual or ecclesiastical.—With open arms, with hearty welcome. [A.S.; cog. with L. armus, the shoulder-joint, Gr. harmos, a joint.]

Arm, rm, n. a weapon: a branch of the military service:—pl. Arms, weapons of offence and defence: war, hostilities: deeds or exploits of war: armorial ensigns.—v.t. Arm, to furnish with arms or weapons: to fortify.—v.i. to take arms.—n. Ar′mature, armour: any apparatus for defence: a piece of iron connecting the poles of a bent magnet.—adj. Armed (rmd, or arm′ed), furnished with arms: provided with means of defence: (bot.) having prickles or thorns: (her.) having part of the body different in colour from the rest, as a beak, claws, &c. of a bird.— Fire′arms, such weapons as employ gunpowder, as guns and pistols.—n. Man′-at-arms, a fully equipped and practised fighting man.— Small′-arms, such as do not require carriages, as opposed to artillery.—Armed to the teeth, completely armed.—College of Arms, the Heralds' College, which grants armorial bearings.—In arms with, quartered with; Of all arms, of every kind of troops; Stand of arms, a complete equipment of arms for one soldier.—The armed eye, strengthened with a magnifying-glass, as opp. to naked eye.—To lay down arms, to surrender or submit; Up in arms, in readiness to fight. [Through Fr. from L. arma; cog. with Arm.]

Armada, rm-ā′da, n. a fleet of armed ships, esp. the self-styled Invincible Armada sent by Philip II. against England in 1588. [Sp.—L. armata, armare, to arm.]

Armadillo, rm-a-dil′o, n. a small American edentate quadruped, having its body armed with bands of bony plates:—pl. Armadill′os. [Sp., dim. of armado, armed.]

Armageddon, r-mag-ed′on, n. the great symbolical battlefield of the Apocalypse, in which the final struggle between the powers of good and evil is to be fought out. [The name was no doubt suggested by the famous battlefield of Megiddo, in the plain of Esdraelon.]

Armament, rm′a-ment, n. forces armed or equipped for war: munitions of war, esp. the great guns with which a ship is armed. [L. armamentaarma.]

Armenian, ar-mē′ni-an, adj. belonging to Armenia, in Western Asia: belonging to the Armenian branch of the Christian Church.—n. a native of Armenia.

Armet, r′met, n. a helmet introduced about 1450 in place of the basinet, consisting of an iron cap, spreading over the back of the neck, having in front the visor, beaver, and gorget. [Fr.]

Armgaunt, rm′gnt, adj. (Shak. once, Ant. and Cleop. I. v. 48), with gaunt limbs (?). The word has not been satisfactorily explained, and is most likely an error.

Armiger, r′mi-jėr, n. an armour-bearer: one entitled to a coat-of-arms: an esquire—also Armi′gero (Shak.).—adj. Armi′gerous. [L.; arma, arms, gerĕre, to bear.]

Armillary, r′mil-lar-i, or r-mil′lar-i, adj. resembling an armlet or bracelet: consisting of rings or circles.—n. Armil′la, in archology, a bracelet: one of the coronation ornaments: the regalia.—Armillary sphere, an instrument constructed to show the motions of the heavenly bodies. [L. armilla, an armlet. See Arm (1).]

Arminian, ar-min′yan, n. a follower of Arminius (1560-1609), a Dutch divine, who denied the Calvinistic doctrine of absolute predestination, as well as irresistible grace.—adj. holding the doctrines of Arminius.—n. Armin′ianism.

Armipotent, rm-ip′ō-tent, adj. powerful in arms. [L. arma, arms, potens, -entis, powerful.]

Armistice, rm′ist-is, n. a short suspension of hostilities: a truce. [Fr.—Low L. armistitium, from L. arma, arms, sistĕrestitum, to stop.]

Armoire, arm′war, n. an ambry or cupboard. [Fr.]

Armoric, ar-mor′ik, n. the language of the inhabitants of Armorica, the ancient name for Brittany. [L. Armoricus—Celt. are-mor, before the sea.]

Armour, rm′ur, n. defensive arms or dress: heraldic insignia: plating of ships of war.—adj. Armō′rial, belonging to armour, or to the arms of a family.—ns. Arm′our-bear′er; Arm′ourer, a maker or repairer of, or one who has the charge of, armour.—adj. Arm′our-plat′ed.—ns. Arm′oury, Arm′ory, the place in which arms are made or kept: a collection of ancient armour; Coat′-arm′our, originally a vest of silk embroidered in colours, worn by a knight over his armour. [See Arm (2).]

Armozeen, Armozine, r-mo-zēn′, n. a kind of taffeta or plain silk, usually black, used for clerical gowns. [Fr. armoisin.]

Army, rm′i, n. a large body of men armed for war and under military command: a body of men banded together in a special cause, whether travestying military methods, as the 'Salvation Army,' or not, as the 'Blue Ribbon Army:' a host: a great number.—ns. Arm′y-Corps (-kōr), a main division of an army, a miniature army comprising all arms of the service; Arm′y-list, a list of all commissioned officers, issued periodically by the War Office; Arm′y-worm, a European grub which collects in vast armies. [Fr. arme—L. armata, armāre.]

Arnica, r′ni-ka, n. a genus of composite plants, of which the species A. montana, or Mountain Tobacco, formerly enjoyed a great repute in medicine as a stimulant in paralytic affections, low fevers, &c.—its flowers still yield a tincture externally applied to wounds and bruises. [Mod. L.; origin unknown.]

Arnotto, ar-not′to. See Anatta.

Aroint, a-roint′, interj. (Shak.) away! begone! used only twice in the phrase, 'Aroint thee, witch:' to bid begone (arch. usage in Browning).—v.t. to drive or frighten away. [Origin unknown; perh. in some provincialism, like the Yorkshire rynd-ta, 'round-thee,' 'move-round,' spoken to a cow in her stall.]

Aroma, a-rō′ma, n. sweet smell: the odorous principle of plants: (fig.) flavour or peculiar charm of any kind.—adj. Aromat′ic, fragrant: spicy.—v.t. Arō′matise, to render aromatic: to perfume:—pr.p. arō′matising; pa.p. arō′matised. [Through Fr. and L. from Gr. arōma.]

Arose, a-rōz′, pa.t. of Arise.

Around, a-rownd′, prep. on all sides of: (Amer.) round about.—adv. on every side: in a circle: (Amer.) round, all about, [a, on, and Round.]

Arouse, a-rowz′, v.t. and v.i. same as Rouse.—ns. Arouse, Arous′al (rare).

Arow, a-rō′, adv. in a row: one following the other. [Prep. a, and Row.]

Aroynt. Same as Aroint.

Arpeggio, r-pej′ō, n. (mus.) a chord of which the notes are given, not simultaneously, but in rapid succession. [It. arpeggiare, to play upon the harp—arpa, harp.]

Arpent, r′pent, n. an old French measure for land still used in Quebec and Louisiana = 100 sq. perches, varying with the perch from 1 acre to 56 of an acre. [Fr.—L. arepennis, said to be a Gallic word.]

Arquebuse, r′kwi-bus, n. an old-fashioned hand-gun—also Har′quebus.—n. Arquebusier′. [Fr. arquebuse—Dut. haakbushaak, hook, and bus, box, barrel of a gun; Ger. hakenbchse.]

Arracacha, ar-a-kach′, n. an umbelliferous plant with esculent roots, native to the northern parts of South America. [Native Ind. name.]

Arrack, ar′ak, n. an ardent spirit used in the East, procured from toddy or the fermented juice of the coco and other palms, as well as from rice and jaggery sugar. [Ar. ‛araq, juice.]

Arrah, ar′a, interj. Anglo-Irish expletive of emotion, wonder, &c.

Arraign, ar-rān′, v.t. to call one to account: to put a prisoner upon trial: to accuse publicly.—ns. Arraign′er; Arraign′ing; Arraign′ment. [O. Fr. aresnier—Low L. arrationāre—L. ad, to, rationem, reason.]

Arrange, ar-rānj′, v.t. to set in a rank or row: to put in order: to settle: (mus.) to adapt a composition for instruments or voices for which it was not originally written, as when orchestral or vocal compositions are set for the pianoforte, or the reverse.—v.i. to come to an agreement.—n. Arrange′ment, act of arranging: classification: settlement. [O. Fr. arangier (—L. ad, to), and rangier, rengier. See Range.]

Arrant, ar′rant, adj. downright, notorious (used in a bad sense): unmitigated.—adv. Ar′rantly. [A variant of Errant. From its use in phrases like 'arrant thief,' it passed naturally into a general term used with other terms of abuse.]

Arras, ar′ras, n. tapestry: a hanging screen of such hung round the walls of rooms.—p.adj. Ar′rased, covered with arras.—n. Ar′rasene, an embroidery material of wool and silk stitched in like crewels. [From Arras in Northern France, where first manufactured.]

Arraught, ar-rawt′, adj. (Spens.) seized on by force:—pa.t. and pa.p. of Arreach. [See Reach.]

Array, ar-rā′, n. order: dress: equipage.—v.t. to put in order: to arrange: to dress, adorn, or equip. [O. Fr. arroi, array, equipage—L. ad, and a Teut. root, found in Eng. Ready, Ger. bereit, A.S. gerǽde, preparation, Dan. rede, order.]

Arrear, ar-rēr′, n. that which is in the rear or behind: that which remains unpaid or undone (used mostly in pl.).—adv. Arrear′, backward, behind.—n. Arrear′age (Shak.), arrears. [O. Fr. arere, ariere (Fr. arrire)—L. ad, to, retro, back, behind.]

Arrect, a-rekt′, adj. upright: erected, as the ears: on the alert. [L. arrectus.]

Arrest, ar-rest′, v.t. to stop: to seize: to catch the attention: to apprehend by legal authority.—n. stoppage: seizure by warrant.—adj. Arrest′able, liable to be arrested.—n. Arrestā′tion, the act of arresting: arrest.—adj. Arrest′ive, with a tendency to arrest.—n. Arrest′ment (law), detention of a person arrested till liberated on bail, or by security: (Scots law) the process which prohibits a debtor from making payment to his creditor until another debt due to the person making use of the arrestment by such creditor is paid. [O. Fr. arester—L. ad, to, restāre, to stand still.]

Arret, ar-ret′, or a-rā′, n. decision: judgment of a tribunal—properly of the king or parliament of France. [Fr. arrt. See Arrest.]

Arride, a-rīd′, v.t. (Lamb) to please, gratify. [L. arridē-re.]

Arrire-ban, r′yer-bn, or -rēr′ban, n. in feudal times, the sovereign's summons to all freemen to take the field: the army thus collected. [O. Fr. ariereban, Old High Ger. hari, army, and ban, public proclamation.]

Arris, ar′ris, n. a sharp ridge or edge on stone or metal. [See Arte.]

Arrive, ar-rīv′, v.i. to reach any place: to attain to any object (with at).—ns. Arrīv′al, the act of arriving: persons or things that arrive; Arrīv′ance (Shak.), company arriving. [O. Fr. ariver—Low L. adripāre—L. ad, to, ripa, a bank.]

Arroba, a-rō′ba, n. a weight of 25 or more pounds, used in Spanish and Portuguese regions. [Ar.]

Arrogate, ar′rog-āt, v.t. to claim as one's own: to claim proudly or unduly.—ns. Ar′rogance, Ar′rogancy, undue assumption of importance.—adj. Ar′rogant, claiming too much: overbearing.—adv. Ar′rogantly.—n. Arrogā′tion, act of arrogating: undue assumption. [L. arrogāread, to, rogāre, -ātum, to ask, to claim.]

Arrondissement, ar-ron′dēs-mng, n. a subdivision of a French department, comprising a number of communes. [Fr.—arrondir, to make round.]

Arrow, ar′rō, n. a straight, pointed weapon, made to be shot from a bow: any arrow-shaped pin or ornament: the chief shoot of a plant, esp. the flowering stem of the sugar-cane.—n. Ar′row-head, the head or pointed part of an arrow: an aquatic plant native to England, with arrow-shaped leaves rising above the water—reputed good for hydrophobia.—adj. Ar′row-head′ed, shaped like the head of an arrow.—n. Ar′row-shot, the distance traversed by an arrow.—adj. Ar′rowy, of or like arrows. [A.S. earh, arwe; cog. with L. arcus; akin to Ice. r, rvar.]

Arrowroot, ar′rō-rōōt, n. a starch obtained from the roots of certain plants growing chiefly in West Indies, and much used as food for invalids and children. [Said to be so named because used by the Indians of South America as an antidote against wounds caused by poisoned arrows.]

'Arry, ar′i, n. a jovial vulgar fellow who drops his h's:—fem. 'Ar′riet.—adj. 'Ar′ryish, in holiday spirits. [From the vulgar Cockney pronunciation of Harry.]

Arse, rs, n. the posterior parts of an animal.—adv. and adj. Ars′y-vers′y, backside foremost, contrary. [A.S. ears; Ger. arsch, Sw. ars; cog. with Gr. orros.]

Arsenal, r′se-nal, n. a dock possessing naval stores: a public magazine or manufactory of naval and military stores. [It. arzenale, arsenale (Sp., Fr. arsenal)—Ar. dār ainā‛ah, workshop; dār, house, al, the, cinā‛ah, art.]

Arsenic, ar′sen-ik, n. one of the chemical elements: a mineral poison: a soft, gray-coloured metal.—ns. Ar′senate, Arsē′niate, a salt of arsenic acid.—adjs. Arsen′ic, -al, composed of or containing arsenic: in chemistry, applied to compounds; Arsē′nious, of or containing arsenic.—n. Ar′senite, a salt of arsenious acid. [Gr. arsenikon, arsen, male; the alchemists fancied some metals male, others female.]

Arsis, ar′sis, n. grammatical term applied to the elevation of the voice to a higher pitch in speaking: (mus.) the strong position in a bar: the strong syllable in English metre:—pl. Ar′sēs. [L.—Gr. arsisairein, to lift.]

Arson, rs′on, n. the crime of wilfully burning houses or other buildings.—ns. Ar′sonite, Ar′sonist (rare). [O. Fr. arson—L. arsion-em, ardēre, arsum, to burn.]

Art, rt, 2d pers. sing. of the present tense of the verb To be. [A.S. eart.]

Art, rt, n. practical skill guided by rules: human skill as opposed to nature: skill as applied to subjects of taste, the fine arts—music, painting, sculpture, architecture, and poetry: (pl.) specially used of certain branches of learning to be acquired as necessary for pursuit of higher studies, or for the work of life, as in phrase 'faculty of arts, master of arts:' the rules and methods of doing certain actions: a profession, skilled trade, or craft: contrivance: cunning, artfulness, or address: artifice, special faculty of some kind acquired by practice, skill, dexterity, knack: special faculty of giving expression to sthetic or artistic quality, as in art-furniture, &c., supposed, by the buyer, in this respect, to justify its price.—adj. Art′ful, full of art: (arch.) dexterous, clever: cunning: produced by art.—adv. Art′fully.—n. Art′fulness.—adj. Art′less, simple: (rare) inartistic: guileless, unaffected.—adv. Art′lessly.—ns. Art′lessness; Arts′man, one who cultivates some practical knowledge: (arch.) a man skilled in arts or in learning.— Art′-un′ions, associations having for their object the promotion of an interest in the fine arts.—Art and part, as in the phrase 'to be art and part in,' originally in legal expressions like 'to be concerned in either by art or part'—i.e. either by art in contriving or by part in actual execution; now loosely used in the sense of participating, sharing.—Useful arts as opposed to Fine arts, those in which the hands and body are more concerned than the mind.—Science and Art differ essentially in their aims—Science, in Mill's words, 'takes cognisance of a phenomenon, and endeavours to ascertain its law; Art proposes to itself an end, and looks out for means to effect it.' [L. ars, artis. See Arm.]

Artemisia, r-tē-miz′i-a, n. a genus of composite plants, with a peculiarly bitter taste, including Wormwood, Southernwood, &c.

Artery, r′tėr-i, n. a tube or vessel which conveys blood from the heart (see Aorta)—also metaphorically: any main channel of communication.—adj. Artēr′ialv.t. Artēr′ialise, to make arterial.—ns. Artēriot′omy, the cutting or opening of an artery, to let blood; Arterī′tis, inflammation of an artery. [L.—Gr. artēria, orig. the windpipe most probably—Gr. air-ein, to raise. The ancient conception of the artery as an air-duct gave rise to the derivation from Gr. aēr, air.]

Artesian, r-tē′zhan, adj. applied to wells made by boring until water is reached. [From Artois (L. Artesium), in the north of France, where the oldest known well of this kind in Europe was sunk in 1126.]

Arthritis, ar-thrī′tis, n. inflammation of a joint: gout.—adj. Arthrit′ic, relating to or affecting the joints: gouty. [Gr. arthritikosarthron, a joint.]

Arthropoda, ar-throp′od-a, a great division of the animal kingdom, the body consisting of a definite number of segments, each having a pair of hollow jointed limbs into which the body muscles proceed. It again divides into two great groups—the water-breathers or Branchiata, and the air-breathers or Tracheata.—adj. Arthrop′odal. [Gr. arthron, joint, and pous, pod-os, a foot.]

Artichoke, r′ti-chōk, n. a thistle-like, perennial, eatable plant with large scaly heads, like the cone of the pine, now growing wild in the south of Europe, though probably a native of Asia.—Jerusalem artichoke, a totally different plant, a species of sunflower, bearing tubers like those of the potato, Jerusalem being a corr. of It. girasole ('turn-sun'), sunflower. By a quibble on Jerusalem, the soup made from it is called Palestine soup. [Old It. articiocco (It. carciofo)—Old Sp. alcarchofa—Ar. al-kharshōfa, al-kharshuf. Popular definitions are many—e.g. the plant that chokes the garden or the heart.]

Article, rt′i-kl, n. a separate element, member, or part of anything: a particular substance: a single clause or term: a distinct point in an agreement, or an agreement looked at as complete, as in 'articles of apprenticeship,' &c.: rules or conditions generally: a section of any document: a literary composition in a journal, newspaper, encyclopdia, &c., treating of a subject distinctly and independently: (gram.) the name given to the adjectives the (definite article) and a or an (indefinite article).—v.t. to draw up or bind by articles: to indict, charge with specific accusations: bind by articles of apprenticeship.—adj. Artic′ular, belonging to the joints.—Articles of association, regulations for the business of a joint-stock company registered under the Companies Acts; Articles of faith, binding statement of points held by a particular Church; Articles of war, code of regulations for the government and discipline of the army and navy.—In the article of death (L. in articulo mortis), at the point of death.—Lords of the Articles, a standing committee of the Scottish parliament who drafted the measures to be submitted.—The Thirty-nine Articles, the articles of religious belief finally agreed upon by the entire bishops and clergy of the Church of England in 1562. [L. articulus, a little joint—artus, a joint.]

Articulata, r-tik-ū-lā′ta, n. one of the great primary divisions of the animal kingdom, according to Cuvier, including those animals of which the body is divided into a number of distinct joints—viz. the higher worms or Annelids, and also the Insects, Crustaceans, Arachnids, and Myriopods.

Articulate, r-tik′ūl-āt, adj. distinct: clear.—v.t. to joint: to form into distinct sounds, syllables, or words.—v.i. to speak distinctly.—adv. Artic′ulately.—ns. Artic′ulateness; Articulā′tion, a joining as of the bones: part between two joints: distinctness, or distinct utterance: a consonant; Artic′ulator, one who articulates or speaks: one who articulates bones and mounts skeletons. [L. articulāre, -ātum, to furnish with joints, to utter distinctly. See Article.]

Artifice, art′i-fis, n. artificer's work: a contrivance: a trick or fraud.—n. Artif′icer, a workman: an inventor.—adj. Artificial (rt-i-fish′yal), made by art: not natural: cultivated: not indigenous: feigned: not natural in manners, affected.—v.t. and v.i. Artific′ialise, to render artificial.—ns. Artificial′ity, Artific′ialness.—adv. Artific′ially. [L. artificiumartifex, -ficis, an artificer—ars, artis, and facĕre, to make.]

Artillery, r-til′ėr-i, n. offensive weapons of war, esp. cannon, mortars, &c.: the men who manage them: a branch of the military service: gunnery.—ns. Artill′erist, one skilled in artillery or gunnery; Artill′ery-man, a soldier of the artillery. [O. Fr. artillerie, artiller, to arm; through a supposed Low L. artillāre—L. ars, artis, art.]

Artiodactyla, r-ti-o-dak′til-a, n. a sub-order of the great mammalian order of Ungulata, having the third digit unsymmetrical in itself, but forming a symmetrical pair with the fourth digit—as distinguished from the Perissodactyla (horse, tapir, rhinoceros), which have the third digit of each limb symmetrical in itself, an odd number of digits on the hind-foot, and at least twenty-two dorso-lumbar vertebr. The Artiodactyla, again, divide into two groups, the Non-Ruminantia and the Ruminantia.

Artisan, rt′i-zan, n. one skilled in any art or trade: a mechanic. [Fr.—It. artigiano, ult. from L. artitus, skilled in the arts—ars, artis, art.]

Artist, rt′ist, n. one who practises an art, esp. one of the fine arts, as painting, sculpture, engraving, or architecture.—adjs. Artist′ic, -al, according to art.—adv. Artist′ically.—n. Art′istry, artistic pursuits: artistic workmanship, quality, or ability. [Fr. artiste, It. artista—L. ars, artis, art.]

Artiste, r-tēst′, n. one dexterous or tasteful in any art, as an opera dancer, a cook, a hairdresser, &c. [Fr.]

Art-union. See Art.

Arum, ā′rum, n. a genus of plants represented in England by the Cuckoo-pint or Wake Robin (A. maculatum), whose root yields a wholesome farina known as Portland Sago or Arrowroot. [L.—Gr. aron.]

Arundinaceous, a-run-di-nā′shus, adj. relating to or like a reed.—Also Arundin′eous. [L. arundinaceusarundo, a reed.]

Aruspex, Aruspice, Aruspicy. See Haruspex.

Arvicola, r-vik′ō-l, n. the general name of the family of animals to which belong the water-vole and field-vole. [Coined from L. arvum, a field, colĕ-re, to inhabit.]

Ary, ′ri, e′ri, adj. (prov.) any. [A modification of e'er a for ever a. Cf. Nary.]

Aryan, ar′i-an, or ā′ri-an, adj. relating to the family of nations otherwise called Indo-European (comprehending the inhabitants of Europe—except the Basques, Turks, Magyars, and Finns—and those of Armenia, Persia, and North Hindustan), or to their languages—Sanskrit, Zend, Greek, Latin, Celtic, Teutonic, Slavonic, Lettic.—v.t. Aryanise′. [L. arianus, belonging to Ariana or Aria (Gr. Areia), the east part of Ancient Persia—Sans. Arya (cf. Old Pers. Ariya, and Irān, Persia), often traced to a root ar, plough.]

As, az, adv., conj., and pron. in that degree, so far, as ... as: the consequent in a co-relation expressing quantity, degree, &c., as ... as, such ... as, same ... as: since, because: when, while: expressing merely continuation or expansion, for instance: similarly: for example: while: in like manner: that, who, which (after such, same).—As concerning, As to, As for, so far as concerns; As it were, so to speak, in some sort; As much, the same; As well (as), just as much (as), equally (with). [A worn-down form of all-so, A.S. all-sw, wholly so.]

As, as, n. in Norse mythology, one of the gods, the inhabitants of Asgard:—pl. Aesir (ā′ser). [Ice. āss, a god (pl. sir)—A.S. ōs, seen in such proper names as Oswold, Osric.]

As, as, n. Latin unit of weight, 12 ounces (L. unci): a copper coin, the unit of the early monetary system of Rome.

Asafœtida, as-a-fet′i-da, n. a medicinal gum-resin, having an offensive smell, procured by drying the milky juice which flows from the root of the plant Ferula (Narthex) asafœtida. [Pers. azā, mastic, and L. fœtida, stinking.]

sar, ē′sar, the Swedish name for those long, winding banks and ridges of gravel and sand which occur abundantly in the low grounds of Sweden, supposed to mark the site of sub-glacial streams and rivers.—These sar are the same as the Irish eskar and the Scotch kames.

Asarabacca, as-a-ra-bak′a, n. a European plant, a species of Asarum, having acrid properties, formerly used in the preparation of snuffs for catarrh, &c. [L. asarum, bacca, a berry.]

Asbestos, az-best′os, n. an incombustible mineral, a variety of hornblende, of a fine fibrous texture, resembling flax: (fig.) anything unquenchable.—adjs. Asbes′tic, Asbes′tous, Asbes′tine, of or like asbestos: incombustible. [Gr.; (lit.) unquenchable—a, neg., sbestos, extinguished.]

Ascaris, as′ka-ris, n. a genus of parasitic worms, of the family Ascar′id, infesting the small intestines. [Gr. askaris, pl. askarides.]

Ascend, as-send′, v.i. to climb or mount up: to rise, literally or figuratively: to go backwards in the order of time.—v.t. to climb or go up on: to mount.—adjs. Ascend′able, Ascend′ible.—Ascending rhythm, in prosody, a rhythm in which the arsis follows the thesis, as an iambic or anapstic rhythm: opposed to descending rhythms, as the trochaic and dactylic. [L. ascendĕre, ascensumad, and scandĕre, to climb.]

Ascension, as-sen′shun, n. a rising or going up.—adjs. Ascend′ant, -ent, superior: above the horizon.—n. superiority: (astrol.) the part of the ecliptic rising above the horizon at the time of one's birth; it was supposed to have commanding influence over the person's life, hence the phrase, 'in the ascendant:' superiority or great influence: (rare) an ancestor.—n. Ascend′ency, controlling influence—also Ascend′ancy, Ascend′ance, Ascend′ence (rare).—adj. Ascen′sional, relating to ascension.—n. Ascen′sion-day, the festival held on Holy Thursday, ten days before Whitsunday, to commemorate Christ's ascension to heaven.—adj. Ascen′sive, rising: causing to rise.—n. Ascent′, act of ascending: upward movement, as of a balloon: way of ascending: degree of elevation or advancement: slope or gradient: a flight of steps.—Line of ascent, ancestry.—Right ascension (astron.), the name applied to one of the arcs which determine the position relatively to the equator of a heavenly body on the celestial sphere, the other being the declinator. [L. ascensioascendĕre.]

Ascertain, as-sėr-tān′, v.t. to determine: to obtain certain knowledge of: (rare) to insure, certify, make certain.—adj. Ascertain′able.—n. Ascertain′ment. [O. Fr. acertener. See Certain.]

Ascetic, as-set′ik, n. one who rigidly denies himself ordinary sensual gratifications for conscience' sake, one who aims to compass holiness through self-mortification, the flesh being considered as the seat of sin, and therefore to be chastened: a strict hermit.—adjs. Ascet′ic, -al, excessively rigid: austere: recluse.—adv. Ascet′ically.—n. Ascet′icism. [Gr. askētikos (adj. askētēs), one that uses exercises to train himself—askein, to work, take exercise, (eccles.) to mortify the body.]

Ascian, ash′yan, n. name given to the inhabitants of the torrid zone, who are shadowless at certain seasons, from the sun being right over their heads. [Gr. askios, shadowless—a, neg., skia, a shadow.]

Ascidians, a-sid′i-anz, a group belonging to the tunicate Mollusca, forming a class of degenerate survivors of ancestral vertebrates, asymmetrical marine animals with a tubular heart and no feet, of a double-mouthed flask shape, found at low-water mark on the sea-beach.—n. Ascid′ium, a genus of Ascidians: (bot.) a pitcher-shaped, leafy formation, as in the Nepenthes. [Gr. askidion, dim. of askos, a leathern bag, wine-skin.]

Ascititious. Same as Adscititious.

Asclepiad, as-klē′pi-ad, Asclepiadic, as-klē-pi-ad′ik, n. in ancient prosody, a verse consisting of a spondee, two (or three) choriambi, and an iambus: Asclepiadadj. Asclepiad′ic. [Asclepiadēs, a Greek poet.]

Asclepiads, as-klē′pi-adz, an order of Greek physicians, priests of Asclepius or sculapius, the god of medicine. [Gr. asklēpius, Asclepius.]

Asclepias, as-klē′pi-as, n. a genus of plants, native to North America, giving name to the natural order of the Asclepidace, and containing the milk-weed, swallow-wort, &c.

Ascribe, a-skrīb′, v.t. to attribute, impute, or assign.—adj. Ascrib′able.—n. Ascrip′tion, act of ascribing or imputing: any expression of ascribing, or any formula for such, like the one ascribing glory to God repeated at the end of a sermon. [L. ascribĕre, -scriptumad, to, scrib-ĕre, to write.]

Aseity, a-sē′i-ti, n. self-origination. [L. a, from, se, self.]

Aseptic, a-sep′tik, adj. not liable to decay or putrefaction.—n. Asep′ticism. [From Gr. a, neg., sēptos, sēpomai, to decay.]

Asexual, a-seks′ū-al, adj. without sex, once applied to cryptogams—agamic. [Gr. a, neg., and Sexual.]

Asgard, as′grd, n. the heaven of Norse mythology, abode of the twelve gods and twenty-six goddesses, and of heroes slain in battle. [Ice. asgardhr, āss, a god, gardhr, an enclosure.]

Ash, ash, n. a well-known timber tree, or its wood, which is white, tough, and hard, much used in carpentry and wheel-work: the ashen shaft of a spear, or a spear itself.—adj. Ash′en.—n. Ground′-ash, or Ash′-plant, an ash sapling.—Mountain ash, the rowan-tree; Quaking ash, the aspen. [A.S. sc—Ger. esche, Ice. askr.]

Ashake, a-shāk′, adv. phrase, shaking. [Prep. a, and Shake.]

Ashamed, a-shāmd′, adj. affected with shame (with of for the cause of shame; for, the person).—v.t. and v.i. Ashame′, to feel shame: to put to shame.—n. Ashamed′ness.—p.adj. Asham′ing. [Pa.p. of old verb ashame.]

Ashes, ash′ez, the dust or remains of anything burnt: the remains of the human body when burnt: (fig.) a dead body: used to express pallor, from the colour of wood-ashes, as in 'pale as ashes,' 'ashy-pale.'—n. Ash′-buck′et, a box or bucket in which house-ashes and general refuse are collected for removal.—adjs. Ash′en, Ash′en-gray.—ns. Ash′ery, a place where potash or pearl-ash is made; Ash′-heap, a heap of ashes and household refuse; Ash′-leach, a tub in which alkaline salts are dissolved from wood-ashes; Ash′-pan, a kind of tray fitted underneath a grate to receive the ashes.—adjs. Ash′y, Ash′y-gray.—To lay in ashes, to destroy utterly by burning. [A.S. asce; Ice. aska.]

Ashet, ash′et, n. (now only Scot.) a large flat dish in which meat is served. [Fr. assiette.]

Ashiver, a-shiv′ėr, adv. phrase, quivering.

Ashkenazim, ash-kē-naz′im, the Polish and German Jews, as distinguished from the Sephardim, the Spanish and Portuguese Jews. [Heb. Ashkenaz, the name of a northern people in Gen. x., located in Arabia, by later Jews identified with Germany.]

Ashlar, ash′lar, Ashler, ash′lėr, n. hewn or squared stone used in facing a wall, as distinguished from rough, as it comes from the quarry—also in Ash′lar-work, as opposed to Rubble-work.—p.adj. Ash′lared.—n. Ash′laring. [O. Fr. aiseler—L. axillaris, axilla, dim. of axis, assis, axle; also plank (cf. Fr. ais, It. asse.]

Ashore, a-shōr′, adv. on shore. [Prep. a, and Shore.]

Ash-Wednesday, ash-wenz′dā, n. the first day of Lent, so called from the Roman Catholic custom of sprinkling ashes on the head.

Asian, āzh′yan, or āsh′i-an, Asiatic, ā-zhi-at′ik, or āsh-i-at′ik, adj. belonging to Asia: florid in literature or art.—n. Asiat′icism, imitation of Asiatic or Eastern manners.

Aside, a-sīd′, adv. on or to one side: privately: apart.—n. words spoken in an undertone, so as not to be heard by some person present, words spoken by an actor which the other persons on the stage are supposed not to hear: an indirect effort of any kind.—adj. private, apart.—To set aside, to quash (a judgment).

Asinego, as-i-nē′go, n. (Shak.) a stupid fellow.—Also Asini′co. [Sp. asnico—dim. of asno, L. asinus, ass.]

Asinine, as′in-īn, adj. of or like an ass.—n. Asinin′ity. [See Ass.]

Ask, ask, v.t. to seek: to request, inquire, beg, question, invite.—v.i. to request: to make inquiry (with about and for—as to ask one after or for another). [A.S. scian, csian; Ger. heischen, Ice. skja, Sans. esh, to desire.]

Askance, a-skans′, Askant, a-skant′, adv. sideways: awry: obliquely: with a side glance, or with a side meaning.—v.t. (Shak.) to turn aside.—To eye, look, or view askance, to look at with suspicion. [Ety. very obscure; perh. conn. with It. a schincio, slopingly, or with Ice. -sk, as in Askew.]

Askew, a-skū′, adv. obliquely: aside: awry. [See Askance.]

Aslake, a-slāk′, v.t. (arch.) to slake: to mitigate. [Prep. a, and Slake.]

Aslant, a-slant′, adj. or adv. obliquely.—Also Asklent′ (Scot.).

Asleep, a-slēp′, adj. or adv. in sleep: sleeping: in the sleep of death, dead. [Prep. a, and Sleep.]

Aslope, a-slōp′, adj. or adv. on the slope.

Asmoulder, a-smōl′der, adv. phrase, smouldering.

Asnort, a-snort′, adv. phrase, snorting. [Prep. a, and Snort.]

Asp, asp, Aspic, asp′ik, n. a popular name applied loosely to various genera of venomous serpents—now chiefly to the Vipera aspis of Southern Europe. Cleopatra's asp was probably the small Vipera hasselquistii, or horned viper: the biblical asp (Heb. pethen) was probably the Egyptian juggler's snake (Naja haje). [L.—Gr. aspis.]

Asparagus, as-par′a-gus, n. a plant cultivated for its young shoots, esteemed as a table delicacy.—n. Aspar′agine, a nitrogenised crystallised substance found in asparagus and other vegetables.—Sparrow-grass was long the form of the word in English. [L.—Gr. asparagos.]

Aspect, as′pekt (in Shak. and elsewhere, as-pekt′), n. look: view: appearance, also applied figuratively to the mind: position in relation to the points of the compass: the situation of one planet with respect to another, as seen from the earth.—v.i. (obs.) to look at.—adj. As′pectable, visible, worth looking at. [L. aspectusad, at, specĕre, to look.]

Aspen, asp′en, n. the trembling poplar.—adj. made of or like the aspen: tremulous: timorous.—adj. As′pen-like. [A.S. spe, Ger. espe.]

Asper, as′pėr, n. a small silver Turkish coin.

Asperated. See Aspirate.

Asperges, as-per′jes, n. a short service introductory to the mass, so called from the words Asperges me, Domine, hyssopo et mundabor (Ps. li.).

Aspergill, -um, as′pėr-jil, -um, n. a kind of brush used in R.C. churches for sprinkling holy water on the people.—Also Asperge′, Asper′soir. [L. aspergĕre, to sprinkle, and dim. suffix.]

Aspergillum, as-pėr-jil′um, n. a remarkable genus of boring Lamellibranch Molluscs, in which the shell has the form of an elongated cone, terminating at the lower end in a disc, pierced by numerous small tubular holes.—n. Aspergil′lus, the name of a genus of minute fungi or moulds occurring on decaying substances of various kinds.

Asperity, as-per′i-ti, n. roughness: harshness: bitter coldness. [L. asperitat-em, asper, rough.]

Aspermous, a-spėr′mus, Aspermatous, a-spėr′ma-tus, adj. without seeds. [Gr. a, neg., sperma, seed.]

Asperse, as-pėrs′, v.t. to slander or calumniate: to bespatter (with).—n. Asper′sion, calumny: slander: (Shak.) a shower or spray.—adjs. Aspers′ive, Aspers′ory, tending to asperse: defamatory.

Aspersorium, as-per-sōr′i-um, n. a vessel used in R.C. churches for holding holy water.

Asphalt, as-falt′, or as′falt, Asphaltum, as-falt′um, n. a black or dark-brown, hard, bituminous substance, anciently used as a cement, and now for paving, cisterns, water-pipes, &c.—v.t. Asphalt′, to lay or cover with asphalt.—adj. Asphalt′ic. [Gr. asphaltos, from an Eastern word.]

Aspheterism, as-fet′er-izm, n. (Southey) denial of the right of private property.—v.i. Asphet′erise. [Gr. a, neg., and spheteros, one's own.]

Asphodel, as′fo-del, n. a kind of lily—in Greek mythology, the peculiar plant of the dead. In Greece they cover the bleakest hillsides with enduring blossom.—adj. Elysian. [Gr. asphodelos, a plant of the lily kind; cf. Homer's asphodelos leimōn, the meadow of the dead. See Daffodil.]

Asphyxia, as-fik′si-a, n. (lit.) suspended animation, suffocation, when the blood is in such a state as to render impossible a sufficiently free exchange of carbonic acid for oxygen—also Asphyx′y.—n. Asphyx′iant, a chemical substance which produces asphyxia.—adj. Asphyx′iāted.—ns. Asphyxiā′tion; Asphyx′iātor. [Gr., a stopping of the pulse—a, neg., sphyxis, the pulse.]

Aspic, Aspick, as′pik, n. (poet.) a venomous serpent. [See Asp.]

Aspic, as′pik, n. a savoury meat-jelly containing fish, game, hard-boiled eggs, &c. [Littr suggests its derivation from aspic, asp, because it is 'cold as an aspic,' a French proverb.]

Aspirant, as-pīr′ant, or as′pir-ant, n. one who aspires (with after, for): a candidate.—adj. ambitious: mounting up (rare in both senses). [See Aspire.]

Aspirate, as′pir-āt, v.t. to pronounce with a full breathing, as the letter h in house.—n. a mark of aspiration, the rough breathing in Greek (‛): an aspirated letter.—p.adj. As′perated, made harsh.—ns. Aspirā′tion, pronunciation of a letter with a full breathing: an aspirated sound (like Gr. ch, th, &c.): drawing air in; Aspirā′tor, an apparatus for drawing air or other gases through bottles or other vessels: (med.) an instrument for removing fluids from the cavities of the body.—adj. Aspīr′atory, relating to breathing.—To drop one's aspirates, not to pronounce h, a mark of imperfect education or humble social standing. [See Aspire.]

Aspire, as-pīr′ (followed by to or after with the object, or by an infinitive), v.i. to desire eagerly: to aim at high things: to tower up.—n. Aspirā′tion, eager desire.—adj. Aspīr′ing.—adv. Aspīr′ingly.—n. Aspīr′ingness. [Fr.—L. aspirāre, -ātumad, to, spirāre, to breathe.]

Asplenium, as-plē′ni-um, n. spleenwort, a genus of ferns, mostly tropical, with long or linear sori, with indusium arising laterally from above a vein—including the lady-fern, black maiden-hair, &c. [Gr. asplēnion.]

Asport, as-pōrt′, v.t. (rare) to carry away, esp. in a bad sense.—n. Asportā′tion, feloniously carrying away. [L. asportāreabs, away, and portāre, to carry.]

Aspout, a-spowt′, adv. phrase, spouting.

Asprawl, a-sprawl′, adv. phrase, sprawling.

Aspread, a-spred′, adv. phrase, spread out.

Asprout, a-sprowt′, adv. phrase, sprouting.

Asquat, a-skwt′, adv. phrase, squatting.

Asquint, a-skwint′, adv. and adj. towards the corner of the eye: obliquely.

Ass, as, n. a well-known quadruped of the horse family: (fig.) a dull, stupid fellow.—Asses' bridge, or Pons asinorum, a humorous name for the fifth proposition of the first book of Euclid. [A.S. assa, the earlier Teutonic form being esol, esil (Goth. asilus)—L. asinus; Gr. onos, ass. Perh. ult. of Semitic origin, as in Heb. āthōn, a she-ass.]

Assafetida. Same as Asafœtida.

Various forms of Assagais.

Assagai, Assegai, as′sa-gī, n. a slender spear of hard wood, tipped with iron, some for hurling, some for thrusting with—used by the South African tribes, notably the war-like Zulus.—v.t. to kill or slay with an assagai. [Through Fr. or Port. from Ar. azzaghāyah, az = al, the zaghāyah, a Berber word.]

Assail, as-sāl′, v.t. to assault: to attack.—adj. Assail′able.—ns. Assail′ant, one who assails or attacks; Assail′ment. [O. Fr. asaillir—L. assilīread, upon, and salīre, to leap.]

Assassin, as-as′in, n. one who, usually for a reward, kills by surprise or secretly.—v.t. Assas′sinate, to murder by surprise or secret assault: (Milton) to maltreat: also figuratively, to destroy by treacherous means, as a reputation.—n. (obs.) one who assassinates.—ns. Assassinā′tion, secret murder; Assas′sinator. [Through Fr. or It. from Ar. hashshāshīn, 'hashish-eaters,' a military and religious order in Syria, of the 11th century, who became notorious for their secret murders in obedience to the will of their chief, and fortified themselves for their adventures by hashish, an intoxicating drug or drink made from hemp.]

Assault, as-sawlt′, n. a sudden attack: a storming, as of a town: (Eng. law) unlawful attempt to apply force to the person of another—when force is actually applied, the act amounts to battery: an attack of any sort by arguments, appeals, &c.—v.t. to make an assault or attack upon: (law) to make an assault.—n. Assault′er.—Assault at arms, a display of attack and defence in fencing. [O. Fr. asaut—L. ad, upon, saltus, a leap, salīre, to leap. See Assail.]

Assay, as-sā′, v.t. to determine the proportions of a metal in an ore or alloy: endeavour (more usually Essay): (Spens.) to affect or move: (Shak.) to put one to the proof, as to accost with a particular purpose, to measure swords with another, &c.: (poet.) put to proof, examine by trial.—v.i. to attempt.—n. the determination of the quantity of metal in an ore or alloy: the trial of anything, as in the ancient custom of tasting the drink before handing it to a king or noble: an attempt or endeavour: probation or trial: (Spens.) ascertained purity.—ns. Assay′er, one who assays, esp. metals; Assay′ing, the process of assaying or determining the proportion of pure metal in an ore or alloy; Assay′-mas′ter, the officer who determines the amount of gold or silver in coin or bullion. [O. Fr. assayer, n. assai. See Essay.]

Assegai, Assegay. Same as Assagai.

Assemble, as-sem′bl, v.t. to call or bring together: to collect.—v.i. to meet together.—ns. Assem′blage, a collection of persons or things; Assem′blance (Spens.), an assembling: (Shak.) semblance: representation; Assem′bly, the act of assembling: the company so assembled: a gathering of persons for any purpose, as for religious worship or social entertainment: specially applied to the lower house of the legislature in some of the United States and British colonies: (mil.) a drum-beat, esp. that before a march, upon which the soldiers strike their tents; Assem′bly-room, a room in which persons assemble, especially for dancing.—General Assembly, in Scotland, Ireland, and the United States, the highest court of the Presbyterian Church; Legislative Assembly, in many of the British colonies, the title of the lower house of the legislature; National Assembly, the first of the revolutionary assemblies in France, which sat 1789-91—also called the Constituent Assembly, superseded in 1791 by the Legislative Assembly. [Fr. assembler—Late L. assimulāre, to bring together, ad, to, similis, like. See Assimilate.]

Assent, as-sent′, v.i. to think or concur with, to admit as true (with to).—n. an agreeing or acquiescence: compliance.—adj. Assentā′neous, ready to agree.—ns. Assent′er, Assent′or, one of the eight voters who indorse the proposer and seconder's nomination of a candidate for election to the parliament of the United Kingdom.—adjs. Assen′tient, Assent′ive.—adv. Assent′ingly.—n. Assent′iveness.—Royal Assent, in England, the sovereign's formal acquiescence in a measure which has passed the two Houses of Parliament. [O. Fr. asenter, assent—L. assentāre, assentīre, L. ad, to, sentīre, to think.]

Assentation, as-sen-tā′shun, n. obsequious assent, adulation.—n. As′sentator (obs.).—adv. Assent′atorily (obs.). [L. assentāri, to flatter, freq. of assentīri, assent, agree.]

Assert, as-sėrt′, v.t. to vindicate or defend by arguments or measures (now used only of the cause as object or reflexive): to declare strongly: to lay claim to or insist upon anything: to affirm: (rare) to bear evidence of.—adj. Assert′able.—ns. Assert′er, Assert′or, a champion, one who makes a positive statement; Asser′tion, affirmation: the act of claiming one's rights: averment.—adj. Assert′ive, asserting or confirming confidently: positive: dogmatic.—adv. Assert′ively.—n. Assert′iveness.—adj. Assert′ory, affirmative.—To assert one's self, to defend one's rights or opinions, sometimes with unnecessary zeal, to thrust one's self forward. [L. asserĕre (superl. assertum), aliquem manu in libertatem, to lay hands on a slave in token of manumission, hence to protect, affirm, declare—ad, to, and serĕre, to join. Cf. Series.]

Assess, as-ses′, v.t. to fix the amount of, as a tax (with upon): to tax or fine: to fix the value or profits of, for taxation (with at): to estimate.—adj. Assess′able.—ns. Assess′ment, act of assessing: a valuation for the purpose of taxation: a tax; Assess′or, a legal adviser who sits beside a magistrate: one who assesses taxes: one who shares another's dignity.—adj. Assessō′rial.—n. Assess′orship. [Fr.—L. assessāre, freq. of assidēre, assessum, to sit by, esp. of judges in a court, from ad, to, at, sedēre, to sit.]

Assets, as′sets, the property of a deceased or insolvent person, considered as chargeable for all debts, &c.: the entire property of all sorts belonging to a merchant or to a trading association. [From the Anglo-Fr. law phrase aver assetz, to have sufficient, O. Fr. asez, enough—L. ad, to, satis, enough.]

Asseverate, as-sev′ėr-āt, v.t. to declare solemnly—an earlier form is Assev′er.—adv. Asseverat′ingly.—n. Asseverā′tion, any solemn affirmation or confirmation. [L. asseverāre, -ātumad, to, severus, serious. See Severe.]

Assiduity, as-sid-ū′i-ti, n. constant application or diligence: (pl.) constant attentions, as to a lady.—adj. Assid′uous, constant or unwearied in application: diligent.—adv. Assid′uously.—n. Assid′uousness. [L. assiduitasassiduus, sitting close at—ad, to, at, sedēre, to sit.]

Assiege, as-sēj′, v.t. (Spens.) to besiege. [See Siege.]

Assiento, as-ē-en′to, n. a word especially applied to an exclusive contract between Spain and some foreign nation for the supply of African slaves for its American possessions. [Sp., a seat, a seat in a court, a treaty.]

Assign, as-sīn′, v.t. to sign or mark out to one: to allot: to appoint: to allege: to transfer: to ascribe or refer to: to suggest: to fix, as a time: to point out exactly.—n. one to whom any property or right is made over: (pl.) appendages (Shak.).—adj. Assign′able, that may be assigned.—ns. Assignā′tion, an appointment to meet, used chiefly of love-trysts, and mostly in a bad sense: (Scots law) the making over of any right to another, equivalent to Assignment; Assignee (as-sin-ē′), one to whom any right or property is assigned: (pl.) the trustees of a sequestrated estate; Assign′ment, act of assigning: anything assigned: the writing by which a transfer is made: (Spens.) design. [Fr.—L. assignāre, to mark out—ad, to, signum, a mark or sign.]

Assignat, as-sin-y′, n. one of the notes (chiefly for 100 francs = 4 each) in the paper currency first issued in 1790 by the French revolutionary government as bonds on the security of the appropriated church lands.

Assimilate, as-sim′il-āt, v.t. to make similar or like to: to convert into a like substance, as food in our bodies (with to, with).—v.i. to become like, or to be incorporated in.—n. Assim′ilability (Coleridge).—adj. Assim′ilable.—n. Assimilā′tion.—adj. Assim′ilātive, having the power or tendency to assimilate. [L. assimilāre, -ātumad, to, similis, like.]

Assist, as-sist′, v.t. to help.—v.i. to be present at a ceremony: (Shak.) to accompany.—n. Assist′ance, help: relief.—adj. Assist′ant, helping or lending aid.—n. one who assists: a helper. [L. assistĕre, to stand by—ad, to, sistĕre.]

Assize, as-sīz′, v.t. to assess: to set or fix the quantity or price.—n. a statute settling the weight, measure, or price of anything: (Scot.) a trial by jury, the jury: judgment, sentence, the Last Judgment: (pl.) the sessions or sittings of a court held periodically in English counties, at which causes are tried by judges of the High Court of Justice on circuit and a jury.—n. Assiz′er, an officer who inspects weights and measures. [O. Fr. assise, an assembly of judges, a set rate—asseoir—L. assidēre.]

Associate, as-sō′shi-āt, v.t. to join with, as a friend or partner: to unite in the same body.—v.i. to keep company (with): to combine or unite.—ns. Associabil′ity, Assō′ciableness.—adjs. Assō′ciable, that may be joined or associated: sociable: companionable; Assō′ciate, joined or connected with.—n. one joined or connected with another: a companion, friend, partner, or ally.—ns. Assō′ciateship, office of an associate; Associā′tion, act of associating: union or combination: a society of persons joined together to promote some object.—adj. Assō′ciātive, tending to association.—Association football, the game as formulated by the Football Association (formed in 1863).—Association (of Ideas), applied to laws of mental combination which facilitate recollection: similarity: contiguity, repetition. [L. associātum, associāread, to socius, a companion.]

Assoil, as-soil′, v.t. to loosen from: to absolve or acquit: to solve: (Spens.) to remove, to let loose, to renew, to get rid of.—n. Assoil′ment. [Through Fr. from L.—L. ab, from, solvĕre, to loose.]

Assoil, as-soil′, v.t. to soil, stain, or make dirty. [L. ad, and Soil. See Soil (2).]

Assoilzie, as-soil′yē, v.i. to free one accused from a charge: a Scots law term, the same as the archaic assoil, to absolve from sin, discharge, pardon. See Absolvitor, under Absolve. [Through Fr. from L. absolvĕre.]

Assonance, as′son-ans, n. a correspondence in sound: in Spanish and Portuguese poetry, a kind of rhyme, consisting in the coincidence of the vowels of the corresponding syllables, without regard to the consonants, as in mate and shape, feel and need.—adjs. As′ssonant, resembling in sound; As′sonantal, As′sonantic.—v.t. As′sonate, to correspond in sound. [Fr.—L. assonāre, as = ad-, to, sonāre, to sound.]

Assort, as-sort′, v.t. to separate into classes: to arrange.—v.i. to agree or be in accordance with: to fall into a class with, suit well with: (arch.) to keep company with.—p.adj. Assort′ed, classified, arranged in sorts.—ns. Assort′edness; Assort′ment, act of assorting: a quantity or number of things assorted: variety. [Fr. assortir—L. ad, to, sors, a lot.]

Assot, as-sot′, v.t. (Spens.) to besot, to infatuate.—p.adj. Assot′, or Assot′ted (Spens.), infatuated. [O. Fr. asoter, to, sot, foolish. See Sot.]

Assuage, as-swāj′, v.t. to soften, mitigate, or allay.—v.i. to abate or subside: to diminish.—n. Assuage′ment, abatement: mitigation.—adj. Assuā′sive, softening, mild. [O. Fr., formed as if from a L. assuaviāread, to, suavis, mild.]

Assubjugate, as-sub′jōō-gāt, v.t. (Shak.) to reduce to subjugation.

Assuefaction, as-wē-fak′shun, n. (Sir T. Browne) the act of accustoming, habituation. [L. assuefacĕreassuetus, accustomed, and facĕre, to make.]

Assuetude, as′wē-tūd, n. (obs.) custom, habit. [L. assuetus.]

Assume, as-sūm′, v.t. to adopt, take in: to take up, to take upon one's self: to take for granted: to arrogate: to pretend to possess.—v.i. to claim unduly: to be arrogant.—adjs. Assum′able, Assump′tive, that may be assumed.—adv. Assum′ably, presumably.—adj. Assumed′, appropriated, usurped: pretended: taken as the basis of argument.—advs. Assum′edly, Assum′ingly.—adj. Assum′ing, haughty: arrogant. [L. assumĕread, to, sumĕre, sumptum, to take.]

Assumpsit, a-sump′sit, n. an action at law, wherein the plaintiff asserts that the defendant undertook (L. assumpsit) to do a certain act and failed to fulfil his promise: in the United States, the most common form of action.

Assumption, as-sum′shun, n. act of assuming: a supposition: the thing supposed, a proposition: (logic) the minor premise in a syllogism.—Assumption of the Virgin, a church festival kept on the 15th of August, based on the notion that after the death of Mary, her soul and body were preserved from corruption and taken up to heaven by Christ and His angels.—Deed of assumption (Scots law), a deed executed by trustees under a trust-deed assuming a new trustee or settlement. [L. See Assume.]

Assure, a-shōōr′, v.t. to make sure or secure: to give confidence: (Shak.) to betroth: to tell positively: to insure.—adj. Assur′able.—n. Assur′ance, confidence: feeling of certainty: self-reliance: impudence: positive declaration: insurance, as applied to lives: the securing of a title to property: (theol.) subjective certainty of one's salvation: a solemn declaration or promise, a certain proof: surety, warrant.—adj. Assured′, certain: without doubt: insured: overbold.—adv. Assur′edly.—ns. Assur′edness; Assur′er, one who gives assurance: an insurer or underwriter: one who insures his life. [O. Fr. aserer (Fr. assurer)—Late L. adsecurāread, to, securus, safe. See Sure.]

Assurgent, as-ur′jent, adj. rising, ascending: (bot.) rising in a curve to an erect position: (her.) of a bearing depicted as rising from the sea.—n. Assur′gency, the tendency to rise.

Asswage. A form of Assuage.

Assyrian, as-sir′i-an, adj. belonging to Assyria.—n. an inhabitant of Assyria: the language of Assyria.—ns. Assyriol′ogist; Assyriol′ogy, the science of Assyrian antiquities. [Gr. AssuriosAssuria, Assyria.]

Astare, a-stār′, adv. phrase, staring.

Astart, a-start′, v.i. (Spens.) to start up suddenly: to happen, fall out.—adv. with a start, suddenly. [Pfx. a-, and Start.]

Astatic, a-stat′ik, adj. having a tendency not to stand still: losing polarity, as a magnetic needle. [Gr. neg., astatosa, neg., statos, verb. adj. of histanai, to stand.]

Astay, a-stā′, adv. applied to an anchor when, in lifting it, the cable forms such an angle with the surface of the water as to appear in a line with the stays of the ship. [Prep. a, on, and Stay.]

Aster, as′tėr, n. a genus of plants of the natural order Composit, with showy radiated flowers varying from white to lilac-blue or purple, mostly perennial, flowering in late summer and autumn, hence often called in England Michaelmas or Christmas daisies.—China aster, the best-known and most valued of the family, brought from China to France by a missionary in the 18th century. [Gr. astēr, a star.]

Asterias, as-tēr′i-as, n. a genus of Echinoderms, containing the common five-rayed starfish. [Gr. astērias, a fish—astēr, a star.]

Asterisk, as′tėr-isk, n. a star, used in printing as a reference to a note at the bottom or on the margin of the page, and sometimes as a mark of the omission of words, thus *.—n. As′terism, a group or collection of small stars: a constellation: three asterisks placed to direct attention to a passage: a property of some minerals which show a star-shaped luminous figure when viewed by reflected light—e.g. the asteriated sapphire. [Gr. asteriskos, dim. of aster, a star.]

Astern, a-stėrn′, adv. in the stern: towards the hinder part of a ship: behind. [Prep. a, and Stern.]

Asteroid, as′tėr-oid, n. one of the minor planetary bodies revolving between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.—adj. Asteroid′al. [Gr. astēr, a star, eidos, form.]

Astert, a-stėrt′. Same as Astart.

Asthenia, as-thē-nī′a, n. debility, lack of strength.—adj. Asthen′ic [Gr. a, priv., and sthenos, strength.]

Asthma, ast′ma, n. a chronic disorder of the organs of respiration, characterised by the occurrence of paroxysms in which the breathing becomes difficult, and accompanied by wheezing and a distressing feeling of tightness in the chest.—adjs. Asthmat′ic, -al, pertaining to or affected by asthma.—adv. Asthmat′ically. [Gr. asthma, asthmat-osaz-ein, to breathe hard, a-ein, to blow.]

Astigmatism, a-stig′ma-tizm, n. a defective condition of the eye, in which rays proceeding to the eye from one point are not correctly brought to a focus at one point.—adj. Astigmat′ic. [Gr. a, neg., and stigma, stigmat-os, a point.]

Astir, a-stir′, prep. phr. or adv. on the move, out of bed, in motion or excitement. [Prep. a, and Stir.]

Astomatous, as-tom′a-tus, adj. having no mouth, used of a division of the protozoa.

Astonish, as-ton′ish, v.t. to impress with sudden surprise or wonder: to amaze: (Shak.) to stun—older form Aston′y, whence the p.adj. Aston′ied, dazed, bewildered, greatly astonished.—Aston′, Astun′, Astoned′, Astunned′, are obsolete.—p.adj. Aston′ished, amazed: (obs.) stunned.—adj. Aston′ishing, very wonderful, amazing.—adv. Aston′ishingly.—n. Aston′ishment, amazement: wonder: a cause for astonishment. [From the earlier form, Astone; O. Fr. estoner; L. attonāre, to strike with a thunderbolt.]

Astound, as-townd′, v.t. to amaze, to strike dumb with astonishment:—pa.p. astound′ed; pr.p. astound′ Astound′ (arch.).—p.adj. Astound′ing. [Astound (adj.) is developed from Astoned, hence the verb is a doublet of Astonish.]

Astraddle, a-strad′dl, adv. sitting astride. [Prep. a, on, and Straddle.]


Astragal, as′tra-gal, n. (archit.) a small semicircular moulding or bead encircling a column: a round moulding near the mouth of a cannon: the bars which hold the panes of a window. [Gr. astragalos, one of the vertebr, a moulding.]

Astragalus, as-trag′al-us, n. a bone of the foot, forming with the leg-bones the hinge of the ankle-joint, by a convex upper surface and smooth sides. [Gr.]

Astrakhan, as′tra-kan, n. name given to lamb-skins with a curled wool obtained from Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea: a rough fabric made in imitation of it.

Astral, as′tral, adj. belonging to the stars: starry: in the science of Theosophy, descriptive of a supersensible substance supposed to pervade all space and enter into all bodies.—Astral body, a living form composed of astral fluid, a ghost or wraith; Astral spirits, pervading spirits supposed to animate the heavenly bodies, forming, as it were, their souls—among the most potent of demoniacal spirits in medieval demonology. [L. astralis, astrum, a star.]

Astrand, a-strand′, adv. stranded. [Prep. a, on, and Strand.]

Astray, a-strā′, adv. out of the right way. [Prep. a, on, and Stray.]

Astriction, as-trik′shun, n. a binding or contraction: restriction.—v.t. Astrict′, to bind, restrict. [L. astriction-em, astringĕre. See Astringent.]

Astride, a-strīd′, adv. with the legs apart, or across. [Prep. a, on, and Stride.]

Astringent, as-trin′jent, adj. binding: contracting: strengthening.—n. a medicine that causes costiveness.—v.t. Astringe′, to bind together: to draw tight: hence to render constipated.—n. Astrin′gency.—adv. Astrin′gently. [L. astringent-em, astringĕread, to, stringĕre, to bind.]

Astrolabe, as′trō-lāb, n. an instrument for measuring the altitudes of the sun or stars, now superseded by Hadley's quadrant and sextant. [Gr.; astron, a star, labb-, lambano, I take.]

Astrolatry, as-trol′a-tri, n. the worship of the stars. [Gr. astron, a star, latreia, worship.]

Astrology, as-trol′o-ji, n. the infant stage of the science of the stars, out of which grew Astronomy; it was occupied chiefly in determining from the positions and motions of the heavenly bodies their supposed influence on human and terrestrial affairs.—n. Astrol′oger, one versed in astrology.—adjs. Astrolog′ic, -al.—adv. Astrolog′ically. [Gr. astrologiaastron, star, logos, knowledge.]

Astronomy, as-tron′om-i, n. the laws or science of the stars or heavenly bodies.—n. Astron′omer, one versed in astronomy.—adj. Astronom′ic.—adv. Astronom′ically.—v.t. Astron′omise. [Gr. astronomiaastron, star, nomos, a law.]

Astrophel, as′tro-fel, n. a name applied by Spenser to some kind of bitter herb.

Astrut, a-strut′, adv. in a strutting manner. [Prep. a, on, and Strut.]

Astute, ast-ūt′, adj. crafty: cunning: shrewd: sagacious.—adv. Astute′ly.—n. Astute′ness.—The adj. Astū′cious, adv. Astū′ciously, and n. Astū′city are all rare. [L. astutusastus, crafty, akin perhaps to Acute.]

Astylar, a-stī′lar, adj. without columns. [Gr. a, neg., stylos, a column.]

Asudden, a-sud′en, adv. suddenly. [Prep. a, and Sudden.]

Asunder, a-sun′dėr, adv. apart: into parts: separately. [Prep. a, and Sunder.]

Aswarm, a-swrm′, adv. swarming. [Prep. a, and Swarm.]

Asway, a-swā′, adv. swaying.

Aswim, a-swim′, adv. afloat.

Aswing, a-swing′, adv. swinging.

Aswoon, a-swōōn′, adv. in a swoon.

Asylum, a-sīl′um, n. a place of refuge for debtors and for such as were accused of some crime: an institution for the care or relief of the unfortunate, such as the blind or insane: any place of refuge or protection. [L.—Gr. asylona, neg., sylē, right of seizure.]

Asymmetry, a-sim′e-tri, n. want of symmetry or proportion between parts.—adjs. Asymmet′ric, -al.—adv. Asymmet′rically. [Gr. See Symmetry.]

Asymptote, a′sim-tōt, n. (math.) a line that continually approaches nearer to some curve without ever meeting it.—adjs. Asymptot′ic, -al.—adv. Asymptot′ically. [Gr. asymptōtos, not coinciding—a, not, syn, with, ptōtos, apt to fall, pipt-ein, to fall.]

Asynartete, a-sin′ar-tēt, adj. and n. not connected, consisting of two members having different rhythms; a verse of such a kind.—Also Asyn′artetic. [Gr.; a, neg., syn, together, arta-ein, to knit.]

Asynchronism, a-sin′kro-nizm, n. want of synchronism or correspondence in time.—adj. Asyn′chronous.

Asyndeton, a-sin′de-ton, n. (rhet.) a figure in which the conjunctions are omitted, as in Matt. x. 8.—adj. Asyndet′ic. [Gr.; a, neg., syndetos, bound together, syn, together, dein, to bind.]

Asyntactic, as-in-tak′tik, adj. loosely put together, irregular, ungrammatical. [Gr.; a, neg., syntaktos, syntass-ein, to put in order together.]

Asystole, a-sis′to-lē, n. (med.) the condition of a heart the left ventricle of which is unable to empty itself.—Also Asys′tolism. [Made up of Gr. a, neg., systolē, contraction.]

At, at, prep. denoting presence, nearness, or relation. Often used elliptically, as in 'At him, good dog.' [A.S. t; cog. with Goth, and Ice. at, L. ad; Sans. adhi, on.]

Atabal, at′a-bal, n. a Moorish kettledrum. [Sp.—Ar. at-tabl, the drum.]

Ataghan. Same as Yataghan.

Atavism, at′av-izm, n. frequent appearance of ancestral, but not parental, characteristics in an animal or plant: reversion to an original type.—adj. At′avistic. [L. atavusavus, a grandfather.]

Ataxia, at-ak′si-a, Ataxy, a-tax′i, or at′ax-i, n. (med.) irregularity of the functions of the body through disease, esp. inability to co-ordinate voluntary movements, as in locomotor ataxy. [Gr.; a, neg., taktos, tassein, to arrange.]

Ate, et, or āt, pa.t. of Eat.

Ate, ā′tē, n. (myth.) the goddess of mischief and of all rash actions and their results. [Gr.]

Atelier, at-el-yā′, n. a workshop, esp. an artist's studio. [Fr.]

Athanasia, ath-a-nā′si-a, n. deathlessness.—Also Athan′asy. [Gr.; athanatos, a, neg., thanatos, death.]

Athanasian, ath-a-nāz′yan, adj. relating to Athanasius (296-373), or to the creed erroneously attributed to him.

Athanor, ath′a-nor, n. a self-feeding digesting furnace, used by the alchemists, in which a uniform heat was maintained. [Ar. at-tannur, at = al, the nūr, fire.]

Atheism, ā′the-izm, n. disbelief in the existence of God.—v.i. and v.t. A′theise, to talk or write as an atheist.—n. A′theist, one who disbelieves in the existence of God.—adjs. Atheist′ic, -al.—adv. Atheist′ically.—adj. A′theous (Milton), atheistic. [Fr. athisme—Gr. a, neg., and theos, God.]

Atheling, ath′el-ing, n. a member of a noble family, latterly a prince of the blood royal, or the heir-apparent. [A.S. theling; Ger. adel.]

Athenum, Atheneum, ath-e-nē′um, n. a temple of Athēna or Minerva at Athens, in which scholars and poets read their works: a public institution for lectures, reading, &c. [Gr. AthēnaionAthēna or Athēnē, the goddess Minerva.]

Athenian, a-thē′ni-an, adj. relating to Athens, the capital of Greece.—n. a native of Athens.

Atheology, a-thē-ol′oj-i, n. opposition to theology.—adj. Atheolog′ical. [Gr. atheos, without God, logia, discourse.]

Atherine, ath′er-īn, n. a genus of small fishes, allied to the Gray Mullet family, abundant in the Mediterranean—one species (Atherina presbyter), found on the south coast of England, is often sold as a smelt. [Gr.]

Athermancy, ath-er′man-si, n. the property of stopping radiant heat.—adj. Ather′manous. [Gr. a, neg., thermain-ein, to heat.]

Atheroma, ath′er-ō-ma, n. a name formerly applied to cysts on the scalp, with contents of the consistence of porridge, but now only used of a common form of inflammation of arteries.—adj. Atherom′atous. [Gr.; atharē, porridge.]

Athirst, a-thėrst′, adj. thirsty: eager for. [A.S. of thyrst. See Thirst.]

Athlete, ath′lēt, n. a contender for victory in feats of strength: one vigorous in body or mind. The form Athlē′ta survived till the later half of the 18th century.—adj. Athlet′ic, relating to athletics: strong, vigorous.—adv. Athlet′ically.—n. Athleticism (ath-let′i-sizm), the act of engaging in athletic exercises: devotion to athletics.— Athlet′ics, the art of wrestling, running, &c.: athletic sports. [Gr. athlētēsathlos, contest.]

Athrill, a-thril′, adv. thrilling.

Athrob, a-throb′, adv. throbbing.

Athwart, a-thwawrt′, prep. across.—adv. sidewise: wrongly: perplexingly. [Prep. a, on, and Thwart.]

Atilt, a-tilt′, adv. on tilt: as a tilter.

Atimy, at′i-mi, n. loss of honour: in ancient Athens, loss of civil rights, public disgrace. [Gr. atimiaa, neg., timē, honour.]

Atkins. See Tommy Atkins.

Atlantean, at-lan-tē′an, adj. relating to or like Atlas, gigantic: also relating to Atlan′tis, according to ancient tradition, a vast island in the Atlantic Ocean, or to Bacon's ideal commonwealth of that name. [See Atlas.]

Atlantes, at-lan′tēz, figures of men used instead of columns. [From Atlas.]

Atlantic, at-lan′tik, adj. pertaining to Atlas, or to the Atlantic Ocean.—n. the ocean between Europe, Africa, and America. [From Mount Atlas, in the north-west of Africa, named from the Titan, Atlas.]

Atlas, at′las, n. that piece of the human vertebral column which articulates with the skull, so called because it supports the head: a collection of maps. [Gr. Atlas, Atlantis, a Titan who bore the world on his shoulders, and whose figure used to be given on the title-page of atlases.]

Atlas, at′las, n. a kind of silk-satin manufactured in the East. [Ar.]

Atmology, at-mol′o-ji, n. the science of the phenomena of aqueous vapour.—n. Atmol′ogist. [Gr. atmos, vapour, and logia, discourse—legein, to speak.]

Atmolysis, at-mol′i-sis, n. a method of separating a mixture of gases by taking advantage of their different rates of passage through a porous septum. [Gr. atmos, vapour, and lysis, loosing—lyein, to loose.]

Atmometer, at-mom′e-tėr, n. an instrument for measuring the rate of evaporation from a moist surface. [Gr. atmos, vapour, and Meter.]

Atmosphere, at′mo-sfēr, n. the gaseous envelope that surrounds the earth or any of the heavenly bodies: any gaseous medium: a conventional unit of atmospheric pressure: (fig.) any surrounding influence.—adjs. Atmospher′ic, -al, of or depending on the atmosphere.—adv. Atmospher′ically.—Atmospheric engine, a variety of steam-engine in which the steam is admitted only to the under side of the piston; Atmospheric hammer, a hammer driven by means of compressed air; Atmospheric railway, a railway where the motive-power is derived from the pressure of the atmosphere acting on a piston working in an iron tube of uniform bore. [Gr. atmos, air, sphaira, a sphere.]

Atoll, a-tol′, or at′ol, n. a coral island consisting of a circular belt of coral enclosing a central lagoon. [A Malay word.]

Atom, at′om, n. a particle of matter so small that it cannot be cut or divided, the unit of matter; anything very small.—adjs. Atom′ic, -al, pertaining to atoms.—ns. Atomic′ity; Atomisā′tion (med.) the reduction of liquids to the form of spray; At′omism, the doctrine that atoms arranged themselves into the universe: the atomic theory; At′omist, one who believes in atomism.—adj. Atomis′tic.—adv. Atomist′ically.—n. At′omy, an atom, or mote: (Shak.) a pygmy.—Atomic philosophy, a system of philosophy enunciated by Democritus, which taught that the ultimate constituents of all things are indivisible particles, differing in form and in their relations to each other; Atomic theory, the hypothesis that all chemical combinations take place between the ultimate particles of bodies, uniting each atom to atom, or in proportions expressed by some simple multiple of the number of atoms. [Gr. atomosa, not, temnein, tamein, to cut. See Atom.]

Atomy, at′om-i, n. (Shak.) a skeleton, walking skeleton. [Formerly also atamy and natomy, for anatomy, mistakingly divided an atomy.]

Atone, at-ōn′, adv. (Spens.) at one, at once, together. [M.E. also attone, earlier atoon, aton, at one, at on.]

Atone, at-ōn′, v.i. to give satisfaction or make reparation (with for): to make up for deficiencies: (Shak.) to agree, be in accordance.—v.t. to appease, to expiate: (arch.) harmonise, or reconcile.—ns. Atone′ment, the act of atoning; reconciliation: expiation: reparation: esp. (theol.) the reconciliation of God and man by means of the incarnation and death of Christ; Aton′er.—adv. Aton′ingly. [See Atone, above.]

Atony, at′on-i, n. want of tone or energy: debility: relaxation.—adj. At′onic (pros.), without tone: unaccented. [Gr. atoniaa, neg., tonos, tone, strength. See Tone.]

Atop, a-top′, adv. on or at the top. [Prep. a, and Top.]

Atrabiliar, at-ra-bil′i-ar, adj. of a melancholy temperament: hypochondriac: splenetic, acrimonious.—Also Atrabil′iary, Atrabil′ious. [L. ater, atra, black, bilis, gall, bile. See Bile.]

Atramental, at-ra-men′tal, adj. (Sir T. Browne) inky, black. [From L. atramentum, ink—atra, black.]

Atremble, a-trem′bl, adv. trembling.

Atrip, a-trip′, adv. said of an anchor when it is just drawn out of the ground in a perpendicular direction—of a sail, when it is hoisted from the cap, sheeted home, and ready for trimming. [Prep. a, on, and Trip.]

Atrium, ā′tri-um, n. the entrance-hall or chief apartment of a Roman house. [Prob. orig. the kitchen, and so lit. 'the apartment blackened with smoke'—L. ater, black; others connect the word with des, orig. a fireplace, then a house, a temple.]

Atrocious, a-trō′shus, adj. extremely cruel or wicked: heinous: very grievous: execrable.—adv. Atrō′ciously.—ns. Atrō′ciousness; Atroc′ity, atrociousness: an atrocious act. [L. atrox, atrocis, cruel—ater, black.]

Atropal, at′ro-pal, adj. (bot.) not inverted. [Gr. atroposa, neg., and trepein, to turn.]

Atrophy, a′trof-i, n. an alteration of the vital processes in a living organism, either animal or vegetable, resulting in a diminution of size and functional activity of the whole organism (general atrophy), or of certain of its organs or tissues: emaciation.—adjs. Atroph′ic, At′rophied. [Gr. a, neg., and trophē, nourishment.]

Atropia, a-trō′pi-a, Atropin, Atropine, at′ro-pin, n. a poisonous alkaloid existing in the deadly nightshade.—n. At′ropism, poisoning by atropin. [From Gr. Atropos, one of the Fates, who cuts the thread of life.]

Attach, at-tach′, v.t. to bind or fasten: to seize: to gain over: to connect, associate: to join to in action or function: (Shak.) to arrest.—v.i. to adhere, to be fastened upon: (rare) to come into effect.—adj. Attach′able.—p.adj. Attached′, fastened, fixed, joined by taste or affection (with to), fond, devoted to.—n. Attach′ment, a bond of fidelity or affection: the seizure of any one's goods or person by virtue of a legal process. [O. Fr. atachier, from (—L. ad), and the root of Tack (q.v.).]

Attach, a-ta′shā, n. a young diplomatist attached to the suite of an ambassador. [Participle of Fr. attacher, to attach.]

Attack, at-tak′, v.t. to fall upon violently: to assault: to assail with unfriendly words or writing: to begin to affect, fall upon (of diseases).—n. an assault or onset: the offensive part in any contest: the beginning of active operations on anything, even dinner: severe criticism or calumny.—adj. Attack′able. [Fr. attaquer. See Attach, of which it is a doublet.]

Attain, at-tān′, v.t. to reach or gain by effort: to obtain: to reach a place: to reach.—v.i. to come or arrive: to reach.—adj. Attain′able, that may be reached.—ns. Attain′ableness, Attainabil′ity; Attain′ment, act of attaining: the thing attained: acquisition: (pl.) acquirements in learning. [O. Fr. ataindre—L. atting-ĕread, to, tang-ĕre, to touch.]

Attainder, at-tān′dėr, n. act of attainting: (law) loss of civil rights through conviction for high-treason.—v.t. Attaint′, to convict: to deprive of rights for being convicted of treason: to accuse of: disgrace, stain (from a fancied connection with taint).—n. (arch.) the act of touching, a hit (in tilting): (Shak.) infection: attainder: a stain, disgrace.—Older pa.p. Attaint′—(Shak.) corrupted, tainted.—ns. Attaint′ment, Attaint′ure, state of being attainted. [O. Fr. ataindre—L. atting-ĕre. See Attain.]

Attar, at′ar, n. a very fragrant essential oil made in Turkey and other Eastern lands, chiefly from the damask rose.—Also Otto. [Pers. atar.]

Attask, at-task′, v.t. to task. [Pfx. a-, and Task.]

Attemper, at-tem′pėr, v.t. to mix in due proportion: to modify or moderate: to adapt.—p.adj. Attem′pered, tempered, mild, regulated. [O. Fr. atemprer—L. attemperāread, to, and temperāre. See Temper.]

Attempt, at-temt′, v.t. to try or endeavour: to try to obtain: tempt, entice: to make an effort or attack upon.—v.i. to make an attempt or trial.—n. a trial: endeavour or effort: a personal assault: (Milton) temptation: (law) any act which can fairly be described as one of a series which, if uninterrupted and successful, would constitute a crime.—n. Attemptabil′ity.—adj. Attempt′able, that may be attempted.—n. Attempt′er (Milton), a tempter. [O. Fr. atempter—L. attentāread, and tem-pt, tentāre, to try—tendĕre, to stretch.]

Attend, at-tend′, v.t. to wait on or accompany: to be present at: to wait for: to give attention (with to).—v.i. to yield attention: to act as an attendant: to wait, be consequent (with to, on, upon).—ns. Attend′ance, act of attending: (B.) attention, careful regard: presence: the persons attending; Attend′ancy (obs.), attendance, a retinue: (obs.) relative position.—adj. Attend′ant, giving attendance: accompanying.—n. one who attends or accompanies: a servant: what accompanies or follows: (law) one who owes a duty or service to another.—ns. Attend′er, one who gives heed: a companion:—fem. Atten′dress; Attend′ment (Sir T. Browne), attention.—adj. Attent′ (Spens.), giving attention.—n. (Spens.) attention.—In attendance on, waiting upon, attending. [O. Fr. atendre—L. attendĕread, to, tendĕre, to stretch.]

Attention, at-ten′shun, n. act of attending, as in to pay, give, call, or attract attention: steady application of the mind: heed: civility, courtesy: care.—interj. (mil.) a cautionary word used as a command to execute some manœuvre.—adj. Attent′ive, full of attention: courteous, mindful.—adv. Attent′ively.—n. Attenti′veness. [L. attention-emattend-ĕre. See Attend.]

Attenuate, at-ten′ū-āt, v.t. to make thin or lean: to break down into finer parts: to reduce in density: reduce in strength or value, simplify.—v.i. to become thin or fine: to grow less.—n. Atten′uant, anything possessing this property.—adjs. Atten′uate, Atten′uated, made thin or slender: dilute, rarefied:—n. Attenuā′tion, process of making slender: reduction of intensity, density, or force: specially in homeopathy, the reduction of the active principles of medicines to minute doses. [L. attenuāre, -ātumad, to, tenuis, thin.]

Attest, at-test′, v.t. to testify or bear witness to: to affirm by signature or oath: to give proof of, to manifest: (obs.) to call to witness.—v.i. to bear witness.—n. (Shak.) witness, testimony.—adjs. Attest′able, Attest′ative.—ns. Attestā′tion, act of attesting: administration of an oath; Attest′or, Attest′er, one who attests or vouches for. [L. attestāri, ad, to, testis, a witness.]

Attic, at′ik, adj. pertaining to Attica or to Athens: chaste, refined, elegant like the Athenians.—v.t. Att′icise, to make conformable to the language or idiom of Attica.—v.i. to use the idioms of the Athenians: to side with the Athenians, to affect Attic or Greek style or manners.—n. At′ticism.—Attic salt, wit of a dry, delicate, and refined quality. [Gr. Attikos, Attic, Athenian, Attikē, Attica, perh. from aktē, headland, though connected by some with astu, city.]

Attic, at′ik, n. (archit.) a low story above the cornice that terminates the main part of an elevation: a room in the roof of a house. [Introduced in architecture from the idea that the feature to which it alluded was constructed in the Athenian manner.]

Attire, at-tīr′, v.t. to dress, array, or adorn: to prepare.—n. dress: any kind of covering, even the plants that clothe the soil: (Shak.) a dress or costume.—ns. Attire′ment, Attir′ing. [O. Fr. atirer, put in order— tire, in a row— (L. ad), to, and tire, tiere, order, dress. See Tier.]

Attitude, at′ti-tūd, n. posture, or position: gesture: any condition of things or relation of persons viewed as expressing some thought, feeling, &c.—adj. Attitud′inal.—n. Attitudinā′rian, one who studies attitudes.—v.i. Attitud′inise, to assume affected attitudes.—n. Attitudinī′ser.—To strike an attitude, to assume a position or figure to indicate a feeling or emotion not really felt. [Fr. or It. from L. aptitudin-em, aptus, fit.]

Attollent, at-tol′lent, adj. lifting up, raising.—n. a muscle with this function. [L. attollens, -entis, pr.p. of attollĕre, to lift up—ad, to, tollĕre, to lift.]

Attorney, at-tur′ni, n. one legally authorised to act for another—hence the sense of the phrases 'in person' and 'by attorney:' one legally qualified to manage cases in a court of law: a solicitor—a solicitor or attorney prepares cases and does general law business, while a barrister pleads before the courts: (pl.) Attor′neys.—v.t. Attor′ney (Shak.), to perform by proxy, to employ as a proxy.—ns. Attor′ney-gen′eral, the first ministerial law-officer of the Crown in England and Ireland: the title of the king's attorney in the duchies of Lancaster and Cornwall, and the county palatine of Durham: in the United States, one of the seven officials who constitute the president's cabinet, the head of the department of Justice; Attor′neyship, Attor′neyism, Attor′neydom.—Attorney-at-law, or Public attorney, a professional and duly qualified legal agent; Attorney in fact, or Private attorney, one duly appointed by letter or power of attorney to act for another in matters of contract, money payments, and the like.—Letter warrant, or Power of attorney, the formal instrument by one person authorising another to perform certain acts for him. [O. Fr. atorne—Low L. attornatusatornāre, to commit business to another. See Turn.]

Attract, at-trakt′, v.t. to draw to or cause to approach: to allure: to entice: to draw forth.—adj. Attract′able, that may be attracted.—n. Attrac′tion, act of attracting: the force which draws or tends to draw bodies or their particles to each other: that which attracts.—adj. Attract′ive, having the power of attracting: alluring.—advs. Attract′ively, Attract′ingly.—ns. Attract′iveness, Attractabil′ity; Attract′or, Attract′er, an agent of attraction. [L. attrahĕre, attractusad, to, trahĕre, to draw.]

Attrahent, at′tra-hent, adj. attracting or drawing.—n. that which attracts. [L. attrahens, -entis, pr.p. of attrahĕre. See Attract.]

Attrap, at-trap′, v.t. (Spens.) to adorn with trappings: to dress or array. [L. ad, to, and Trap.]

Attribute, at-trib′ūt, v.t. to ascribe, assign, or consider as belonging.—adj. Attrib′utable.—ns. At′tribute, that which is attributed: that which is inherent in, or inseparable from, anything: that which can be predicated of anything: a quality or property; Attribū′tion, act of attributing: that which is attributed: commendation.—adj. Attrib′utive, expressing an attribute.—n. a word denoting an attribute. [L. attribuĕre, -tributumad, to, tribu-ĕre, to give.]

Attrist, at-trist′, v.t. (obs.) to sadden. [Fr.—L. ad, to, tristis, sad.]

Attrite, at-trīt′, adj. worn by rubbing or friction: (theol.) repentant through fear of punishment, not yet from the love of God.—n. Attri′tion, the rubbing of one thing against another: a wearing by friction: (theol.) a defective or imperfect sorrow for sin. [L. attritusatter-ĕread, and terĕre, tritum, to rub.]

Attune, at-tūn′, v.t. to put in tune: to make one sound accord with another: to arrange fitly: to make musical.—n. Attune′ment. [L. ad, to, and Tune.]

Atwain, a-twān′, adv. in twain: (arch.) asunder. [Prep. a, and Twain.]

Atween, a-twēn′, adv. (Spens.) between. [Prep. a, and Twain.]

Atwixt, a-twikst′, adv. (Spens.) betwixt, between. [Pfx. a-, and 'twixt, Betwixt.]

Aubade, ō-bd′, n. a musical announcement of dawn: a sunrise song. [Fr. aube, dawn—L. alba, white.]

Auberge, ō-bėrj′, n. an inn.—adj. Auberg′ical (H. Walpole).—n. Aubergiste (ō-bėrj-ēst′). [Fr., of Teut. origin. See Harbour.]

Aubergine, ō′ber-jēn, n. the fruit of the egg-plant, the brinjal. [Fr. dim. of auberge, a kind of peach—Sp. albrchigo—Ar. al, the, prsigo—L. persicum, a peach.]

Auburn, aw′burn, adj. reddish brown. [The old meaning was a light yellow, or lightish hue; Low L. alburnus, whitish—L. albus, white.]

Auction, awk′shun, n. a public sale in which the bidder offers an increase on the price offered by another, and the articles go to him who bids highest.—v.t. to sell by auction.—adj. Auc′tionary.—n. Auctioneer′, one who is licensed to sell by auction.—v.t. to sell by auction.—Dutch auction, a kind of mock auction at which the salesman starts at a high price, and comes down till he meets a bidder. [L. auction-em, an increasing—augēre, auctum, to increase.]

Auctorial, awk′tōr-i-al, adj. of or pertaining to an author or his trade. [L. auctor.]

Audacious, aw-dā′shus, adj. daring: bold: impudent.—adv. Audā′ciously.—ns. Audā′ciousness, Audacity (aw-das′i-ti). [Fr. audacieux—L. audaxaudēre, to dare.]

Audible, awd′i-bl, adj. able to be heard.—ns. Aud′ibleness, Audibil′ity.—adv. Aud′ibly.—n. Aud′ience, the act of hearing: a judicial hearing: admittance to a hearing: a ceremonial interview: an assembly of hearers: a court of government or justice in Spanish America, also the territory administered by it—Sp. audiencia.—adj. Aud′ient, listening: paying attention.—n. a hearer. [L. audibilisaudīre, to hear, conn. with Ger. ous, ōtos, the ear.]

Audiometer, awd-i-om′et-ėr, n. an instrument for measuring and recording differences in the power of hearing.

Audiphone, awd′i-fōn, n. an instrument which is pressed against the upper front teeth, the convex side outwards, in order to communicate sounds to the teeth and bones of the skull, thence to the organs of hearing.

Audit, awd′it, n. an examination of accounts by one or more duly authorised persons: a calling to account generally: a statement of account: (obs.) a periodical settlement of accounts: (obs.) audience, hearing.—v.t. to examine and verify by reference to vouchers, &c.—ns. Audi′tion, the sense of hearing: the act of hearing: (rare) something heard; Aud′itor, a hearer: one who audits accounts:—fem. Aud′itress; Auditōr′ium, in an opera-house, public hall, or the like, the space allotted to the hearers: the reception-room of a monastery; Aud′itorship.—adj. Aud′itory, relating to the sense of hearing.—n. an audience: a place where lectures, &c., are heard.—Audit ale, an ale of special quality brewed for some Oxford and Cambridge colleges; orig. for use on the day of audit. [L. auditus, a hearing—audīre, to hear. See Audible.]

Augean, aw-jē′an, adj. filthy: difficult. [From Augeas, a fabled king of Elis in Greece, whose stalls, containing 3000 oxen, and uncleaned for thirty years, were swept out by Hercules in one day by his turning the river Alpheus through them.]

Auger, aw′gėr, n. a carpenter's tool used for boring holes in wood.—n. Au′ger-bit, an auger that fits into a carpenter's brace (see Brace). [A corr. of nauger, an auger, A.S. nafugrnafu, a nave of a wheel, gr, a piercer. See Nave (of a wheel), Gore, a triangular piece.]

Aught, awt, n. a whit: ought: anything: a part. [A.S. -wiht, contr. to ht, whence ōht, ōght, and ought. Shakespeare, Milton, and Pope use ought and aught without distinction. Awiht is from , , ever, and wiht, creature, a wight, a thing.]

Augite, aw′jīt, n. one of the Pyroxene group of minerals, closely allied to hornblende, usually of a greenish colour, occurring crystallised in prisms, and forming an essential component of many igneous rocks.—adj. Augit′ic. [Gr. augē, brightness.]

Augment, awg-ment′, v.t. to increase: to make larger.—v.i. to grow larger.—n. Aug′ment, increase: (gram.) the prefixed vowel to the past tenses of the verb in Sanskrit and Greek. Sometimes applied also to such inflectional prefixes as the ge- of the German perfect participle.—adjs. Augment′able, Augment′ative, having the quality or power of augmenting.—n. (gram.) a word formed from another to express increase of its meaning.—ns. Augmentā′tion, increase: addition: (her.) an additional charge in a coat-of-arms bestowed by the sovereign as a mark of honour: (mus.) the repetition of a melody in the course of the piece in notes of greater length than the original: (Scots law) an increase of stipend obtained by a parish minister by an action raised in the Court of Teinds against the titular and heritors; Augment′er. [L. augmentum, increase—augēre, to increase, Gr. auxan-ein.]

Augur, aw′gur, n. among the Romans, one who gained knowledge of secret or future things by observing the flight and the cries of birds: a diviner; a soothsayer.—v.t. to foretell from signs.—v.i. to guess or conjecture: to forebode.—adj. Au′gural.—ns. Au′gurship; Au′gury, the art or practice of auguring: an omen.—The words Au′gurate and Augurā′tion are obsolete. [L.; prob. from avis, bird, and root, gar, in L. garrīre, to chatter, Sans. gir, speech.]

August, aw-gust′, adj. venerable: imposing: sublime: majestic—adv. August′ly.—n. August′ness. [L. augustusaugēre, to increase, honour.]

August, aw′gust, n. the eighth month of the year, so called after the Roman emperor Augustus Csar.

Augustan, aw-gust′an, adj. pertaining to the Emperor Augustus, or to the time in which he reigned (31 B.C.-14 A.D.)—the most brilliant age in Roman literature, hence applied to any similar age, as the reign of Anne in English, or that of Louis XIV. in French literature: classic: refined.

Augustine, aw-gust′in, Augustinian, aw-gus-tin′i-an, n. one of an order of monks who derive their name and rule from St Augustine: (theol.) one who holds the opinions of St Augustine, esp. on predestination and irresistible grace.—adj. Augustin′ian, of or relating to St Augustine.—n. Augustin′ianism.

Auk, awk, n. a genus of web-footed sea-birds, with short wings used only as paddles, found in the northern seas. The Great Auk is supposed to have become extinct in 1844. [Ice. lka.]

Aula, aw′la, n. a hall.—adj. Aulā′rian, relating to a hall.—n. at Oxford, a member of a hall, as distinguished from a collegian.—Aula regis, also called Curia Regis, a name used in English history for a feudal assembly of tenants-in-chief, for the Privy Council, and for the Court of King's Bench. [L. aula, a hall.]

Auld, awld, adj. (Scot.) old.—adjs. Auld′-far′rant (lit. 'favouring the old'), old-fashioned, wise beyond their years, as of children; Auld′-warld, old-world, ancient.—Auld langsyne, old long since, long ago.

Aulic, awl′ik, adj. pertaining to a royal court.—Aulic Council (Ger. Reichshofrath), a court or personal council of the Holy Roman Empire, established in 1501 by Maximilian I., and co-ordinate with the Imperial Chamber (Reichskammergericht). [L. aulicusaula, Gr. aulē, a royal court.]

Aumail, aw-māl′, v.t. to enamel: (Spens.) to figure or variegate. [See Enamel.]

Aumbry, awm′bri, n. Same as Ambry.

Aumil, o′mil, n. Same as Amildar.

Aumuce, aw′mūs, n. Same as Amice.

Aunt, nt, n. a father's or a mother's sister—also the wife of one's uncle: (obs.) an old woman, a gossip, a procuress or bawd.—Aunt Sally, a pastime at English fairs, in which a wooden head is set on a pole, and in the mouth a pipe, which has to be smashed by throwing sticks or the like at it. [O. Fr. ante (Fr. tante)—L. amita, a father's sister.]

Aura, awr′a, n. a supposed subtle emanation proceeding from anything, esp. that essence which is claimed to emanate from all living things and to afford an atmosphere for the operations of animal magnetism and such-like occult phenomena: (fig.) air, distinctive character: (path.) a sensation as of a current of cold air—a premonitory symptom of epilepsy and hysteria.—adj. Aur′al, pertaining to the air, or to a subtle vapour or exhalation arising from a body. [L. aura.]

Aural, awr′al, adj. pertaining to the ear.—adv. Aur′ally. [L. auris, ear.]

Aurate, awr′āt, n. a compound of auric oxide with a base.—adjs. Aur′ated, gold-coloured: compounded with auric acid; Aur′eate, gilded: golden.—n. Aurē′ity, the peculiar properties of gold. [L. aurum, gold.]

Aurelia, awr-ēl′ya, n. the chrysalis of an insect, from its golden colour.—adj. Aurel′ian—formerly also a name for an entomologist devoted esp. to butterflies and moths. [L. aurum, gold.]


Aureola, awr-ē′o-la, n. in Christian art, the gold colour surrounding the whole figure in sacred pictures, distinct from the nimbus, which only covers the head, usually reserved for representations of the three Divine Persons, of Christ, and the Virgin and Child: (theol.) an increment to the ordinary blessedness of heaven gained by virgins, martyrs, and doctors for their triumph respectively over the flesh, the world, and the devil.—n. Aur′eole, the aureola: the gold disc round the head in early pictures symbolising glory: (fig.) a glorifying halo: a halo of radiating light, as in eclipses.—p.adj. Aur′eoled, encircled with an aureole. [L. aureolus, dim. of aureus, golden.]

Auric, awr′ik, adj. pertaining to gold: (chem.) applied to compounds in which gold combines as a triad. [L. aurum, gold.]

Auricle, awr′i-kl, n. the external ear: (pl.) the two upper cavities of the heart into which the blood comes from the veins.—adj. Aur′icled, having appendages like ears.—n. Auric′ula, a species of primrose, also called bear's ear, from the shape of its leaf.—adj. Auric′ular, pertaining to the ear: known by hearing, or by report.—adv. Auric′ularly.—adjs. Auric′ulate, Auric′ulated, ear-shaped.—Auricular confession, secret, told in the ear. [L. auricula, dim. of auris, the ear.]

Auriferous, awr-if′ėr-us, adj. bearing or yielding gold.—v.t. and v.i. Aur′ify, to turn into gold. [L. auriferaurum, gold, ferre, to bear.]

Auriform, awr′i-form, adj. ear-shaped. [L. auris, ear, and Form.]

Auriscope, aw′ri-skōp, n. an instrument for examining the Eustachian passage of the ear. [L. auris, ear, and Gr. skopein, to look.]

Aurist, awr′ist, n. one skilled in diseases of the ear. [L. auris, ear.]

Aurochs, awr′oks, n. the European bison or wild ox. [Ger. auerochs. Old High Ger. rohso, ur (L. urus, Gr. ouros), a kind of wild ox, and ochs, ox.]

Aurora, aw-rō′ra, n. the dawn: in poetry, the goddess of dawn.—adjs. Aurō′ral, Aurō′rean.—adv. Aurō′rally. [Acc. to Curtius, a reduplicated form for ausosa; from a root seen in Sans. ush, to burn; cog. with Gr. ēōs, dawn, hēlios, the sun; Etruscan, Usil, the god of the sun.]

Aurora Borealis, aw-rō′ra bō-rē-ā′lis, the northern aurora or light: a luminous meteoric phenomenon of electrical character seen in northern latitudes, with a tremulous motion, and giving forth streams of light.—Aurora Australis (aws-trā′lis), a similar phenomenon in the southern hemisphere:—pl. Aurō′ras. [L. borealis, northern—boreas, the north wind. See Austral.]

Auscultation, aws-kult-ā′shun, n. the art of discovering the condition of the lungs and heart by applying the ear or the stethoscope to the part.—v.i. to examine by auscultation.—n. Auscultā′tor, one who practises auscultation, or an instrument for such: in Germany, a title formerly given to one who had passed his first public examination in law, and who was merely retained, not yet employed or paid by government.—adj. Auscult′ātory, relating to auscultation. [L. auscultāre, to listen.]

Ausonian, aw-sō′ni-an, adj. Italian. [L. Ausonia, a poetical name for Italy.]

Auspice, aw′spis, n. an omen drawn from observing birds: augury—generally used in pl. Au′spices, protection: patronage: a good start (generally in phrase, Under the auspices of).—v.t. Au′spicate, to foreshow: to initiate or inaugurate with hopes of good luck:—pr.p. au′spicāting; pa.p. au′spicāted.adj. Auspi′cious, having good auspices or omens of success: favourable: fortunate: propitious.—adv. Auspi′ciously.—n. Auspi′ciousness. [Fr.—L. auspiciumauspex, auspicis, a bird-seer, from avis, a bird, specĕre, to observe.]

Auster, aws′tėr, n. the south wind. [L.]

Austere, aws-tēr′, adj. harsh: severe: stern: grave: sober: severe in self-discipline, strictly moral or abstinent: severely simple, without luxury.—adv. Austere′ly.—ns. Austere′ness, Auster′ity, quality of being austere: severity of manners or life: harshness: asceticism: severe simplicity of style, dress, or habits. [L. austerus—Gr. austērosau-ein, to dry.]

Austral, aws′tral, adj. southern.—adj. Australasian (aws-tral-ā′zhi-an), pertaining to Australasia, or the islands and island-groups that lie to the south of Asia.—n. a native or colonist of one of these.—adj. Austrā′lian, of or pertaining to Australia, a large island between the Indian and Pacific Oceans.—n. an aboriginal native of Australia proper, later also a white colonist or resident. [L. australisauster, the south wind.]

Austrian, aws′tri-an, adj. of or pertaining to Austria, an empire of Central Europe.—n. a native of Austria.

Austringer, aw′string-ėr, n. a keeper of goshawks.—Also A′stringer. [O. Fr. ostruchier, austruchier. See Ostrich.]

Autarchy, awt′r-ki, n. absolute power. [Gr., from autos, self, and archein, to rule.]

Authentic, -al, aw-thent′ik, -al, adj. real: genuine, as opposed to counterfeit, apocryphal: original: true: entitled to acceptance, of established credibility. A distinction is sometimes made between authentic and genuine—the former, that the writing is trustworthy, as setting forth real facts; the latter, that we have it as it left its author's hands—an authentic history: a genuine text.—adv. Authent′ically. [Fr. and L. from Gr. authentēs, one who does anything with his own hand—autos, self.]

Authenticate, aw-thent′ik-āt, v.t. to make authentic: to prove genuine: to give legal validity to: to certify the authorship of.—ns. Authenticā′tion, act of authenticating: confirmation; Authentic′ity, quality of being authentic: state of being true or in accordance with fact: genuineness.

Author, awth′or, n. one who originates or brings anything into being: a beginner or first mover of any action or state of things: the writer of an original book: elliptically for an author's writings: one's authority for something: an informant:—fem. Auth′oress.—adjs. Authō′rial, Auth′orish; Authorīs′able.—n. Authorisā′tion.—v.t. Auth′orise, to give authority to: to sanction: to permit: to justify: to establish by authority.—adj. Auth′orless, anonymous.—ns. Auth′orling, a petty author; Auth′orship, Auth′oring, Auth′orism, state or quality of being an author. [Through Fr. from L. auctoraugēre, auctum, to cause things to increase, to produce.]

Authority, awth-or′it-i, n. legal power or right: power derived from office or character: weight of testimony: permission:—pl. Author′ities, precedents: opinions or sayings carrying weight: persons in power.—adj. Author′itative, having the sanction or weight of authority: dictatorial.—adv. Author′itatively.—n. Author′itativeness. [L. auctoritatem, auctoritas, auctor.]

Autobiography, aw-to-bī-og′raf-i, n. the biography or life of a person written by himself.—n. Autobiog′rapher, one who writes his own life.—adjs. Autobiograph′ic, -al. [Gr. autos, one's self, bios, life, graphein, to write.]

Auto-car, aw′to-kr, n. a vehicle for the road moved from within by steam, electric power, &c. instead of by traction. [Gr. autos, self, and Car.]

Autocarpous, aw-to-kr′pus, adj. applied to such fruit as consists only of the pericarp, with no adnate parts. [Gr. autos, self, karpos, fruit.]

Autochthon, aw-tok′thon, n. one of the primitive inhabitants of a country: an aboriginal:—pl. Autoch′thons and Autoch′thones.—adj. Autoch′thonous.—ns. Autoch′thony, Autoch′thonism, the condition of being autochthonous. [Gr.; made up of autos, self, chthōn, chthonos, the soil; the Athenians claiming to have actually sprung from the soil on which they lived.]

Autocrat, aw′to-krat, n. one who rules by his own power: an absolute sovereign.—n. Autoc′racy, an absolute government by one man: despotism.—adj. Autocrat′ic,—adv. Autocrat′ically. [Gr. autokratēsautos, self, kratos, power.]

Auto-da-f, aw′to-da-fā′, n. the public declaration of the judgment passed on heretics in Spain and Portugal by the Inquisition, also the infliction of the punishment which immediately followed thereupon, esp. the public burning of the victims:—pl. Autos-da-f. [Port. auto da f = Sp. auto de fe; auto—L. actum, act; da—L. de, of; and fe—L. fides, faith.]

Autogenous, aw-toj′e-nus, adj. self-generated: independent.—n. Autog′eny, a mode of spontaneous generation. [Gr. autogenēs, autos, self, genos, offspring.]

Autograph, aw′to-graf, n. one's own handwriting: a signature: an original manuscript.—v.t. to write with one's hand.—adj. Autograph′ic.—adv. Autograph′ically.—n. Au′tography, act of writing with one's own hand: reproduction of the outline of a writing or drawing by fac-simile. [Gr. autos, self, graphē, writing.]

Autogravure, aw-to-grav′ūr, n. a process of photo-engraving akin to autotype. [Gr. auto, self; Fr. gravure, engraving.]

Autolatry, aw-tol′a-tri, n. worship of one's self.—n. Autol′ogy is merely a justifiable enough scientific study of ourselves. [Gr. autos, self, latreia, worship.]

Autolycus, aw-tol′i-kus, n. a thief: a snapper up of unconsidered trifles: a plagiarist. [From the character in Shakespeare's Winter's Tale.]

Automaton, aw-tom′a-ton, n. a self-moving machine, or one which moves by concealed machinery: a living being regarded as without consciousness: the self-acting power of the muscular and nervous systems, by which movement is effected without intelligent determination: a human being who acts by routine, without intelligence:—pl. Autom′atons, Autom′ata.—adjs. Automat′ic, -al.—adv. Automat′ically.—ns. Autom′atism, automatic or involuntary action: power of self-moving: power of initiating vital processes from within the cell, organ, or organism, independently of any direct or immediate stimulus from without: the doctrine that animals are automata, their motions, &c., being the result of mechanical laws; Autom′atist, one who holds the doctrine of automatism. [Gr. automatos, self-moving—autos, self, and a stem mat-, to strive after, to move.]

Automobile, aw-to-mō′bil, adj. self-moving.—n. a motor-car. [Gr. autos, self, L. mobilis, mobile.]

Automorphic, aw-to-mor′fik, adj. marked by automorphism, the ascription to others of one's own characteristics. [Gr. autos, self, morphē, form.]

Autonomy, aw-ton′om-i, n. the power or right of self-government: (Kant's philos.) the doctrine that the human will carries its guiding principle within itself.—adjs. Auton′omous, Autonom′ic. [Gr.—autos, and nomos, law.]

Autonym, aw′ton-im, n. a writing published under the author's real name. [Gr. autos, self, onoma, a name.]

Autophagous, aw-tof′ag-us, adj. self-devouring.—n. Autoph′agy, sustenance by self-absorption of the tissues of the body. [Gr. autos, self, phagein, to eat.]

Autophoby, aw-tof′ob-i, n. a shrinking from making any reference to one's self. [Gr. autos, self, phobia, fear.]

Autophony, aw-tof′on-i, n. observation of the resonance of one's own voice, heard by placing the ear to the patient's chest. [Gr. autos, self, phōnē, sound.]

Autoplasty, aw′to-plas-ti, n. a mode of surgical treatment which consists in replacing a diseased part by means of healthy tissue from another part of the same body. [Gr. auto-plastos, self-formed.]

Autopsy, aw′top-si, n. personal inspection, esp. the examination of a body after death.—Also Autop′sia. [Gr.; autos, self, opsis, sight.]

Autoptic, -al, aw-topt′ik, -al, adj. seen with one's own eyes.—adv. Autopt′ically. [See Autopsy.]

Autoschediasm, aw-to-sked′i-azm, n. anything extemporised.—v.t. Autosched′iase.—adj. Autoschedias′tic. [Gr. autos, self, schedios, off-hand.]

Autotheism, aw′to-thē-izm, n. assumption of divine powers: the doctrine of the self-subsistence of God, esp. of the second person in the Trinity.—n. Au′totheist, a self-deifier. [Gr. autos, self, theos, a god.]

Autotype, aw′to-tīp, n. a true impress or copy of the original: a process of printing from a photographic negative in a permanent black or other pigment.—v.t. to reproduce by such a process.—n. Autotypog′raphy, a process by which drawings made on gelatine are transferred to a plate from which impressions may be taken. [Gr. autos, self, typos, a stamp.]

Autumn, aw′tum, n. the third season of the year when fruits are gathered in, popularly comprising the months of August, September, and October—in North America, September, October, and November. Astronomically, in the northern hemisphere, it begins at the autumnal equinox, when the sun enters Libra, 22d September, and ends at the winter solstice, when the sun enters Capricorn, 21st December.—adj. Autum′nal.—adv. Autum′nally. [L. autumnus, auctumnus, anciently referred to aug-ēre, as the season of increase; by Corssen and others, to the Sans. av, to do good to.]

Auxesis, awk-sē′sis, n. gradual deepening in force of meaning: hyperbole. [Gr.]

Auxiliar, awg-zil′yar, Auxiliary, awg-zil′yar-i, adj. helping: subsidiary, as troops.—ns. Auxil′iar, an auxiliary; Auxil′iary, a helper: an assistant: (gram.) a verb that helps to form the moods and tenses of other verbs. [L. auxiliarisauxilium, help—aug-ēre, to increase.]

Ava, ′va, n. native name in the Sandwich Islands for a species of cordyline yielding an intoxicating drink, also called kava: any similar drink.

Avail, a-vāl′, v.t. to be of value or service to: to benefit: to take the benefit of (used reflexively with of).—v.i. to be of use: to answer the purpose: (obs.) to take or draw advantage: (Amer.) to inform, assure of.—n. benefit: profit: service.—adj. Avail′able, that one may avail one's self of, utilise: profitable: suitable, obtainable: accessible.—ns. Avail′ableness, Availabil′ity, quality of being available: power in promoting an end in view: validity.—advs. Avail′ably; Avail′ingly, in an availing manner. [Fr.—L. ad, to, val-ēre, to be strong, to be worth.]

Avail. Same as Avale.

Avalanche, av′al-ansh, n. a mass of snow and ice sliding down from a mountain: a snow-slip.—v.i. Avāle′ (Spens.), to descend.—v.t. (Spens.) to cause to descend. [Fr. avaler, to slip down—L. ad, to, vall-em, the valley.]

Avant, av′ang, prefix used as adj. in combination, as in Av′ant-cour′ier, one who runs before, in pl. the skirmishers or advance-guard of an army; Av′ant-garde, the vanguard of an army. [Fr.;—L. ante.]

Avanturine. See Aventurine.

Avarice, av′ar-is, n. eager desire for wealth: covetousness.—adj. Avari′cious, extremely covetous: greedy.—adv. Avari′ciously.—n. Avari′ciousness. [Fr.—L. avaritiaavarus, greedy—avēre, to pant after.]

Avast, a-vst′, interj. (naut.) hold fast! stop! [Dut. houd vast, hold fast.]

Avatar, a-va-tr′, n. the descent of a Hindu deity in a visible form: incarnation: (fig.) supreme glorification of any principle. [Sans.; ava, away, down, tar, to pass over.]

Avaunt, a-vawnt′, interj. move on! begone! (Shak.) used as n. 'to give her the avaunt.'—v.i. (Spens.) to advance: (obs.) depart. [Fr. avant, forward—L. ab, from, ante, before.]

Avaunt, a-vawnt′, v.i. (Spens.) to advance boastfully. [O. Fr. avanter—Low L. vanitare, to boast—L. vanus, vain.]

Ave, ā′vē, interj. and n. be well or happy: hail, an address or prayer to the Virgin Mary: in full, Ave Marī′a.—Ave Maria, or Ave Mary, the Hail Mary, or angelic salutation (Luke, i. 28). [L. avēre, to be well or propitious. See Angelus.]

Avenaceous, av′en-ā-shus, adj. of the nature of oats. [L. avena, oats.]

Avenge, a-venj′, v.t. to vindicate: take vengeance on some one on account of some injury or wrong (with on, upon; of obsolete).—adj. Avenge′ful.—ns. Avenge′ment; Aveng′er, one who avenges:—fem. Aveng′eress. [O. Fr. avengier—L. vindicāre. See Vengeance.]

Avens, ā′vens, n. popular name of two species of Geum—the herb bennet (once used to flavour ale) and the sub-alpine mountain-avens. [Fr.]


Aventail, Aventaile, av′en-tāl, n. the flap or movable part of a helmet in front, for admitting air to the wearer. [O. Fr. esventail, air-hole—L. ex, out, ventus, wind.]

Aventre, a-ven′tr, v.t. or v.i. (Spens.) to throw, as a spear or dart. [O. Fr. venter, to cast to the wind.]

Aventure, a-vent′ūr, v.t. obsolete form of Adventure.

Aventurine, a-ven′tū-rin, n. a brown, spangled kind of Venetian glass: a kind of quartz.—Also Avan′turine. [It. avventura, chance—because of the accidental discovery of the glass.]

Avenue, av′en-ū, n. the principal approach to a country-house, usually bordered by trees: a double row of trees, with or without a road: a wide and handsome street, with or without trees, esp. in America: any passage or entrance into a place: (fig.) means of access or attainment. [Fr.: from L. ad, to, venīre, to come.]

Aver, a-vėr′, v.t. to declare to be true: to affirm or declare positively: (law) to prove or justify a plea:—pr.p. aver′ring; pa.p. averred.—n. Aver′ment, positive assertion: (law) a formal offer to prove a plea: the proof offered. [Fr. avrer—L. ad, and verus, true.]

Average, av′ėr-āj, n. the mean value or quantity of a number of values or quantities: any expense incurred beyond the freight, payable by the owner of the goods shipped, as in the phrase Petty average: any loss or damage to ship or cargo from unavoidable accidental causes—Particular average. Again, General average is the apportionment of loss caused by measures taken for the ship's safety, as cutting away the masts, throwing overboard cargo, accepting towage, or the like.—adj. containing a mean value: ordinary.—v.t. to fix an average.—v.i. to exist in, or form, a mean quantity. [Dr Murray says the word first appears about 1500 in connection with the maritime trade of the Mediterranean (Fr. avarie, Sp. averia, It. avaria); probably averia is a derivative of It. avere (O. Fr. aveir), goods, the original sense being a 'charge on property or goods.' The It. avere and O. Fr. aveir meant goods, substance, cattle—L. habēre, to have. The Old Eng. aver in the same sense is obsolete, but in Scotland aver still means an old horse.]

Averroism, av-er-ō′izm, n. the doctrine of the Arabian philosopher Averrhoes (died 1198), that the soul is perishable, the only immortal soul being the world-soul from which individual souls went forth, and to which they return.—n. Averrō′ist, one who holds this doctrine.

Averruncate, a-vėr-ungk′āt, v.t. (rare) to avert or ward off: to pull up by the roots.—ns. Averruncā′tion, act of averting: extirpation; Averrunc′ātor, an instrument for cutting off branches of trees. [L. averruncāre, to avert.]

Averse, a-vėrs′, adj. having a disinclination or hatred (with to; from is, however, still used): disliking: turned away from anything: turned backward; (her.) turned so as to show the back, as of a right hand.—n. Aversā′tion (obs.).—adv. Averse′ly.—n. Averse′ness. [L. aversus, turned away, pa.p. of avert-ĕre. See Avert.]

Aversion, a-vėr′-shun, n. dislike: hatred: the object of dislike. [See Avert.]

Avert, a-vėrt′, v.t. to turn from or aside: to prevent: ward off.—p.adj. Avert′ed.—adv. Avert′edly.—adj. Avert′ible, capable of being averted. [L. avert-ēreab, from, vert-ĕre, to turn.]

Avertiment, for Advertisement (Milton).

Aves, ā′vēz, birds. [L.]

Aviary, ā′vi-ar-i, n. a place for keeping birds.—n. A′viarist, one who keeps an aviary. [L. aviariumavis, a bird.]

Aviculture, ā′vi-kul-tūr, n. rearing of birds: bird-fancying. [L. avis, bird, and Culture.]

Avidity, a-vid′i-ti, n. eagerness: greediness.—adj. Av′id, greedy: eager. [L. aviditasavidus, greedy—avēre, to pant after.]

Avifauna, ā′vi-fawn-a, n. the whole of the birds found in a region or country: the fauna as regards birds. [L. avis, bird, and Fauna.]

Avised. See Black-avised.

Aviso. See Adviso (under Advice).—Avis, Avise, obsolete forms of Advise.—adj. Avise′ful (Spens.), watchful, circumspect.

Avital, av′i-tal, adj. of a grandfather: ancestral. [L. avitus, pertaining to a grandfather (avus).]

Avizandum, av-iz-an′dum, n. (Scots law) private consideration of a case by a judge before giving judgment.—Also Avisan′dum. [Gerund of Low L. avisare, to advise.]

Avocado, a-vo-k′do, n. the alligator-pear, a West Indian fruit. [Corr. from Mexican.]

Avocation, a-vo-kā′shun, n. formerly and properly, a diversion or distraction from one's regular employment—now, one's proper business = Vocation: business which calls for one's time and attention: (arch.) diversion of the thoughts from any employment: the calling of a case from an inferior to a superior court. [Through Fr. from avocation-em, a calling away—ab, from, vocāre, to call.]

Avocet, Avoset, av′o-set, n. a widely spread genus of birds, with webbed feet, long legs, bare thighs, a long, slender, upward-curved, elastic bill, and snipe-like habit. [Fr. avocette, It. avosetta.]

Avoid, a-void′, v.t. to try to escape from: to shun: (law) to invalidate: (Shak.) to leave, to quit.—adj. Avoid′able.—n. Avoid′ance, the act of avoiding or shunning: act of annulling. [Pfx. a- = Fr. es = L. ex, out, and Void.]

Avoirdupois, av-or-dū-poiz′, adj. or n. a system of weights in which the lb. equals 16 oz. [O. Fr. aveir de pes (avoir du pois), to have weight—L. hab-ēre, to have, pensum, that which is weighed.]

Avoset. See Avocet.

Avouch, a-vowch′, v.t. to avow: to assert or own positively: to maintain: guarantee; to appeal to. v.i. to give assurance of.—n. (Shak.) evidence.—adj. Avouch′able.—n. Avouch′ment. [O. Fr. avochier—L. advocāre, to call to one's aid. See Vouch.]

Avoure, a-vowr′, n. (Spens.) confession, acknowledgment, justification. [See Avow.]

Avow, a-vow′, v.t. to declare openly: to own or confess: to affirm or maintain: (law) to justify an act done.—n. a solemn promise: a vow.—pa.p. as adj. self-acknowledged.—adj. Avow′able.—ns. Avow′ableness, Avow′ance (obs.); Avow′al, a positive declaration: a frank confession.—adv. Avow′edly.—n. Avow′ry (law), the act of avowing and justifying in one's own right the distraining of goods: (obs.) advocacy considered as personified in a patron saint. [O. Fr. avouer, orig. to swear fealty to—L. ad, and Low L. votārevotum, a vow. See Vow.]

Avulse, a-vuls′, v.t. to pluck or tear away.—n. Avul′sion, forcible separation. [L. avell-ĕre, avulsum.]

Avuncular, a-vung′kū-lar, adj. pertaining to an uncle.—v.t. or v.i. Avunc′ulise (Fuller), to act like an uncle. [L. avunculus, an uncle.]

Await, a-wāt′, v.t. to wait or look for: to be in store for: to attend: (obs.) to lie in wait for, to watch. [Through Fr. from the common Teutonic root of Ger. wacht, en, Eng. Wait.]

Awake, a-wāk′, v.t. to rouse from sleep: to rouse from a state of inaction.—v.i. to cease sleeping: to rouse one's self from sleep or indifference:—pa.p. awaked′, or awoke′.adj. not asleep: vigilant.—adj. Awak′able, capable of being awakened.—v.t. and v.i. Awak′en, to awake: to rouse into interest or attention: (theol.) to call to a sense of sin.—adj. Awak′enable.—ns. Awak′enment, Awak′ing, Awak′ening, the act of awaking or ceasing to sleep: an arousing from indifference: a revival of religion.—To be awake to, to be fully aware of anything. [A.S. awcnan. See Wake, Watch.]

Awanting, a-wont′ing, adj. wanting: missing. [Framed as if from a verb awant—mostly Scotch.]

Award, a-wawrd′, v.t. to adjudge: to determine.—n. judgment: final decision, esp. of arbitrators.—adj. Award′able, that may be awarded.—n. Award′ment. [O. Fr. ewarder, eswarder, from an assumed Romanic form compounded of ex, thoroughly, and guardare, watch. See Ward, Guard.]

Aware, a-wār′, adj. wary: informed, conscious (with of)—ns. Aware′dom (H. Walpole), Aware′ness. [A.S. gewr, pfx. ge-, and wr, cautious. See Wary.]

Awarn, a-wawrn′, v.t. (Spens.) to warn. [Pfx, a-, and Warn.]

Awash, a-wosh′, adv. on a level with the surface of the water: floating at the mercy of the waves. [Pfx. a-, and Wash.]

Awaste, a-wāst′, adv. wasting.

Awatch, a-wotch′, adv. watching.

Awave, a-wāv′, adv. waving.

Away, a-wā′, adv. onward, along: forthwith: in the direction of, about: absent: gone, dead, fainted.—interj. begone!—Away (elliptically), to go away, esp. imperatively, Away! or Away with you!Away with him = take him away.—Fire away, fire at once, without hesitation.—I cannot away with = bear or endure.—Make away with, to destroy.—Once and away, once in a way (the usual modern form), once.—There away, in that direction, thereabout.—To do away (with), to make an end of anything; To explain away, to explain till the thing that needs explanation is itself removed; To fall away (with from), to desert; To fight away, to go on fighting; To work away, to keep on working. [A.S. a-weg—prep. a, on, weg, way, lit. 'on one's way.']

Awe, aw, n. reverential fear, or wonder: dread: (arch.) power to inspire awe.—v.t. to strike with or influence by fear.—adj. Awe′less, without fear.—n. Awe′lessness.—adjs. Awe′some, Aw′some (Scot.), full of awe: inspiring awe: weird, dreadful.—v.t. Awe′-strike, to strike with awe.—adjs. Awe′-struck, struck or affected with awe; Aw′ful, full of awe: dreadful: inspiring respect: expressive of awe: (slang) ugly: and as a mere intensive of anything.—adv. Aw′fully (also in slang merely = very).—n. Aw′fulness. [Ice. agi, A.S. ege, fear; cog. with Gael. eaghal; Gr. achos, anguish.]

Aweary, a-wē′ri, adj. weary (with of).—adj. Awea′ried, weary. [Pfx. a-, and Weary.]

A-weather, a-weth′ėr, adv. (naut.) towards the weather or windward side, in the direction from which the wind blows, applied to the position of a helm when its tiller is moved to the windward side of the ship—opp. to A-lee. [Prep. a, on, and Weather.]

A-week, a-wēk′, adv. phrase, in the week, per week. [Prep. a, and Week.]

A-weigh, a-wā′, adv. in the act of being weighed, as an anchor, when the strain on the cable has just raised it from the bottom. [Prep. a, and Weigh.]

Awhape, a-hwāp′, v.t. (Spens.) to strike: to terrify. [Dr Murray compares the Goth. af hwapjan, to choke, which would give an A.S. ofhweppan. See Whap.]

Awhile, a-hwīl′, adv. for some time: for a short time. [A.S. ne hwle = a while; combined as early as 13th century.]

A-wing, a-wing′, adv. phrase, on the wing. [Prep. a, and Wing.]

Awkward, awk′ward, adj. clumsy: ungraceful: embarrassed: difficult to deal with: (Shak.) unfavourable: (obs.) froward.—adj. Awk′wardish.—adv. Awk′wardly, clumsily, embarrassingly, dangerously.—n. Awk′wardness. [Prob. Ice. afug, turned wrong way, and suff. -ward, expressing direction.]

Awl, awl, n. a pointed instrument for boring small holes in leather. [A.S. l; cog. with Ice. alr, Ger. ahle.]

Awn, awn, n. a scale or husk: beard of corn or grass.—adjs. Awned; Awn′less; Awn′y. [Ice. gn; Ger. ahne.]

Awning, awn′ing, n. a covering to shelter from the sun's rays. [Perh. due to the Fr. auvent, a screen of cloth before a shop window, with Eng. ending -ing. Skeat suggests Pers. wan, wang, anything suspended. The history of the word is still unsolved.]

Awoke, a-wōk′, did awake—pa.t. of Awake.

Awork, a-wurk′, adv. at work. [Prep. a, and Work.]

Awrack, a-rak′, adv. in a state of wreck.

Awrong, a-rong′, adv. wrongly.

Awry, a-rī′, adj. twisted to one side: distorted, crooked: wrong: perverse.—adv. unevenly: perversely: erroneously.—To look awry, to look askance at anything; To walk awry, to go wrong. [Prep. a, on, and Wry.]

Axe, Ax, aks, n. a well-known tool or instrument for hewing or chopping, usually of iron with a steel edge:—pl. Ax′es. [A.S. x; L. ascia; Gr. axinē.]

Axile, aks′il, adj. lying in the axis of anything, as an embryo in the axis of a seed.

Axilla, aks′il-la, n. (anat.) the armpit.—ns. Ax′illa, Ax′il (bot.), the angle between the upper side of a branch and the trunk, or a petiole and the stem it springs from.—adjs. Ax′illar, Ax′illary. [L. axilla, the armpit.]

Axinomancy, aks′in-o-man-si, n. a mode of divination from the motions of an axe poised upon a stake, or of an agate placed upon a red-hot axe. [Gr. axinē, an axe, and manteia, divination.]

Axiom, aks′yum, n. a self-evident truth: a universally received principle in an art or science.—adjs. Axiomat′ic, Axiomat′ical.—adv. Axiomat′ically. [Gr. axiōmaaxio-ein, to think worth, to take for granted—axios, worth.]

Axis, aks′is, n. the axle, or the line, real or imaginary, on which a body revolves: the straight line about which the parts of a body or system are systematically arranged, or which passes through the centre of all the corresponding parallel sections of it, as of a cylinder, globe, or spheroid. The axis of a curved line is formed by a right line dividing the curve into two symmetrical parts, as in the parabola, ellipse, and hyperbola:—pl. Axes (aks′ēz).adj. Ax′ial.—adv. Ax′ially.—n. Ax′oid, a curve generated by the revolution of a point round an advancing axis.—Axis of a lens, the right line passing through a lens in such a manner as to be perpendicular to both sides of it; Axis of a telescope, a right line which passes through the centres of all the glasses in the tube; Axis of incidence, the line passing through the point of incidence perpendicularly to the refracting surface; Axis of refraction, the continuation of the same line through the refracting medium; Axis of the equator, the polar diameter of the earth, which is also the axis of rotation; Axis of the eye, the right line passing through the centres of the pupil and the crystalline lens. [L. axis; cf. Gr. axōn, Sans. aksha, A.S. eax.]

Axis, aks′is, n. the hog-deer of India. [L. axis, Pliny's name for an Indian quadruped.]

Axle, aks′l, Axle-tree, aks′l-trē, n. the pin or rod in the nave of a wheel on which the wheel turns: a pivot or support of any kind; the imaginary line of ancient cosmographers on which a planet revolved.—adj. Ax′led. [More prob. Norse xull than a dim. from A.S. eax.]

Axolotl, aks′o-lotl, n. a reptile found in Mexico, allied to the tailed batrachia, but distinguished by retaining its gills through life. [Mexican.]

Ay, ā, interj. ah! oh! alas! esp. in ay me! [M. E. ey, ei, perh. from Fr. ahi, a; cf. Sp. ay de mi!]

Ay, Aye, ī, adv. yea: yes: indeed.—n. Aye (ī), a vote in the affirmative: (pl.) those who vote in the affirmative. [Perh. a dial. form of aye, ever; perh. a variant of yea.]

Ayah, ā′ya, n. a native Indian waiting-maid. [Anglo-Ind.: Hind. āya, derived from the Port. aia, nurse.]

Aye, Ay, ā, adv. ever: always: for ever.—For aye, For ever and aye, for ever, to all eternity.—In combination, with sense of 'ever,' as in Shakespeare's 'aye-remaining,' &c. [Ice. ei, ever; A.S. a; conn. with Age, Ever.]

Aye-aye, ī′ī, n. a quadruped about the size of a hare found in Madagascar, closely allied to the lemurs, with much of the aspect of a squirrel. [Malagasy aiay.]

Ayelp, a-yėlp′, adv. yelping.

Ayenbite, ī′en-bīt, n. (obs.) remorse, as in the book-title Ayenbite of Inwyt ('remorse of conscience'). [M. E. ayen, again bite.]

Aygulets, obsolete form of Aiglets.

Ayme, obsolete form of Aim.

Ayry. See Eyry.

Azalea, a-zā′le-a, n. a genus of shrubby plants, with fine white, yellow, or crimson flowers, mostly natives of China or North America, closely allied to the rhododendron. [Gr. azaleos, dry—aza, dryness.]

Azimuth, az′im-uth, n. the arc of the horizon between the meridian of a place and a vertical circle passing through any celestial body.—adj. Az′imuthal, pertaining to the azimuth. [Ar. as-sumūt, as = al, the, sūmut, samt, direction. See Zenith.]

Azo-, in combination, for Azote.

Azoic, a-zō′ik, adj. without life: before the existence of animal life: formed when there was no animal life on the globe, as rocks. [Gr. a, neg., and zōē, life—za-ein, to live.]

Azonic, a-zon′ik, adj. not limited to a zone, not local. [Gr.; a, neg., zōnē, a belt region.]

Azote, a-zōt′, n. an old name for nitrogen, so called because it does not sustain animal life.—adj. Azot′ic.—v.t. Az′otise, to impregnate with acid.—n. Az′otite, a salt of azotic or nitrous acid.—adj. Azot′ous, nitrous. [Gr. a, neg., and za-ein, to live.]

Azoth, z′ōth, n. the alchemist's name for mercury: Paracelsus's universal remedy. [From Ar. az-zāūg, az = al, the, zāūg, from Pers. zhīwah, quicksilver.]

Azrael, az′rā-el, n. in Mohammedan mythology, the angel of death.

Aztec, az′tek, adj. relating to or descended from the Aztecs, the dominant tribe in Mexico at the time of the arrival of the Spaniards.

Azure, azh′ūr, or ā′zhūr, adj. of a faint blue: sky-coloured; clear, cloudless.—n. a delicate blue colour: the sky.—adjs. Azurē′an, Az′urine, azure.—n. Az′urite, blue carbonate of copper.—adjs. Az′urn (Milton), azure; Az′ury, bluish. [O. Fr. azur—Low L. azura—Ar. (al) lazward, Pers. lājward, lapis lazuli, blue colour.]

Azygous, az′i-gus, adj. not yoked or joined with another: (anat.) not one of a pair, as a muscle. [Gr. azygosa, neg., and zygos, a yoke, from zeugnumi, to join.]

Azymous, az′i-mus, adj. unfermented: unleavened.—ns. Az′ym, Az′yme, unleavened bread; Az′ymite, a member of a church using unleavened bread in the Eucharist—a name applied by the Eastern Church to the Western, as well as to the Armenian and Maronite Churches. [Gr. azymosa, neg., ēzym, leaven.]


the second letter of our alphabet, called by the Phœnicians beth, 'the house,' coresponding to Greek βετα, 'beta.'—B in music is the seventh note of the scale of C major; B or B flat, a humorous euphemism for the domestic bug.

Baa, b, n. the cry of a sheep.—v.i. to cry or bleat as a sheep.—n. Baa′ing. [From the sound.]

Baal, bā′al, n. the chief male deity of the Phœnician nations: a false god generally:—pl. Bā′alim.—ns. Bā′alism; Bā′alite. [Heb.]

Babble, bab′bl, v.i. to speak like a baby: to make a continuous murmuring sound like a brook, &c.: to make a babbling noise: to tell secrets.—v.t. to prate: to utter.—adjs. Bab′blative, Bab′bly.—ns. Bab′ble, Bab′blement, Bab′bling, idle senseless talk: prattle: confused murmur, as of a stream; Bab′bler, one who babbles. [Prob. imit., from the repeated syllable ba; cf. Dut. babbelen, Ger. pappelen, Fr. babiller.]

Babe, bāb, Baby, bā′bi, n. an infant or child: a doll, puppet: the reflection of one's self in miniature seen in the pupil of another's eye.—ns. Bā′by-farm′er, one who takes in infants to nurse on payment; Bā′byhood.—adj. Bā′byish.—n. Bā′by-jump′er, a seat suspended from the ceiling of a room by elastic straps, to enable a baby to jump. [Prob. imitative. See Babble.]

Babel, bā′bel, n. a lofty structure: a confused combination of sounds: a scene of confusion.—ns. Bā′beldom, Bā′belism. [Heb. Babel, explained in Gen. xi. as confusion.]

Babiroussa, -russa, ba-bi-rōō′sa, n. a species of wild hog found in the East Indies, often called the horned or deer hog. [Malay bbi, hog, and rsa, deer.]

Baboo, b′bōō, n. orig. the Hindu title corresponding to our Mr, but often applied disparagingly to a Hindu with a superficial English education, or adjectively as in 'baboo English,' which is more copious than correct, with long and learned words often most ingeniously misapplied.—ns. Ba′boodom, Ba′booism. [Hind. bābū.]

Baboon, ba-bōōn′, n. a species of large monkey, having a long face, dog-like tusks, large lips, and a short tail.—n. Baboon′ery.—adj. Baboon′ish. [Fr. babouin; remoter origin unknown.]

Babylonian, bab-i-lōn′i-an, adj. pertaining to Babylon: hence (fig.) huge, gigantic: Romish, popish (obs. from the identification with Rome of the scarlet woman of Rev. xvii.); Babel-like, confused in language.—Also Babylon′ish.

Baccalaureate, bak-ka-law′re-āt, n. the university degree of bachelor.—adj. Baccalau′rean [Low L. baccalaureus, corrupted from, baccalarius, with some imaginary reference to bacca lauri, the laurel berry. See Bachelor.]

Baccarat, Baccara, bak-ar-ā′, n. a French game of cards played by any number of betters and a banker. [Fr. baccara.]

Baccate, bak′āt, adj. having berries: berry-like or pulpy.—adjs. Bacciferous (bak-sif′ėr-us), bearing berries; Bac′ciform, of the shape of a berry; Bacciv′orous, living on berries. [L. baccatusbacca, a berry.]

Bacchanal, bak′a-nal, n. a worshipper of Bacchus: one who indulges in drunken revels: a dance or song in honour of Bacchus.—adj. relating to drunken revels—also Bacchanā′lian.— Bacchanā′lia, Bac′chanals, originally feasts in honour of Bacchus: drunken revels.—n. Bacchanā′lianism.—n. and adj. Bacchant (bak′kant), a priest of Bacchus, the god of wine: a reveller: a drunkard.—n. Bacchante (bak-kant′, bak′kant, bak-kant′i), a priestess of Bacchus, the god of wine: a female bacchanal:—pl. Bacchant′es.—adj. Bacchic (bak′kik), relating to Bacchus: jovial: drunken. [L. Bacchanalis, Bacchus, Gr. Bacchos, the god of wine.]

Baccy, Bacco, abbreviations of Tobacco.

Bacharach, bak′ar-ak, n. an excellent wine named from Bacharach, a town on the Rhine.

Bachelor, bach′el-or, n. a young knight who followed the banner of another, as being too young to display his own: an unmarried man: one who has taken his first degree at a university.—ns. Bach′elorhood, Bach′elorship; Bach′elorism, habit of a bachelor; Bach′elor's-but′ton, the popular name of the double-flowered yellow or white varieties of buttercup.—Knight bachelor, title of one who has been knighted, but not attached to any special order. [O. Fr. bacheler. Ety. disputed; acc. to Brachet from Low L. baccalarius, a farm-servant, orig. a cowherd, from bacca, Low L. for vacca, a cow.]

Bacillus, ba-sil′us, n. properly the name of a distinct genus of Schizomycetes, but popularly used in the same sense as Bacterium:—pl. Bacil′lī.—adjs. Bacil′lar, Bacil′lary, of the shape or nature of a bacillus, consisting of little rods.—n. Bacil′licide, that which destroys bacilli.—adj. Bacil′liform. [Low L. bacillus, dim. of baculus, a rod.]

Back, bak, n. a brewer's or dyer's tub or trough. [Dut. bak.]

Back, bak, n. the hinder part of the body in man, and the upper part in beasts, extending from the neck and shoulders to the extremity of the backbone: put for the whole body in speaking of clothes: the hinder part, or the part opposite to the front side: the convex part of a book, opposite to the opening of the leaves: the thick edge of a knife or the like: the upright hind part of a chair: the surface of the sea, or of a river: the keel and keelson of a ship: (football) one of the players stationed behind the 'forwards,' the full back's duty being merely to guard the goal: (mining) that side of an inclined mineral lode which is nearest the surface of the ground—the back of a level is the ground between it and the level above.—adv. to the place from which one came: to a former state or condition: behind: behind in time: in return: again.—v.t. to get upon the back of: to help, as if standing at one's back: to force back: to support one's opinion by a wager or bet—'to back a horse,' to bet money on his winning in a race, 'to back the field,' to bet upon all the horses in a field, against one in particular: to countersign a warrant, or indorse a cheque or bill; to write or print at the back of, as a parliamentary bill, or the like: to put or propel backward, or in the opposite direction, by reversing the action, as of an engine or a boat—hence the phrases, To back the oars, To back water.—v.i. to move or go back.—n. Back′-band, a broad strap or chain passing over the cart saddle, and serving to keep up the shafts of a vehicle.—v.t. Back′bite, to speak evil of any one behind his back or in his absence.—ns. Back′biter; Back′biting; Back′-board, a board placed at the back of a cart, boat, &c.: a board fastened across the back to straighten the figure; Back′bond (Scots law), a deed attaching a qualification or condition to the terms of a conveyance or other instrument—used when particular circumstances render it necessary to express in a separate form the limitations or qualifications of a right; Back′bone, the bone of the back, the vertebral column: the main support of anything: mainstay: firmness, reliableness; Back′-door, a door in the back part of a building: (attrib.) unworthily secret: clandestine.—adj. Backed, as in humpbacked.—ns. Back′-end, the later part of a season: the late autumn; Back′er, one who backs or supports another in a contest: one who bets on a horse or the like; Back′-fall, a fall on the back in wrestling—also figuratively: a lever in the coupler of an organ; Back′friend (obs.), a pretended friend: a backer, a friend who stands at one's back; Back′ground, ground at the back: a place of obscurity: the space behind the principal figures of a picture; Back′-hair, the long hair at the back of a woman's head; Back′-hand, the hand turned backwards in making a stroke: handwriting with the letters sloped backwards.—adj. Back′-hand′ed, with the hand turned backward (as of a blow): indirect.—ns. Back′-hand′er, a blow with the back of the hand: an extra glass of wine out of turn, the bottle being passed back; Back′ing, support at the back: mounting of a horse: the action of putting back: a body of helpers: anything used to form a back or line the back; Back′ing-down, shirking; Back′-lash, the jarring reaction of a wheel in a machine when the motion is not uniform; Back′-log, a log at the back of a fire.—adj. Back′most, farthest to the back.—ns. Back′-piece, Back′-plate, a piece or plate of armour for the back; Back′-set, a setting back, reverse: an eddy or counter-current; Back′side, the back or hinder side or part of anything: the hinder part of an animal; Back′-sight, in surveying, a sight taken backwards: the sight of a rifle nearer the stock; Back′-slang, slang in which every word is pronounced backwards.—v.t. Backslide′, to slide or fall back in faith or morals:—pa.p. backslid′, or backslid′den.ns. Backslid′er; Backslid′ing.— Back′stairs, back or private stairs of a house.—adj. secret or underhand.— Back′stays, ropes or stays extending from the topmast-heads to the sides of a ship, and slanting a little backward, to second the shrouds in supporting the mast when strained by a weight of sail in a fresh wind: any stay or support at the back.—ns. Back′stitch, a method of sewing in which, for every new stitch, the needle enters behind, and comes out in front of, the end of the previous one; Back′sword, a sword with a back or with only one edge: a stick with a basket-handle; Backsword′man (Shak.); Back′-wash, a backward current.—v.t. to affect with back-wash: to clean the oil from wool after combing.—n. Back′water, water held back in a mill-stream or river by the obstruction of a dam below—a pool or belt of water connected with a river, but not in the line of its course or current: water thrown back by the turning of a water-wheel: a backward current of water: the swell of the sea formed by the paddles of a steamship.— Back′woods, the forest or uncultivated part of a country beyond the cleared country, as in North American Backwoods′man.—Back! go back, turn back (imperatively).—At the back of (in U.S. often Back of), in support or pursuit; On, Upon the back of, weighing down as a burden.—To and back (Shak.), forward and backward.—To back down, to abandon one's opinion or position; To back out, to recede from an engagement or promise; To back up, to give support to; To be on one's back, to have come to the end of one's resources; To break the back of, to overburden, to complete the hardest part of a task; To cast behind the back (B.), to forgive; To set or put up the back, to arouse to resentment; To the backbone, thoroughly. [A.S. bc, Sw. bak, Dan. bag.]

Backare, Baccare, bak′āre, interj. (Shak.) back! stand back! [Perh. for back there!]

Backet, bak′et (Scot.), n. a shallow wooden trough for carrying ashes, coals, &c. [Fr. baquet, dim. of bac, back.]

Backgammon, bak-gam′un, n. a game played by two persons on a board with dice and fifteen men or pieces each. [M.E. gamen, play; and named from the fact that the pieces are sometimes taken up and obliged to go back—that is, re-enter at the table. Always called Tables till the 17th century.]

Backsheesh, Backshish, bak′shēsh, n. a gift or present of money in the East, a gratuity or tip. [Pers.]

Backward, bak′ward, adv. towards the back: on the back: towards the past: from a better to a worse state: in a direction opposite to the normal—also Back′wards.—adj. Back′ward, keeping back: unwilling: slow: late: dull or stupid.—n. the past portion of time.—n. Back′wardation, percentage paid by a seller of stock for keeping back its delivery till the following account.—adv. Back′wardly.—n. Back′wardness.—Backward and forward, to and fro.—To ring bells backward, to ring them, beginning with the bass bell, in order to give tidings of dismay. [Back, and affix Ward, Wards, in the direction of.]

Bacon, bā′kn, n. swine's flesh salted or pickled and dried: (Shak.) a rustic, 'chaw-bacon.'—To save or sell one's bacon, i.e. one's own flesh or body. [O. Fr. bacon, of Teut. origin; cf. Old High Ger. bahho, bacho; Ger. bache.]

Baconian, bak-ōn′i-an, adj. pertaining to Lord Bacon (1561-1626), or to his philosophy, which was inductive or based on experience.

Bacterium, bak-tē′ri-um, n., Bacteria, bak-tē′ri-a, Schizomycetes, extremely small, single-celled, fungoid plants, single or grouped, reproducing rapidly by cross division or by the formation of spores, almost always associated with the decomposition of albuminoid substances, and regarded as the germs or active cause of many diseases.—ns. Bacteriol′ogist; Bacteriol′ogy, the scientific study of bacteria. [Gr. baktērion, dim. of baktron, stick, staff.]

Baculine, bak′ū-līn, adj. pertaining to the stick or cane—in flogging. [L. baculum.]

Baculite, bak′ū-līt, n. a genus of fossil shells, allied to the ammonites, having a shell of perfectly straight form, tapering to a point. [L. baculum, a stick.]

Bad, bad, adj. ill or evil: wicked: hurtful: incorrect, faulty: unfavourable: painful:—comp. Worse; superl. Worst.—adj. Bad′dish, somewhat bad: not very good.—adv. Bad′ly.—ns. Bad′ness.—Bad blood, angry feeling; Bad coin, false coin; Bad debts, debts that cannot be recovered; Bad shot, a wrong guess.—To go bad, to decay; To go to the bad, to go to ruin; To the bad, to a bad condition: in deficit.—With bad grace, unwillingly. [Ety. very obscure. The M. E. badde is referred by Zupitza to A.S. bddel, a hermaphrodite, bdling, an effeminate fellow.]

Bade, bad, pa.t. of Bid.

Badge, baj, n. a mark or sign by which a person or object is known or distinguished. [M.E. bage—Low L. bagia, bagea, connected by Skeat with Low L. baga, a golden ring, from L. bacca, baca, a berry, also the link of a chain.]

Badger, baj′ėr, n. a burrowing, nocturnal, hibernating animal about the size of a fox, eagerly hunted by dogs.—v.t. to pursue with eagerness, as dogs hunt the badger: to pester or worry.—ns. Badg′er-bait′ing, the sport of setting dogs to draw out a badger from its hole; Badg′er-dog, a long-bodied and short-legged dog used in drawing the badger—the Ger. dachshund.—adj. Badg′er-legged, having legs of unequal length, as the badger was vulgarly supposed to have.—adv. Badg′erly, like a badger: grayish-haired, elderly.—To overdraw one's badger, to overdraw one's banking account. [Prob. from Badge and suffix -ard, in reference to the white mark borne like a badge on its forehead. Derivations connecting the word with O. Fr. blaier, thus meaning 'little corn hoarder,' in allusion to a popular notion about the animal's habits, seem to be erroneous.]

Badinage, bad′in-zh, n. light playful talk: banter. [Fr. badinagebadin, playful or bantering.]

Badminton, bad′min-ton, n. a cooling summer drink compounded of claret, sugar, and soda-water: a predecessor of lawn-tennis, played with shuttlecocks. [From Badminton in Gloucester, a seat of the Duke of Beaufort.]

Baff, bf, v.t. (golf) to strike the ground with a club in playing, and so to send the ball up in the air.

Baffle, baf′fl, v.t. to check or make ineffectual: (obs.) to cheat, hoodwink, bewilder, bring to nought: (obs.) to disgrace publicly.—ns. Baf′fle (obs.), confusion, check; Baf′fler, a bewilderer, confounder.—To baffle out of (obs.), to juggle out of anything. [Prob. Scotch and connected with bauchle; but cf. Fr. beffler, from O. Fr. befe, mockery. Paul Meyer suggests a derivation from Prov. baf, interj. of disdain.]

Baft, baft, n. a coarse fabric, originally Oriental, now manufactured in and shipped from England. [Pers. baft, woven.]

Baft, baft, n. adv. and prep. behind, in the rear (mostly naut.). [A.S. beftan, from be, by, and ftan, behind.]

Bag, bag, n. a sack, pouch: specially the silken pouch to contain the back-hair of the wig: a measure of quantity for produce: a game-bag, i.e. the quantity of fish or game secured: an udder: (vulg. in pl.) trousers.—v.i. to bulge, swell out: (naut.) to drop away from the right course.—v.t. to cram full: to put into a bag, specially of game, hence to kill game, to seize, steal:—pr.p. bag′ging; pa.p. bagged.—ns. Bag′ging, cloth or material for bags; Bag′git, a salmon that has just spawned.—adj. Bag′gy, loose like a bag: inflated, verbose.—ns. Bag′man, a familiar name for a commercial traveller; Bag′-wig, an 18th-cent. wig, the back-hair of which was enclosed in an ornamental bag.—Bag and baggage, originally a military expression, hence the phrase, 'to march out with bag and baggage,' i.e. with all belongings saved: to make an honourable retreat: now used in the sense of 'to clear out completely.'—Bag of bones, an emaciated living being.—In the bottom of the bag, remaining as a last resource; The whole bag of tricks, every expedient; To give one the bag to hold, to engage any one and meanwhile disappear; To let the cat out of the bag, to disclose the secret. [M. E. bagge, perh. Scand.; not Celtic, as Diez suggests.]

Bagasse, ba-gas′, n. refuse in sugar-making. [Fr.; Sp. bagazo, husks of grapes or olives after pressing.]

Bagatelle, bag-a-tel′, n. a trifle: a piece of music in a light style: a game played on a board (7 feet long and 21 inches broad) with nine balls and a cue, the object being to put the balls down into as many numbered holes at the farther semicircular end of the board. [Fr.—It. bagatella, a conjurer's trick, a trifle.]

Baggage, bag′āj, n. the tents, provisions, and other necessaries of an army: (U.S.) traveller's luggage; a worthless woman: a saucy woman. [O. Fr. bagagebaguer, to bind up, from which we may infer all the meanings, without reference to Fr. bagasse, It. bagscia, a strumpet.]

Bagnio, ban′yō, n. a bath, esp. one with hot baths: an Oriental place of detention: a stew or house of ill-fame. [It. bagno—L. balneum, a bath.]

Highland Bagpipe.

Bagpipe, bag′pīp, n. a musical wind-instrument, consisting of a leathern bag fitted with pipes. The Highland bagpipe has five pipes: a, the mouthpiece, to keep the bag filled with air; b, the chanter, having a reed and finger-holes to produce the melody; and c, three drones with reeds, tuned to act as a bass to the chanter: (pl.) an inflated, senseless talker.—n. Bag′piper.

Bah, b, interj. an exclamation of disgust or contempt. [Fr.]

Bahadur, ba-had′ōōr, n. a title of respect often added by natives to the names of English officers in India. [Hind. bahadur, brave.]

Baignoire, bān′war, n. a box at the theatre on a level with the stalls. [Orig. = 'bathing-box,' Fr. baigner, to bathe.]

Bail, bāl, n. one who procures the release of an accused person by becoming guardian or security for his appearing in court: the security given: (Spens.) jurisdiction.—v.t. to set a person free by giving security for him: to release on the security of another.—adj. Bail′able.—ns. Bail′-bond, a bond given by a prisoner and his surety upon being bailed; Bail′-dock, Bale′-dock, a room at the Old Bailey, London, in which prisoners were kept during the trials; Bailee′, one to whom goods are delivered in trust upon a contract; Bail′er, one who delivers goods to another in trust; Bail′ment, a delivery of goods in trust: the action of bailing a prisoner; Bails′man, one who gives bail for another.—To accept, admit to, allow bail, are all said of the magistrate; the prisoner offers, surrenders to his bail; the one who provides it goes, gives, or stands bail.—To give leg bail, to be beholden to one's legs for escape. [O. Fr. bail, jurisdiction—baillier, to control, deliver. Primarily implying 'custody' or 'charge,' the word became associated with Norm. Fr. bailler, to deliver—L. bajulus.]

Bail, bāl, v.t. (rare) to confine.—To bail up (Australia), to secure a cow's head during milking: to disarm travellers so as to be able to rob them without resistance. [Prob. conn. with the preceding word.]

Bail, bāl, n. palisades, barriers: a pole separating horses in an open stable. [M. E.—O. Fr. baile, perh. from baillier, to enclose. Others suggest a derivation from L. baculum, a stick.]

Bail, bāl, n. one of the cross pieces on the top of the wicket in cricket.—n. Bail′er, a ball bowled so as to hit the bails. [Prob. conn. with the preceding word.]

Bail, bāl, v.t. to clear (a boat) of water with bails or shallow buckets.—n. a man or instrument for bailing water out of a ship, pit, &c.—Also spelled Bale. [Fr. baille, a bucket, perh. from Low L. bacula, dim. of baca.]

Bailey, bāl′i, n. the outer court of a feudal castle: either of the two courts formed by the spaces between the circuits of walls, hence Outer and Inner Bailey.—The Old Bailey in London, the Central Criminal Court, from the ancient bailey between Lud Gate and New Gate. [Fr. baille, from Low L. ballium.]

Bailie, bāl′i, n. a municipal officer in Scotland corresponding to an English alderman: (obs.) a sheriff's officer; but cf. Scotch Wat′er-bail′ies, constables employed to carry out the Tweed Fisheries Acts: (obs.) the chief magistrate of a Scottish barony or part of a county, with functions like a sheriff's. [O. Fr. bailli, land-steward, officer of justice. See Bailiff.]

Bailiff, bāl′if, n. formerly any king's officer, e.g. sheriffs, mayors, &c., but applied specially to the chief officer of a hundred, still the title of the chief magistrate of various towns (e.g. High-bailiff of Westminster, cf. Bailiff of Dover Castle, also the bailly or first civil officer of the Channel Islands: a sheriff's officer: an agent or land-steward.—n. Bail′iwick, the jurisdiction of a bailiff. [O. Fr. baillif—Low L. bajulivusbajalus, carrier, administrator. See Bail.]

Bairam, bī′ram, n. the name of two Mohammedan festivals—the Lesser Bairam lasting three days, after the feast of Ramadan, and the Greater Bairam seventy days later, lasting four days. [Pers.]

Bairn, bārn, n. (Scot.) a child.—adj. Bairn′-like.—ns. Bairn′team, Bairn′time, brood of children. [A.S. bearnberan, to bear.]

Baisemain, bāz′mang, n. (obs.) mostly in pl., compliment paid by kissing the hand. [Fr. baiser, to kiss, and main, hand.]

Bait, bāt, n. food put on a hook to allure fish or make them bite: any allurement or temptation: a refreshment taken on a journey, or the time taken up by such.—v.t. to set food as a lure: to give refreshment on a journey: to set dogs on a bear, badger, &c.: to worry, persecute, harass.—v.i. to take refreshment on a journey. [M. E. beyten—Scand. beita, to make to bite, causal of bta, to bite.]

Baize, bāz, n. a coarse woollen cloth with a long nap, used mainly for coverings, linings, &c., but in some countries for clothing. [Fr. baies, pl. of bai—L. badius, bay-coloured.]

Bajan. See Bejan.

Bake, bāk, v.t. to dry, harden, or cook by the heat of the sun or of fire: to prepare bread or other food in an oven: to harden as by frost.—v.i. to work as a baker: to become firm through heat.—pa.p. baked (bākt); pr.p. bāk′ing.ns. Bake′house, a house or place used for baking in; Bake′meat (B.), pastry, pies.—pa.p. Bak′en = baked.—ns. Bak′er, one who bakes bread, &c.—(obs.) Bax′ter; Bak′ery, a bakehouse; Bake′stone, a flat stone or plate of iron on which cakes are baked in the oven; Bak′ing, the process by which bread is baked: the quantity baked at one time. [A.S. bacan; cog. with Ger. backen, to bake, Gr. phog-ein, to roast.]

Baksheesh. See Backsheesh.

Balaam, bā′lam, n. a prophet who strives to mislead, like Balaam in Numb. xxii.-xxiv.: unimportant paragraphs kept in readiness to fill up a newspaper.—ns. Bā′laam-box, or -bas′ket, a place in which paragraphs such as the foregoing are kept in readiness; Bā′laamite.—adj. Bālaamit′ical.

Balance, bal′ans, n. an instrument for weighing, usually formed of two dishes or scales hanging from a beam supported in the middle: act of weighing two things: equality or just proportion of weight or power, as the balance of power: the sum required to make the two sides of an account equal, hence the surplus, or the sum due on an account: what is needed to produce equilibrium, a counterpoise: (watchmaking) a contrivance which regulates the speed of a clock or watch.—v.t. to weigh in a balance: to counterpoise: to compare: to settle, as an account, to examine and test accounts in book-keeping, to make the debtor and creditor sides of an account agree.—v.i. to have equal weight or power, &c.: to hesitate or fluctuate.—p.adj. Bal′anced, poised so as to preserve equilibrium: well arranged, stable.—ns. Bal′ancer, an acrobat; Bal′ance-sheet, a sheet of paper showing a summary and balance of accounts; Bal′ance-wheel, a wheel in a watch or chronometer which regulates the beat or rate. [Fr.—L. bilanx, having two scales—bis, double, lanx, lancis, a dish or scale.]

Balanus. See Acorn-shell.

Balas, bal′as, n. a variety of the spinel ruby. [O. Fr. balais (It. balascio)—Low L. balascus—Pers. Badakhshān, a place near Samarcand where they are found.]

Balata, bal′a-ta, n. the gum of the bullet or bully tree of South America, used as a substitute for gutta-percha in insulating telegraph-wires.

Balbutient, bal-bū′shi-ent, adj. stammering. [L. balbutiensbalbūtīre, to stutter.]

Balcony, balk′on-i (18th c., bal-kō′ni), n. a stage or platform projecting from the wall of a building within or without, supported by pillars or consoles, and surrounded with a balustrade or railing: in theatres, usually the gallery immediately above the dress circle.—n. Bal′conette, a miniature balcony.—adj. Bal′conied. [It. balcōnebalco, of Teut. origin; Old High Ger. balcho (Ger. balken), Eng. Balk.]

Bald, bawld, adj. without hair (feathers, &c.) on the head (or on other parts of the body): bare, unadorned, destitute of literary grace: paltry, trivial: undisguised.—ns. Bald′-coot, popular name for the coot, from its pure white wide frontal plate: a monk—also Bald′icoot; Bald′-ea′gle, a common but inaccurate name for the American white-headed eagle, used as the national emblem.—adj. Bald′-faced, having white on the face, as a horse.—n. Bald′head, a person bald on the head.—adjs. Bald′-headed; Bald′ish, somewhat bald.—adv. Bald′ly.—ns. Bald′ness; Bald′pate, one destitute of hair: a kind of wild-duck.—adjs. Bald′pate, Bald′pated, destitute of hair. [Orig. 'shining,' 'white,' Ir. and Gael. bl, 'white' spot; but perh. conn. with ball in the sense of 'rounded,' whence 'smooth,' 'hairless.']

Baldachin, bal′da-kin, n. silk brocade: a canopy, either supported on pillars, or fastened to the wall, over a throne, pulpit, or altar, &c.: in R.C. processions, a canopy borne over the priest who carries the Host. [It. baldacchino, Fr. baldaquin, a canopy, from It. Baldacco, Bagdad, whence was brought the stuff of which they were made.]

Balderdash, bawl′dėr-dash, n. idle senseless talk: anything jumbled together without judgment: obscene language or writing. [Ety. dub.; but cf. the prov. Eng. balder, to use coarse language, Dut. balderen, to roar. Some adduce Welsh baldorrdusbaldordd, idle noisy talk.]

Baldmoney, bawld′mun-i, n. popular name for several kinds of Gentian. [Ety. quite unknown.]

Baldrick, bawld′rik, n. a warrior's belt or shoulder-sash: (Spens.) the zodiac, being regarded as a gem-studded belt. [O. Fr. baldrei (Mid. High Ger. balderich, girdle)—Low L. baldringus, perh. from L. balteus.]

Bale, bāl, n. a bundle, or package of goods: (obs.) the set of dice for any special game.—v.t. to make into bales. [M. E. bale, perh. from O. Fr. bale—Old High Ger. balla, palla, ball. See Ball.]

Bale, bāl, v.t. to throw out water [See Bail.]

Bale, bāl, n. evil, injury, mischief: misery: woe.—adj. Bale′ful, full of misery, destructive: full of sorrow, sad.—adv. Bale′fully.—n. Bale′fulness.—Bliss and bale are often alliteratively opposed; also Boot and bale. [A.S. bealu; Old High Ger. balo; Ice. bl.]

Bale, bāl, n. (arch.Morris) a fire, funeral pyre: (Scot.) a beacon-fire.—n. Bale′-fire, a blazing fire: a beacon-fire: a bonfire. Spenser confounds with Bale, woe. [A.S. bl; Scand. bl; cog. with Gr. phalos, bright. See Beltane.]

Baleen, bā-lēn′, n. the whalebone of commerce. [Fr.—L. balna, whale.]


Balistraria, bal-is-trār′i-a, n. an aperture or loophole in the wall of a fortification through which crossbowmen might discharge their bolts.—n. Bal′ister (obs.), name for an arbalester or crossbowman, also an arbalest or crossbow itself. [Low L. ballistrarius, balistra, a variant form of ballista, a crossbow.]

Balk, Baulk, bawk, n. a ridge left unploughed, intentionally or through carelessness: (obs.) an omission: squared timber: a tie-beam of a house, stretching from wall to wall, esp. when laid so as to form a loft, 'the balks:' (obs.) the beam of a balance: the rope by which fishing-nets are fastened together: a hindrance or disappointment.—v.t. to ignore, pass over: refuse: avoid: let slip: to check, disappoint, or elude: to meet arguments with objections.—v.i. to swerve, pull up: (Spens.) lie out of the way.—n. Balk′-line, in billiards, a line drawn across the table 28 inches from the face of the bottom cushion—a ball is said to be in balk when within this space. [A.S. balca, ridge; Old High Ger. balcho.]

Ball, bawl, n. anything round: any celestial body, esp. the 'globe:' the golden orb borne with the sceptre as the emblem of sovereignty: a globular body to play with in tennis, football, golf, billiards, &c.: any rounded protuberant part of the body: a bullet, or any missile thrown from an engine of war: a rounded mass of anything: a throw or delivery of the ball at cricket: a well-known game played with a ball.—v.i. to gather itself into a ball, become clogged.—ns. Ball′-cart′ridge, a cartridge containing both powder and ball [Ball and Cartridge]; Ball′-cock, the stopcock of a cistern, attached to one end of a lever, at the other end of which is a hollow metal ball which rises and falls with the Ball-flower. water, thus regulating the supply; Ball′-flow′er, an ornament of the decorated style of Gothic architecture, resembling a ball placed in a circular flower.—adj. Ball′-proof, proof against balls discharged from firearms.—Ball and socket, a joint formed of a ball partly enclosed in a cup, thus insuring great strength; Ball of the eye, the eye within the lids and socket.—No ball, a ball unfairly bowled.—Three golden or brass balls, the sign of a pawnbroker.—To have the ball at one's feet, to have a thing in one's power; To keep the ball up or rolling, to keep from flagging; To take up the ball, to take one's turn in anything.—Wide ball, one out of the batsman's reach. [M. E. bal, Scand. bllr; cog. with Old High Ger. ballo, pallo.]

Ball, bawl, n. an entertainment of dancing.—n. Ball′room.—To open the ball, to begin the dancing, to begin operations. [O. Fr. bal, baller, to dance—Low L. ballare, referred by some to Gr. ballizein.]

Ballad, bal′lad, n. a simple spirited narrative poem in short stanzas of two or four lines, in which a story is told in straightforward verse, often with great elaborateness and detail in incident, but always with graphic simplicity and force—a sort of minor epic: a simple song, usually of a romantic or sentimental nature, in two or more verses, each sung to the same melody, as in the so-called Ballad Concerts: any popular song, often scurrilous.—ns. Bal′ladist, a writer or singer of ballads; Bal′lad-monger, a dealer in ballads. [Fr. ballade, from ballare, to dance, being orig. a song sung to the rhythmic movement of a dancing chorus—a dramatic poem sung or acted in the dance, of which a shadow survives in the ring-songs of our children.]

Ballade, ba-lad′, n. a poem of one or more terns or triplets of seven or eight lined stanzas, each ending with the same line as refrain, and usually an envoy: now frequently used of any poem in stanzas of equal length.—Ballade royal, stanzas of seven or eight lines of ten syllables—called also Rime or Rhythm royal. [An earlier spelling of Ballad.]

Balladine, bal′a-dēn, n. a female public dancer. [Fr.]

Ballast, bal′last, n. heavy matter employed to give a ship sufficient immersion in the water, to insure her safe sailing with spread canvas, when her cargo and equipment are too light: that which renders anything steady.—v.t. to load with ballast: to make or keep steady: (Shak.) load.—n. Bal′last-heav′er. [Probably the Old Sw. barlastbar, bare, and last, load, the mere load.]

Ballerina, bal-ler-ēn′a, n. a female dancer:—pl. Ballerine (bal-ler-in′), Ballerin′as. [It.]

Ballet, bal′lā, n. a theatrical exhibition composed of dancing, posturing, and pantomimic action: (obs.) a dance. [Fr.; dim. of bal, a dance.]

Ballista, Balista, bal-lis′ta, n. a Roman military engine in the form of a crossbow, which, like the catapulta and the onager, propelled large and heavy missiles, chiefly through the reaction of a tightly twisted rope, or else by a violent movement of levers.—adj. Ballis′tic, projectile.—ns. Ballis′tic-pen′dulum, an instrument for ascertaining the velocity of military projectiles; Ballis′tite, an improved kind of gunpowder. [L.—Gr. ballein, to throw.]

Ballium, bal′li-um, n. the Low L. form of Bailey.

Balloon, bal-lōōn′, n. an inflated air-tight envelope of paper or silk, constructed to float in the air and carry a considerable weight when filled with heated air or light gas: anything inflated, empty: (obs.) a game played with a large inflated ball.—v.i. to ascend in a balloon: to puff out like a balloon.—n. Balloon′ist, an aeronaut. [It. ballone, augmentative of balla, ball.]

Ballot, bal′ut, n. a little ball or ticket used in voting: a method of secret voting by putting a ball or ticket into an urn or box.—v.i. to vote by ballot: to select by secret voting (with for): draw lots for:—pr.p. bal′loting; pa.p. bal′loted.ns. Bal′lotage, in France, the second ballot to decide which of two candidates has come nearest to the legal majority; Bal′lot-box, a box to receive balls or tickets when voting by ballot. [It. ballotta, dim. of balla, ball. See Ball.]

Balm, bm, n. an aromatic substance: a fragrant and healing ointment: aromatic fragrance: anything that heals or soothes pain: a tree yielding balm: name of some fragrant garden herbs.—v.t. (arch.) to embalm: (Shak.) to anoint with fragrant oil: (arch.) to soothe.—n. Balm′iness.—adj. Balm′y, fragrant: mild and soothing: bearing balm.—Balm, or Balsam, of Gilead, the resin of the tree Balsamodendron Gileadense, formerly esteemed as an antiseptic, the name originating in the belief that this is the substance mentioned in the Bible as found in Gilead, and called in the English translation 'balm.' [O. Fr. basme—L. balsamum. See Balsam.]

Balm-cricket, bm′-krik′et, n. (Tennyson) a cicada. [Ger. baum, a tree, and Cricket.]

Balmoral, bal-mor′al, n. a kind of Scotch cap: a figured woollen petticoat: a kind of boot lacing in front.

Balneology, bal-ne-ol′o-ji, n. the scientific study of bathing and of mineral springs. [L. balneum, bath.]

Balsam, bawl′sam, n. the common name of a genus of succulent herbaceous plants: a resinous oily substance generally supposed to be derived from a species of Balsamodendron, early famous in the East for its fragrance and medicinal virtues: (fig.) any healing agent.—v.t. to heal: (rare) embalm.—adjs. Balsam′ic, Bal′samous, having the qualities of balsam: soothing; Balsamif′erous, producing balsam; Bal′samy, fragrant.—Canada balsam, a kind of turpentine obtained from the Balm of Gilead fir. [L. balsamum—Gr. balsamon; prob. of Semitic origin.]

Baltimore, bal′tim-ōr, n. a finch-like perching bird of the starling family, very common in North America, called also Baltimore oriole, Fire-bird, &c. [From Lord Baltimore, whose livery was orange and black—its colour.]


Baluster, bal′ust-ėr, n. a small pillar used as a support to the rail of a staircase, &c.—adj. Bal′ustered.n. Bal′ustrade, a row of balusters joined by a rail, forming an ornamental parapet to a balcony, &c. [Fr. balustre—Low L. balaustium—Gr. balaustion, the flower of the pomegranate; from the similarity of form.]

Bam, bam, n. a slang word for a hoax: a false tale.—v.t. to cheat or hoax. [See Bamboozle.]

Bambino, bam-bi′no, n. a term in art descriptive of the child Jesus, esp. of the swaddled figure of the infant Saviour exhibited at Christmas in Catholic churches. [It., dim. of bambo.]

Bamboo, bam-bōō′, n. a gigantic Indian reed or grass, with hollow-jointed stem, and of hard texture. [Malay bambu.]

Bamboozle, bam-bōō′zl, v.t. to deceive: to confound or mystify.—n. Bamboo′zlement. [Of cant origin—but not Gipsy; first appears about 1700.]

Ban, ban, n. a proclamation: sentence of banishment: outlawry: anathematisation: a denunciation: a curse.—v.t. (arch.) to curse: (prov.) to chide or rail upon: to anathematise: to proscribe. [A.S. bannan, to summon; the noun bann does not appear in A.S. (which has gebann), but is a common Teut. word, as in Old High Ger. and Scand. bann. The O. Fr. ban and Low L. bannum are of the same origin.]

Ban, ban, n. the governor of a Banat, an old name for the military divisions on the eastern boundaries of the Hungarian kingdom.—ns. Banate, Bannat. [Pers. bān, lord.]

Banal, bān′al, or ban′al, adj. commonplace, trivial.—n. Banal′ity, triviality. [Fr.]

Banana, ba-n′na, n. a gigantic herbaceous plant, remarkable for its nutritious fruit. [Sp. or Port. banana, from the native name in Guinea.]

Banbury, ban′ber-i, n. a kind of cake made at Banbury, a town in Oxfordshire.

Banco, bang′ko, n. a commercial term meaning the standard money in which a bank keeps its accounts, as distinguished from the current money of the place.—In banco, applied to the sittings of a superior court of common law as a full court distinguished from sittings at Nisi Prius or on circuit. [It. See Bank.]

Band, band, n. that by which loose things are held together: (fig.) a moral bond of restraint or of obligation: a tie or connecting piece: (pl.) shackles, bonds, fetters (B.): (arch.) an agreement or promise given: (arch.) security given: (Spens.) a pledge. [M. E. band, bond; A.S. bend, from bindan, to bind. See Bind.]

Band, band, n. a strip of cloth, or the like, to bind round anything, as a hat-band, waist-band, &c.: a stripe crossing a surface distinguished by its colour or appearance: the neck-band or collar of a shirt, also the collar or ruff worn by both sexes in the 17th century (termed a falling-band later, when turned down over the shoulders): (pl.) the pair of linen strips hanging down in front from the collar, worn by some Protestant clergymen and by English barristers.—n. Band′age, a strip or swathe of cloth used by surgeons to keep a part of the body at rest, to apply pressure, or to retain dressings or apparatus in position—the two chief varieties, the roller and the triangular handkerchief bandage: a piece of cloth used to blindfold the eyes.—v.t. to bind with such.—n. Band′box, a light kind of box for holding bands, caps, millinery, &c.—p.adj. Band′ed, fastened as with a band: striped with bands: leagued, allied.—ns. Band′fish, a name given to various kinds of fish with long, thin, flat bodies; Band′saw, an endless saw, consisting of a toothed steel belt; Band′ster, one who binds the sheaves after the reapers. [M. E. bande—O. Fr. bande, of Teut. origin; cf. A.S. bindan; Ger. binde, a band, Eng. Bind.]

Band, band, n. a number of persons bound together for any common purpose: a troop of conspirators, confederates, &c.: a body of musicians, the company of musicians attached to a particular regiment in the army: (Scot.) band = bond.—v.t. to bind together.—v.i. to associate, assemble, confederate.—ns. Band′master, the leader of a band of musicians; Bands′man, a member of a band of musicians; Band′-stand, a platform for accommodating a band of musicians.—Band of Hope, an association of young persons—often mere infants—pledged to lifelong abstinence from alcoholic drinks—first instituted about 1847. [Fr. bande, of Teut. origin; cf. Bend, Bind.]

Band, band, v.t. (Spens.) to ban or banish.

Band, an obsolete pa.t. of Bind.

Bandana, Bandanna, ban-dan′a, n. a kind of silk or cotton coloured handkerchief, with a pattern of spots or diamond prints, originally from India. [Hind. bandhnū, the mode of dyeing these, bāndh, a cord.]

Bandeau, ban′dō, n. a fillet or narrow band worn by women to bind their hair:—pl. Ban′deaux. [Fr.]

Bandelet, band′e-let, n. (archit.) a small flat moulding or fillet surrounding a column. [Fr. bandelette.]

Bandelier, ban-de-lēr′, n. a form of Bandoleer.

Banderol, Banderole, ban′de-rōl, n. a small banner or streamer, as that borne on the shaft of a lance: (archit.) a flat band with an inscription common in Renaissance buildings. [Fr.]

Bandicoot, ban′di-kōōt, n. a genus of insectivorous marsupials found in Australia: the largest species of rat, found in India and Ceylon, called also Malabar rat and Pig-rat. [Telegu pandikokku, pig-rat.]

Bandied. See Bandy.

Bandit, ban′dit, n. an outlaw: a robber:—pl. Ban′dits, Banditt′i. [It. bandito—Low L. bannire, bandire, to proclaim. See Ban.]

Bandog, ban′dog, n. a dog tied up as a watch-dog, or because of its ferocity. [Band, fastening, and Dog.]

Bandoleer, Bandolier, ban-do-lēr′, n. a leathern belt worn by musketeers, to which their ammunition was fixed. [O. Fr. bandouillere—It. bandoliera, banda, a band.]

Bandoline, ban′do-lin, n. a gummy substance used for stiffening the hair and keeping it in shape. [Prob. from Band.]

Bandore, ban-dōr′, n. a musical instrument like a guitar, with three or more strings. [Sp. bandurria, Fr. mandore; L. pandura, Gr. pandoura.]

Bandrol, band′rōl, n. Same as Banderol.

Bands, of clergymen and barristers. See Band (2).

Bandy, ban′di, n. a club bent at the end for striking a ball: a game at ball with such a club (bandy-ball = hockey).—v.t. to beat to and fro as with a bandy: to toss from one to another (as words with any one) = to discuss or debate; to give and take blows or reproaches: (Shak.) to fight, strive:—pa.p. ban′died.n. Ban′dying.adj. Ban′dy-legged, having bandy or crooked legs. [Fr. bander, perh. conn. with bande, a side.]

Bane, bān, n. destruction: death: mischief: poison.—v.t. (arch.) to harm, to poison.—adj. Bane′ful, destructive.—adv. Bane′fully.n. Bane′fulness. [A.S. bana, a murderer; Ice. bani, death.]

Bang, bang, n. a heavy blow: a sudden loud noise: an explosion.—v.t. to beat: to strike violently: to slam, as a door: to make a loud noise: to beat or surpass, to bounce upon.—interj. Bang, used with verbs like 'go,' &c., and in such a phrase as 'bang off.'—p.adj. Bang′ing, dealing blows: overwhelming.—adj. Bang′-up (slang), in the height of style or fashion.—n. Bang′ster (prov.), a braggart, a victor. [Scand. banga, to hammer; cf. Ger. bengel, a cudgel.]

Bang, bang, n. a woman's hair cut square across the brow.—p.adj. Banged, wearing the hair in such a way.—n. Bang′-tail, a horse's tail with the end squared. [An Americanism, doubtless from the phrase 'bang off.']

Bang. Same as Bhang.

Bangle, bang′gl, n. a ring, bracelet, or anklet.—adj. Ban′gled, adorned with such. [Hind. bangrī.]

Banian, Banyan, ban′yan, n. an Indian tree of the fig family, remarkable for its vast rooting branches: a Hindu trader, esp. from Guzerat, sometimes loosely applied to all Hindus in Western Asia: a loose flannel jacket or gown worn in India.—Banian days, a sailor's phrase, meaning days on which no meat is served out, hence days of short commons generally, from the abstinence from flesh of the Banian merchants. [Port. banian, perh. through Ar. banyān, from Hind. banya—Sans. vanij, a merchant.]

Banish, ban′ish, v.t. to condemn to exile: to drive away: to expel (with from, out of).—n. Ban′ishment, exile. [Fr. bannir—Low L. bannire, to proclaim. See Ban.]

Banister, ban′istėr, n. a corr. of Baluster.

Banjo, ban′jo, n. a musical instrument of the guitar kind, played with the fingers, but without frets to guide the stopping, having a long neck, a body of stretched parchment like a drum, and from five to nine catgut strings. [Corr. of Fr. bandore or pandore—L. pandura—Gr. pandoura.]

Bank, bangk, n. a mound or ridge of earth: the earthy margin of a river, lake, &c.: the raised edge of a road, railway cutting, &c.: (min.) the surface at the pit-mouth, as in banksman: rising ground in the sea.—v.t. to enclose with a bank: to deposit or pile up: to make up a fire by covering it with a heap of fuel so pressed down as to remain a long time burning slowly—banked fires.—n. Banks′man, an overseer at a pit-mouth.—From bank to bank, from the time the collier begins to descend the pit for his spell of work till he reaches the top again. [M. E. banke, of Scand. origin; cog. with Bank, Bench.]

Bank, bangk, n. a bench in a galley: a tier or rank of oars: the bench on which judges sat. [O. Fr. banc, of Teut. origin, cog. with the foregoing word.]

Bank, bangk, n. a place where money is deposited: an institution for the keeping, lending, and exchanging, &c. of money: in games of hazard, the money the proprietor, who plays against all the others, has before him.—v.t. to deposit in a bank, as money.—ns. Bank′-ā′gent, the head of a branch bank; Bank′-bill, a bill drawn by one bank upon another, payable at a future date, or on demand; Bank′-cheque, an order to pay issued upon a bank; Bank′er, one who keeps a bank: one employed in banking business:—fem. Bank′eress; Bank′-hol′iday, a day on which banks are legally closed, bills falling due on these being payable the following day; Bank′ing, the business of a banker.—adj. pertaining to a bank.—ns. Bank′-note, a note issued by a bank, which passes as money, being payable to bearer on demand; Bank′-pap′er, bank-notes in circulation; Bank′-stock, a share or shares in the capital stock of a bank; Branch′-bank, a branch office of a bank; Sav′ings-bank, one intended originally to develop a spirit of saving amongst the poor.—Bank annuities, the consolidated three per cent. annuities—British Government funds.—Bank of issue, one that issues its own notes, or promises to pay; Joint-stock bank, one of which the capital is subscribed by a large number of shareholders; Private bank, one carried on by any number of persons less than ten.—To break the bank, to win, as in faro, from the management a certain sum which has been fixed upon as the limit the bank is willing to lose on any one day; To play against the bank, to take the risks of a game against the manager who holds the bank, as at rouge-et-noir, &c. [Fr. banque, of Teut. origin, cog. with two foregoing words.]

Bankrupt, bangk′rupt, n. one who breaks or fails in business; an insolvent person.—adj. insolvent: destitute (with of).—n. Bank′ruptcy, the state of being or act of becoming bankrupt. [Fr. banque-route, It. banca rotta.]

Banksia, bangk′sia, n. a genus of Australian shrubs, named in honour of Sir Joseph Banks (1744-1820).

Banner, ban′ėr, n. a military standard: a flag or ensign bearing some device, as in processions, &c.—adj. Ban′nered, furnished with banners. [O. Fr. banere—Low L. bandum, bannum; cog. with Band and Bind.]

Banneret, ban′ėr-et, n. a higher class of knight, inferior to a baron. [Fr. dim. of Banner.]

Bannerol, ban′ėr-ol, n. Same as Banderol.

Banning, ban′ning, n. cursing. [See Ban.]

Bannock, ban′nok, n. a flat home-made cake of oatmeal, barley, or pease-meal. [Gael. bannach.]

Banns, banz, a proclamation of marriage.—To forbid the banns, to make formal objection to a projected marriage. [From Ban.]

Banquet, bangk′wet, n. a feast: any rich treat or entertainment: a course of sweetmeats, fruit, and wine, separately, or after the principal meal—still used in the Scotch phrase, 'a cake and wine banquet.'—v.t. to give a feast to.—v.i. to fare sumptuously.—ns. Banq′ueter, Banq′ueteer; Banq′ueting; Banq′ueting-house. [Fr.;—banc, bench, like It. banchetto, from banco.]

Banquette, bang-ket′, n. a raised way inside a parapet; the long seat behind the driver in a French diligence. [Fr.; It. banchetta, dim. of banca, seat.]

Banshee, ban′shē, n. a female fairy in Ireland and elsewhere, who makes herself known by wailings and shrieks before a death in the particular family to which she is attached. [Ir. bean sdhe, Old Ir. ben sde, woman of the fairies.]

Bantam, ban′tam, n. a small variety of the common domestic fowl, supposed to be named from Bantam in Java, notable for courage.—adj. of bantam-breed: little and combative.

Banter, bant′ėr, v.t. to assail with good-humoured raillery: to joke or jest at: (arch.) to impose upon, trick.—n. humorous raillery: jesting.—ns. Bant′erer; Bant′ering.—adv. Bant′eringly.—adj. Bant′ery (Carlyle). [Ety. quite unknown.]

Banting, bant′ing, n. a system of diet for reducing superfluous fat.—n. Bant′ingism. [From W. Banting (1797-1878), a London cabinetmaker, who recommended it to the public in 1863.]

Bantling, bant′ling, n. a child. [So called from the bands in which it is wrapped.]

Bantu, ban′tōō, n. a native name sometimes applied to the South African family of languages and the peoples speaking these, including Kaffirs and Zulus, Bechuans, and the peoples from the Hottentot country to the Gulf of Guinea.

Banxring, bangks′ring, n. a small insectivorous animal of Java and Sumatra. [Jav.]

Banyan. See Banian.

Baobab, bā′o-bab, n. a magnificent tree, native to tropical Western Africa, whose trunk is 20 to 30 feet thick, called also the Monkey-bread Tree. [African.]

Baphomet, baf′ō-mėt, n. the alleged name of a mysterious idol the Templars were accused of worshipping.—adj. Baph′ometic. [A medieval corr. of the name Mahomet.]

Baptise, bapt-īz′, v.t. to administer baptism to: to christen, give a name to.—n. Bapt′ism, immersion in or sprinkling with water as a religious ceremony—a sign and seal of the covenant of grace. It is symbolic of spiritual purification, and as a religious rite marks initiation into the Christian community.—adj. Baptis′mal.—adv. Baptis′mally.—ns. Bapt′ist, one who baptises: one who approves only of baptising by immersion, and that only to persons who profess their faith in Christ; Bap′tistery, a place where baptism is administered, either a separate building or a portion of a church.—Baptismal regeneration, the doctrine of the remission of sin original and actual, and of the new birth into the life of sanctifying grace, in and through the sacrament of baptism; Baptism by desire, the grace given to a believer who ardently desires baptism, but dies before he can receive it; Baptism for the dead, the vicarious baptism of a living Christian for an unbaptised dead Christian, who was thereby accounted baptised and received into bliss—it is supposed to be alluded to in 1 Cor. xv. 29; Baptism of blood, martyrdom for Christ's sake; Baptism of fire, the gift of the Holy Spirit: martyrdom by fire for Christ's sake: (fig.) any trying ordeal to be endured, as a young soldier's first experience of being under fire; Clinical baptism, baptism administered to sick persons; Conditional (or Hypothetical) baptism, baptism administered to those about whom it is doubtful whether they were baptised or whether the form of their earlier baptism was valid; Name of baptism, the Christian or personal name given at baptism; Private baptism, baptism administered at home, or elsewhere, not in the church. [Gr. baptiz-einbapt-ein, to dip in water.]

Bar, br, n. a rod of any solid substance: a bolt: a hindrance or obstruction—the barrier of a city or street, as the bars of York, Temple Bar, a toll-bar: a bank of sand or other matter at the mouth of a river: any terminus or limit (of life)—e.g. as in To cross the bar: the railing that encloses a space in a tavern, the counter across which drinks are served, a public-house: the wooden rail dividing off the judge's seat, at which prisoners are placed for arraignment or sentence—hence, To appear at the bar, To pass the bar = to be formally referred for trial from a lower court to a higher: any tribunal: the pleaders in a court as distinguished from the judges: a division in music.—v.t. to fasten or secure, as with a bar: to hinder or exclude:—pr.p. bar′ring; pa.p. barred.—ns. Bar′-ī′ron, iron in malleable bars; Bar′maid, a female waiter at the bar of a tavern or hotel.—prep. Bar′ring, excepting, saving.—ns. Bar′ring-out, the shutting of the school-room doors and windows by the pupils against the master, in order to enforce assent to their demands; Bar′wood, a kind of red dye-wood imported from Africa in bars. [O. Fr. barre—Low L. barra, perh. of Celt. origin.]

Baracan. Same as Barracan.

Baragouin, b-rag-wēn, n. any jargon or unintelligible language. [Fr.; from Bret. bara, bread, and gwn, wine, supposed to have originated in the Breton soldiers' astonishment at white bread.]

Barb, brb, n. the beard-like jag near the point of an arrow, fish-hook, &c.—v.t. to arm with barbs, as an arrow, &c.: to shave, trim, mow, to pierce, as with a barb.—adjs. Barb′ate (bot.), bearing a hairy tuft; Barb′ated, barbed, bearded.—n. Barbe, a term applied by the Waldenses to their teachers.—adjs. Barbed, furnished with a barb: of a horse, armed or caparisoned with a barb or bard; Barb′ellate (bot.), having barbed or bearded bristles. [Fr.—L. barba, a beard.]

Barb, brb, n. a swift kind of horse, the breed of which came from Barbary in North Africa.

Barbacan. See Barbican.

Barbarous, br′bar-us, adj. uncivilised: rude: savage: brutal.—adjs. Bar′baresque, pertaining to Barbary: barbarous, esp. in art; Barbār′ian, uncivilised: savage: without taste or refinement: foreign.—n. an uncivilised man, a savage: a cruel, brutal man.—adj. Barbar′ic, foreign: uncivilised.—n. Barbarisā′tion.—v.t. Bar′barise, to make barbarous: to corrupt as a language.—ns. Bar′barism, savage life: rudeness of manners: an incorrect form of speech; Barbar′ity, savageness: cruelty.—adv. Bar′barously.—n. Bar′barousness. [L.—Gr. barbaros, foreign, lit. stammering, from the unfamiliar sound of foreign tongues.]

Barbary ape, br′bar-i āp, n. the magot, or small tailless ape found in Africa and also on the rock of Gibraltar.

Barbecue, brb′e-kū, v.t. to roast whole, as a pig: to cure flesh by exposing it on a barbecue.—n. a framework on which to dry and smoke meat above a fire: an animal roasted whole: an open floor on which coffee-beans and the like are spread out to dry: (Amer.) a large social or political entertainment, where the hospitalities are on a lavish scale. [Sp. barbacoa—Haytian barbaca, a framework of sticks set upon posts.]

Barbel, brb′el, n. a fresh-water fish with beard-like appendages at its mouth. [O. Fr. barbel—Low L. barbellus—L. barba, a beard.]

Barber, brb′ėr, n. one who shaves beards and dresses hair.—ns. Barb′er-mong′er (Shak.), a man decked out by his barber, a fop; Barb′er-sur′geon, one who let blood and drew teeth as well as shaved—the company of Barber-surgeons was incorporated in 1461, but by an act in 1545 barbers were confined to the more humble function.—Barber's block, a round block on which wigs are made; Barber's pole, the barber's sign in England, a pole striped spirally with alternate bands of colours, generally red or black and white, having often a brass basin hung at the end. [Fr.—L. barba, a beard.]

Barberry, br′ber-i, n. a thorny shrub with yellow flowers and red berries, common in hedges. [Low L. berberis; the Ar. barbaris is borrowed.]

Barbette, bar-bėt′, n. an earthen terrace inside the parapet of a rampart, serving as a platform for heavy guns: in ironclad ships, a heavily armoured redoubt amidships. [Fr.]

Barbican, br′bi-kan, n. a projecting watch-tower over the gate of a castle or fortified town, esp. the outwork intended to defend the drawbridge. [O. Fr. barbacane, also in Sp., Port., and It. forms; perh. of Ar. or Pers. origin. Col. Yule suggests bābkhānah, gate-house, name in the East for a towered gateway.]

Barbule, brb′ūl, n. (bot.) a small barb or beard: a pointed barb-like process fringing the barbs of a feather. [See Barbel.]

Barcarolle, br′ka-rōl, n. a boat-song of the Venetian gondoliers: a musical composition of a similar character. [It. barcaruolo, a boatman, from barca, a bark, a barge, a boat.]

Bard, brd, n. a poet and singer among the ancient Celts: a poet—dims. Bard′ling, Bard′let, poetaster.—n. Bard′-craft (Browning).—adj. Bard′ic. [Gael. and Ir. brd.]

Barded, brd′ed, adj. caparisoned, as horses.—n. Bard (obs.), the protective covering of a war-horse or a man-at-arms. [Fr. barde—Sp. albarda, pack-saddle, perh. from Ar. al-barda‛ah; al, the, and barda‛ah, mule's pack-saddle.]

Bare, bār, adj. uncovered: naked: open to view: poor, scanty: unadorned: (Shak.) unarmed: mere or by itself: (Shak.) paltry, desolate: empty: (Spens.) rude.—v.t. to strip or uncover.—adj. Bare′backed, with bare back: unsaddled.—n. Bare′bone (Shak.), a very lean person.—adj. Bare′faced, with the face uncovered: (Shak.) avowed: impudent.—adv. Bare′facedly.—n. Bare′facedness.—adjs. Bare′foot, -ed, having the feet bare, often of some monastic orders; Bare′-gnawn (Shak.), gnawed bare; Bare′headed, having the head bare; Bar′ish (Carlyle), somewhat bare; Bare′legged, having the legs bare.—adv. Bare′ly.—ns. Bare′ness; Bare′sark, a fierce Norse fighter, a berserker.—adv. in a shirt only. [A.S. br; Ger. baar, bar; Ice. berr.]

Bare, bār, old pa.t. of Bear.

Barage, ba-rāzh′, n. a light, silky dress-stuff, named from Barges in the Pyrenees.

Bargain, br′gin, n. a contract or agreement: a favourable transaction: an advantageous purchase: (Shak.) chaffering.—v.i. to make a contract or agreement: to chaffer: to count on, take into consideration (with for): to lose by bad bargaining (with away).—n. Bar′gainer.—Bargain and sale, in law, a mode of conveyance whereby property may be assigned or transferred for valuable consideration.—Into the bargain, over and above; To make the best of a bad bargain, to make the best of difficult circumstances; To sell any one a bargain (Shak.), to befool him; To strike a bargain, to come to terms about a purchase. [O. Fr. bargaigner—Low L. barcaniare; acc. to Diez from barca, a boat.]

Barge, brj, n. flat-bottomed freight boat, with or without sails, used on rivers and canals: the second boat of a man-of-war: a large pleasure or state boat.—ns. Bar′gee, a bargeman; Barge′man, The manager of a barge; Barge′-mas′ter, the proprietor of a barge. [O. Fr. barge—Low L. barga. Prob. a doublet of Bark, a barge.]


Barge-board, barj′-bōrd, n. a board extending along the edge of the gable of a house to cover the rafters and keep out the rain. [The barge here may be conn. with Low L. bargus, a gallows.]

Barghest, br′gest, n. a dog-like goblin portending death. [Perh. conn. with Ger. berg-geist, mountain-ghost.]

Baric. See Barium.

Barilla, bar-il′a, n. an impure carbonate of soda obtained by burning several marine plants (that grow chiefly on the east coast of Spain), used in the manufacture of soap, glass, &c. [Sp. barrilla.]

Baritone, bar′i-tōn. Same as Barytone.

Barium, bā′ri-um, n. the metal present in heavy spar (sulphate of baryta) and baryta, formerly thought to be white, but now known to possess a yellow colour.—adj. Bar′ic. [From Baryta; cf. soda, sodium.]

Bark, brk, n. the abrupt cry uttered by a dog, wolf, &c.—v.i. to yelp like a dog: to clamour.—v.t. (Spens.) to utter with a bark.—n. Bark′er, a shop-tout: (slang) a pistol, cannon.—His bark is worse than his bite, his angry expressions are worse than his actual deeds. [A.S. beorcan, prob. a variety of brecan, to crack, snap. See Break.]

Bark, Barque, brk, n. a barge: a ship of small size, square-sterned, without head-rails: technically, a three-masted vessel whose mizzen-mast is fore-and-aft rigged instead of being square-rigged, like the fore and main masts—barks of over 3000 tons are now frequently built.—ns. Bar′kantine, Bar′quentine, a three-masted vessel, with the fore-mast square-rigged, and the main-mast and mizzen-mast fore-and-aft rigged. [Fr. barque—Low L. barca; perh. from Gr. baris, a Nile-boat.]

Bark, brk, n. the rind or covering of the trunk and branches of a tree: that used in tanning or dyeing, or the residue thereof, laid upon a street to deaden the sound, &c.: the envelopment or outer covering of anything.—v.t. to strip or peel the bark from: to rub off (skin).—n. Bark′-bed, a hotbed made of spent bark.—v.t. Bark′en, to dry up into a barky substance.—v.i. to become like bark.—adjs. Bark′less; Bark′y.—Cinchona, Jesuits', Peruvian bark, the bark of the cinchona, from which quinine is made. [Scand. brkr; Dan. bark.]

Barker's mill, brk′ėrz mil, a water-wheel invented in the 18th century by Dr Barker.

Barley, br′li, n. a hardy grain used for food, but chiefly for making malt liquors and spirits.—ns. Bar′ley-bree, -broth, strong ale; Bar′ley-corn, personified as John Barleycorn, the grain from which malt is made: a single grain of barley: a measure of length = ⅓ of an inch; Bar′ley-su′gar, a mixture of sugar with a decoction of pearl-barley, boiled till it is candied; Bar′ley-wat′er, a decoction of pearl-barley; Pearl′-bar′ley, the grain stripped of husk and pellicle, and completely rounded by grinding; Pot′-bar′ley, the grain deprived by milling of its outer husk, used in making broth, &c. [A.S. brlc, bere, and suffix -lc.]

Barley, br′li, interj. (Scot.) a term used in games in demand of a truce, parley (of which it is most prob. a corruption).

Barley-brake, br′li-brāk, n. an old country game, originally played by three couples, of which one, left in a middle den called 'hell,' had to catch the others, who could break or separate when about to be overtaken. [Perh. from the grain, barley, because often played in a barley-field; or perh. from the word preceding.]

Barm, brm, n. froth of beer or other fermenting liquor, used as leaven: yeast.—adjs. Barm′y; Barm′y-brained, flighty. [A.S. beorma; cog. with Dan. brme, Ger. brme.]

Barmbrack, brm′brak, n. a currant-bun. [Ir. bairigen breac, speckled cake.]

Barm-cloth, brm′-kloth, n. (Morris) an apron. [A.S. barm, bosom, -beran, to bear, and Cloth.]

Barmecide, br′me-sīd, n. one who offers an imaginary or pretended banquet or other benefit.—adjs. Bar′mecide, Barmecī′dal. [From a story in the Arabian Nights, in which a beggar is entertained to an imaginary feast by one of the Barmecides, a Persian family who attained to great influence at the court of the Abbasside caliphs.]

Barmkin, brm′kin, n. the rampart of a castle.

Barn, brn, n. a building in which grain, hay, &c. are stored.—v.t. to store in a barn.—ns. and adjs. Barn′-door, Barn′-yard, as in barn-yard fowl.—n. Barn′-owl, the commonest of British owls.—Barn-door, in cricket, used of a player who blocks every ball: humorously, any large target. [A.S. bere-ern, contracted bern, from bere, barley, ern, a house.]

Barnaby, brn′a-bi, n. form of Barnabas, the apostle.—n. Bar′nabite, a member of the congregation of regular canons of St Paul, founded at Milan in 1530, so called from their preaching in the church of St Barnabas there.—Barnaby-day, Barnaby bright, or Long Barnaby, St Barnabas' Day, 11th June, in Old Style reckoned the longest day.

Barnacle, br′na-kl, n. a shellfish which adheres to rocks and the bottoms of ships: a companion who sticks closely.—n. Bar′nacle-goose, a species of wild goose belonging to the Northern seas, so called from a notion that they were produced from the barnacles mentioned. [O. Fr. bernaque—Low L. bernaca; by some referred to a supposed form pernacula, dim. of perna, a kind of shellfish; by others to a Celtic origin.]

Barnacle, br′na-kl, n. an instrument consisting of two branches joined by a hinge, placed on the nose of horses to keep them quiet: (pl.) a colloquial term for 'spectacles.'—adj. Bar′nacled. [O. Fr. bernac, of which bernacle seems to be a dim. form. The sense of 'spectacles' has been traced to O. Fr. bericle, eye-glass—berillus, beryl; but this is improbable.]

Barney, br′ni, n. (slang) humbug: a prize-fight.

Barnumise, br′num-īz, v.t. to advertise and display on a great scale.—n. Bar′numism. [From Barnum, a great showman (1810-91).]

Barograph, bar′o-graf, n. a barometer which records automatically variations of atmospheric pressure. [Gr. baros, weight, graphein, to write.]

Barometer, bar-om′et-ėr, n. an instrument by which the weight or pressure of the atmosphere is measured, and changes of weather, or heights above sea-level, indicated.—adj. Baromet′ric.—adv. Baromet′rically.—n. Barom′etry. [Gr. baros, weight, metron, measure.]

Barometz, bar′o-metz, n. the hairy prostrate stem of a fern found near the Caspian Sea, at one time supposed to be at once plant and animal, to grow on a stalk, and to eat grass like a lamb, &c.; hence also called, as by Mandeville, the Scythian Lamb. [Erroneous form of Russ. baranetz, dim. of baran, ram.]

Baron's Coronet.

Baron, bar′on, n. a title of rank, the lowest in the House of Peers: formerly a title of the judges of the Court of Exchequer: in feudal times the tenants-in-chief of the Crown, later the peers or great lords of the realm generally: till 1832, the name for the parliamentary representatives of the Cinque Ports: in Germany, the signification, instead of becoming restricted as in England, has become extended—the greater or dynasty barons having all been elevated to higher titles, a large number being designated barons in virtue of a diploma from some reigning prince, the title being used also by all his descendants.—ns. Bar′onage, the whole body of barons; Bar′on-bail′ie, a magistrate appointed by the lord-superior in a burgh of barony; Bar′oness, a baron's wife, or a lady holding a baronial title in her own right.—adj. Barōn′ial, pertaining to a baron or barony.—n. Bar′ony, the territory of a baron: in Ireland, a division of a county: in Scotland, a large freehold estate, or manor, even though not carrying with it a baron's title and rank: the rank of baron.—Baron of beef, a joint consisting of two sirloins left uncut at the backbone. [O. Fr. barun, -on—Low L. baro, -onem; in the Romance tongues the word meant a man as opposed to a woman, a strong man, a warrior; traced by some to Celt. bar, a hero; by others to Old High Ger. bero, bearer, carrier.]

Baronet, bar′on-et, n. the lowest hereditary title in the United Kingdom (of England—now of Great Britain—since 1611; of Scotland—or of Nova Scotia—since 1625; of Ireland, since 1619).—ns. Bar′onetage, the whole body of baronets: a list of such; Bar′onetcy.—adj. Baronet′ical. [Dim. of Baron.]

Baroque, bar-ōk′, adj. originally a jeweller's term, but applied in art generally to extravagant ornamental designs: whimsical, odd. [Fr. baroque; perh. from L. verruca, wart, but referred by some to Ar. burāq, hard earth mixed with stones.]

Baroscope, bar′ō-skōp, n. an instrument for indicating changes in the density of the air. [Gr. baros, weight, skopein, to see.]

Barouche, ba-rōōsh′, n. a double-seated four-wheeled carriage with a falling top. [It. baroccio—L. birotus, two-wheeled, from bis, twice, rota, a wheel.]

Barque. Same as Bark (2).

Barquentine, br′ken-tēn, n. same as Barkantine (q.v. under Bark, a ship). [Formed from Barque, like Brigantine from Brig.]

Barracan, bar′a-kan, n. a thick, strong stuff resembling camlet. [Fr.; It.—Ar. barrakān, a dark dress, Pers. barak, a stuff made of camel's hair.]

Barrace, bar′as, n. (obs.) the lists in a tournament. [O. Fr. barrasbarre, bar.]

Barrack, bar′ak, n. a building for soldiers, esp. in garrison (generally in pl.). [Fr. baraque (It. baracca, Sp. barraca, a tent); acc. to Diez from barra, bar.]

Barracoon, bar′a-kōōn, n. a dept for slaves. [Sp.—barraca.]

Barracoota, -cuda, bar′a-kōō′ta, -kōō′da, n. a voracious West Indian fish.—Also Barracou′ta, an Australian food-fish. [Sp.]

Barrage, br′āj, n. the forming of an artificial bar in order to deepen a river. [Fr. barragebarre, bar.]

Barrator, bar-āt′or, n. one who vexatiously stirs up lawsuits, quarrels, &c.—adj. Bar′ratrous.—adv. Bar′ratrously.—n. Bar′ratry, fraudulent practices on the part of the master or mariners of a ship to the prejudice of the owners: vexatious litigation, or the stirring up of suits and quarrels among subjects, forbidden under penalties to lawyers: traffic in offices of church or state. [O. Fr. barateorbarat, deceit; traced by some to Gr. prattein, by others to a Celt. or a Scand. origin.]

Barrel, bar′el, n. a cylindrical wooden vessel made of curved staves bound with hoops: the quantity which such a vessel contains (36 imperial gallons of ale and beer): a certain weight or quantity of other goods usually sold in casks called barrels: anything long and hollow, as the barrel of a gun, or cylindrical and barrel-shaped.—v.t. to put in a barrel.—n. Bar′rel-bulk, a measurement of five cubic feet.—p.adj. Bar′relled, having a barrel or barrels: placed in a barrel.—ns. Bar′rel-or′gan, an organ in which the music is produced by a barrel or cylinder set with pins, the revolution of which opens the key-valves and produces the music; Barrel-vault, a vault with a simple semi-cylindrical roof.—adj. Bar′rel-vault′ed. [Fr. baril (Sp. barril, It. barile)—Low L. barile, barillus, possibly from barra, bar.]

Barren, bar′en, adj. incapable of bearing offspring: unfruitful: dull, stupid: unprofitable (with of).—adj. Bar′ren-beat′en.—adv. Bar′renly.—n. Bar′renness.—adjs. Bar′ren-spir′ited; Bar′ren-wit′ted. [O. Fr. barain, brahain, brehaing, perh. from bar, man, as if 'male-like, not producing offspring.']

Barret, bar′et, n. a flat cap, esp. the Biretta (q.v.). [Fr. barrette, Sp. birreta. See Biretta.]

Barricade, bar′ik-ād, n. a temporary fortification raised to hinder the advance of an enemy, as in the street fights of Parisian insurrections.—v.t. to obstruct: to fortify.—Earlier form Barricā′do. [Fr.; barrique, a cask, the first street barricades having consisted of casks filled with stones, &c. See Bar.]

Barrico, bar-ē′ko, n. a small cask. [Sp.]

Barrier, bar′i-ėr, n. a defence against attack: a limit or boundary: a fence, railing, gate where customs are collected: the lists in a tournament: any obstacle that keeps apart: (pl.) a martial exercise in 15th and 16th centuries.—v.t. to shut by means of a barrier.—n. Bar′rier-reef, a coral-reef surrounding an island or fringing a coast with a navigable channel inside.—Barrier Act, an act passed by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1697 as a security against innovations, decreeing that changes in the law of the Church, even when approved by the Assembly, shall not become law till approved also by a majority of presbyteries. [O. Fr. barrire—Low L. barrariabarra, bar.]

Barrister, bar′is-tėr, n. one who is qualified to plead at the bar in an English or Irish law-court.—adj. Barristēr′ial.—n. Bar′ristership.—Revising barrister, a barrister appointed annually by the English judges to revise the lists and settle who are the persons entitled to vote for members of parliament. [From barra, bar, the suffix being undetermined.]

Barrow, bar′rō, n. a small hand or one-wheel carriage used to bear or convey a load.—n. Bar′row-tram, the shaft of a barrow. [M. E. barewe, from an assumed A.S. form bearweberan, to bear.]

Barrow, bar′rō, n. originally a mountain, hillock: a mound raised over graves in former times. [A.S. beorg; cog. with Ger. berg.]

Barrow, bar′rō, n. a long sleeveless flannel garment for infants. [A.S. beorgan, to protect.]

Bar-sinister. Variant of Baton-sinister (q.v. under Baton).

Barter, br′tėr, v.t. to give one thing in exchange for another (with for, away).—v.i. to traffic by exchanging.—n. traffic by exchange of commodities.—n. Bar′terer, one who barters. [Prob. from O. Fr. barat.]

Bartholomew-tide, bar-thol′o-mū-tīd, n. the day of the festival of St Bartholomew, 24th August: the name was also applied to things sold at the fair.—Often spelt Bar′tlemy.—Black Bartholomew, 24th August 1662, the day on which the Act of Uniformity came into force within the Church of England.


Bartisan, br′ti-zan, n. a small overhanging turret projecting from an angle on the top of a tower. [Apparently an adaptation by Scott of Scot. bertisene, traceable to O. Fr. bretesche, a parapet of wood.]

Barton, bar′ton, n. a farm-yard. [A.S. bere-tn, yard, bere, barley, and tn, enclosure.]

Barycentric, bar-i-sen′trik, adj. pertaining to the centre of gravity. [Gr. barys, heavy, kentron, centre.]

Baryta, ba-rī′ta, Barytes, ba-rī′tēz, n. the earth present in the minerals witherite and heavy spar.—adj. Baryt′ic, of or containing baryta. [From Gr. barys, heavy.]

Barytone, bar′i-tōn, n. a deep-toned male voice between bass and tenor: a singer with such a voice: in Greek, applied to words not having an acute accent on the last syllable. [Through Fr. from Gr. barys, heavy, deep, and tonos, a tone.]

Basalt, bas-awlt′, n. a hard, dark-coloured rock of igneous origin.—adj. Basalt′ic. [L. basaltes, an African word.]

Basanite, bas′an-īt, n. a kind of quartz serviceable for testing the purity of the precious metals by the marks made. [Gr. basanos, touchstone.]

Basbleu. Same as Blue-stocking (q.v. under Blue).

Bascinet. Same as Basinet.

Bascule, bas′kūl, n. an apparatus of the lever kind, in which one end is raised while the other is depressed. [Fr. bas, down, and cul, the posteriors.]

Base, bās, n. that on which a thing rests: foot: bottom: foundation: support: the chief ingredient, as in dyeing and chemistry: the starting-point, in a race: the fixed goal across which the ball is struck in hockey, the fixed stations at base-ball: the point from which the operations of a campaign are conducted: a measured line serving as a basis for trigonometrical calculations: the surface on which a plane or solid figure stands: (chem.) a term applied to a compound body, generally consisting of a metal united with oxygen; (archit.) the foot or lower member of a pillar, on which the shaft rests: (her.) the lower portion of the shield—any figure placed on it is said to be 'in base:' a small portion of the base of a shield parted off by a horizontal line is sometimes called a base.—v.t. to found or place on a base:—pr.p. bās′ing; pa.p. based (bāst).—adjs. Bas′al, Bas′ilar, pertaining to or situated at the base, esp. of the skull; Base′less, without a base or foundation.—ns. Base′lessness; Base′ment, the base or lowest story of a building.—adj. Bas′en-wide (Spens.), widely extended.—n. Base′-plate, the foundation plate of a piece of heavy machinery.— Bas′es, a kind of embroidered mantle which hung down from the middle to about the knees or lower, worn by knights on horseback: (Spens.) armour for the legs.—ns. Base′-string, the string of a musical instrument that gives the lowest note; Base′-vīol (same as Bass-viol).—adj. Bas′ic (chem.), belonging to or of the nature of a base.—v.t. Bas′ify (chem.), to convert into a salifiable base:—pr.p. bās′ifying; pa.p. bās′ifīed. [Fr.—L.—Gr. basisba-, in bainein, to go.]

Base, bās, adj. low in place, value, estimation, or principle: mean: vile: worthless: debased: counterfeit: (law) servile, as opposed to free: humble: (B. and Shak.) lowly.—adj. Base′-born, illegitimate.—adv. Base′ly.—adj. Base′-mind′ed, of a low mind or spirit: mean.—n. Base′ness.—adj. Base′-spir′ited, mean-spirited. [Fr. bas—Low L. bassus, thick, fat, a vulgar Roman word, found also in name Bassus.]

Base, bās, v.t. a form of Abase.

Base, bās, n. an old game played by two sides occupying contiguous spaces, called bases or homes, off which any player is liable to be touched with the hand or struck by a ball by the enemy, and so attached to their sides. Forms of this game are known as Prisoner's Base or Bars, and Rounders, and the national American game of Base-ball is a development from it.

Base-ball, bās′-bawl, n. a game played with a bat and a ball, and run round bases, marking the circuit to be taken by each player of the inside after striking the ball. There are nine players on each side; the pitcher, of the one side, throws the ball; one of the other side tries to hit it as it passes him; and the runs to the bases are regulated according as the ball falls inside or outside certain lines, &c. A development from rounders, base-ball has been the American national game since 1865. [Coupled with cricket in Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey (written 1798).]

Basecourt, bās′kōrt, n. the outer court of a mansion, which contained the stable-yard and servants' accommodation, as distinguished from the principal quadrangle: an inferior court of justice. [Fr. basse-court.]

Basenet. Same as Basinet.

Bash, bash, v.t. to beat or smash in.—n. Bash. [Prob. Scand.]

Bashaw, ba-shaw′, n. a pasha: a haughty man—now usually written Pasha or Pacha (q.v.).—ns. Bashaw′ism, Bashaw′ship. [Turk.]

Bashful, bash′fōōl, adj. easily confused: modest: shy: wanting confidence.—v.i. Bash (Spens.), to be abashed.—adv. Bash′fully.—n. Bash′fulness.—adj. Bash′less, unashamed. [See Abash.]

Bashi-bazouk, bash′i-ba-zōōk′, n. a Turkish irregular trooper. They are mostly Asiatics, and are brutal plundering ruffians, capable, as in 1876 in Bulgaria, of the most devilish atrocities. [Turk. bashi-bozuq.]

Bashlyk, bash′lik, n. a kind of hood with long ends worn in Russia. [Russ. bashluikŭ, a Caucasian hood.]

Basil, baz′il, n. a mainly tropical or subtropical genus of Labiat, characterised by a pleasant aromatic smell and taste, and reckoned amongst sweet herbs.—Sweet basil is an Indian annual long cultivated in Europe for seasoning purposes. [O. Fr. basile—L. basilisca—Gr. basilikon, royal.]

Basil, baz′il, n. a sheepskin roughly tanned and undressed.

Basil. See Bezel.

Basilica, baz-il′ik-a, n. among the Romans, a large oblong hall, with double colonnades and a semicircular apse at the end, used for judicial and commercial purposes—many of them were afterwards converted into Christian churches: a magnificent church built after the plan of the ancient basilica.—adj. Basil′ican. [L. basilica, Gr. basilikē (oikia, a house), belonging to a king, from basileus, a king.]

Basilicon, baz-il′ik-on, n. a name given to various kinds of ointment as possessing sovereign virtues. [Gr. basilikon, royal.]

Basilisk, baz′il-isk, n. a fabulous creature, about a foot long, with a black-and-yellow skin and fiery red eyes, so named, according to Pliny, from the crest on the head like a crown—variously regarded as a kind of dragon or cockatrice: in modern zoology, a harmless crested lizard of tropical South America: an ancient brass cannon throwing a shot of about 200 lb. weight. [Gr. basiliskos, dim. of basileus, a king.]

Basin, bās′n, n. a wide open vessel or dish: any hollow place containing water, as a dock: the area drained by a river and its tributaries. [O. Fr. bacin—Low L. bachinus, perh. from the Celtic.]


Basinet, bas′i-net, n. a light globular headpiece worn alone with a visor, or with the great helm resting on the shoulders, worn over it.—Also Bas′net.

Basis, bās′is, n. the foundation, or that on which a thing rests: the pedestal of a column: the groundwork or first principle:—pl. Bas′es. [See Base (1).]

Bask, bask, v.i. to lie in the warmth or sunshine. [Scand. badask, to bathe.]

Basket, bas′ket, n. a vessel made of plaited twigs, rushes, or other flexible materials.—ns. Bas′ketful, as much as fills a basket; Bas′ket-hilt, the hilt of a sword with a covering wrought like basket-work to defend the hand from injury; Bas′ket-mak′er; Bas′ket-work, any structure of interlaced twigs or the like. [Prob. the L. bascauda; the W. basged is apparently borrowed from the English.]

Basque, bask, adj. relating to the Basques, or their wonderful language, with its extreme variability of dialects—the only example of a consistently incorporating language.—n. a native of the Basque provinces: the distinctive language of the Basques: a kind of short-skirted jacket worn by women, a continuation of the bodice a little below the waist.—adj. Basqued (baskt), furnished with a basque.—n. Basq′uine, an outer petticoat worn by Basque and Spanish women. [Fr. Basque—Low L. Vasco, an inhabitant of Vasconia, whence Gascony. The Basques themselves call their tongue Eskuara, Euscara, whence the Fr. Euscarien.]

Bas-relief, b-re-lēf′, Bass-relief, bas′re-lēf′, n. (sculp.) figures which do not stand far out from the ground on which they are formed—also used in the Italian form Bass′o-rilie′vo. [See Base, low, and Relief.]

Bass, bās, n. the low or grave part in music.—adj. low, deep, grave.—v.t. to sound in a deep tone.—ns. Bass′-horn, a musical wind-instrument, a modification of the bassoon, much lower and deeper in its tones; Thor′ough-bass, the theory of harmony. [See Base, low.]

Bass. Same as Bast.

Bass, Basse, bas, n. a marine fish allied to the perch. [A.S. brs; cf. Ger. bars, the perch.]

Bassa, bas′sa, n. Same as Bashaw.

Basset, bas′et, n. a short-legged dog used in unearthing foxes and badgers: an old Venetian game at cards, resembling faro, widely popular in the 18th century: (geol.) the outcrop or emergence of mineral strata at the surface.—v.i. to incline upward so as to appear at the surface, to crop up.—n. Bas′set-horn (It. corno di bassetto), the richest and softest of all wind-instruments, similar to a clarionet in tone and fingering, but with a twice-bent wooden tube, having a compass of two and a half octaves. [Fr. bas, low.]

Bassinet, Bassinette, bas′si-net, n. a kind of basket with a hood in which an infant is placed as in a cradle: a similarly shaped perambulator. [Fr. dim. of basin, a basin.]

Basso, bas′so, n. the same as Bass (1): also a bass singer.

Bassoon, bas-ōōn′, n. (It. fagotto) a musical wind-instrument filling an important place in the modern orchestra, of the reed species, made of maple-wood or plane-tree, its compass from B flat below the bass stave to C in the treble.—The Double bassoon (It. contrafagotto) sounds an octave lower.—n. Bassoon′ist. [It. bassone, augmentative of basso, low, from root of Base.]

Bass-viol, bās′-vī′ol, n. a musical instrument with four strings, used for playing the bass in concerted music; the violoncello. [See Bass, low, and Viol.]

Bast, bast, n. the inner bark of the lime-tree: matting made of it. [A.S. bst; Dut., Dan., Ger. bast.]

Bastard, bas′tard, n. a child born of parents not married.—adj. born out of wedlock: not genuine: resembling, but not identical with, the species bearing the name: of abnormal shape or size: false.—n. Bas′tard-bar, a popular but inaccurate name for the baton-sinister in heraldry.—v.t. Bas′tardise, to prove to be a bastard.—adv. Bas′tardly (obs.).—ns. Bas′tard-wing, three, four, or five feathers springing from the side of the wing of a bird near the point, attached to a bony process which is the homologue of the thumb in some mammalia; Bas′tardy, Bas′tardism, the state of being a bastard.—Bastard title, an abbreviated title of a book on an otherwise blank page preceding the full title-page; Bastard types, types cast with an extra deep bevel to obviate the use of leads, as Longprimer face on Pica body. [Fr. btard; O. Fr. fils de bast, son of the pack-saddle, bast (bt) being a coarse saddle for beasts of burden.]

Baste, bāst, v.t. to beat with a stick. [Prob. conn. with Ice. beysta, Dan. bste, to beat.]

Baste, bāst, v.t. to drop fat or butter over meat while roasting to keep it from burning and to improve the flavour. [Ety. unknown.]

Baste, bāst, v.t. to sew slightly or with long stitches. [O. Fr. bastr, from Old High Ger. bestan, to sew.]

Bastille, bast-ēl′, n. an old fortress in Paris long used as a stale prison, and demolished by a revolutionary mob in July 1789: any prison regarded as a symbol of tyranny. [Fr.—O. Fr. bastir (Fr. btir), to build.]

Bastinado, bast-in-ād′o, v.t. to beat with a baton or stick, esp. on the soles of the feet (a form of punishment in the East):—pr.p. bastinād′ing or bastinād′oing; pa.p. bastinād′ed or bastinād′oed.ns. Bastinade′, Bastinād′o. [Sp. bastonada, Fr. bastonnadebaston, bton. See Baton.]

Bastion, bast′yun, n. a kind of tower at the angles of a fortification.—adj. Bast′ioned. [Fr.—O. Fr. bastir, to build.]

Bat, bat, n. a heavy stick: a flat club for striking the ball in cricket, a club for base-balls, a batsman: the clown's sword in a pantomime: a piece of brick: (slang) rate of speed, style.—v.i. to use the bat in cricket:—pr.p. bat′ting; pa.p. bat′ted.ns. Bat′ter, Bats′man, one who wields the bat at cricket, &c.; Bat′ting, the management of a bat in playing games: cotton fibre prepared in sheets. [Perh. from A.S. bat (a doubtful form), prob. Celt. bat, staff.]

Bat, bat, n. an animal with a body like a mouse, but which flies on wings attached mainly to its fore-feet, but extending along its sides to the hind-feet. [M. E. bakke, apparently from Scand.; cf. Dan. aftenbakke, evening-bat.]

Batable, bāt′a-bl, adj. debatable, disputable. [A contr. of Debatable.]

Batata, ba-t′ta, n. a plant with tuberous roots, the sweet potato. [Sp. batata, potato.]

Batavian, ba-tā′vi-an, adj. pertaining to the ancient Batavi in the Low Countries, or to the modern Dutch, their descendants.

Batch, bach, n. the quantity of bread baked or of anything made or got ready at one time: a set. [From Bake.]

Bate. Same as Abate.

Bate, bāt, n. (Spens.) strife, contention.—adj. Bate′-breed′ing (Shak.). [Abbrev. of Debate.]

Bate, bāt, n. diminution (dial., esp. in combination).

Bate, bāt, v.i. (Shak.) to beat the wings impatiently: (obs.) to be impatient. [O. E. batre—Low L. batĕre.]

Bateau, b-to′, n. a light river-boat, esp. those used on Canadian rivers. [Fr.—O. Fr. batel, boat.]

Bateless, bāt′les, adj. (Shak.) that cannot be bated or blunted.

Batfowling, bat′fowl-ing, n. the catching birds at night when at roost. [Bat, club, and Fowl.]

Bath, bth, n. water for plunging the body into: a bathing: a house for bathing: a place for undergoing medical treatment by means of bathing: (phot.) a solution in which plates are plunged:—pl. Baths (bthz).—ns. Bath′-brick, a preparation of siliceous silt, manufactured at Bridgwater in the form of bricks, and used in cleaning knives; Bath′chair, a large wheeled chair for invalids; Bath′house; Bath′man; Bath′room; Bath′-stone, a building stone quarried at Bath; Bath′woman; Blood′-bath, a massacre.—Bath Guide, a poem of the 18th century, often taken as a type of 'Society' verse.—Order of the Bath, an English order of knighthood, so named from the bath before installation (including three classes—military and civil knights grand-cross, G.C.B.; knights commanders, K.C.B.; and companions, C.B.). [A.S. bth, cog. with Ger. bad.]

Bath, bth, n. the largest Jewish liquid measure, containing about six gallons. [Heb.]

Bathe, bāth, v.t. to wash as in a bath: to wash or moisten with any liquid: to moisten, suffuse, encompass.—v.i. to take a bath.—n. the act of taking a bath.—ns. Bath′ing-box, a box for bathers to undress and dress in; Bath′ing-machine′, a small carriage in which a bather may be carried out into water conveniently deep for bathing. [A.S. bathian; Old High Ger. badn, bathn (Ger. baden).]

Bathometer, bath-om′et-ėr, n. an instrument for ascertaining depth. [Gr. bathos, depth, metron, measure.]

Bathorse, baw′hors, n. a packhorse carrying the baggage of an officer. [Fr. bt, a pack-saddle.]

Bathos, bā′thos, n. a ludicrous descent from the elevated to the mean in writing or speech.—adj. Bathet′ic, irregularly formed on the analogy of pathos, pathetic. [Gr. bathos, depth, from bathys, deep.]

Bathybius, bath-ib′i-us, n. name given to a supposed low form of life at the bottom of some parts of the deep sea. [Formed from Gr. bathys, deep, and bios, life.]

Bathymetry, bath-im′et-ri, n. the science of measuring the depth of seas and lakes. [Gr. bathys, deep, metria, measurement.]

Bating, bāt′ing, prep. abating, excepting.

Batiste, ba-tēst′, n. usual French name for cambric: applied in commerce to a fine texture of linen and cotton. [Littr derives from Baptiste, the original maker; others from its use in wiping the heads of children after baptism.]

Batlet, bat′let, n. a wooden mallet used by laundresses for beating clothes. [Dim. of Bat.]

Batman, bat′man, baw′man, n. a man who has charge of a bathorse. [See Bathorse.]


Baton, bat′on, Batoon, ba-toon′, n. a staff or truncheon, esp. of a policeman: a marshal's staff.—v.t. to strike with a baton.—n. Bat′on-sin′ister, a well-known heraldic indication of illegitimacy, improperly called Bar-sinister, a diminutive of a bend-sinister, not extending to the sides of the shield, so as to resemble a marshal's baton laid diagonally over the family arms from left to right. [Fr. bton—Low L. basto, a stick; of unknown origin.]

Batrachia, ba-trā′ki-a, the order of reptiles which includes the frogs.—adj. and n. Batrā′chian. [From Gr. batrachos, a frog.]

Batswing, bats′wing, n. a kind of gas-burner, with a slit at the top which causes the flame to take the shape of a bat's wing.

Batta, bat′ta, n. an allowance to officers in the British Indian army in addition to their ordinary pay: subsistence money. [Hind.]

Battailant, bat′tāl-ant, adj. (Spens.) fighting.—adj. Bat′tailous (arch.), war-like. [Fr. bataillant, pr.p. of batailler, to fight. See Battle.]

Battalia, bat-tāl′ya, n. the order of battle: the main body of an army in array. [It. battaglia. Doublet of Battle.]

Battalia pie, bat-tāl′ya pī, titbits in a pie: articles like pin-cushions, embroidered by nuns in convents with scenes from the Bible. [Corrupted from Fr. batilles, dim. formed from L. beatus.]

Battalion, bat-al′yun, n. a body of soldiers consisting of several companies: a body of men drawn up in battle-array. [Fr.; from root of Battle.]

Battels, bat′lz, an Oxford term signifying accounts for provisions received from college kitchens and butteries: applied generally to the whole of the sums for tuition, &c., charged in college accounts.—v.i. Bat′till, Bat′tel (Spens.), to fatten. [Late L. batilli, perh. conn. with Battle, to feed.]

Batten, bat′n, v.i. to grow fat: to live in luxury.—v.t. (obs.) to fatten. [Ice. batna, to grow better—bati, advantage; cf. Dut. baten, to avail.]

Batten, bat′n, n. a piece of board: a ledge, clamp: in ships, a strip of wood used to fasten down the hatches.—n. Bat′tening, battens forming a structure. [Same as Baton.]

Batter, bat′er, v.t. to beat with successive blows: to wear with beating or by use: to attack with artillery.—n. ingredients beaten along with some liquid into a paste: paste for sticking.—ns. Bat′tering-charge, the full charge of powder for a cannon; Bat′tering-ram, an ancient engine for battering down walls, consisting of a large beam with an iron head like that of a ram. [O. Fr. batre (Fr. battre), from the root of Bat.]

Batter, bat′ėr, n. the inclination of a wall from the perpendicular.—v.i. to slope backward from the perpendicular. [Perh. from Fr. battre, to beat down.]

Battery, bat′ėr-i, n. (Shak.) a wound: a number of cannon with their equipment: the place on which cannon are mounted: the men and horses attending one battery, constituting the unit in the artillery: an instrument used in electric and galvanic experiments: (law) an assault by beating or wounding: apparatus for preparing or serving meals.—Cross batteries, two batteries commanding the same spot from different directions; Floating battery (see Float); Masked battery, a battery in action out of the enemy's view; To change one's battery, to alter the direction of attacking.

Battle, bat′l, n. a contest between opposing armies: a fight or encounter: (arch.) a body of troops in battle array, esp. in phrase 'main battle.'—v.i. to contend in fight: to maintain, champion (with against, with).—ns. Bat′tle-axe, -ax, a kind of axe once used in battle; Bat′tle-cry, a war-shout; Bat′tlefield, the place on which a battle is fought; Bat′tle-piece, a passage, or a painting, describing a battle.—adj. Bat′tle-scarred, scarred in battle.—ns. Bat′tleship, a war-ship of the first class; Pitched′-bat′tle, a battle fought on chosen ground.—Battle royal, a general mle—Half the battle, said of anything which ensures success.—Line of battle, troops in array for battle; Line-of-battle ship, a ship strong enough to form one of the line.—To join, do battle, to fight. [Fr. bataillebattre, to beat. See Batter.]

Battle, bat′l, adj. (dial.) nourishing.—v.t. (obs.) to feed. [Most prob. from Ice. bati, improvement. See Batten.]

Battledoor, Battledore, bat′l-dōr, n. a light bat for striking a ball or shuttlecock.—Not to know a B from a battledoor, to be thoroughly ignorant. [Sp. batidor, a beater, a washing-beetle; but this is doubtful.]

Battlement, bat′l-ment, n. a wall or parapet on the top of a building with openings or embrasures, originally used only on fortifications: the towering roof of heaven,—adj. Bat′tlemented, fortified with battlements—also pa.p. Bat′tled (poet.).

Battology, bat-ol′o-ji, n. repetition in speech or writing.—adj. Battolog′ical. [Gr. battos, a person who repeated himself, and legein, to speak.]

Battue, bat-tōō′, n. a method of hunting in which the woods are beaten and the game driven from cover into some place for the convenience of the shooters: any indiscriminate slaughter. [Fr.—battre, to beat.]

Jester's Bauble.

Bauble, baw′bl, n. a trifling piece of finery: a child's plaything: a stick surmounted by a head with ass's ears, and forming the mock emblem of the court-jester: a piece of childish foolery: (Shak.) a foolish person.—adj. Bau′bling (obs.), trifling. [O. Fr. babel, prob. from the root seen in L. babulus, a babbler.]

Baudekin, bawd′i-kin, Bawdkin, bawd′kin. Same as Baldachin.

Baudric, bawd′rik. Same as Baldrick.

Baudrons, bawd′runs, n. Scotch name for the cat. [Perh. of Celt. origin; cf. Ir. beadrac, frolicsome, Gael. beadrach, a frolicsome girl.]

Bauk, Baulk. Same as Balk.

Bausond, bawz′ond, adj. (obs.) having white spots, esp. on the forehead, or a white stripe down the face.—adj. Baus′on-faced (Scott), with a face like a badger. [O. Fr. bausant (It. balzano), black and white spotted. Further ety. dub.]

Bauxite, bō′zīt, n. a clay found at Les Baux, near Arles, yielding alumina.—Also Beau′xite.

Bavardage, bav-ar-dāj′, n. chattering. [Fr. bavard, garrulous—bave, drivel.]

Bavin, bav′in, n. a fagot of brushwood.—Bavin wits (Shak.), wits that blaze and die like bavins. [O. Fr. baffe, a fagot; but this is doubtful.]

Bawbee, baw-bē′, n. a halfpenny: originally a Scotch coin of base silver equivalent to six Scotch pennies. [Ety. dub., but very prob. derived from a 16th-cent. Scotch mint-master, the laird of Sillebawby; others identify with 'baby.']

Bawble. Same as Bauble.

Bawcock, baw′kok, n. (Shak.) a fine fellow. [From Fr. beau, fine, and coq, a cock.]

Bawd, bawd, n. a procurer or procuress of women for lewd purposes—fem. only since about 1700.—n. Bawd′ry.—adj. Bawd′y, obscene, unchaste, filthy.—n. Bawd′y-house, a brothel. [Perh. abbrev. from Bawd′strot, a word for a pander, now obsolete, derived from O. Fr. baldestrotbald, gay, and perh. the Teut. root found in strut.]

Bawd, bawd, n. (Shak.) a hare. [Perh. a contr. of Baudrons.]

Bawl, bawl, v.i. to shout or cry out loudly (with at, against).—n. a loud cry or shout.—n. Bawl′er. [Perh. from Low L. baulare, to bark like a dog; but cf. Ice. baula, to low like a cow, baula, a cow.]

Bawn, bawn, n. a fortification round a house: an enclosure for cattle. [Ir. bbhun, enclosure.]

Baxter. See Bake.

Bay, bā, adj. reddish brown inclining to chestnut.—n. elliptical for 'bay-horse.'—n. Bayard (bā′ard), a bay-horse: a name for any horse generally, from 'Bayard,' the famous bay-coloured magic horse given to Renaud by Charlemagne: a man recklessly blind to danger: a fellow bold in his ignorance: a type of the knight, from Bayard (1476-1524), 'the knight without fear and without reproach.' [Fr. bai—L. badius, chestnut-coloured.]

Bay, bā, n. an inlet of the sea with a wider opening than a gulf: an inward bend of the shore. [Fr. baie—Low L. baia, a harbour.]

Bay-window: Cowdray House, Sussex (Parker).

Bay, bā, n. the space between two columns: (Shak.) the space under one house gable: any recess.—n. Bay′-win′dow, any window forming a recess.—adj. Bay′-win′dowed. [O. Fr. baebaer, to gape, be open; prob. conn. with the foregoing word.]

Bay, bā, n. the laurel-tree: (pl.) an honorary garland or crown of victory, originally of laurel: literary renown.—ns. Bay′berry; Bay′-rum, an aromatic stimulant used for the skin and hair, and prepared by distilling the leaves of the bay-berry (Pimenta acris) with rum, or otherwise mixing the volatile oil of the leaves with alcohol. [O. Fr. baie, a berry—L. baca.]

Bay, bā, n. barking, baying (esp. of a dog when in pursuit): the combined cry of hounds in conflict with a hunted animal: used often of the last stand of a hunted animal when it faces the hounds at close quarters.—v.i. to bark (esp. of large dogs).—v.t. to bark at: to utter by baying: to follow with barking: to bring to bay.—To hold, keep at bay, said of the hunted animal; To stand, be, at bay, at close quarters. [These senses show a confusion of two distinct words, according to Murray: (1) to hold at bay = O. Fr. tenir a bay = It. tenere a bada, bay, bada, denoting the suspense indicated by the open mouth; (2) in the phrase 'to stand at bay,' the word points to O. Fr. abai, barking, bayer, to bark.]

Bay, Baye, bā, v.t. (Spens.) to bathe.

Bayadre, bā-ya-dēr′, n. a Hindu dancing-girl. [Fr.—Port. bailadeira.]

Bayonet, bā′on-et, n. a stabbing instrument of steel fixed to the muzzle of a musket or rifle: military force: (pl.) soldiers armed with bayonets.—v.t. to stab with a bayonet. [Fr. baonnette, perh. from Bayonne, in France, where it was supposed to have been first made; others derive from O. Fr. bayon, arrow.]

Bayou, bā′ōō, n. name given to the marshy offshoots of lakes and rivers, esp. in North America. [Perh. corrupted from Fr. boyau, gut.]

Bay-salt, bā′-slt, n. salt obtained by slow evaporation originally from sea-water. [Prob. from Bay, an inlet, and Salt.]

Bazaar, Bazar, ba-zr′, n. an Eastern marketplace or exchange: a fancy fair in imitation of an Eastern bazaar. [Pers. bāzār, a market.]

Bdellium, del′i-um, n. a kind of gum. [Gr. bdellion, used to translate, but prob. unconnected with Heb. b'dōlakh, Gen. ii. 12.]

Be, bē, v.i. to live: to exist: to have a certain state or quality:—pr.p. bē′ing; pa.p. been.—n. Be′-all (Shak.), the whole being. [A.S. bon; Ger. bin; Gael. bi, to exist; W. byw, to live; Gr. phu-ein, L. fui, fio, Sans. bhu, to be, orig. meaning to grow.]

Beach, bēch, n. the shore of the sea or of a lake, esp. when sandy or pebbly: the strand.—v.t. to haul a boat up on the beach.—n. Beach′-comb′er, a long rolling wave: a drunken loafer about the wharfs in Pacific seaports: a settler on a Pacific island who maintains himself by pearl-fishery, and often by less reputable means.—adjs. Beached, having a beach, driven on a beach; Beach′y, pebbly. [Orig. a prov. Eng. word for shingle. The derivation from Ice. bakki, bank, is untenable.]

Beacon, bē′kn, n. a fire on an eminence used as a sign of danger: a hill on which such could be lighted: anything that warns of danger, esp. an erection of stone, wood, or iron often bearing a light, and marking rocks or shoals in rivers or navigable channels.—v.t. to act as a beacon to: to light up: to mark by means of beacons.—n. Float′ing-bea′con, a light-ship. [A.S. bacn, a beacon, a sign.]

Bead, bēd, n. a little ball pierced for stringing, a series of which forms the rosary or paternoster, used in counting the prayers recited: any small ball of glass, amber, &c. strung in a series to form a necklace: a bead-like drop: the small knob of metal forming the front-sight of a gun—whence the Americanism, To draw a bead upon = to take aim at: (archit.) a narrow moulding with semicircular section.—v.t. to furnish with beads.—v.i. to form a bead or beads.—adj. Bead′ed, furnished with beads.—ns. Bead′-house, a house for poor people who were required to pray for the soul of the founder: an almshouse; Bead′ing, a moulding in imitation of beads.—adj. Bead′-proof, of such proof or strength as to carry beads or bubbles when shaken, as alcoholic liquors.—ns. Bead′-roll, in pre-Reformation times, a roll or list of the dead to be prayed for, hence a list of names, a long series: a rosary; Beads′man, Bedes′man, one employed to pray for others, or one endowed to do so: (Scot.) a public alms-man or licensed beggar:—fem. Beads′woman.—adj. Bead′y, bead-like, small and bright (of eyes): covered with beads or bubbles.—To say, tell, count one's beads, to offer a prayer. [A.S. bed, gebed, a prayer, from biddan, to pray. See Bid.]

Beadle, bēd′l, n. a mace-bearer (esp. of the 'bedels' or 'bedells,' official attendants of the Oxford and Cambridge vice-chancellors): a petty officer of a church, college, parish, &c.: a parish officer with the power of punishing petty offenders: in Scotland, used of the 'church-officer' attending on the clergyman: (obs.) a messenger or crier of a court.—ns. Bead′ledom, Bead′lehood, stupid officiousness; Bead′leship, Bed′elship, the office of beadle or bedel. [A.S. bydelbodan, to proclaim, to bid.]

Beadman. Same as Beadsman (q.v. under Bead).

Beagle, bē′gl, n. a small hound tracking by scent, formerly much used in hunting hares, but now superseded by the harrier: a spy: a bailiff: a small kind of shark.—The beagle was often followed by men on foot, hence Foot′-bea′gle. [Ety. unknown. The Fr. bigle is borrowed from English. Dr Murray suggests Fr. bgueule, from ber, to gape, and gueule, throat.]

Beak, bēk, n. the bill of a bird: anything pointed or projecting: the nose: in the ancient galley, a pointed iron fastened to the prow for piercing the enemy's vessel: (slang) a magistrate.—adj. Beaked (bēkt). [O. Fr. bec—Low L. beccus, of Celt. (Gaulish) origin.]

Beaker, bēk′ėr, n. a large drinking-bowl or cup, or its contents: a glass vessel marked for measuring liquids, with a beak or pointed mouth, used by chemists. [Scand. bikarr (Scot. bicker), prob. from Low L. bicarium, acc. to Diez from Gr. bikos, a drinking-bowl.]

Beam, bēm, n. a large and straight piece of timber or iron forming one of the main supports against lateral pressure of a building, ship, &c.: (fig.) from the figure of the mote and the beam—Matt. vii. 3: any of the transverse pieces of framing extending across a ship's hull, the greatest width of a ship or boat: the part of a balance from which the scales hang: the pole of a carriage: a cylinder of wood in a loom: a ray of light.—v.t. to send forth light: to shine.—n. Beam′-en′gine, a steam-engine which has a beam connecting the piston-rod with the crank of the wheel-shaft, as distinguished from one that has its piston-rod directly attached to the crank.—adv. Beam′ily.—n. Beam′iness.—adjs. Beam′less, without beams: emitting no rays of light; Beam′y, shining.—A beam sea, one rolling against the ship's side.—Before the beam, the bearing of any object when seen more in advance than on the beam; Abaft the beam, the reverse.—Lee or Weather beam, the side away from or towards the wind.—On her beam ends, a phrase applied to the position of a ship when so much inclined to one side that the beams become nearly vertical.—On the starboard beam, applied to any distant point out at sea, at right angles to the keel, and on the starboard or right-hand (as viewed from the stern) side of the ship; On the port beam similarly applies to the left hand. [A.S. bam, a tree, stock of a tree, a ray of light; Ger. baum, a tree; Gr. phyma, a growth—phy-ein, to grow.]

Bean, bēn, n. the name of several kinds of leguminous plants and their seeds: applied also to the seeds of some other plants, from their bean-like form, as the Calabar bean, &c.—ns. Bean′-feast, an annual dinner given by employers to their hands, perhaps from there having been served on such occasions beans or a Bean′-goose, a species of goose said to be so called from its fondness for devouring new-sown beans; Bean′-king, the king of the festivities on Twelfth Night, chosen on his finding a bean hidden in the Twelfth Cake. [A.S. ban; Ger. bohne, W. ffen; L. faba.]

Bear, bār, v.t. to carry or support: to endure: to admit of: to be entitled to: to afford: to import: to manage: to behave or conduct one's self: to bring forth or produce.—v.i. to suffer: to be patient: to have reference to: to press (with on or upon): to be situated:—pr.p. bear′ing; pa.t. bōre; pa.p. bōrne (but the pa.p. when used to mean 'brought forth' is born).—adj. Bear′able, that may be borne or endured.—n. Bear′ableness.—adv. Bear′ably.—ns. Bear′er, one who or that which bears, esp. one who assists in carrying a body to the grave: a carrier or messenger; Bear′ing, behaviour: situation of one object with regard to another: relation: that which is borne upon an escutcheon: (mach.) the part of a shaft or axle in contact with its supports; Bear′ing-cloth, the mantle or cloth in which a child was carried to the font; Bear′ing-rein, the fixed rein between the bit and the saddle, by which a horse's head is held up in driving and its neck made to arch.—Bear hard (Shak.), to press or urge; Bear in hand (Shak.), to keep in expectation, to flatter one's hopes; To bear a hand, to give assistance; To bear away, to sail away; To bear down (with upon or towards), to sail with the wind; To bear out, to corroborate; To bear up, to keep up one's courage; To bear up for (a place), to sail towards; To bear with, to make allowance for; To be borne in (upon the) mind, to be forcibly impressed upon it; To bring to bear, to bring into operation (with against, upon); To lose one's bearings, to become uncertain as to one's position. [A.S. beran; Goth. bairan, L. ferre, Gr. pher-ein, Sans. bhri.]

Bear, an obsolete form of Bier.

Bear, bār, n. a heavy quadruped of the order Carnivora, with long shaggy hair and hooked claws: any rude, rough, or ill-bred fellow: one who sells stocks for delivery at a future date, anticipating a fall in price so that he may buy first at an advantage—opp. to Bull: the old phrase 'a bearskin jobber' suggests an origin in the common proverb, 'to sell the bearskin before one has caught the bear' (hence To bear, to speculate for a fall): (astron.) the name of two constellations, the Great and the Little Bear.—ns. Bear′-ber′ry, a trailing plant of the heath family, a species of the Arbutus; Bear′bine, a species of convolvulus, closely allied to the bindweed; Bear′-gar′den, an enclosure where bears are kept; a rude, turbulent assembly.—adj. Bear′ish, like a bear.—ns. Bear′ishness; Bear′-lead′er, a person who leads about a bear for exhibition: the tutor or governor of a youth at the university or on travel; Bear's′-breech, a common name for plants of the genus Acanthus; Bear's′-ear, a common English name for the auricula; Bear's′-foot, a species of hellebore; Bear′skin, the skin of a bear: a shaggy woollen cloth for overcoats: the high fur cap worn by the Guards in England; Bear′-ward, a warden or keeper of bears. [A.S. bera; Ger. br; cf. L. fera, a wild beast, akin to Gr. thēr, olian phēr.]

Bear, bēr, n. barley, applied in Scotland to the now little grown variety Hordeum hexastichon. [A.S. bere.]

Beard, bērd, n. the hair that grows on the chin and adjacent parts of a grown man's face: the tuft on the lower jaw of a goat, seal, &c.: the barbel of the cod, loach, &c.; prickles on the ears of corn: the barb of an arrow: the gills of oysters, &c.—v.t. to take by the beard: to oppose to the face.—adj. Beard′ed, having a beard: prickly: barbed.—n. Beard′-grass, a kind of bearded grass.—adj. Beard′less. [A.S.; W. barf, Ger. bart, Russ. boroda, L. barba.]

Beast, bēst, n. an irrational animal, as opposed to man: a four-footed animal: a brutal person: the Beast, Antichrist in the Revelation—dim. Beast′ies.— Beast′-fā′bles, stories in which animals play human parts—a widely-spread primitive form of literature, often surviving in more or less developed forms in the more advanced civilisations.—ns. Beast′hood; Beast′lihead (Spens.), the state or nature of a beast, beastliness; Beast′liness.—adj. Beast′ly, like a beast in actions or behaviour: coarse: obscene: (colloq.) vile, disagreeable. [O. Fr. beste (Fr. bte)—L. bestia.]

Beastings. Same as Biestings.

Beat, bēt, v.t. to strike repeatedly: to break or bruise: to strike, as bushes, in order to rouse game: to thrash: to overcome: to be too difficult for: to spread flat and thin by beating with a tool, as gold by a gold-beater—also To beat out.—v.i. to give strokes repeatedly: to throb: to dash, as a flood or storm:—pr.p. beat′ing; pa.t. beat; pa.p. beat′en.n. a recurrent stroke: a stroke recurring at intervals, or its sound, as of a watch or the pulse: a round or course, as a policeman's beat: a place of resort.—adj. weary: fatigued.—adj. Beat′en, made smooth or hard by beating or treading: trite: worn by use.—ns. Beat′er, one that beats or strikes: one who rouses or beats up game: a crushing instrument; Beat′ing, the act of striking: chastisement by blows: regular pulsation or throbbing: rousing of game: exercising the brain.—Beaten work, metal shaped by being hammered on an anvil or block of the necessary shape.—Dead beat, completely exhausted.—To beat about the bush, to approach a subject in an indirect way; To beat a retreat, to retreat, originally to beat the drum as a signal for retreat; To beat off, to drive back; To beat out, to work out fully, to make gold or silver leaf out of solid metal; To beat the air, to fight to no purpose, or against an imaginary enemy; To beat the bounds, to trace out the boundaries of a parish in a periodic survey or perambulation, certain natural objects in the line of journey being formally struck with a rod, and sometimes also the boys whipped to make them remember; To beat the brains, to puzzle one's brains about something; To beat the tattoo (mil.), to sound the drum for evening roll-call; To beat up, to alarm by a sudden attack: to disturb: to pay an untimeous visit to any one—also in 'to beat up for recruits,' to go about a town to enlist men. [A.S. batan, pa.t. bot.]

Beath, bēth, v.t. (Spens.) to bathe. [A.S. bethian, to foment.]

Beatify, bē-at′i-fī, v.t. to make blessed or happy: to declare to be in the enjoyment of eternal happiness in heaven.—adjs. Beatif′ic, -al, making supremely happy.—adv. Beatif′ically.—n. Beatificā′tion, act of beatifying: (R.C. Church) a declaration by the Pope that a person is blessed in heaven, authorising a certain definite form of public reverence payable to him—the first step to canonisation.—Beatific vision, a glimpse of the glory of heaven, esp. that which first bursts upon the disembodied soul. [L. beatus, blessed, and facĕre, to make.]

Beatitude, bē-at′i-tūd, n. heavenly happiness, or happiness of the highest kind: (pl.) sayings of Christ in Matt. v., declaring the possessors of certain virtues to be blessed. [L. beatitudobeatus, blessed.]

Beau, bō, n. a man attentive to dress or fashion: a fop or dandy: a lover:—pl. Beaux (bōz):—fem. Belle.—n. Beau′-idē′al, ideal excellence, or an imaginary standard of perfection: the person in which such is realised.—adj. Beau′ish.—ns. Beau′-monde, the gay or fashionable world; Beaupere′ (Spens.), a term of courtesy for 'father,' esp. of ecclesiastical persons: a companion. [Fr. beau, bel—L. bellus, fine, gay, as if for a benulus, dim. of benus = bonus, good.]

Beaujolais, bō-zhō-lā, n. a kind of red wine produced in South-eastern France. [From Beaujolais, a subdivision of the old province of Lyonnais.]

Beaune, bōn, n. a red wine of Burgundy. [From the town of Beaune.]

Beauty, bū′ti, n. a pleasing combination of qualities in a person or object: a particular grace or excellence: a beautiful person, esp. a woman, also applied collectively to the beautiful women of a special place: (pl.) beautiful passages or extracts from the poets.—v.t. (Shak.) to make beautiful.—adj.