Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected. They appear in the text like this, and the explanation will appear when the mouse pointer is moved over the marked passage. The Errata (after the List of Plates) have been worked into the main text.

THE GEOGRAPHICAL

DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS

WITH A STUDY OF
THE RELATIONS OF LIVING AND EXTINCT FAUNAS
AS ELUCIDATING THE
PAST CHANGES OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE.

BY

ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE,

AUTHOR OF "THE MALAY ARCHIPELAGO," ETC.

WITH MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS.

IN TWO VOLUMES.—VOLUME II.

London:
MACMILLAN AND CO.
1876.

[The Right of Translation and Reproduction is Reserved.]

LONDON:
R. CLAY, SONS, AND TAYLOR, PRINTERS,
BREAD STREET HILL.

CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME.

PART III. (continued).
ZOOLOGICAL GEOGRAPHY: A REVIEW OF THE CHIEF FORMS OF ANIMAL LIFE IN THE SEVERAL REGIONS AND SUB-REGIONS, WITH THE INDICATIONS THEY AFFORD OF GEOGRAPHICAL MUTATIONS.
CHAPTER XIV.
THE NEOTROPICAL REGION.
General Zoological Features of the Neotropical Region (p. 5)—Distinctive Characters of Neotropical Mammalia (p. 6)—Of Neotropical Birds (p. 7)—Neotropical Reptiles (p. 9)—Fresh-water Fishes (p. 12)—Insects (p. 13)—Coleoptera (p. 15)—Land Shells (p. 19)—Marine Shells (p. 20)—Brazilian Sub-region (p. 21)—Its Mammalia (p. 23)—Its Birds (p. 24)—Islands of Tropical South America, Galapagos (p. 29)—Chilian Sub-region (p. 36)—Birds (p. 38)—Reptiles and Amphibia (p. 40)—Fresh-water Fishes (p. 42)—Lepidoptera (p. 42)—Coleoptera (p. 44)—Islands of South Temperate America (p. 49)—Mexican Sub-region (p. 51)—Mammalia and Birds (p. 52)—Reptiles and Fishes (p. 54)—Insects (p. 55)—Relations of the Mexican Sub-region to the North and South American Continents (p. 57)—Islands of the Mexican Sub-region (p. 59)—The Antillean Sub-region (p. 60)—Its Mammalia (p. 62)—Its Birds (p. 64)—Table of the Resident Land Birds of the Antilles (p. 68)—Reptiles (p. 72)—Insects (p. 73)—Land Shells (p. 75)—Past History of the Antilles (p. 78)—Summary of the Past History of the Neotropical Region (p. 80)—Table I. Families of Animals inhabiting the Neotropical Region (p. 85)—Table II. Genera of Terrestrial Mammalia and Birds of the Neotropical Region (p. 91) 1-113

CHAPTER XV.

THE NEARCTIC REGION.
Zoological Characteristics of the Nearctic Region (p. 115)—List of Typical Nearctic Genera of Land Birds (p. 118)—Summary of Nearctic Vertebrata (p. 120)—Insects (p. 122)—Terrestrial and Fluviatile Mollusca (p. 124)—The Californian Sub-region (p. 127)—The Rocky Mountain Sub-region (p. 129)—The Alleghany Sub-region (p. 131)—The Bermudas (p. 134)—The Canadian Sub-region (p. 135)—Greenland (p. 138)—Table I. Families of Animals inhabiting the Nearctic Region (p. 140)—Table II. Genera of Terrestrial Mammalia and Birds of the Nearctic Region (p. 145) 114-153
CHAPTER XVI.
SUMMARY OF THE PAST CHANGES AND GENERAL RELATIONS OF THE SEVERAL REGIONS
PART IV.
GEOGRAPHICAL ZOOLOGY: A SYSTEMATIC SKETCH OF THE CHIEF FAMILIES OF LAND ANIMALS IN THEIR GEOGRAPHICAL RELATIONS.
Introduction 167-169
CHAPTER XVII.
THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE FAMILIES AND GENERA OF MAMMALIA.
Primates (p. 170)—General Remarks on the Distribution of Primates (p. 179)—Chiroptera (p. 181)—Remarks on the Distribution of Chiroptera (p. 185)—Insectivora (p. 186)—General Remarks on the Distribution of Insectivora (p. 191)—Carnivora (p. 192)—General Remarks on the Distribution of the Carnivora (p. 204)—Cetacea (p. 207)—Sirenia (p. 210)—Ungulata (p. 211)—General Remarks on the Distribution of the Ungulata (p. 226)—Proboscidea (p. 227)—Hyracoidea (p. 228)—Rodentia (p. 229)—General Remarks on the Distribution of the Rodentia (p. 243)—Edentata (p. 244)—General Remarks on the Distribution of the Edentata (p. 247)—Marsupialia (p. 248)—General Remarks on the Distribution of Marsupialia (p. 253)—Monotremata (p. 253) 170-254

CHAPTER XVII.

THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE FAMILIES AND GENERA OF BIRDS.
Passeres (p. 255)—General Remarks on the Distribution of the Passeres (p. 299)—Picariæ (p. 302)—General Remarks on the Distribution of the Picariæ (p. 322)—Psittaci (p. 324)—General Remarks on the Distribution of the Psittaci (p. 329)—Columbæ (p. 331)—General Remarks on the Distribution of the Columbæ (p. 335)—Gallinæ (p. 337)—General Remarks on the Distribution of Gallinæ (p. 344)—Opisthocomi (p. 345)—Accipitres (p. 345)—General Remarks on the Distribution of the Accipitres (p. 351)—Grallæ (p. 351)—General Remarks on the Distribution of the Grallæ (p. 362)—Anseres (p. 363)—General Remarks on the Distribution of the Anseres (p. 367)—Struthiones (p. 368)—Struthious Birds recently Extinct (p. 369)—General Remarks on the Distribution of the Struthiones (p. 370) 255-371
CHAPTER XIX.
THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE FAMILIES AND GENERA OF REPTILES AND AMPHIBIA.
Ophidia (p. 372)—General Remarks on the Distribution of Ophidia (p. 386)—Lacertilia (p. 388)—General Remarks on the Distribution of Lacertilia (p. 403)—Rhynchocephalina (p. 405)—Crocodilia (p. 405)—General Remarks on the Distribution of Crocodilia (p. 406)—Chelonia (p. 407)—Remarks on the Distribution of Chelonia (p. 410)—Amphibia, Pseudophidia (p. 411)—Urodela (p. 411)—Anura (p. 414)—General Remarks on the Distribution of Amphibia (p. 422) 372-423
CHAPTER XX.
THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE FAMILIES OF FISHES, WITH THE RANGE OF SUCH GENERA AS INHABIT FRESH WATER.
Acanthopterygii (p. 424)—-Acanthopterygii Pharyngognathi (p. 437)—Anacanthini (p. 439)—Physostomi (p. 441)—Lophobranchii (p. 456)—Plectognathi (p. 457)—Sirenoidei (p. 458)—Ganoidei (p. 458)—Chondropterygii (p. 460)—Cyclostomata (p. 463)—Leptocardii (p. 464)—Remarks on the Distribution of Fishes (p. 464) 424-467

CHAPTER XXI.

THE DISTRIBUTION OF SOME OF THE MORE IMPORTANT FAMILIES AND GENERA OF INSECTS.
Lepidoptera (p. 470)—General Remarks on the Distribution of the Diurnal Lepidoptera and Sphingidea (p. 483)—Coleoptera (p. 486)—Cicindelidæ (p. 486)—Carabidæ (p. 488)—Lucanidæ (p. 492)—Cetoniidæ (p. 494)—Buprestidæ (p. 495)—Longicornia (p. 498)—General Observations on the Distribution of Coleoptera (p. 502) 468-503
CHAPTER XXII.
AN OUTLINE OF THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF MOLLUSCA.
Cephalopoda (p. 505)—Gasteropoda (p. 507)—Pulmonifera (p. 512)—General Observations on the Distribution of Land Mollusca (p. 522)—Pteropoda (p. 531)—Brachiopoda (p. 532)—Conchifera (p. 533)—General Remarks on the Distribution of Marine Mollusca (p. 537) 504-539
CHAPTER XXIII.
SUMMARY OF THE DISTRIBUTION AND LINES OF MIGRATION OF THE SEVERAL CLASSES OF ANIMALS.
Mammalia (p. 540)—Lines of Migration of the Mammalia (p. 544)—Birds (p. 545)—Reptiles (p. 547)—Amphibia (p. 548)—Fresh-water Fishes (p. 549)—Insects (p. 550)—Terrestrial Mollusca (p. 551)—Conclusion (p. 552) 540-553
General Index 557

MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOL. II.

To face page
1. Map of the Neotropical Region 3
2. Plate XIV. A Brazilian Forest with Characteristic Mammalia 24
3. Plate XV. A Scene on the Upper Amazon, with some Characteristic Birds 28
4. Plate XVI. The Chilian Andes, with Characteristic Animals 40
5. Plate XVII. A Scene in Cuba, with Characteristic Animals 67
6. Map of the Nearctic Region 115
7. Plate XVIII. Scene in California with some Characteristic Birds 128
8. Plate XIX. The North American Prairies with Characteristic Mammalia 130
9. Plate XX. A Canadian Forest with Characteristic Mammalia 136

ERRATA IN VOL. II.

As in Vol. I. mis-spellings are not given here, being mostly corrected in the Index.

Page 111, No. 642, for 1 read 2.
" 111, No. 643, for 15 read 9.
" 267, line 7, add Borneo.
" 276, line 10, for 16 Genera read 11 Genera.
" 2"6 8 lines from foot, for Drepanornis read Neodrepanis.
" 291, 5 lines from foot, for Sayornis read Empidias.

THE

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION
OF ANIMALS.

PART III. (continued.)

ZOOLOGICAL GEOGRAPHY:

A REVIEW OF THE CHIEF FORMS OF ANIMAL LIFE IN THE SEVERAL REGIONS AND SUB-REGIONS, WITH THE INDICATIONS THEY AFFORD OF GEOGRAPHICAL MUTATIONS.

NEOTROPICAL REGION
{3}

CHAPTER XIV.

THE NEOTROPICAL REGION.

This region, comprehending not only South America but Tropical North America and the Antilles, may be compared as to extent with the Ethiopian region; but it is distinguished from all the other great zoological divisions of the globe, by the small proportion of its surface occupied by deserts, by the large proportion of its lowlands, and by the altogether unequalled extent and luxuriance of its tropical forests. It further possesses a grand mountain range, rivalling the Himalayas in altitude and far surpassing them in extent, and which, being wholly situated within the region and running through eighty degrees of latitude, offers a variety of conditions and an extent of mountain slopes, of lofty plateaus and of deep valleys, which no other tropical region can approach. It has a further advantage in a southward prolongation far into the temperate zone, equivalent to a still greater extension of its lofty plateaus; and this has, no doubt, aided the development of the peculiar alpine forms of life which abound in the southern Andes. The climate of this region is exceptionally favourable. Owing to the lofty mountain range situated along its western margin, the moisture-laden trade winds from the Atlantic have free access to the interior. A sufficient proportion of this moisture reaches the higher slopes of the Andes, where its condensation gives rise to innumerable streams, which cut deep ravines and carry down such an amount of sediment, that they have formed the vast plains of the Amazon, of {4}Paraguay, and of the Orinooko out of what were once, no doubt, arms of the sea, separating the large islands of Guiana, Brazil, and the Andes. From these concurrent favourable conditions, there has resulted that inexhaustible variety of generic and specific forms with a somewhat limited range of family and ordinal types, which characterise neotropical zoology to a degree nowhere else to be met with.

Together with this variety and richness, there is a remarkable uniformity of animal life over all the tropical continental portions of the region, so that its division into sub-regions is a matter of some difficulty. There is, however, no doubt about separating the West Indian islands as forming a well-marked subdivision; characterised, not only by that poverty of forms which is a general feature of ancient insular groups, but also by a number of peculiar generic types, some of which are quite foreign to the remainder of the region. We must exclude, however, the islands of Trinidad, Tobago, and a few other small islands near the coast, which zoologically form a part of the main land. Again, the South Temperate portion of the continent, together with the high plateaus of the Andes to near the equator, form a well-marked subdivision, characterised by a peculiar fauna, very distinct both positively and negatively from that of the tropical lowland districts. The rest of Tropical South America is so homogeneous in its forms of life that it cannot be conveniently subdivided for the purposes of a work like the present. There are, no doubt, considerable differences in various parts of its vast area, due partly to its having been once separated into three or more islands, in part to existing diversities of physical conditions; and more exact knowledge may enable us to form several provinces or perhaps additional sub-regions. A large proportion of the genera, however, when sufficiently numerous in species, range over almost the whole extent of this sub-region wherever the conditions are favourable. Even the Andes do not seem to form such a barrier as has been supposed. North of the equator, where its western slopes are moist and forest-clad, most of the genera are found on both sides. To the south of this line its western valleys are arid and its lower plains almost deserts; and thus the absence of a {5}number of groups to which verdant forests are essential, can be traced to the unsuitable conditions rather than to the existence of the mountain barrier. All Tropical South America, therefore, is here considered to form but one sub-region.

The portion of North America that lies within the tropics, closely resembles the last sub-region in general zoological features. It possesses hardly any positive distinctions; but there are several of a negative character, many important groups being wholly confined to South America. On the other hand many genera range into Mexico and Guatemala from the north, which never reach South America; so that it is convenient to separate this district as a sub-region, which forms, to some extent, a transition to the Nearctic region.

General Zoological Features of the Neotropical Region.—Richness combined with isolation is the predominant feature of Neotropical zoology, and no other region can approach it in the number of its peculiar family and generic types. It has eight families of Mammalia absolutely confined to it, besides several others which are rare elsewhere. These consist of two families of monkeys, Cebidæ and Hapalidæ, both abounding in genera and species; the Phyllostomidæ, or blood-sucking bats; Chinchillidæ and Caviidæ among rodents; besides the greater part of the Octodontidæ, Echimyidæ and Cercolabidæ. Among edentata, it has Bradypodidæ, or sloths, Dasypodidæ, or armadillos, and Myrmecophagidæ, or anteaters, constituting nearly the entire order; while Procyonidæ, belonging to the carnivora, and Didelphyidæ, a family of marsupials, only extend into the Nearctic region. It has also many peculiar groups of carnivora and of Muridæ, making a total of full a hundred genera confined to the region. Hardly less remarkable is the absence of many wide-spread groups. With the exception of one genus in the West Indian islands and a Sorex which reaches Guatemala and Costa Rica, the Insectivora are wholly wanting; as is also the extensive and wide-spread family of the Viverridæ. It has no oxen or sheep, and indeed no form of ruminant except deer and llamas; neither do its vast forests and grassy plains support a single form of non-ruminant ungulate, except the tapir and the peccary.

{6}

Birds.—In birds, the Neotropical region is even richer and more isolated. It possesses no less than 23 families wholly confined within its limits, with 7 others which only extend into the Nearctic region. The names of the peculiar families are: Cœrebidæ, or sugar-birds; Phytotomidæ, or plant-cutters; Pipridæ, or manakins; Cotingidæ, or chatterers; Formicariidæ, or ant-thrushes; Dendrocolaptidæ, or tree-creepers; Pteroptochidæ; Rhamphastidæ, or toucans; Bucconidæ, or puff-birds; Galbulidæ, or jacamas; Todidæ, or todies; Momotidæ, or motmots; Steatornithidæ, the guacharo, or oil-bird; Cracidæ, or curassows; Tinamidæ, or tinamous; Opisthocomidæ, the hoazin; Thinocoridæ; Cariamidæ; Aramidæ; Psophiidæ, or trumpeters; Eurypygidæ, or sun-bitterns; and Palamedeidæ, or horned-screamers. The seven which it possesses in common with North America are: Vireonidæ, or greenlets; Mniotiltidæ, or wood-warblers; Tanagridæ, or tanagers; Icteridæ, or hang-nests; Tyrannidæ, or tyrant-shrikes; Trochilidæ, or humming-birds; and Conuridæ, or macaws. Most of these families abound in genera and species, and many are of immense extent; such as Trochilidæ, with 115 genera, and nearly 400 species; Tyrannidæ, with more than 60 genera and nearly 300 species; Tanagridæ, with 43 genera and 300 species; Dendrocolaptidæ with 43 genera and more than 200 species; and many other very large groups. There are nearly 600 genera peculiar to the Neotropical region; but in using this number as a basis of comparison with other regions we must remember, that owing to several ornithologists having made the birds of South America a special study, they have perhaps been more minutely subdivided than in the case of other entire tropical regions.

Distinctive Characters of Neotropical Mammalia.—It is important also to consider the kind and amount of difference between the various animal forms of this region and of the Old World. To begin with the Quadrumana, all the larger American monkeys (Cebidæ) differ from every Old World group in the possession of an additional molar tooth in each jaw; and it is in this group alone that the tail is developed into a prehensile organ of wonderful power, adapting the animals to a purely arboreal life. Four of the genera, comprising more than half the {7}species, have the prehensile tail, the remainder having this organ either short, or lax as in the Old World monkeys. Other differences from Old World apes, are the possession of a broad nasal septum, and a less opposable thumb; and the absence of cheek-pouches, ischial callosities, and a bony ear-tube. The Hapalidæ, or marmozets, agree with the Cebidæ in all these characters, but have others in addition which still more widely separate them from the Simiidæ; such as an additional premolar tooth, acute claws, and thumb not at all opposable; so that the whole group of American monkeys are radically different from the remainder of the order.

The Procyonidæ are a distinct family of Carnivora, which make up for the scarcity of Mustelidæ in South America. The Suidæ are represented by the very distinct genus Dicotyles (Peccary) forming a separate sub-family, and differing from all other genera in their dentition, the absence of tail and of one of the toes of the hind feet, the possession of a dorsal gland, and only two mammæ. The rodents are represented by the Chinchillidæ and Caviidæ, the latter comprising the largest animals in the order. The Edentata are almost wholly confined to this region; and the three families of the sloths (Bradypodidæ), armadillos (Dasypodidæ), and ant-eaters (Myrmecophagidæ), are widely separated in structure from any Old World animals. Lastly, we have the opossums (Didelphyidæ), a family of marsupials, but having no close affinity to any of the numerous Australian forms of that order. We have already arrived at the conclusion that the presence of marsupials in South America is not due to any direct transference from Australia, but that their introduction is comparatively recent, and that they came from the Old World by way of North America (vol. i., p. 155). But the numerous and deep-seated peculiarities of many other of its mammalia, would indicate a very remote origin; and a long-continued isolation of South America from the rest of the world is required, in order to account for the preservation and development of so many distinct groups of comparatively low-type quadrupeds.

Distinctive Characters of Neotropical Birds.—The birds which are especially characteristic of this region, present similar distinctive features. In the enormous group of Passerine {8}birds which, though comprising nearly three-fourths of the entire class, yet presents hardly any well-marked differences of structure by which it can be subdivided—the families confined to America are, for the most part, more closely related to each other than to the Old World groups. The ten families forming the group of "Formicaroid Passeres," in our arrangement (vol. i., p. 94), are characterised by the absence of singing muscles in the larynx, and also by an unusual development of the first primary quill; and seven of this series of families (which are considered to be less perfectly developed than the great mass of Old World passeres) are exclusively American, the three belonging to the Eastern hemisphere being of small extent. Another group of ten families—our "Tanagroid Passeres," are characterised by the abortion or very rudimentary condition of the first quill; and of these, five are exclusively American, and have numerous genera and species, while only two are non-American, and these are of small extent. On the other hand the "Turdoid Passeres," consisting of 23 families and comprising all the true "singing-birds," is poorly represented in America; no family being exclusively Neotropical, and only three being at all fully represented in South America, though they comprise the great mass of the Old World passeres. These peculiarities, which group together whole series of families of American birds, point to early separation and long isolation, no less surely than the more remarkable structural divergences presented by the Neotropical mammalia.

In the Picariæ, we have first, the toucans (Rhamphastidæ); an extraordinary and beautiful family, whose enormous gaily-coloured bills and long feathered tongues, separate them widely from all other birds. The Galbulidæ or jacamars, the motmots (Momotidæ), and the curious little todies (Todidæ) of the Antilles, are also isolated groups. But most remarkable of all is the wonderful family of the humming-birds, which ranges over all America from Tierra del Fuego to Sitka, and from the level plains of the Amazon to above the snow-line on the Andes; which abounds both in genera, species, and individuals, and is yet strictly confined to this continent alone! How vast must have been the time required to develop those beautiful and {9}highly specialized forms out of some ancestral swift-like type; how complete and long continued the isolation of their birthplace to have allowed of their modification and adaptation to such divergent climates and conditions, yet never to have permitted them to establish themselves in the other continents. No naturalist can study in detail this single family of birds, without being profoundly impressed with the vast antiquity of the South American continent, its long isolation from the rest of the land surface of the globe, and the persistence through countless ages of all the conditions requisite for the development and increase of varied forms of animal life.

Passing on to the parrot tribe, we find the peculiar family of the Conuridæ, of which the macaws are the highest development, very largely represented. It is in the gallinaceous birds however that we again meet with wholly isolated groups. The Cracidæ, including the curassows and guans, have no immediate relations with any of the Old World families. Professor Huxley considers them to approach nearest to (though still very remote from) the Australian megapodes; and here, as in the case of the marsupials, we probably have divergent modifications of an ancient type once widely distributed, not a direct communication between the southern continents. The Tinamidæ or tinamous, point to a still more remote antiquity, since their nearest allies are believed to be the Struthiones or ostrich tribe, of which a few representatives are scattered widely over the globe. The hoazin of Guiana (Opisthocomus) is another isolated form, not only the type of a family, but perhaps of an extinct order of birds. Passing on to the waders, we have a number of peculiar family types, all indicative of antiquity and isolation. The Cariama of the plains of Brazil, a bird somewhat intermediate between a bustard and a hawk, is one of these; the elegant Psophia or trumpeter of the Amazonian forests; the beautiful little sun-bittern of the river banks (Eurypyga); and the horned screamers (Palamedea), all form distinct and isolated families of birds, to which the Old World offers nothing directly comparable.

Reptiles.—The Neotropical region is very rich in varied forms of reptile life, and the species are very abundant. It has six {10}altogether peculiar families, and several others which only range into the Nearctic region, as well as a very large number of peculiar or characteristic genera. As the orders of reptiles differ considerably in their distributional features, they must be considered separately.

The snakes (Ophidia) differ from all other reptiles, and from most other orders of vertebrates, in the wide average distribution of the families; so that such an isolated region as the Neotropical possesses no peculiar family, nor even one confined to the American continent. The families of most restricted range are—the Scytalidæ, only found elsewhere in the Philippine islands; the Amblycephalidæ, common to the Oriental and Neotropical regions; and the Tortricidæ, most abundant in the Oriental region, but found also in the Austro-Malay islands and Tropical South America. Sixteen of the families of snakes occur in the region, the Colubridæ, Amblycephalidæ, and Pythonidæ, being those which are best represented by peculiar forms. There are 25 peculiar or characteristic genera, the most important being Dromicus (Colubridæ); Boa, Epicrates, and Ungalia (Pythonidæ); Elaps (Elapidæ); and Craspedocephalus (Crotalidæ).

The lizards (Lacertilia) are generally more restricted in their range; hence we find that out of 15 families which inhabit the region, 5 are altogether peculiar, and 4 more extend only to N. America. The peculiar families are Helodermidæ, Anadiadæ, Chirocolidæ, Iphisiadæ, and Cercosauridæ; but it must be noted that these all possess but a single genus each, and only two of them (Chirocolidæ and Cercosauridæ) have more than a single species. The families which range over both South and North America are Chirotidæ, Chalcidæ, Teidæ, and Iguanidæ; the first and second are of small extent, but the other two are very large groups, the Teidæ possessing 12 genera and near 80 species; the Iguanidæ 40 genera and near 150 species; the greater part of which are Neotropical. There are more than 50 peculiar or highly characteristic genera of lizards, about 40 of which belong to the Teidæ and Iguanidæ, which thus especially characterize the region. The most important and characteristic genera are the following; Ameiva (Teidæ); Gymnophthalmus (Gymnophthalmidæ); {11}Celestus and Diploglossus (Scincidæ); Sphærodactylus (Geckotidæ); Liocephalus, Liolæmus, Proctotretus, and many smaller genera (Iguanidæ). The three extensive Old World families Varanidæ, Lacertidæ, and Agamidæ, are absent from the entire American continent.

In the order Crocodilia, America has the peculiar family of the alligators (Alligatoridæ), as well as several species of true crocodiles (Crocodilidæ). The Chelonia (tortoises) are represented by the families Testudinidæ and Chelydidæ, both of wide range; but there are six peculiar genera,—Dermatemys and Staurotypus belonging to the former family,—Peltocephalus, Podocnemis, Hydromedusa, and Chelys, to the latter. Some of the Amazon river-turtles of the genus Podocnemis rival in size the largest species of true marine turtles (Cheloniidæ), and are equally good for food.

Amphibia.—The Neotropical region possesses representatives of sixteen families of Amphibia of which four are peculiar; all belonging to Anoura or tail-less Batrachians. The Cæciliadæ or snake-like amphibia, are represented by two peculiar genera, Siphonopsis and Rhinatrema. Tailed Batrachians are almost unknown, only a few species of Spelerpes (Salamandridæ) entering Central America, and one extending as far south as the Andes of Bogota in South America. Tail-less Batrachians on the other hand, are abundant; there being 14 families represented, of which 4,—Rhinophrynidæ, Hylaplesidæ, Plectromantidæ, and Pipidæ are peculiar. None of these families contain more than a single genus, and only the second more than a single species; so that it is not these which give a character to the South American Amphibia-fauna. The most important and best represented families are, Ranidæ (true frogs), with eleven genera and more than 50 species; Polypedatidæ (tree-frogs) with seven genera and about 40 species; Hylidæ (tree-frogs) with eight genera and nearly 30 species; Engystomidæ (toads) (5 genera), Bombinatoridæ (frogs), (4 genera), Phryniscidæ and Bufonidæ (toads), (each with 2 genera), are also fairly represented. All these families are widely distributed, but the Neotropical genera are, in almost every case, peculiar.

{12}

Fresh-water fishes.—The great rivers of Tropical America abound in fish of many strange forms and peculiar types. Three families, and three sub-family groups are peculiar, while the number of peculiar genera is about 120. The peculiar families are Polycentridæ, with two genera; Gymnotidæ, a family which includes the electric eels, (5 genera); and Trygonidæ, the rays, which are everywhere marine except in the great rivers of South America, where many species are found, belonging to two genera. Of the extensive family Siluridæ, three sub-families Siluridæ anomalopteræ, S. olisthopteræ, and S. branchiolæ, are confined to this region. The larger and more important of the peculiar genera are the following: Percilia, inhabiting Chilian and Percichthys South Temperate rivers, belong to the Perch family (Percidæ); Acharnes, found only in Guiana, belongs to the Nandidæ, a family of wide range in the tropics; the Chromidæ, a family of exclusively fresh-water fishes found in the tropics of the Ethiopian, Oriental and Neotropical regions, are here represented by 15 genera, the more important being Acara (17 sp.), Heros (26 sp.), Crenicichla (9 sp.), Satanoperca (7 sp.). Many of these fishes are beautifully marked and coloured. The Siluridæ proteropteræ are represented by 14 genera, of which Pimelodus (42 sp.), and Platystoma (11 sp.), are the most important; the Siluridæ stenobranchiæ by 11 genera, the chief being Doras (13 sp.), Auchenipterus (9 sp.), and Oxydoras (7 sp.). The Siluridæ proteropodes are represented by 16 genera, many of them being among the most singular of fresh-water fishes, clothed in coats of mail, and armed with hooks and serrated spines. The following are the most important,—Chætostomus (25 sp.), Loricaria (17 sp.), Plecostomus (15 sp.) and Callichthys (11 sp.). The Characinidæ are divided between Tropical America and Tropical Africa, the former possessing about 40 genera and 200 species. The Haplochitonidæ are confined to South America and Australia; the American genus being Haplochiton. The Cyprinodontidæ are represented by 18 genera, the most important being, Pœcilia (16 sp.), Girardinus (10 sp.), and Gambusia (8 sp.) The Osteoglossidæ, found in Australian and African rivers, are represented in South America by the peculiar Arapaima, the "pirarucu" of the {13}Amazon. The ancient Sirenoidei, also found in Australia and Africa, have the Lepidosiren as their American representative. Lastly, Ellipesurus is a genus of rays peculiar to the fresh waters of South America. We may expect these numbers to be largely increased and many new genera to be added, when the extensive collections made by Agassiz in Brazil are described.

Summary of Neotropical Vertebrates.—Summarizing the preceding facts, we find that the Neotropical region possesses no less than 45 families and more than 900 genera of Vertebrata which are altogether peculiar to it; while it has representatives of 168 families out of a total of 330, showing that 162 families are altogether absent. It has also representatives of 131 genera of Mammalia of which 103 are peculiar to it, a proportion of 45; while of 683 genera of land-birds no less than 576 are peculiar, being almost exactly 56 of the whole. These numbers and proportions are far higher than in the case of any other region.

Insects.

The Neotropical region is so excessively rich in insect life, it so abounds in peculiar groups, in forms of exquisite beauty, and in an endless profusion of species, that no adequate idea of this branch of its fauna can be conveyed by the mere enumeration of peculiar and characteristic groups, to which we are here compelled to limit ourselves. Our facts and figures will, however, furnish data for comparison; and will thus enable those who have some knowledge of the entomology of any other country, to form a better notion of the vast wealth of insect life in this region, than a more general and picturesque description could afford them.

Lepidoptera.—The Butterflies of South America surpass those of all other regions in numbers, variety and beauty; and we find here, not only more peculiar genera and families than elsewhere, but, what is very remarkable, a fuller representation of the whole series of families. Out of the 16 families of butterflies in all parts of the world, 13 are found here, and 3 of these are wholly peculiar—Brassolidæ, Heliconidæ, and Eurygonidæ, with a fourth, Erycinidæ, which only extends into the Nearctic {14}region; so that there are 4 families peculiar to America. These four families comprise 68 genera and more than 800 species; alone constituting a very important feature in the entomology of the region. But in almost all the other families there are numbers of peculiar genera, amounting in all to about 200, or not far short of half the total number of genera in the world—(431). We must briefly notice some of the peculiarities of the several families, as represented in this region. The Danaidæ consist of 15 genera, all peculiar, and differing widely from the generally sombre-tinted forms of the rest of the world. The delicate transparent-winged Ithomias of which 160 species are described, are the most remarkable. Melinæa, Napeogenes, Ceratina and Dircenna are more gaily coloured, and are among the chief ornaments of the forests. The Satyridæ are represented by 25 peculiar genera, many of great beauty; the most remarkable and elegant being the genus Hætera and its allies, whose transparent wings are delicately marked with patches of orange, pink, or violet. The genus Morpho is perhaps the grandest development of the butterfly type, being of immense size and adorned with the most brilliant azure tints, which in some species attain a splendour of metallic lustre unsurpassed in nature. The Brassolidæ are even larger, but are crepuscular insects, with rich though sober colouring. The true Heliconii are magnificent insects, most elegantly marked with brilliant and strongly contrasted tints. The Nymphalidæ are represented by such a variety of gorgeous insects that it is difficult to select examples. Prominent are the genera Catagramma and Callithea, whose exquisite colours and symmetrical markings are unique and indescribable; and these are in some cases rivalled by Agrias and Prepona, which reproduce their style of coloration although not closely allied to them. The Erycinidæ, consisting of 59 genera and 560 species, comprise the most varied and beautiful of small butterflies; and it would be useless to attempt to indicate the unimaginable combinations of form and colour they present. It must be sufficient to say that nothing elsewhere on the globe at all resembles them. In Lycænidæ the world-wide genus Thecla is wonderfully developed, and the South {15}American species not only surpass all others in size and beauty, but some of them are so gorgeous on the under surface of their wings, as to exceed almost all the combinations of metallic tints we meet with in nature. The last family, Hesperidæ, is also wonderfully developed here, the species being excessively numerous, while some of them redeem the character of this generally sober family, by their rich and elegant coloration.

In the only other group of Lepidoptera we can here notice, the Sphingina, the Neotropical region possesses some peculiar forms. The magnificent diurnal butterfly-like moths, Urania, are the most remarkable; and they are rendered more interesting by the occurrence of a species closely resembling them in Madagascar. Another family of day-flying moths, the Castniidæ, is almost equally divided between the Neotropical and Australian regions, although the genera are more numerous in the latter. The American Castnias are large, thick-bodied insects, with a coarse scaly surface and rich dull colours; differing widely from the glossy and gaily coloured Agaristas, which are typical of the family in the East.

Coleoptera.—This is so vast a subject that, as in the case of the regions already treated, we must confine our attention to a few of the more important and best known families as representatives of the entire order.

Cicindelidæ.—We find here examples of 15 out of the 35 genera of these insects; and 10 of these genera are peculiar. The most important are Oxychila (11 sp.), Hiresia (14 sp.), and Ctenostoma (26 sp.). Odontochila (57 sp.) is the most abundant and characteristic of all, but is not wholly peculiar, there being a species in the Malay archipelago. Tetracha, another large genus, has species in Australia and a few in North America and Europe. The small genus Peridexia is divided between Brazil and Madagascar,—a somewhat similar distribution to that of Urania noticed above. One genus, Agrius, is confined to the southern extremity of the continent.

Carabidæ.—Besides a considerable number of cosmopolitan or wide-spread genera, this family is represented by more than 100 genera which are peculiar to the Neotropical region. The {16}most important of these are Agra (150 sp.), Ardistomus (44 sp.), Schizogenius (25 sp.), Pelecium (24 sp.), Calophena (22 sp.), Aspidoglossa (21 sp.), and Lia, Camptodonotus, Stenocrepis, and Lachnophorus, with each more than 12 species. These are all tropical; but there are also a number of genera (26) peculiar to Chili and South Temperate America. The most important of these are Antarctia (29 sp,), all except two or three confined to South Temperate America; Scelodontis (10 sp.), mostly Chilian; Feronomorpha (6 sp.) all Chilian; and Tropidopterus (4 sp.), all Chilian. Helluomorpha (18 sp.), is confined to North and South America; Galerita, Callida, and Tetragonoderus, are large genera which are chiefly South American but with a few species scattered over the other tropical regions, Casnonia and Lebia are cosmopolite, but most abundant in South America. Pachyteles is mostly South American but with a few species in West Africa; while Lobodonotus has one species in South America and two in Africa.

Lucanidæ.—The Neotropical species of this family almost all belong to peculiar genera. Those common to other regions are Syndesus, confined to Tropical South America and Australia, and Platycerus which is Palæarctic and Nearctic, with one species in Brazil. The most remarkable genus is undoubtedly Chiasognathus, confined to Chili. These are large insects of metallic green colours, and armed with enormous serrated mandibles. The allied genera, Pholidotus and Sphenognathus, inhabit Tropical South America. Streptocerus confined to Chili, is interesting, as being allied to the Australian Lamprima. The other genera present no remarkable features; but Sclerognathus and Leptinoptera are the most extensive.

Cetoniidæ.—These magnificent insects are but poorly represented in America; the species being mostly of sombre colours. There are 14 genera, 12 of which are peculiar. The most extensive genus is Gymnetis, which, with its allies Cotinis and Allorhina, form a group which comprehends two-thirds of the Neotropical species of the family. The only other genera of importance are, Inca (7 sp.), remarkable for their large size, and being the only American group in which horns are developed on the head; {17}and Trigonopeltastes (6 sp.), allied to the European Trichius. The non-peculiar genera are, Stethodesma, of which half the species are African and half tropical American; and Euphoria, confined to America both North and South.

Buprestidæ.—In this fine group the Neotropical region is tolerably rich, having examples of 39 genera, 18 of which are peculiar to it. Of these, the most extensive are Conognatha and Halecia, which have a wide range over most parts of the region; and Dactylozodes, confined to the south temperate zone. Of important genera which range beyond the region, Dicerca is mainly Nearctic and Palæarctic; Cinyra has a species in North America and one in Australia; Curis is divided between Chili and Australia; the Australian genus Stigmodera has a species in Chili; Polycesta has a species in Madagascar, two in the Mediterranean region, and a few in North America; Acherusia is divided between Australia and Brazil; Ptosima has one species in south temperate America, the rest widely scattered from North America to the Philippines; Actenodes has a single species in North America and another in West Africa; Colobogaster has two in West Africa, one in Java and one in the Moluccas. The relations of South America and Australia as indicated by these insects has already been sufficiently noticed under the latter region.

Longicornia.—The Neotropical Longicorn Coleoptera are overwhelming in their numbers and variety, their singularity and their beauty. In the recent Catalogue of Gemminger and Harold, it is credited with 516 genera, 489 of which are peculiar to it; while it has only 5 genera in common (exclusively) with the Nearctic, and 4 (in the same way) with the Australian region. Only the more important genera can be here referred to, under the three great families into which these insects are divided.

The Prionidæ are excessively numerous, being grouped in 64 genera, more than double the number possessed by any other region; and 61 of these are peculiar. The three, common to other regions, are, Parandra and Mallodon, which are widely distributed; and Ergates, found also in California and Europe. The most remarkable genera are, the magnificently-coloured Psalidognathus and Pyrodes; the large and strangely marked {18}Macrodontia; and Titanus, the largest insect of the entire family.

Of the Cerambycidæ there are 233 genera, exceeding by one-half, the number in any other region; and 225 of these are peculiar. Only 2 are common to the Neotropical and Nearctic regions exclusively, and 3 to the Neotropical and Australian. The most extensive genera are the elegant Ibidion (80 sp.); the richly-coloured Chrysoprasis (47 sp.); the prettily-marked Trachyderes (53 sp.); with Odontocera (25 sp.); Criodon (22 sp.); and a host of others of less extent, but often of surpassing interest and beauty. The noteworthy genera of wide range are, Oeme and Cyrtomerus, which have each a species in West Africa, and Hammatocerus, which has one in Australia.

The Lamiidæ have 219 genera, and this is the only tropical region in which they do not exceed the Cerambycidæ. This number is almost exactly the same as that of the Oriental genera, but here there are more peculiar groups, 203 against 160 in the other region. The most extensive genera are Hemilophus (80 sp.), Colobothea (70 sp.), Acanthoderes (56 sp.), Oncoderes (48 sp.), Lepturgus (40 sp.), Hypsioma (32 sp.), and Tæniotes (20 sp.). Macropus longimanus, commonly called the harlequin beetle, is one of the largest and most singularly-marked insects in the whole family. Leptostylus has a single species in New Zealand; Acanthoderes has one species in Europe, W. Africa, and Australia, respectively; Spalacopsis has a species in W. Africa; Pachypeza is common to S. America and the Philippines; Mesosa is Oriental and Palæarctic, but has one species on the Amazon; Apomecyna ranges through the tropics of the Eastern Hemisphere, but has two species in S. America; Acanthocinus has one species in Tasmania, and the rest in South America, North America, and Europe; Phæa is wholly Neotropical, except two species in the Philippine Islands.

General Conclusions as to the Neotropical Insect-fauna.—Looking at the insects of the Neotropical region as a whole, we are struck with the vast amount of specialty they present; and, considering how many causes there are which must lead to the dispersal of insects, the number of its groups which are scattered {19}over the globe is not nearly so great as we might expect. This points to a long period of isolation, during which the various forms of life have acted and reacted on each other, leading to such a complex yet harmoniously-balanced result as to defy the competition of the chance immigrants that from time to time must have arrived. This is quite in accordance with the very high antiquity we have shown most insect-forms to possess; and it is no doubt owing to this antiquity, that such a complete diversity of generic forms has been here brought about, without any important deviation from the great family types which prevail over the rest of the globe.

Land Shells.—The Neotropical region is probably the richest on the globe in Terrestrial Mollusca, but this is owing, not to any extreme productiveness of the equatorial parts of the continent, where almost all other forms of life are so largely developed, but to the altogether exceptional riches of the West India Islands. The most recent estimates show that the Antilles contain more species of land shells than all the rest of the region, and almost exactly as many as all continental America, north and south.

Mr. Thomas Bland, who has long studied American land shells, points out a remarkable difference in the distribution of the Operculated and Inoperculated groups, the former being predominant on the islands, the latter on the continent. The Antilles possess over 600 species of Operculata, to about 150 on the whole American continent, the genera being as 22 to 14. Of Inoperculata the Antilles have 740, the Continent 1,250, the genera being 18 and 22. The proportions of the two groups in each country are, therefore:

West India Islands. American Continent.
Operculata Gen. 22 Sp. 608 14 151
Inoperculata " 18 " 737 22 1251

The extensive family of the Helicidæ is represented by 22 genera, of which 6 are peculiar. Spiraxis is confined to Central America and the Antilles; Stenopus and Sagda are Antillean only; Orthalicus, Macroceramus, and Bulimulus have a wider range, the last two extending into the southern United {20}States. Important and characteristic genera are, Glandina, in all the tropical parts of the region; Cylindrella, in Central America and the Antilles; Bulimus, containing many large and handsome species in South America; Stenogyra, widely spread in the tropics; and Streptaxis, in Tropical South America.

Among the Operculata, the Aciculidæ are mostly Antillean, two genera being peculiar there, and one, Truncatella, of wide distribution, but most abundant in the West Indian Islands. The Cyclostomidæ are represented by 15 genera, 9 being peculiar to the region, and 5 of these (belonging to the sub-family Licinidæ) to the Antilles only. Of these peculiar genera Cistula and Chondropoma are the most important, ranging over all the tropical parts of the region. Other important genera are Cyclotus and Megalomastoma; while Cyclophorus also occurs all over the region. The Helicinidæ are mostly Neotropical, six out of the seven genera being found here, and four are peculiar. Stoastoma, is one of the largest genera; and, with Trochatella and Alcadia, is confined to the Antilles, while the wide-spread Helicina is most abundant there.

The Limacidæ, or Old World slugs, are absent from the region, their place being taken by the allied family, Oncidiadæ.

Marine Shells.—We go out of our usual course to say a few words about the marine shells of this region, because their distribution on the two sides of the continent is important, as an indication of the former separation of North and South America, and the connection of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. It was once thought that no species of shells were common to the two sides of the Central American Isthmus, and Dr. Mörch still holds that opinion; but Dr. Philip Carpenter, who has paid special attention to the subject, considers that there are at least 35 species absolutely identical, while as many others are so close that they may be only varieties. Nearly 70 others are distinct but representative species. The genera of marine mollusca are very largely common to the east and west coasts, more than 40 being so named in the lists published by Mr. Woodward. The West Indian Islands being a rich shell district, produce a number of peculiar forms, and the west coast of {21}South America is, to some extent, peopled by Oriental and Pacific genera of shells. On the west coast there is hardly any coral, while on the east it is abundant, showing a difference of physical conditions that must have greatly influenced the development of mollusca. When these various counteracting influences are taken into consideration, the identity or close affinity of about 140 species and 40 genera on the two sides of the Isthmus of Panama becomes very important; and, combined with the fact of 48 species of fish (or 30 per cent. of those known) being identical on the adjacent coasts of the two oceans (as determined by Dr. Günther), render it probable that Central America has been partially submerged up to comparatively recent geological times. Yet another proof of this former union of two oceans is to be found in the fossil corals of the Antilles of the Miocene age, which Dr. Duncan finds to be more allied to existing Pacific forms, than to those of the Atlantic or even of the Caribbean Sea.

Neotropical Sub-regions.

In the concluding part of this work devoted to geographical zoology, the sub-regions are arranged in the order best adapted to exhibit them in a tabular form, and to show the affinities of the several regions; but for our present purpose it will be best to take first in order that which is the most important and most extensive, and which exhibits all the peculiar characteristics of the region in their fullest development. We begin therefore with our second division.

II. Tropical South-America, or the Brazilian Sub-region.

This extensive district may be defined as consisting of all the tropical forest-region of South America, including all the open plains and pasture lands, surrounded by, or intimately associated with, the forests. Its central mass consists of the great forest-plain of the Amazons, extending from Paranaiba on the north coast of Brazil (long. 42° W.) to Zamora, in the province of Loja (lat. 4° S., long. 79° W.), high up in the Andes, on the west;—a distance in a straight line of more than 2,500 English miles, {22}along the whole of which there is (almost certainly) one continuous virgin forest. Its greatest extent from north to south, is from the mouths of the Orinooko to the eastern slopes of the Andes near La Paz in Bolivia and a little north of Sta. Cruz de la Sierra (lat. 18° S.), a distance of about 1,900 miles. Within this area of continuous forests, are included some open "campos," or patches of pasture lands, the most important being,—the Campos of the Upper Rio Branco on the northern boundary of Brazil; a tract in the interior of British Guiana; and another on the northern bank of the Amazon near its mouth, and extending some little distance on its south bank at Santarem. On the northern bank of the Orinooko are the Llanos, or flat open plains, partly flooded in the rainy season; but much of the interior of Venezuela appears to be forest country. The forest again prevails from Panama to Maracaybo, and southwards in the Magdalena valley; and on all the western side of the Andes to about 100 miles south of Guayaquil. On the N.E. coast of Brazil is a tract of open country, in some parts of which (as near Ceara) rain does not fall for years together; but south of Cape St. Roque the coast-forests of Brazil commence, extending to lat. 30° S., clothing all the valleys and hill sides as far inland as the higher mountain ranges, and even penetrating up the great valleys far into the interior. To the south-west the forest country reappears in Paraguay, and extends in patches and partially wooded country, till it almost reaches the southern extension of the Amazonian forests. The interior of Brazil is thus in the position of a great island-plateau, rising out of, and surrounded by, a lowland region of ever-verdant forest. The Brazilian sub-region comprises all this forest-country and its included open tracts, and so far beyond it as there exists sufficient woody vegetation to support its peculiar forms of life. It thus extends considerably beyond the tropic in Paraguay and south Brazil; while the great desert of Chaco, extending from 25° to 30° S., lat. between the Parana and the Andes, as well as the high plateaus of the Andean range, with the strip of sandy desert on the Pacific coast as far as to about 5° of south latitude, belong to south temperate America, or the sub-region of the Andes.

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Having already given a sketch, of the zoological features of the Neotropical region as a whole, the greater part of which will apply to this sub-region, we must here confine ourselves to an indication of the more important groups which, on the one hand, are confined to it, and on the other are absent; together with a notice of its special relations to other regions.

Mammalia.—Many of the most remarkable of the American monkeys are limited to this sub-region; as Lagothrix, Pithecia, and Brachyurus, limited to the great Amazonian forests; Eriodes to south-east Brazil; and Callithrix to tropical South America. All the marmosets (Hapalidæ) are also confined to this sub-region, one only being found at Panama, and perhaps extending a little beyond it. Among other peculiar forms, are 8 genera of bats; 3 peculiar forms of wild dog; Pteronura, a genus of otters; Inia, a peculiar form of dolphin inhabiting the upper waters of the Amazon; tapirs of the genus Tapirus (a distinct genus being found north of Panama); 4 genera of Muridæ; Ctenomys, a genus of Octodontidæ; the whole family of Echimyidæ, or spiny rats, (as far as the American continent is concerned) consisting of 8 genera and 28 species; Chætomys, a genus of Cercolabidæ; the capybara (Hydrochœrus) the largest known rodent, belonging to the Caviidæ; the larger ant-eaters (Myrmecophaga); sloths of the genus Bradypus; 2 genera of armadillos (Dasypodidæ); and two peculiar forms of the opossum family (Didelphyidæ). No group that is typically Neotropical is absent from this sub-region, except such as are peculiar to other single sub-regions and which will be noticed accordingly. The occurrence of a solitary species of hare (Lepus braziliensis) in central Brazil and the Andes, is remarkable, as it is cut off from all its allies, the genus not being known to occur elsewhere on the continent further south than Costa Rica. The only important external relation indicated by the Mammalia of this sub-region is towards the Ethiopian region, 2 genera of Echimyidæ, Aulacodes and Petromys, occurring in South and South-east Africa.

Plate IV. Characteristic Neotropical Mammalia.—Our illustration represents a mountainous forest in Brazil, the part of South America where the Neotropical Mammalia are perhaps best {24}developed. The central and most conspicuous figure is the collared ant-eater, (Tamandua tetradactyla), one of the handsomest of the family, in its conspicuous livery of black and white. To the left are a pair of sloths (Arctopithecus flaccidus) showing the curious black spot on the back with which many of the species are marked, and which looks like a hole in the trunk of a tree; but this mark seems to be only found on the male animal. The fur of many of the sloths has a greenish tinge, and Dr. Seemann remarked its resemblance to the Tillandsia usneoides, or "vegetable horsehair," which clothes many of the trees in Central America; and this probably conceals them from their enemies, the harpy-eagles. On the right are a pair of opossums (Didelphys azaræ), one of them swinging by its prehensile tail. Overhead in the foreground are a group of howling monkeys (Mycetes ursinus) the largest of the American Quadrumana, and the noisiest of monkeys. The large hollow vessel into which the hyoid bone is transformed, and which assists in producing their tremendous howling, is altogether unique in the animal kingdom. Below them, in the distance, are a group of Sapajou monkeys (Cebus sp.); while gaudy screaming macaws complete the picture of Brazilian forest life.

Birds.—A very large number of genera of birds, and some entire families, are confined to this sub-region, as will be seen by looking over the list of genera at the end of this chapter. We can here only notice the more important, and summarize the results. More than 120 genera of Passeres are thus limited, belonging to the following 12 families: Sylviidæ (1), Troglodytidæ (2), Cœrebidæ (4), Tanagridæ (26), Fringillidæ (8), Icteridæ (5), Pteroptochidæ (3), Dendrocolaptidæ (12), Formicariidæ (16), Tyrannidæ (22), Cotingidæ (16), Pipridæ (10). Of the Picariæ there are 76 peculiar genera belonging to 9 families, viz., Picidæ (2), Rhamphastidæ (1), Cuculidæ (1), Bucconidæ (2), Galbulidæ (5), Momotidæ (2), Podargidæ (1), Caprimulgidæ (4), Trochilidæ (58). There are 3 peculiar genera of Psittaci, 8 of Gallinæ, the only genus of Opisthocomidæ, 3 of Accipitres, 1 of Rallidæ, Psophia and Eurypyga types of distinct families, and 1 genus of Ardeidæ, Palamedeidæ, and Anatidæ respectively. The preceding enumeration shows how very rich this sub-region is in peculiar types of all the most characteristic American families, such as the Tanagridæ, Tyrannidæ, Cotingidæ, Formicariidæ, Trochilidæ, and Galbulidæ. A considerable proportion of the genera of the Chilian and Mexican sub-regions also occur here, so that out of about 680 genera of Neotropical land-birds more than 500 are represented in this sub-region.

Plate XIV.

A BRAZILIAN FOREST, WITH CHARACTERISTIC
    MAMMALIA.

A BRAZILIAN FOREST, WITH CHARACTERISTIC MAMMALIA.

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Without entering minutely into the distribution of species it is difficult to sub-divide this extensive territory with any satisfactory result.[1] The upland tract between the Amazon and Orinooko, which may be termed Guiana, was evidently once an island, yet it possesses few marked distinctive features. Brazil, which must have formed another great island, has more speciality, but the intermediate Amazonian forests form a perfect transition between them. The northern portion of the continent west of the Orinooko has more character; and there are indications that this has received many forms from Central and North America, and thus blended two faunas once more distinct than they are now. The family of wood-warblers (Mniotiltidæ) seems to have belonged to this more northern fauna; for out of 18 genera only 5 extend south of the equator, while 6 range from Mexico or the Antilles into Columbia, some of these being only winter immigrants and no genus being exclusively South American. The eastern slopes of the Andes constitute, however, the richest and best marked province of this sub-region. At least 12 genera of tanagers (Tanagridæ) are found here only, with an immense number of Fringillidæ,—the former confined to the forests; the latter ranging to the upland plains. The ant-thrushes (Formicariidæ) on the other hand seem more abundant in the lowlands, many genera being peculiar to the Amazonian forests. The superb chatterers (Cotingidæ) also seem to have their head-quarters in the forests of Brazil and Guiana, and to have thence spread {26}into the Amazonian valley. Guiana still boasts such remarkable forms as the cardinal chatterer (Phœnicocercus), the military chatterer (Hæmatoderus), as well as Querula, Gymnoderus, and Gymnocephalus; but the first three pass to the south side of the Lower Amazon. Here also belong the cock of the rock (Rupicola), which ranges from Guiana to the Andes, and the marvellous umbrella-birds of the Rio Nigro and Upper Amazon (Cephalopterus), which extends across the Ecuadorean Andes and into Costa Rica. Brazil has Ptilochloris, Casiornis, Tijuca, Phibalura, and Calyptura; while not a single genus of this family, except perhaps Heliochæra, is confined to the extensive range of the Andes. Almost the same phenomena are presented by the allied Pipridæ or manakins, the greater part of the genera and species occurring in Eastern South America, that is in Brazil, Guiana, and the surrounding lowlands rather than in the Andean valleys. The same may be said of the jacamars (Galbulidæ) and puff-birds (Bucconidæ); but the humming-birds (Trochilidæ) have their greatest development in the Andean district. Brazil and Guiana have each a peculiar genus of parrots; Guiana has three peculiar genera of Cracidæ, while the Andes north of the equator have two. The Tinamidæ on the other hand have their metropolis in Brazil, which has two or three peculiar genera, while two others seem confined to the Andes south of the equator. The elegant trumpeters (Psophiidæ) are almost restricted to the Amazonian valley.

Somewhat similar facts occur among the Mammalia. At least 3 genera of monkeys are confined to the great lowland equatorial forests and 1 to Brazil; Icticyon (Canidæ) and Pteronura (Mustelidæ) belong to Guiana and Brazil; and most of the Echimyidæ are found in the same districts. The sloths, ant-eaters, and armadillos all seem more characteristic of the eastern districts than of the Andean; while the opossums are perhaps equally plentiful in the Andes.

The preceding facts of distribution lead us to conclude that the highlands of Brazil and of Guiana represent very ancient lands, dating back to a period long anterior to the elevation of the Andean range (which is by no means of great geological {27}antiquity) and perhaps even to the elevation of the continuous land which forms the base of the mountains. It was, no doubt, during their slow elevation and the consequent loosening of the surface, that the vast masses of debris were carried down which filled up the sea separating the Andean chain from the great islands of Brazil and Guiana, and formed that enormous extent of fertile lowland forest, which has created a great continent; given space for the free interaction of the distinct faunas which here met together, and thus greatly assisted in the marvellous development of animal and vegetable life, which no other continent can match. But this development, and the fusion of the various faunas into one homogeneous assemblage must have been a work of time; and it is probable that most of the existing continent was dry land before the Andes had acquired their present altitude. The blending of the originally distinct sub-faunas has been no doubt assisted by elevations and depressions of the land or of the ocean, which have alternately diminished and increased the land-area. This would lead to a crowding together at one time, and a dispersion at others, which would evidently afford opportunity for many previously restricted forms to enter fresh areas and become adapted to new modes of life.

From the preceding sketch it will appear, that the great sub-region of Tropical South America as here defined, is really formed of three originally distinct lands, fused together by the vast lowland Amazonian forests. In the class of birds sufficient materials exist for separating these districts; and that of the Andes contains a larger series of peculiar genera than either of the other sub-regions here adopted. But there are many objections to making such a sub-division here. It is absolutely impossible to define even approximate limits to these divisions—to say for example where the "Andes" ends and where "Brazil" or "Amazonia" or "Guiana" begins; and the unknown border lands separating these are so vast, that many groups, now apparently limited in their distribution, may prove to have a very much wider range. In mammalia, reptiles, and insects, it is even more difficult to maintain such divisions, so that on the whole it seems better to treat the entire area as one sub-region, {28}although recognizing the fact of its zoological and geographical diversity, as well as its vast superiority over every other sub-region in the number and variety of its animal forms.

The reptiles, fishes, mollusca, and insects of this sub-region have been sufficiently discussed in treating of the entire region, as by far the larger proportion of them, except in the case of land-shells, are found here.

Plate XV. Characteristic Neotropical Birds.—To illustrate the ornithology of South America we place our scene on one of the tributaries of the Upper Amazon, a district where this class of animals is the most prominent zoological feature, and where a number of the most remarkable and interesting birds are to be found. On the left we have the umbrella-bird (Cephalopterus ornatus), so called from its wonderful crest, which, when expanded, completely overshadows its head like an umbrella. It is also adorned with a long tassel of plumes hanging from its breast, which is formed by a slender fleshy tube clothed with broad feathers. The bird is as large as a crow, of a glossy blue-black colour, and belongs to the same family as the exquisitely tinted blue-and-purple chatterers. Flying towards us are a pair of curl-crested toucans (Pteroglossus beauharnaisii), distinguished among all other toucans by a crest composed of small black and shining barbless plumes, resembling curled whalebone. The general plumage is green above, yellow and red beneath, like many of its allies. To the right are two of the exquisite little whiskered hummers, or "frill-necked coquettes," as they are called by Mr. Gould, (Lophornis gouldi). These diminutive birds are adorned with green-tipped plumes springing from each side of the throat, as well as with beautiful crests, and are among the most elegant of the great American family of humming-birds, now numbering about 400 known species. Overhead are perched a pair of curassows (Crax globulosa), which represent in America the pheasants of the Old World. There are about a dozen species of these fine birds, most of which are adorned with handsome curled crests. That figured, is distinguished by the yellow caruncular swellings at the base of the bill. The tall crane-like bird near the water is one of the trumpeters, (Psophia leucoptera), elegant birds with silky plumage peculiar to the Amazon valley. They are often kept in houses, where they get very tame and affectionate; and they are useful in catching flies and other house insects, which they do with great perseverance and dexterity.

Plate XV.

A FOREST SCENE ON THE UPPER AMAZON, WITH
    SOME CHARACTERISTIC BIRDS.

A FOREST SCENE ON THE UPPER AMAZON, WITH SOME CHARACTERISTIC BIRDS.

{29}

Islands of Tropical South America.

These are few in number, and, with one exception, not of much interest. Such islands as Trinidad and Sta. Catherina form parts of South America, and have no peculiar groups of animals. The small islands of Fernando Noronha, Trinidad, and Martin Vaz, off the coast of Brazil, are the only Atlantic islands somewhat remote from land; while the Galapagos Archipelago in the Pacific is the only group whose productions have been carefully examined, or which present features of special interest.

Galapagos Islands.—These are situated on the equator, about 500 miles from the coast of Ecuador. They consist of the large Albemarle island, 70 miles long; four much smaller (18 to 25 miles long), named Narborough, James, Indefatigable, and Chatham Islands; four smaller still (9 to 12 miles long), named Abingdon, Bindloes, Hood's, and Charles Islands. All are volcanic, and consist of fields of black basaltic lava, with great numbers of extinct craters, a few which are still active. The islands vary in height from 1,700 to 5,000 feet, and they all rise sufficiently high to enter the region of moist currents of air, so that while the lower parts are parched and excessively sterile, above 800 or 1,000 feet there is a belt of comparatively green and fertile country.

These islands are known to support 58 species of Vertebrates,—1 quadruped, 52 birds and 5 reptiles, the greater part of which are found nowhere else, while a considerable number belong to peculiar and very remarkable genera. We must therefore notice them in some detail.

Mammalia.—This class is represented by a mouse belonging to the American genus Hesperomys, but slightly different from any found on the continent. A true rat (Mus), slightly differing from any European species, also occurs; and as there can be little doubt that this is an escape from a ship, somewhat {30}changed under its new conditions of life (the genus Mus not being indigenous to the American continent), it is not improbable, as Mr. Darwin remarks, that the American mouse may also have been imported by man, and have become similarly changed.

Birds.[2]—Recent researches in the islands have increased the number of land-birds to thirty-two, and of wading and aquatic birds to twenty-three. All the land birds but two or three are peculiar to the islands, and eighteen, or considerably more than half, belong to peculiar genera. Of the waders 4 are peculiar, and of the swimmers 2. These are a rail (Porzana spilonota); two herons (Butorides plumbea and Nycticorax pauper); a flamingo (Phœnicopterus glyphorhynchus); while the new aquatics are a gull (Larus fuliginosus), and a penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus).

The land-birds are much more interesting. All except the birds of prey belong to American genera which abound on the opposite coast or on that of Chili a little further south, or to peculiar genera allied to South American forms. The only species not peculiar are, Dolichonyx oryzivorus, a bird of very wide range in America and of migratory habits, which often visits the Bermudas 600 miles from North America,—and Asio accipitrinus, an owl which is found almost all over the world. The only genera not exclusively American are Buteo and Strix, of each of which a peculiar species occurs in the Galapagos, although very closely allied to South American species. There remain 10 genera, all either American or peculiar to the Galapagos; and on these we will remark in systematic order.

1. Mimus, the group of American mocking-thrushes, is represented by three distinct and well-marked species. 2. Dendrœca, an extensive and wide-spread genus of the wood-warblers (Mniotiltidæ), is represented by one species, which ranges over the greater part of the archipelago. The genus is especially abundant in Mexico, the Antilles, and the northern parts of {31}tropical America, only one species extending south as far as Chili. 3. Certhidea, a peculiar genus originally classed among the finches, but which Mr. Sclater, who has made South American birds his special study, considers to belong to the Cœrebidæ, or sugar-birds, a family which is wholly tropical. Two species of this genus inhabit separate islands. 4. Progne, the American martins (Hirundinidæ), is represented by a peculiar species. 5. Geospiza, a peculiar genus of finches, of which no less than eight species occur in the archipelago, but not more than four in any one island. 6. Camarhynchus (6 sp.) and 7. Cactornis (4 sp.) are two other peculiar genera of finches; some of the species of which are confined to single islands, while others inhabit several. 8. Pyrocephalus, a genus of the American family of tyrant-flycatchers (Tyrannidæ), has one peculiar species closely allied to T. rubineus, which has a wide range in South America. 9. Myiarchus, another genus of the same family which does not range further south than western Ecuador, has also a representative species found in several of the islands. 10. Zenaida, an American genus of pigeons, has a species in James Island and probably in some of the others, closely allied to a species from the west coast of America.

It has been already stated that some of the islands possess peculiar species of birds distinct from the allied forms in other islands, but unfortunately our knowledge of the different islands is so unequal and of some so imperfect, that we can form no useful generalizations as to the distribution of birds among the islands themselves. The largest island is the least known; only one bird being recorded from it, one of the mocking-thrushes found nowhere else. Combining the observations of Mr. Darwin with those of Dr. Habel and Prof. Sundevall, we have species recorded as occurring in seven of the islands. Albemarle island has but one definitely known species; Chatham and Bindloe islands have 11 each; Abingdon and Charles islands 12 each; Indefatigable island and James island have each 18 species. This shows that birds are very fairly distributed over all the islands, one of the smallest and most remote (Abingdon) furnishing as many as the much larger Chatham Island, which is also the nearest {32}to the mainland. Taking the six islands which seem tolerably explored, we find that two of the species (Dendrœca aureola and Geospiza fortis) occur in all of them; two others (Geospiza strenua and Myiarchus magnirostris) in five; four (Mimus melanotis, Geospiza fuliginosa, G. parvula, and Camarhynchus prosthemelas) in four islands; five (Certhidea olivacea, Cactornis scandens, Pyrocephalus nanus), and two of the birds of prey, in three islands; nine (Certhidea fusca, Progne concolor, Geospiza nebulosa, G. magnirostris, Camarhynchus psittaculus, C. variegatus, C. habeli and Asio accipitrinus) in two islands; while the remaining ten species are confined to one island each. These peculiar species are distributed among the islands as follows. James, Charles and Abingdon islands, have 2 each; Bindloes, Chatham, and Indefatigable, 1 each. The amount of speciality of James Island is perhaps only apparent, owing to our ignorance of the fauna of the adjacent large Albemarle island; the most remote islands north and south, Abingdon and Charles, have no doubt in reality most peculiar species, as they appear to have. The scarcity of peculiar species in Chatham Island is remarkable, it being large, very isolated, and the nearest to the mainland. There is still room for exploration in these islands, especially in Albemarle, Narborough, and Hood's islands of which we know nothing.

Reptiles.—The few reptiles found in these islands are very interesting. There are two snakes, a species of the American genus Herpetodryas, and another which was at first thought to be a Chilian species (Psammophis Temminckii), but which is now considered to be distinct. Of lizards there are four at least, belonging to as many genera. One is a species of Phyllodactylus, a wide-spread genus of Geckotidæ; the rest belong to the American family of the Iguanas, one being a species of the Neotropical genus Leiocephalus, the other two very remarkable forms, Trachycephalus and Oreocephalus (formerly united in the genus Amblyrhynchus). The first is a land, the second a marine, lizard; both are of large size and very abundant on all the islands; and they are quite distinct from any of the very numerous genera of Iguanidæ, spread all over the American continent. The last {33}reptile is a land tortoise (Testudo nigra) of immense size, and also abundant in all the islands. Its nearest ally is the equally large species of the Mascarene Islands; an unusual development due, in both cases, to the absence of enemies permitting these slow but continually growing animals to attain an immense age. It is believed that each island has a distinct variety or species of tortoise.

Insects.—Almost the only insects known from these islands are some Coleoptera, chiefly collected by Mr. Darwin. They consist of a few peculiar species of American or wide-ranging genera, the most important being, a Calosoma, Pœcilus, Solenophorus, and Notaphus, among the Carabidæ; an Oryctes among the Lamellicornes; two new genera of obscure Heteromera; two Curculionidæ of wide-spread genera; a Longicorn of the South American genus Eburia; and two small Phytophaga,—a set of species highly suggestive of accidental immigrations at rare and distant intervals.

Land-Shells.—These consist of small and obscure species, forming two peculiar sub-genera of Bulimulus, a genus greatly developed on the whole West coast of America; and a single species of Buliminus, a genus which ranges over all the world except America. As in the case of the birds, most of the islands have two or three peculiar species.

General Conclusions.—These islands are wholly volcanic and surrounded by very deep sea; and Mr. Darwin is of opinion, not only that the islands have never been more nearly connected with the mainland than at present, but that they have never been connected among themselves. They are situated on the Equator, in a sea where gales and storms are almost unknown. The main currents are from the south-west, an extension of the Peruvian drift along the west coast of South America. From their great extent, and their volcanoes being now almost extinct, we may assume that they are of considerable antiquity. These facts exactly harmonize with the theory, that they have been peopled by rare accidental immigrations at very remote intervals. The only peculiar genera consist of birds and lizards, which must therefore have been the earliest {34}immigrants. We know that small Passerine birds annually reach the Bermudas from America, and the Azores from Europe, the former travelling over 600, the latter over 1000 miles of ocean. These groups of islands are both situated in stormy seas, and the immigrants are so numerous that hardly any specific change in the resident birds has taken place. The Galapagos receive no such annual visitants; hence, when by some rare accident a few individuals of a species did arrive, they remained isolated, probably for thousands of generations, and became gradually modified through natural selection under completely new conditions of existence. Less rare and violent storms would suffice to carry some of these to other islands, and thus the archipelago would in time become stocked. It would appear probable, that those which have undergone most change were the earliest to arrive; so that we might look upon the three peculiar genera of finches, and Certhidea, the peculiar form of Cœrebidæ, as among the most ancient inhabitants of the islands, since they have become so modified as to have apparently no near allies on the mainland. But other birds may have arrived nearly at the same time, and yet not have been much changed. A species of very wide range, already adapted to live under very varied conditions and to compete with varied forms of life, might not need to become modified so much as a bird of more restricted range, and more specialized constitution. And if, before any considerable change had been effected, a second immigration of the same species occurred, crossing the breed would tend to bring back the original type of form. While, therefore, we may be sure that birds like the finches, which are profoundly modified and adapted to the special conditions of the climate and vegetation, are among the most ancient of the colonists; we cannot be sure that the less modified form of tyrant-flycatcher or mocking-thrush, or even the unchanged but cosmopolitan owl, were not of coeval date; since even if the parent form on the continent has been changed, successive immigrations may have communicated the same change to the colonists.

The reptiles are somewhat more difficult to account for. We know, however, that lizards have some means of dispersal over {35}the sea, because we find existing species with an enormous range. The ancestors of the Amblyrhynchi must have come as early, probably, as the earliest birds; and the same powers of dispersal have spread them over every island. The two American genera of lizards, and the tortoises, are perhaps later immigrants. Latest of all were the snakes, which hardly differ from continental forms; but it is not at all improbable that these latter, as well as the peculiar American mouse, have been early human importations. Snakes are continually found on board native canoes whose cabins are thatched with palm leaves; and a few centuries would probably suffice to produce some modification of a species completely isolated, under conditions widely different from those of its native country. Land-shells, being so few and small, and almost all modifications of one type, are a clear indication of how rare are the conditions which lead to their dispersal over a wide extent of ocean; since two or three individuals, arriving on two or three occasions only during the whole period of the existence of the islands, would suffice to account for the present fauna. Insects have arrived much more frequently; and this is in accordance with their habits, their lower specific gravity, their power of flight, and their capacity for resisting for some time the effects of salt water.

We learn, then, from the fauna of these islands, some very important facts. We are taught that tropical land-birds, unless blown out of their usual course by storms, rarely or never venture out to sea, or if they do so, can seldom pass safely over a distance of 500 miles. The immigrants to the Galapagos can hardly have averaged a bird in a thousand years. We learn, that of all reptiles lizards alone have some tolerably effective mode of transmission across the sea; and this is probably by means of currents, and in connection with floating vegetation. Yet their transmission is a far rarer event than that of land-birds; for, whereas three female immigrants will account for the lizard population, at least eight or ten ancestors are required for the birds. Land serpents can pass over still more rarely, as two such transmissions would have sufficed to stock the islands with their snakes; and it is not certain that either of these occurred without the aid of man. {36}It is doubtful whether mammals or batrachians have any means of passing, independently of man's assistance; the former having but one doubtfully indigenous representative, the latter none at all. The remarkable absence of all gay or conspicuous flowers in these tropical islands, though possessing a zone of fairly luxuriant shrubby vegetation, and the dependence of this phenomenon on the extreme scarcity of insects, has been already noticed at Vol. I. p. 461, when treating of a somewhat similar peculiarity of the New Zealand fauna and flora.

I. South Temperate America, or the Chilian Sub-region.

This sub-region may be generally defined as the temperate portion of South America. On the south, it commences with the cold damp forests of Tierra del Fuego, and their continuation up the west coast to Chiloe and northward to near Santiago. To the east we have the barren plains of Patagonia, gradually changing towards the north into the more fertile, but still treeless, pampas of La Plata. Whether this sub-region should be continued across the Rio de la Plata into Uruguay and Entre-rios, is somewhat doubtful. To the west of the Parana it extends northward over the Chaco desert, till we approach the border of the great forests near St. Cruz de la Sierra. On the plateau of the Andes, however, it must be continued still further north, along the "paramos" or alpine pastures, till we reach 5° of South latitude. Beyond this the Andes are very narrow, having no double range with an intervening plateau; and although some of the peculiar forms of the temperate zone pass on to the equator or even beyond it, these are not sufficiently numerous to warrant our extending the sub-region to include them. Along with the high Andes it seems necessary to include the western strip of arid country, which is mostly peopled by forms derived from Chili and the south temperate regions.

Mammalia.—This sub-region is well characterised by the possession of an entire family of mammalia having Neotropical affinities—the Chinchillidæ. It consists of 3 genera—Chinchilla (2 sp.), inhabiting the Andes of Chili and Peru as far as 9° south latitude, and at from 8,000 to 12,000 feet altitude; Lagidium (3 sp.), ranging over the Andes of Chili, Peru, and South Ecuador, {37}from 11,000 to 16,000 feet altitude; and Lagostomus (1 sp.), the "viscacha," confined to the pampas between the Uruguay and Rio Negro. Many important genera are also confined to this sub-region. Auchenia (4 sp.), including the domesticated llamas and alpacas, the vicugna which inhabits the Andes of Peru and Chili, and the guanaco which ranges over the plains of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego. Although this genus is allied to the Old World camels, it is a very distinct form, and its introduction from North America, where the family appear to have originated, may date back to a remote epoch. Ursus ornatus, the "spectacled bear" of the Chilian Andes, is a remarkable form, supposed to be most allied to the Malay bear, and probably forming a distinct genus, which has been named Tremarctos. Four genera of Octodontidæ are also peculiar to this sub-region, or almost so; Habrocomus (1 sp.) is Chilian; Spalacopus (2 sp.) is found in Chili and on the east side of the southern Andes; Octodon (3 sp.) ranges from Chili into Peru and Bolivia; Ctenomys (6 sp.) from the Straits of Magellan to Bolivia, with one species in South Brazil. Dolichotis, one of the Cavies, ranges from Patagonia to Mendoza, and on the east coast to 37½° S. latitude. Myopotamus (1 sp.), the coypu (Echimyidæ), ranges from 33° to 48° S. latitude on the west side of the Andes, and from the frontiers of Peru to 42° S. on the east side. Reithrodon and Acodon, genera of Muridæ, are also confined to Temperate South America; Tolypeutes and Chlamydophorus, two genera of armadillos, the latter very peculiar in its organization and sometimes placed in a distinct family, are found only in La Plata and the highlands of Bolivia, and so belong to this sub-region. Otaria, one of the "eared seals" (Otariidæ), is confined to the coasts of this sub-region and the antarctic islands. Deer of American groups extend as far as Chiloe on the west, and the Straits of Magellan on the east coast. Mice of the South American genera Hesperomys and Reithrodon, are abundant down to the Straits of Magellan and into Tierra del Fuego, Mr. Darwin having collected more than 20 distinct species. The following are the genera of Mammalia which have been observed on the shores of the Straits of Magellan, those marked * extending into Tierra del Fuego: {38}*Pseudalopex (two wolf-like foxes), Felis (the puma), Mephitis (skunks), Cervus (deer), *Auchenia (guanaco), *Ctenomys (tucu-tucu), *Reithrodon and *Hesperomys (American mice).

Birds.—Three families of Birds are confined to this sub-region,—Phytotomidæ (1 genus, 3 sp.), inhabiting Chili, La Plata, and Bolivia; Chionididæ (1 genus, 2 sp.) the "sheath-bills," found only at the southern extremity of the continent and in Kerguelen's Island, which with the other antarctic lands perhaps comes best here; Thinocoridæ (2 genera, 6 species) an isolated family of waders, ranging over the whole sub-region and extending northward to the equatorial Andes. Many genera are also peculiar: 3 of Fringillidæ, and 1 of Icteridæ; 9 of Dendrocolaptidæ, 6 of Tyrannidæ, 3 of Trochilidæ, and 4 of Pteroptochidæ,—the last four South American families. There is also a peculiar genus of parrots (Henicognathus) in Chili; two of pigeons (Metriopelia and Gymnopelia) confined to the Andes and west coast from Peru to Chili; two of Tinamous, Tinamotis in the Andes, and Calodromas in La Plata; three of Charadriidæ, Phegornis, Pluvianellus, and Oreophilus; and Rhea, the American ostriches, inhabiting all Patagonia and the pampas. Perhaps the Cariamidæ have almost as much right here as in the last sub-region, inhabiting as they do, the "pampas" of La Plata and the upland "campos" of Brazil; and even among the wide-ranging aquatic birds, we have a peculiar genus, Merganetta, one of the duck family, which is confined to the temperate plateau of the Andes.

Against this extensive series of characteristic groups, all either of American type or very distinct forms of Old World families, and therefore implying great antiquity, we find, in mammalia and birds, very scanty evidence of that direct affinity with the north temperate zone, on which some naturalists lay so much stress. We cannot point to a single terrestrial genus, which is characteristic of the north and reappears in this south temperate region without also occurring over much of the intervening land. Mustela seems only to have reached Peru; Lepus is isolated in Brazil; true Ursus does not pass south of Mexico. In birds, the northern groups rarely go further south than Mexico or the Columbian Andes; and the only case of discontinuous {39}distribution we can find recorded is that of the genus of ducks, Camptolæmus, which has a species on the east side of North America and another in Chili and the Falkland Islands, but these, Professor Newton assures me, do not properly belong to the same genus. Out of 30 genera of land-birds collected on the Rio Negro in Patagonia, by Mr. Hudson, only four extend beyond the American continent, and the same exclusively American character applies equally to its southern extremity. No list appears to have been yet published of the land-birds of the Straits of Magellan and Tierra del Fuego. The following is compiled from the observations of Mr. Darwin, the recent voyage of Professor Cunningham, and other sources; and will be useful for comparison.

Turdidæ. Picidæ.
1. Turdus falklandicus. *23. Campephilus magellanicus.
24. Picus lignarius.
Troglodytidæ.
2. Troglodytes magellanicus. Alcedinidæ.
25. Ceryle stellata.
Fringillidæ.
3. Chrysomitris barbata. Trochilidæ.
*4. Phrygilus gayi. 26. Eustephanus galeritus.
*5. Phry"ilus aldunatii
6. Phry"ilus fruticeti Conuridæ.
*7. Phry"ilus xanthogrammus 27. Conurus patagonus.
8. Zonotrichia pileata.
Vulturidæ.
Icteridæ. 28. Cathartes aura.
9. Sturnella militaris. 29. Sarcorhamphus gryphus.
10. Curæus aterrimus.
Falconidæ.
Hirundinidæ. 30. Circus macropterus.
11. Hirundo meyeni. 31. Buteo erythronotus.
32. Geranoaëtus melanolencus.
Tyrannidæ. 33. Accipiter chilensis.
12. Tænioptera pyrope. 34. Cerchneis sparverius.
13. Myiotheretes rufiventris. 35. Milvago albogularis.
14. Muscisaxicola mentalis. 36. Polyborus tharus.
15. Centrites niger.
16. Anæretes parulus. Strigidæ.
17. Elainea griseogularis. 37. Asio accipitrinus.
38. Bubo magellanicus.
Dendrocolaptidæ. 39. Pholeoptynx cunicularia.
18. Upucerthia dumetoria. 40. Glaucidium nana.
*19. Cinclodes patagonicus. 41. Syrnium rufipes.
*20. Cin"lodes fuscus
*21. Oxyurus spinicauda. Struthionidæ.
42. Rhea darwinii.
Pteroptochidæ.
*22. Scytalopus magellanicus.
{40}

In the above list the species marked * extend to Tierra del Fuego. It is a remarkable fact that so many of the species belong to genera which are wholly Neotropical, and that the specially South American families of Icteridæ, Tyrannidæ, Dendrocolaptidæ, Pteroptochidæ, Trochilidæ, and Conuridæ, should supply more than one-third of the species; while the purely South American genus Phrygilus, should be represented by four species, three of which abound in Tierra del Fuego.

Plate XVI. A Scene in the Andes of Chili, with characteristic Animals.—The fauna of South Temperate America being most fully developed in Chili, we place the scene of our illustration in that country. In the foreground we have a pair of the beautiful little chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera), belonging to a family of animals peculiar to the sub-region. There are only two species of this group, both confined to the higher Andes, at about 8000 feet elevation. Coming round a projecting ridge of the mountain, are a herd of vicunas (Auchenia vicugna), one of that peculiar form of the camel tribe found in South America and confined to its temperate and alpine regions. The upper bird is a plant-cutter (Phytotoma rara), of sober plumage but allied to the beautiful chatterers, though forming a separate family. Below, standing on a rock, is a plover-like bird, the Thinocorus orbignianus, which is considered to belong to a separate family, though allied to the plovers and sheath-bills. Its habits are, however, more those of the quails or partridges, living inland in dry and desert places, and feeding on plants, roots, and insects. Above is a condor, the most characteristic bird of the high Andes.

Reptiles and Amphibia.—These groups show, for the most part, similar modifications of American and Neotropical forms, as those we have seen to prevail among the birds. Snakes do not seem to go very far south, but several South American genera of Colubridæ and Dendrophidæ occur in Chili; while Enophrys is peculiar to La Plata, and Callorhinus to Patagonia, both belonging to the Colubridæ. The Elapidæ do not extend into the temperate zone; but Craspedocephalus, one of the Crotalidæ, occurs at Bahia Blanca in Patagonia (Lat. 40° S.)

Plate XVI.

THE CHILIAN ANDES, WITH CHARACTERISTIC
    ANIMALS.

THE CHILIAN ANDES, WITH CHARACTERISTIC ANIMALS.

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Lizards are much more numerous, and there are several peculiar and interesting forms. Three families are represented; Teidæ by two genera—Callopistes peculiar to Chili, and Ameiva which ranges over almost the whole American continent and is found in Patagonia; Geckotidæ by four genera, two of which,—Caudiverbera and Homonota—are peculiar to Chili, while Sphærodactylus and Cubina are Neotropical, the former ranging to Patagonia, the latter to Chili; and lastly the American family Iguanidæ represented by eight genera, no less than six being peculiar, (or almost so,) to the South temperate region. These are Leiodera, Diplolæmus and Proctrotretus, ranging from Chili to Patagonia; Leiolæmus, from Peru to Patagonia; Phymaturus, confined to Chili, and Ptygoderus peculiar to Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego. The other two genera, Oplurus and Leiosaurus, are common to Chili and tropical South America.

Tortoises appear to be scarce, a species of Hydromedusa only being recorded. Of the Amphibia, batrachia (frogs and toads) alone are represented, and appear to be tolerably abundant, seventeen species having been collected by Mr. Darwin in this sub-region. Species of the South American genera Phryniscus, Hylaplesia, Telmatobius, Cacotus, Hylodes, Cyclorhamphus, Pleurodema, Cystignathus, and Leiuperus, are found in various localities, some extending even to the Straits of Magellan,—-the extreme southern limit of both Reptilia and Amphibia, except one lizard (Ptygoderus) found by Professor Cunningham in Tierra del Fuego. There are also four peculiar genera, Rhinoderma belonging to the Engystomidæ; Alsodes and Nannophryne to the Bombinatoridæ; Opisthodelphys to the Hylidæ; and Calyptocephalus to the Discoglossidæ.

It thus appears, that in the Reptiles all the groups are typically American, and that most of the peculiar genera belong to families which are exclusively American. The Amphibia, on the other hand, present some interesting external relations, but these are as much with Australia as with the North temperate regions. The Bombinatoridæ are indeed Palæarctic, but a larger proportion are Neotropical, and one genus inhabits New Zealand. The Chilian genus Calyptocephalus is allied to Australian tropical genera. {42}The Neotropical genera of Ranidæ, five of which extend to Chili and Patagonia, belong to a division which is Australian and Neotropical, and which has species in the Oriental and Ethiopian regions.

Fresh-water Fishes.—These present some peculiar forms, and some very interesting phenomena of distribution. The genus Percilia has been found only in the Rio de Maypu in Chili; and Percichthys, also belonging to the perch family, has five species confined to the fresh waters of South Temperate America, and one far away in Java. Nematogenys (1 sp.) is peculiar to Chili; Trichomycterus reaches 15,000 feet elevation in the Andes,—both belonging to the Siluridæ; Chirodon (2 sp.), belonging to the Characinidæ, is peculiar to Chili; and several other genera of the same family extend into this sub-region from Brazil. The family Haplochitonidæ has a remarkable distribution; one of its genera, Haplochiton (2 sp.), inhabiting Tierra del Fuego and the Falkland Islands, while the other, Prototroctes, is found only in South Australia and New Zealand. Still more remarkable is Galaxias (forming the family Galaxidæ), the species of which are divided between Temperate South America, and Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand; and there is even one species (Galaxias attenuatus) which is found in the Chatham Islands, New Zealand, and Tasmania, as well as in the Falkland Islands and Patagonia. Fitzroya (1 sp.) is found only at Montevideo; Orestias (6 sp.) is peculiar to Lake Titicaca in the high Andes of Bolivia; Jenynsia (1 sp.) in the Rio de la Plata—all belonging to the characteristic South American family of the Cyprinodontidæ.

Insects.—It is in insects more than in any other class of animals, that we find clear indications of a not very remote migration of northern forms, along the great mountain range to South Temperate America, where they have established themselves as a prominent feature in the entomology of the country. The several orders and families, however, differ greatly in this respect; and there are some groups which are only represented by modifications of tropical forms, as we have seen to be almost entirely the case in birds and reptiles.

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Lepidoptera.—The butterflies of the South Temperate Sub-region are not numerous, only about 29 genera and 80 species being recorded. Most of these are from Chili, which is sufficiently accounted for by the general absence of wood on the east side of the Andes from Buenos Ayres to South Patagonia. The families represented are as follows: Satyridæ, with 11 genera and 27 species, are the most abundant; Nymphalidæ, 2 genera and 8 species; Lemoniidæ, 1 genus, 1 species; Lycænidæ, 3 genera, 8 species; Pieridæ, 6 genera, 14 species; Papilionidæ, 2 genera, 8 species; Hesperidæ, 4 genera, 13 species. One genus of Satyridæ (Elina) and 2 of Pieridæ (Eroessa and Phulia) are peculiar to Chili. The following are the genera whose derivation must be traced to the north temperate zone:—Tetraphlebia, Neosatyrus, and 3 allied genera of 1 species each, were formerly included under Erebia, a northern and arctic form, yet having a few species in South Africa; Argyrophorus, allied to Æneis, a northern genus; Hipparchia, a northern genus yet having a species in Brazil;—all Satyridæ. The Nymphalidæ are represented by the typical north temperate genus Argynnis, with 7 species in Chili; Colias, among the Pieridæ, is usually considered to be a northern genus, but it possesses representatives in South Africa, the Sandwich Islands, Malabar, New Grenada, and Peru, as well as Chili, and must rather be classed as cosmopolitan. These form a sufficiently remarkable group of northern forms, but they are accompanied by others of a wholly Neotropical origin. Such are Stibomorpha with 6 species, ranging through South America to Guatemala, and Eteona, common to Chili and Brazil (Satyridæ); Apodemia (Lemoniidæ) confined to Tropical America and Chili. Hesperocharis and Callidryas (Pieridæ), both tropical; and Thracides (Hesperidæ) confined to Tropical America and Chili. Other genera are widely scattered; as, Epinephile found also in Mexico and Australia; Cupido, widely spread in the tropics; Euryades, found only in La Plata and Paraguay, allied to South American forms of Papilio, to the Australian Eurycus, and the northern Parnassius; and Heteropterus, scattered in Chili, North America, and Tropical Africa. We find then, among butterflies, a large north-temperate element, {44}intermingled in nearly equal proportions with forms derived from Tropical America; and the varying degrees of resemblances of the Chilian to the northern species, seems to indicate successive immigrations at remote intervals.

Coleoptera.—It is among the beetles of South Temperate America that we find some of the most curious examples of remote affinities, and traces of ancient migrations. The Carabidæ are very well represented, and having been more extensively collected than most other families, offer us perhaps the most complete materials. Including the Cicindelidæ, about 50 genera are known from the South Temperate Sub-region, the greater part from Chili, but a good number also from Patagonia and the Straits of Magellan. Of these more than 30 are peculiar, and most of them are so isolated that it is impossible to determine with precision their nearest allies.

The only remarkable form of Cicindelidæ is Agrius, a genus allied to the Amblycheila and Omus of N.W. America. Two genera of Carabidæ, Cascellius and Baripus, are closely allied to Promecoderus, an Australian genus; and another, Lecanomerus, has one species in Chili and the other in Australia. Five or six of the peculiar genera are undoubtedly allied to characteristic Palæarctic forms; and such northern genera as Carabus, Pristonychus, Anchomenus, Pterostichus, Percus, Bradycellus, Trechus, and Bembidium, all absent from Tropical America, give great support to the view that there is a close relation between the insects of the northern regions and South Temperate America. A decided tropical element is, however, present. Tropopterus is near Colpodes, a Tropical and South American genus; Mimodromius and Plagiotelium are near Calleida, a South American genus; while Pachyteles, Pericompsus, Variopalpus, and Calleida are widely spread American groups. The preponderance of northern forms seems, however, to be undoubted.

Six Carabidæ are known from Juan Fernandez, 3 being identical with Chilian species and 3 peculiar. As the island is 350 miles from the mainland, we have here a proof of how readily insects may be transported great distances.

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The Palæarctic affinity of the South Temperate Carabidæ may be readily understood, if we bear in mind the great antiquity of the group, and the known long persistence of generic and specific forms of Coleoptera; the facility with which they may be transported to great distances by gales and hurricanes, either on land or over the sea; and, therefore, the probability that suitable stations would be rapidly occupied by species already adapted to them, to the exclusion of those of the adjacent tracts which had been specialised under different conditions. If, for example, we carry ourselves back to the time when the Andes had only risen to half their present altitude, and Patagonia had not emerged from the ocean (an epoch not very remote geologically), we should find nearly all the Carabidæ of South America, adapted to a warm, and probably forest-covered country. If, then, a further considerable elevation of the land took place, a large temperate and cold area would be formed, without any suitable insect inhabitants. During the necessarily slow process of elevation, many of the tropical Carabidæ would spread upwards, and some would become adapted to the new conditions; while the majority would probably only maintain themselves by continued fresh immigrations. But, as the mountains rose, another set of organisms would make their way along the highest ridges. The abundance and variety of the North Temperate Carabidæ, and their complete adaptation to a life on barren plains and rock-strewn mountains, would enable them rapidly to extend into any newly-raised land suitable to them; and thus the whole range of the Rocky Mountains and Andes would obtain a population of northern forms, which would overflow into Patagonia, and there, finding no competitors, would develope into a variety of modified groups. This migration was no doubt effected mainly, during successive glacial epochs, when the mountain-range of the Isthmus of Panama, if moderately increased in height, might become adapted for the passage of northern forms, while storms would often carry insects from peak to peak over intervening forest lowlands or narrow straits of sea. If this is the true explanation, we ought to find no such preponderant northern element in groups which {46}are proportionally less developed in cold and temperate climates. Our further examination will show how far this is the case.

Lucanidæ.—Only four genera are known in the sub-region. Two are peculiar, Chiasognathus and Streptocerus, the former allied to Tropical American, the latter to Australian genera; the other two genera are exclusively South American.

Cetoniidæ.—These seem very scarce, only a few species of the Neotropical genus Gymnetis reaching Patagonia.

Buprestidæ.—These are rather numerous, many very beautiful species being found in Chili. Nineteen genera are represented in South Temperate America, and 5 of these are peculiar to it; 3 others are South American genera; 2 are Australian, and the remainder are wide-spread, but all are found also in Tropical America. The only north-temperate genus is Dicerca, and even this occurs also in the Antilles, Brazil, and Peru. Of the peculiar genera, the largest, Dactylozodes (26 sp.), has one species in South Brazil, and is closely allied to Hyperantha, a genus of Tropical America; Epistomentis is allied to Nascis, an Australian genus; Tyndaris is close to Acmæodera, a genus of wide range and preferring desert or dry countries. The other two are single species of cosmopolitan affinities. On the whole, therefore, the Buprestidæ are unmistakeably Neotropical in character.

Longicorns.—Almost the whole of the South Temperate Longicorns inhabit Chili, which is very rich in this beautiful tribe. About 75 genera and 160 species are known, and nearly half of the genera are peculiar. Many of the species are large and handsome, rivalling in beauty those of the most favoured tropical lands. Of the 8 genera of Prionidæ 6 are peculiar, but all are allied to Tropical American forms except Microplophorus, which belongs to a group of genera spread over Australia, Europe, and Mexico. The Cerambycidæ are much more abundant, and their affinities more interesting. Two (Syllitus and Pseudocephalus) are common to Australia and Chili. Twenty-three are Neotropical; and among these Ibidion, Compsocerus, Callideriphus, Trachyderes, and Xylocharis, are best represented. Twenty are {47}altogether peculiar, but most of them are more or less closely allied to genera inhabiting Tropical America. Some, as the handsome Cheloderus and Oxypeltus, have no close allies in any part of the world. Holopterus, though very peculiar, shows most resemblance to a New Zealand insect. Sibylla, Adalbus, and Phantagoderus, have Australian affinities; while Calydon alone shows an affinity for north-temperate forms. One species of the northern genus, Leptura, is said to have been found at Buenos Ayres.

The Lamiidæ are less abundant. Nine of the genera are Neotropical. Two (Apomecyna and Exocentrus) are spread over all tropical regions. Ten genera are peculiar; and most of these are related to Neotropical groups or are of doubtful affinities. Only one, Aconopterus, is decidedly allied to a northern genus, Pogonochærus. It thus appears, that none of the Lamiidæ exhibit Australian affinities, although these are a prominent feature in the relations of the Cerambycidæ.

 

It is evident, from the foregoing outline, that the insects of South Temperate America, more than any other class of animals, exhibit a connection with the north temperate regions, yet this connection is only seen in certain groups. In Diurnal Lepidoptera and in Carabidæ, the northern element is fully equal to the tropical, or even preponderates over it. We have already suggested an explanation of this fact in the case of the Carabidæ, and with the butterflies it is not more difficult. The great mass of Neotropical butterflies are forest species, and have been developed for countless ages in a forest-clad tropical country. The north temperate butterflies, on the other hand, are very largely open-country species, frequenting pastures, mountains, and open plains, and often wandering over an extensive area. These would find, on the higher slopes of mountains, a vegetation and conditions suited to them, and would occupy such stations in less time than would be required to adapt and modify the forest-haunting groups of the American lowlands. In those groups of insects, however, in which the conditions of life are nearly the same as regards both temperate and tropical species, the superior {48}number and variety of the tropical forms has given them the advantage. Thus we find that among the Lucanidæ, Buprestidæ, and Longicorns, the northern element is hardly perceptible. Most of these are either purely Neotropical, or allied to Neotropical genera, with the admixture, however, of a decided Australian element. As in the case of the Amphibia and fresh-water fishes, the Australian affinity, as shown by insects, is of two kinds, near and remote. We have a few genera common to the two countries; but more commonly the genera are very distinct, and the affinity is shown by the genera of both countries belonging to a group peculiar to them, but which may be of very great age. In the former case, we must impute some of the resemblance of the two faunas to an actual interchange of forms within the epoch of existing genera—a period of vast and unknown duration in the class of insects; while in the latter case, and perhaps also in many of the former, it seems more in accordance with the whole of the phenomena, to look upon most of the instances as survivals, in the two southern temperate areas, of the relics of groups which had once a much wider distribution. That this is the true explanation, is suggested by the numerous cases of discontinuous and scattered distribution we have had to notice, in which every part of the globe, without exception, is implicated; and there is a reason why these survivals should be rather more frequent in Australia and temperate South America, inasmuch as these two areas agree in the absence of a considerable number of otherwise cosmopolitan vertebrate types, and are also in many respects very similar in climatic and other physical conditions. The preponderating influence of the organic over the physical environment, as taught by Mr. Darwin, leads us to give most weight to the first of the above-mentioned causes; to which we may also impute such undoubted cases of survival of ancient types as the Centetidæ of the Antilles and Madagascar—both areas strikingly deficient in the higher vertebrate forms. The probable mode and time of the cross migration between Australia and South America, has been sufficiently discussed in our chapter on the Australian region, when treating of the origin and affinities of the New Zealand fauna.

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Islands of the South Temperate Sub-region.

These are few, and of not much zoological interest. Tierra del Fuego, although really an island, is divided from the mainland by so narrow a channel that it may be considered as forming part of the continent. The guanaco (Auchenia huanaco) ranges over it, and even to small islands further south.

The Falkland Islands.—These are more important, being situated about 350 miles to the east of Southern Patagonia; but the intervening sea is shallow, the 100 fathom line of soundings passing outside the islands. We have therefore reason to believe that they have been connected with South America at a not distant epoch; and in agreement with this view we find most of their productions identical, while the few that are peculiar are closely allied to the forms of the mainland.

The only indigenous Mammals are a wolf-like fox (Pseudalopex antarcticus) said to be found nowhere else, but allied to two other species inhabiting Southern Patagonia; and a species of mouse, probably one of the American genera Hesperomys or Reithrodon.

Sixty-seven species of Birds have been obtained in these islands, but only 18 are land-birds; and even of these 7 are birds of prey, leaving only 11 Passeres. The former are all common South American forms, but one species, Milvago australis, seems peculiar. The 11 Passeres belong to 9 genera, all found on the adjacent mainland. Three, or perhaps four, of the species are however peculiar. These are Phrygilus melanoderus, P. xanthogrammus, Cinclodes antarcticus, and Muscisaxicola macloviana. The wading and swimming birds are of little interest, except the penguins, which are greatly developed; no less than eight species being found, five as residents and three as accidental visitors.

No reptiles are known to inhabit these islands.

Juan Fernandez.—This island is situated in the Pacific Ocean, about 400 miles west of Valparaiso in Chili. It is only a few miles in extent, yet it possesses four land-birds, excluding the powerful Accipitres. These are Turdus falklandicus; Anæretes {50}fernandensis, one of the Tyrannidæ; and two humming-birds, Eustephanus fernandensis and E. galeritus. The first is a widespread South Temperate species, the two next are peculiar to the island, while the last is a Chilian species which ranges south to Tierra del Fuego. But ninety miles beyond this island lies another, called "Mas-a-fuero," very much smaller; yet this, too, contains four species of similar birds; one, Oxyurus mas-a-fueræ, allied to the wide-spread South Temperate O. spinicauda, and Cinclodes fusus, a South Temperate species—both Dendrocolaptidæ; with a humming-bird, Eustephanus leyboldi, allied to the species in the larger island. The preceding facts are taken from papers by Mr. Sclater in the Ibis for 1871, and a later one in the same journal by Mr. Salvin (1875). The former author has some interesting remarks on the three species of humming-birds of the genus Eustephanus, above referred to. The Chilian species, E. galeritus, is green in both sexes. E. fernandensis has the male of a fine red colour and the female green, though differently marked from the female of E. galeritus. E. leyboldi (of Mas-a-fuera) has the male also red and the female green, but the female is more like that of E. galeritus, than it is like the female of its nearer ally in Juan Fernandez. Mr. Sclater supposes, that the ancient parent form of these three birds had the sexes alike, as in the present Chilian bird; that a pair (or a female having fertilised ova) reached Juan Fernandez and colonised it. Under the action of sexual selection (unchecked by some conditions which had impaired its efficacy on the continent) the male gradually assumed a brilliant plumage, and the female also slightly changed its markings. Before this change was completed the bird had established an isolated colony on Mas-a-fuera; and here the process of change was continued in the male, but from some unknown cause checked in the female, which thus remains nearer the parent form. Lastly the slightly modified Chilian bird again reached Juan Fernandez and exists there side by side with its strangely altered cousin.

All the phenomena can thus be accounted for by known laws, on the theory of very rare accidental immigrations from the {51}mainland. The species are here so very few, that the greatest advocate for continental extensions would hardly call such vast causes into action, to account for the presence of these three birds on so small and so remote an island, especially as the union must have continued down to the time of existing species. But if accidental immigration has sufficed here, it will also assuredly have sufficed where the islands are larger, and the chances of reaching them proportionately greater; and it is because an important principle is here illustrated on so small a scale, and in so simple a manner as to be almost undeniable, that we have devoted a paragraph to its elucidation.

A few Coleoptera from Juan Fernandez present analogous phenomena. All belong to Chilian genera, while a portion of them constitute peculiar species.

Land-shells are rather plentiful, there being about twenty species belonging to seven genera, all found in the adjacent parts of South America; but all the species are peculiar, as well as four others found on the island of Mas-a-fuera.

III. Tropical North America, or the Mexican Sub-region.

This sub-region is of comparatively small extent, consisting of the irregular neck of land, about 1,800 miles long, which connects the North and South American continents. Almost the whole of its area is mountainous, being in fact a continuation of the great range of the Rocky Mountains. In Mexico it forms an extensive table-land, from 6,000 to 9,000 feet above the sea, with numerous volcanic peaks from 12,000 to 18,000 feet high; but in Yucatan and Honduras, the country is less elevated, though still mountainous. On the shores of the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, there is a margin of low land from 50 to 100 miles wide, beyond which the mountains rise abruptly; but on the Pacific side this is almost entirely wanting, the mountains rising almost immediately from the sea shore. With the exception of the elevated plateaus of Mexico and Guatemala, and the extremity of the peninsula of Yucatan, the whole of Central America is clothed with forests; and as its surface is much broken up into hill and valley, and the volcanic {52}soil of a large portion of it is very fertile, it is altogether well adapted to support a varied fauna, as it does a most luxuriant vegetation. Although many peculiar Neotropical types are absent, it yet possesses an ample supply of generic and specific forms; and, as far as concerns birds and insects, is not perhaps inferior to the richest portions of South America in the number of species to be found in equal areas.

Owing to the fact that the former Republic of Mexico comprised much territory that belongs to the Nearctic region, and that many Nearctic groups extend along the high-lands to the capital city of Mexico itself, and even considerably further south, there is much difficulty in determining what animals really belong to this sub-region. On the low-lands, tropical forms predominate as far as 28° N. latitude; while on the cordilleras, temperate forms prevail down to 20°, and are found even much farther within the tropics.

Mammalia.—Very few peculiar forms of Mammalia are restricted to tropical North America; which is not to be wondered at when we consider the small extent of the country, and the facility of communication with adjacent sub-regions. A peculiar form of tapir (Elasmognathus bairdi) inhabits Central America, from Panama to Guatemala, and, with Myxomys, a genus of Muridæ, are all at present discovered. Bassaris, a remarkable form of Procyonidæ, has been included in the Nearctic region, but it extends to the high-lands of Guatemala. Heteromys, a peculiar genus of Saccomyidæ or pouched rats, inhabits Mexico, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Trinidad. Five genera of monkeys extend here,—Ateles, Mycetes, Cebus, Nyctipithecus, and Saimiris; the two former alone reaching Mexico, the last only going as far as Costa Rica. Other typical Neotropical forms are Galera, the tayra, belonging to the weasel family; Nasua, the coatimundi; Dicotyles, the peccary; Cercolabes, the tree porcupine; Dasyprocta, the agouti; Cælogenys, the paca; Cholœpus, and Arctopithecus, sloths; Cyclothurus, an ant-eater; Tatusia, an armadillo; and Didelphys, oppossum. Of Northern forms, Sorex, Vulpes, Lepus, and Pteromys reach Guatemala.

Birds.—The productiveness of this district in bird life, may {53}be estimated from the fact, that Messrs. Salvin and Sclater have catalogued more than 600 species from the comparatively small territory of Guatemala, or the portion of Central America between Mexico and Honduras. The great mass of the birds of this sub-region are of Neotropical families and genera, but these are intermingled with a number of migrants from temperate North America, which pass the winter here; with some northern forms on the high-lands; and with a considerable number of peculiar genera, mostly of Neotropical affinities.

The genera of birds peculiar to this sub-region belong to the following families:—Turdidæ (2 genera); Troglodytidæ (1 gen.); Vireonidæ (1 gen.); Corvidæ (2 gen.); Ampelidæ (1 gen.); Tanagridæ (1 gen.); Fringillidæ (2 gen.); Icteridæ (1 gen.); Formicariidæ (2 gen.); Tyrannidæ (2 gen.); Cotingidæ (1 gen.); Momotidæ (1 gen.); Trogonidæ (1 gen.); Trochilidæ (14 gen.); Conuridæ (1 gen.); Cracidæ (2 gen.); Strigidæ (1 gen.); in all 37 genera of land-birds. The Neotropical families that do not extend into this sub-region are, Pteroptochidæ; the sub-family Furnariinæ of the Dendrocolaptidæ; the sub-family Conophaginæ of the Tyrannidæ; the sub-family Rupicolinæ of the Cotingidæ; Phytotomidæ; Todidæ; Opisthocomidæ; Chionididæ; Thinocoridæ; Cariamidæ; Psophiidæ; Eurypygidæ; Palamedeidæ; and Struthionidæ. On the other hand Paridæ, Certhiidæ, Ampelidæ, and Phasianidæ, are northern families represented here, but which do not reach South America; and there are also several northern genera and species, of Turdidæ, Troglodytidæ, Mniotiltidæ, Vireonidæ, Fringillidæ, Corvidæ, Tetraonidæ, and Strigidæ, which are similarly restricted. Some of the most remarkable of the Neotropical genera only extend as far as Costa Rica and Veragua,—countries which possess a rich and remarkable fauna. Here only are found an umbrella bird, (Cephalopterus glabricollis); a bell bird (Chasmorhynchus tricarunculatus); and species of Dacnis (Cœrebidæ), Buthraupis, Eucometis, Tachyphonus (Tanagridæ), Xiphorhynchus (Dendrocolaptidæ); Hypocnemis (Formicariidæ); Euscarthmus (Tyrannidæ); Attila (Cotingidæ); Piprites (Pipridæ); Capito, Tetragonops (Megalæmidæ); Selenidera (Rhamphastidæ); Neomorphus {54}(Cuculidæ); Monasa (Bucconidæ); many genera of Trochilidæ; and Nothocercus (Tinamidæ); none of which extend further north. A considerable number of the peculiar genera noted above, are also found in this restricted area, which is probably one of the richest ornithological districts on the globe.

Reptiles.—These are much less known than the preceding classes, but they afford several peculiar and interesting forms. Snakes are perhaps the least remarkable; yet there are recorded 4 peculiar genera of Calamariidæ, 1 of Colubridæ, 1 of Homalopsidæ, 3 of Dipsadidæ; while Boa and Elaps are in common with South America. Lizards are much more specially developed. Chirotes, one of the Amphisbænians, is confined to Mexico and the southern part of the Nearctic region; Heloderma forming a peculiar family, Helodermidæ, is Mexican only; Abronia and Barissia (Zonuridæ) are also Mexican, as is Siderolamprus belonging to the Scincidæ, while Blepharactitis (same family) inhabits Nicaragua; Brachydactylus, one of the geckoes, is from Costa Rica; while Phymatolepis, Lamanctus, Corytheolus, Cachrix, Corythophanes and Chamæleopsis, all belonging to the Iguanidæ, are confined to various parts of the sub-region. In the same family we have also the Antillean, Cyclura, and the Nearctic Phrynosoma and Tropidolepis, as well as the wide-spread American genus Anolius.

Among the tortoises, Staurotypus, allied to Chelydra, is found in Mexico and Guatemala; and another genus, Claudius, has been lately described from Mexico.

Amphibia.—These are chiefly Batrachians; Rhinophryna (forming a peculiar family) being confined to Mexico; Triprion, a genus of Hylidæ, inhabiting Yucatan, with Leyla and Strabomantis (Polypedatidæ) found only in Costa Rica and Veragua, are peculiar genera. The Salamandridæ, so abundant in the Nearctic region, are represented by a few species of Amblystoma and Spelerpes.

Fresh-water fish.—Since the British Museum catalogue was published, a valuable paper by Dr. Günther, in the Transactions of the Zoological Society for 1868, furnishes much additional information on the fishes of Central America. In that part of the region south of Mexico, 106 species of fresh-water fishes are {55}enumerated; and 17 of these are found in streams flowing into both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. On the whole, 11 families are represented among the fresh-water fish, and about 38 genera. Of these, 14 are specially Nearctic,—Amiurus (Siluridæ); Fundulus (Cyprinodontidæ); Sclerognathus (Cyprinidæ); and Lepidosteus (Ganoidei). A much larger number are Neotropical; and several Neotropical genera, as Heros and Pœcilia, are more largely developed here than in any other part of the region. There are also a considerable number of peculiar genera;—Petenia, Theraps, and Neotrophus (Chromides); Ælurichthys (Siluridæ); Chalcinopsis (Characinidæ); Characodon, Belonesox, Pseudoxiphophorus, Platypœcilus, Mollienesia, and Xiphophorus (Cyprinodontidæ). A few peculiar Antillean forms are also present; as Agonostoma (Mugilidæ); Gambusia and Girardinus (Cyprinodontidæ). The other families represented are Percidæ (1 genus); Pristopomatidæ (2 gen.); Gobiidæ (1 gen.); Clupeidæ (2 gen.); and Gymnotidæ (1 genus).

On the whole the fish-fauna is typically Neotropical, but with a small infusion of Nearctic forms. There are a considerable proportion of peculiar genera, and almost all the species are distinct from those of other countries. The predominant family is that of the Cyprinodontidæ, represented by 12 genera; and the genus Heros (Chromidæ) has here its maximum development, containing between thirty and forty species. Dr. Günther considers that a number of sub-faunas can be distinguished, corresponding to some extent, with the islands into which the country would be divided by a subsidence of about 2,000 feet. The most important of these divisions is that separating Honduras from Costa Rica, and as it also divides a very marked ornithological fauna we have every reason to believe that such a division must have existed during the latter portion of the tertiary epoch. We shall find some farther evidence of this division in the next class.

Insects.—The butterflies of various parts of Central America and Mexico, having been largely collected, offer us some valuable evidence as to the relations of this sub-region. Their general character is wholly Neotropical, about one half of the {56}South American genera being found here. There are also a few peculiar genera, as, Drucina (Satyridæ); Microtia (Nymphalidæ); Eumæus (Lycænidæ); and Eucheira (Pieridæ). Clothilda (Nymphalidæ) is confined to this sub-region and the Antilles. The majority of the genera range over the whole sub-region from Panama to Mexico, but there are a considerable number, comprising many of the most characteristic South American forms, which do not pass north of Costa Rica or Nicaragua. Such are Lycorea, Ituna, Thyridia, Callithomia, Oleria and Ceratina,—all characteristic South American groups of Danaidæ; Pronophila and Dynastor (Satyridæ); Protogonius, Pycina, Prepona, Nica, Ectima and Colænis (Nymphalidæ); Eurybia and Methonella (Nemeobiidæ); Hades, and Panthemos (Erycinidæ).

Coleoptera.—These present some interesting features, but owing to their vast number only a few of the more important families can be noticed.

Cicindelidæ.—The only specially Neotropical genera recorded as occurring in this sub-region, are Ctenostoma and Hiresia, both reaching Mexico.

Carabidæ.—Several genera are peculiar. Molobrus is found in all parts of the sub-region, while Onychopterygia, Phymatocephalus, and Anisotarsus are Mexican only. There are about 20 South American genera, most of which extend to Mexico, and include such characteristic Neotropical forms as Agra, Callida, Coptodera, Pachyteles, Ardistomus, Aspidoglossa, Stenocrepis, and Pelecium.

Lucanidæ.—Of this important family there is, strange to say, not a single species recorded in Gemminger and Harold's catalogue up to 1868! It is almost impossible that they can be really absent; yet their place seems to he, to some extent, supplied by an unusual development of the allied Passalidæ, of which there are five South American and six peculiar genera.

Cetoniidæ.—All the larger South American genera extend to Mexico, which country possesses 3 peculiar forms, Ischnoscelis, Psilocnemis, and Dialithus; while Trigonopeltastes is characteristic, having 4 Mexican, 1 Brazilian, and 1 North American species.

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Buprestidæ.—In this family there are no peculiar genera. All the large South American groups are absent, the only important and characteristic genus being Stenogaster.

Longicorns.—This important group is largely developed, the country being well adapted to them; and their distribution presents some features of interest.

In the Prionidæ there are 6 peculiar genera, the largest being Holonotus with 3 species; two others, Derotrachus and Mallaspis, are characteristic; 3 more are common to South America, and 1 to Cuba. The Cerambycidæ are much more numerous, and there are 24 peculiar genera, the most important being Sphenothecus, Entomosterna, and Cyphosterna; while Crioprosopus and Metaleptus are characteristic of the sub-region, although extending into South America; about 12 Neotropical genera extend to Mexico or Guatemala, while 12 more stop short, as far as yet known, at Nicaragua. Lamiidæ have a very similar distribution; 13 genera are peculiar, the most important being Monilema, Hammatoderus, and Carneades, while Phæa and Lagochirus are characteristic. About sixteen typical Neotropical genera extend to Mexico, and 15 more only reach Nicaragua, among which are such important genera as Anisopus, Lepturgus, and Callia.

The land-shells are not sufficiently known to furnish any corresponding results. They are however mostly of South American genera, and have comparatively little affinity for those of the Antilles.

Relations of the Mexican sub-region to the North and South American Continents.—The sudden appearance of numerous South American forms of Edentata in temperate North America, in Post-Tertiary times, as narrated in Chapter VII., together with such facts as the occurrence of a considerable number of identical species of sea fish on the two sides of the Central American isthmus, render it almost certain that the union of North and South America is comparatively a recent occurrance, and that during the Miocene and Pliocene periods, they were separated by a wide arm of the sea. The low country of Nicaragua was probably the part submerged, leaving the highlands of Mexico and Guatemala still united with the North {58}American continent, and forming part of the Tertiary "Nearctic region." This is clearly indicated both by the many Nearctic forms which do not pass south of Nicaragua, of which the turkeys (Meleagris) are a striking example, and by the comparative poverty of this area in typical Neotropical groups. During the Miocene period there was not that marked diversity of climate between North and South America that now prevails; for when a luxuriant vegetation covered what are now the shores of the Arctic Ocean, the country south of the great lakes must have been almost or quite tropical. At an early Tertiary period, the zoological differences of the Nearctic and Neotropical regions were probably more radical than they are now, South America being a huge island, or group of islands—a kind of Australia of the New World, chiefly inhabited by the imperfectly organized Edentata; while North America abounded in Ungulata and Carnivora, and perhaps formed a part of the great Old World continent. There were also one or more very ancient unions (in Eocene or Miocene times) of the two continents, admitting of the entrance of the ancestral types of Quadrumana into South America, and, somewhat later, of the Camelidæ; while the isthmus south of Nicaragua was at one time united to the southern continent, at another made insular by subsidence near Panama, and thus obtained that rich variety of Neotropical types that still characterises it. When the final union of the two continents took place, the tropical climate of the lower portions of Guatemala and Mexico would invite rapid immigration from the south; while some northern forms would extend their range into and beyond the newly elevated territory. The Mexican sub-region has therefore a composite character, and we must not endeavour too rigidly to determine its northern limits, nor claim as exclusively Neotropical, forms which are perhaps comparatively recent immigrants; and it would perhaps be a more accurate representation of the facts, if we were to consider all the highlands of Mexico and Guatemala above the limits of the tropical forests, as still belonging to the Nearctic region, of which the whole country so recently formed a part.

The long-continued separation of North and South America {59}by one or more arms of the sea, as above indicated, is further rendered necessary by the character of the molluscan fauna of the Pacific shores of tropical America, which is much more closely allied to that of the Caribbean sea, and even of West Africa, than to that of the Pacific islands. The families and many of the genera are the same, and a certain proportion of very closely allied or identical species, shows that the union of the two oceans continued into late Tertiary times. When the evidence of both land and sea animals support each other as they do here, the conclusions arrived at are almost as certain as if we had (as we no doubt some day shall have) geological proof of these successive subsidences.

Islands of the Mexican Sub-region.—The only islands of interest belonging to this sub-region, are Tres Marias and Socorro, recently investigated by Col. Grayson for some of the American Natural History societies.

Tres Marias consist of four small islands lying off the coast of north-western Mexico, about 70 miles from San Blas. The largest is about 15 miles long by 10 wide. They are of horizontally stratified deposits, of moderate height and flat-topped, and everywhere covered with luxuriant virgin forests. They appear to lie within the 100 fathom line of soundings. Fifty-two species of birds, of which 45 were land-birds, were collected on these islands. They consisted of 19 Passeres; 11 Picariæ (7 being humming-birds); 10 Accipitres; 2 parrots, and 3 pigeons. All were Mexican species except 4, which were new, and presumably peculiar to the islands, and one tolerably marked variety. The new species belong to the following genera;—Parula and Granatellus (Mniotiltidæ); Icterus (Icteridæ); and Amazilia (Trochilidæ). A small Psittacula differs somewhat from the same species on the mainland.

There are a few mammalia on the islands; a rabbit (Lepus) supposed to be new; a very small opossum (Didelphys), and a racoon (Procyon). There are also several tree-snakes, a Boa, and many lizards. The occurrence of so many mammalia and snakes is a proof that these islands have been once joined to the mainland; but the fact that some of the species of both birds and {60}mammals are peculiar, indicates that the separation is not a very recent one. At the same time, as all the species are very closely allied to those of the opposite coasts when not identical, we may be sure that the subsidence which isolated them is not geologically remote.

Socorro, the largest of the Revillagigedo Islands, is altogether different from the Tres Marias. It is situated a little further south (19 S. Latitude), and about 300 miles from the coast, in deep water. It is about 2,000 feet high, very rugged and bare, and wholly volcanic. No mammalia were observed, and no reptiles but a small lizard, a new species of a genus (Uta) characteristic of the deserts of N.-Western Mexico. The only observed land-shell (Orthalicus undatus) also inhabits N.-W. Mexico. Only 14 species of birds were obtained, of which 9 were land-birds; but of these 4 were new species, one a peculiar variety, and another (Parula insularis) a species first found in the Tres Marias. With the exception of this bird and a Buteo, all the land-birds belonged to different genera from any found on the Tres Marias, though all were Mexican forms. The peculiar species belonged to the genera Harporhynchus (Turdidæ); Troglodytes (Troglodytidæ); Pipilo (Fringillidæ); Zenaidura (Columbidæ); and a variety of Conurus holochrous (Psittacidæ).

The absence of mammals and snakes, the large proportion of peculiar species, the wholly volcanic nature of these islands, and their situation in deep water 300 miles from land,—all indicate that they have not formed part of the continent, but have been raised in the ocean; and the close relation of their peculiar species to those living in N.-Western Mexico, renders it probable that their antiquity is not geologically great.

The Cocos Islands, about 300 miles S.-W. of the Isthmus of Panama, are known to possess one peculiar bird, a cuckoo of the Coccyzus type, which is considered by some ornithologists to constitute a peculiar genus, Nesococcyx.

IV. The West Indian Islands, or Antillean Sub-region.

The West Indian islands are, in many respects, one of the most interesting of zoological sub-regions. In position they {61}form an unbroken chain uniting North and South America, in a line parallel to the great Central American isthmus; yet instead of exhibiting an intermixture of the productions of Florida and Venezuela, they differ widely from both these countries, possessing in some groups a degree of speciality only to be found elsewhere in islands far removed from any continent. They consist of two very large islands, Cuba and Hayti;[3] two of moderate size, Jamaica and Portorico; and a chain of much smaller islands, St. Croix, Anguilla, Barbuda, Antigua, Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Barbadoes, and Grenada, with a host of intervening islets. Tobago, Trinidad, Margarita, and Curaçao, are situated in shallow water near the coast of South America, of which they form part zoologically. To the north of Cuba and Hayti are the Bahamas, an extensive group of coral reefs and islands, 700 miles long, and although very poor in animal life, belonging zoologically to the Antilles. All the larger islands, and most of the smaller ones (except those of coral formation) are very mountainous and rocky, the chains rising to about 8,000 feet in Hayti and Jamaica, and to nearly the same height in Cuba. All, except where they have been cleared by man, are covered with a luxuriant forest vegetation; the temperature is high and uniform; the rains ample; the soil, derived from granitic and limestone rocks, exceedingly fertile; and as the four larger islands together are larger than Great Britain, we might expect an ample and luxuriant fauna. The reverse is however the case; and there are probably no land areas on the globe, so highly favoured by nature in all the essentials for supporting animal life, and at the same time so poor in all the more highly organised groups of animals. Before entering upon our sketch of the main features of this peculiar but limited fauna, it will be well to note a few peculiarities in the physical structure of the islands, which have an important bearing on their past {62}history, and will enable us to account for much that is peculiar in the general character of their natural productions.

If we draw a line immediately south of St. Croix and St. Bartholomew, we shall divide the Archipelago into two very different groups. The southern range of islands, or the Lesser Antilles, are, almost without exception, volcanic; beginning with the small detached volcanoes of Saba and St. Eustatius, and ending with the old volcano of Grenada. Barbuda and Antigua are low islands of Tertiary or recent formation, connected with the volcanic islands by a submerged bank at no great depth. The islands to the north and west are none of them volcanic; many are very large, and these have all a central nucleus of ancient or granitic rocks. We must also note, that the channels between these islands are not of excessive depth, and that their outlines, as well as the direction of their mountain ranges, point to a former union. Thus, the northern range of Hayti is continued westward in Cuba, and eastward in Portorico; while the south-western peninsula extends in a direct line towards Jamaica, the depth between them being 600 fathoms. Between Portorico and Hayti there is only 250 fathoms; while close to the south of all these islands the sea is enormously deep, from more than 1,000 fathoms south of Cuba and Jamaica, to 2,000 south of Hayti, and 2,600 fathoms near the south-east extremity of Portorico. The importance of the division here pointed out will be seen, when we state, that indigenous mammalia of peculiar genera are found on the western group of islands only; and it is on these that all the chief peculiarities of Antillian zoology are developed.

Mammalia.—The mammals of the West Indian Islands are exceedingly few, but very interesting. Almost all the orders most characteristic of South America are absent. There are no monkeys, no carnivora, no edentata. Besides bats, which are abundant, only two orders are represented; rodents, by peculiar forms of a South American family; and insectivora (an order entirely wanting in South America) by a genus belonging to a family largely developed in Madagascar and found nowhere else. The early voyagers mention "Coatis" and "Agoutis" as being {63}found in Hayti and the other large islands, and it is not improbable that species allied to Nasua and Dasyprocta did exist, and have been destroyed by the dogs of the invaders; though, on the other hand, these names may have been applied to the existing species, which do bear some general resemblance to these two forms.

The Chiroptera, or bats, are represented by a large number of species and by several peculiar genera. The American family of Phyllostomidæ or vampires, has six genera in the Antilles, of which three, Lonchorina, Brachyphylla, and Phyllonycteris, are peculiar, the latter being found only in Cuba. The Vespertilionidæ have four genera, of which one, Nycticellus, is confined to Cuba. There are six genera of Noctilionidæ, of which one, Phyllodia, is confined to Jamaica.

The Insectivora are represented by the genus Solenodon, of which two species are known, one inhabiting Cuba the other Hayti. These are small animals about the size of a cat, with long shrew-like snout, bare rat-like tail, and long claws. Their peculiar dentition and other points of their anatomy shows that they belong to the family Centetidæ, of which five different genera inhabit Madagascar; while there is nothing closely allied to them in any other part of the world but in these two islands.

Seals are said to be found on the shores of some of the islands, but they are very imperfectly known.

The rodents belong to the family Octodontidæ, or, according to some authors, to the Echimyidæ, both characteristic South American groups. They consist of two genera, Capromys, containing three or four species inhabiting Cuba and Jamaica; while Plagiodontia (very closely allied) is confined to Hayti. A peculiar mouse, a species of the American genus Hesperomys, is said to inhabit Hayti and Martinique, and probably other islands. A Dasyprocta or agouti, closely allied to, if not identical with, a South American species, inhabits St. Vincent, St. Lucia, and Grenada, and perhaps St. Thomas, and is the only mammal of any size indigenous to the Lesser Antilles. All the islands in which sugar is cultivated are, however, overrun with European rats and mice, and it is not improbable that these may have {64}starved out and exterminated some of the smaller native rodents.

Birds.—The birds of the Antilles, although very inferior in number and variety to those of the mainland, are yet sufficiently abundant and remarkable, to offer us good materials for elucidating the past history of the country, when aided by such indications as geology and physical geography can afford.

The total number of land-birds which are permanent residents in the West India islands is, as nearly as can be ascertained from existing materials, 203. There are, in addition to this number, according to Prof. Baird, 88 migrants from North America, which either spend the winter in some of the islands or pass on to Central or South America. These migrants belong to 55 genera, and it is an interesting fact that so many as 40 of these genera have no resident representatives in the islands. This is important, as showing that this northern migration is probably a recent and superficial phenomenon, and has not produced any (or a very slight) permanent effect on the fauna. The migratory genera which have permanent residents, and almost always representative species, in the islands, are in most cases characteristic rather of the Neotropical than of the Nearctic fauna, as the following list will show; Turdus, Dendrœca, Vireo, Polioptila, Agelæus, Icterus, Contopus, Myiarchus, Tyrannus, Antrostomus, Chordeiles, Coccyzus, Columba. By far the larger part of these birds visit Cuba only; 81 species being recorded as occurring in that island, while only 31 have been found in Jamaica, 12 in Porto Rico and St. Croix, and 2 in Tobago and Trinidad. Setting aside these migratory birds, as having no bearing on the origin of the true Antillean fauna, we will discuss the residents somewhat in detail.

The resident land-birds (203 in number) belong to 95 genera and 26 families. Of these families 15 are cosmopolitan or nearly so—Turdidæ, Sylviidæ, Corvidæ, Hirundinidæ, Fringillidæ, Picidæ, Cuculidæ, Caprimulgidæ, Cypselidæ, Trogonidæ, Psittacidæ, Columbidæ, Tetraonidæ, Falconidæ, and Strigidæ; 5 are American only—Vireonidæ, Mniotiltidæ, Icteridæ, Tyrannidæ, Trochilidæ; 4 are Neotropical only or almost {65}exclusively—Cœrebidæ, Tanagridæ, Cotingidæ, Conuridæ; 1 is Antillean only—Todidæ; while 1—Ampelidæ—is confined (in the western hemisphere) to North America, and almost to the Nearctic region. Of the 95 genera, no less than 31, or almost exactly one-third, are peculiar; while of the 203 resident species, 177 are peculiar, the other 26 being all inhabitants of South or Central America. Considering how closely the islands approach the continent in several places—Florida, Yucatan, and Venezuela—this amount of speciality in such locomotive creatures as birds, is probably unexampled in any other part of the globe. The most interesting of these peculiar genera are the following: 4 of Turdidæ, or thrushes—1 confined to the large islands, 1 to the whole archipelago, while 2 are limited to the Lesser Antilles; 2 genera of Tanagridæ, confined to the larger islands; 2 of Trogonidæ, also confined to the larger islands; 5 of hummingbirds, 3 confined to the Greater, 1 to the Lesser Antilles; 2 of cuckoos, one represented in all the large islands, the other in Jamaica only; 2 of owls, one peculiar to Jamaica, the other represented in St. Croix, St. Thomas, Portorico, and Cuba; and lastly, Todus, constituting a peculiar family, and having representative species in each of the larger islands, is especially interesting because it belongs to a group of families which are wholly Neotropical—the Momotidæ, Galbulidæ, and Todidæ. The presence of this peculiar form, with 2 trogons; 10 species of parrots, all but one peculiar; 16 peculiar humming-birds belonging to 8 genera; a genus of Cotingidæ; 10 peculiar tanagers belonging to 3 genera; 9 Cœrebidæ of 3 genera; together with species of such exclusively Neotropical genera as Cœreba, Certhiola, Sycalis, Phonipara, Elainea, Pitangus, Campephilus, Chloronerpes, Nyctibius, Stenopsis, Lampornis, Calypte, Ara, Chrysotis, Zenaida, Leptoptila, and Geotrygon, sufficiently demonstrate the predominant affinities of this fauna; although there are many cases in which it is difficult to say, whether the ancestors of the peculiar genera or species may not have been derived from the Nearctic rather than from the Neotropical region.

The several islands differ considerably in their apparent {66}productiveness, but this is, no doubt, partly due to our knowledge of Cuba and Jamaica being much more complete than of Hayti. The species of resident land-birds at present known are as follows:—

Cuba 68 species of which 40 are peculiar to it.
Hayti 40 " " 17 " "
Jamaica 67 " " 41 " "
Portorico 40 " " 15 " "
Lesser Antilles 45 " " 24 " "

If we count the peculiar genera of each island, and reckon as (½) when a genus is common to two islands only, the numbers are as follows:—Cuba 7½, Hayti 3½, Jamaica 8½, Portorico 1, Lesser Antilles 3½. These figures show us, that although Jamaica is one of the smaller and the most isolated of the four chief islands, it yet stands in the first rank, both for the number of its species and of its peculiar forms of birds,—and although this superiority may be in part due to its having been more investigated, it is probably not wholly so, since Cuba has also been well explored. This fact indicates, that the West Indian islands have undergone great changes, and that they were not peopled by immigration from surrounding countries while in the condition we now see them; for in that case the smaller and more remote islands would be very much poorer, while Cuba, which is not only the largest, but nearest to the mainland in two directions, would be immensely richer, just as it really is in migratory birds.

The number of birds common to the four larger islands is very small—probably not more than half a dozen; between 20 and 30 are common to some two of the islands (counting the Lesser Antilles as one island) and a few to three; but the great mass of the species (at least 140) are confined each to some one of the five islands or groups we have indicated. This is an amount of isolation and speciality, probably not to be equalled elsewhere, and which must have required a remarkable series of physical changes to bring about. What those changes probably were, we shall be in a better position to consider when we have completed our survey of the various classes of land animals.

Plate XVII.

A SCENE IN CUBA, WITH CHARACTERISTIC
    ANIMALS.

A SCENE IN CUBA, WITH CHARACTERISTIC ANIMALS.

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In the preceding enumeration the Bahamas have been included with Cuba, as regards the birds they have in common; but they possess some half dozen species not found elsewhere, and even one central American genus of humming-birds (Doricha) not found in any other part of the Antilles. We have thus given Cuba rather more peculiar species than it really possesses, so that the proportionate richness of Jamaica is rather greater than shown by our figures.

The destruction of the forests and the increase of population, with, perhaps, the use of firearms, seem to have led to the extermination of some species of birds in the smaller islands. Professor Newton has called attention to the work of M. Ledru, who, in 1796, described the birds of St. Thomas. He mentions a parrot and a parroquet in the island, the latter only being now known, and very scarce; also a green pigeon and a tody, both now unknown. No less than six species of parrots are said to have been formerly found in Guadeloupe and Martinique, which are now extinct.

Plate XVII. Illustrating the peculiar Mammalia and Birds of the Antilles.—The scene of this illustration is Cuba, the largest of the West Indian islands, and one in which all its peculiar zoological features are well developed. In the foreground is the agouta (Solenodon cubanus), a remarkable insectivorous animal which, with another species inhabiting Hayti, has no allies on the American continent; nor anywhere in the world but in Madagascar, where a group of animals are found constituting the family Centetidæ, to which Solenodon is said undoubtedly to belong. Above it are a pair of hutias (Capromys fournieri), rat-like animals belonging to the South American family Octodontidæ. They live in the forests, and climb trees readily, eating all kinds of vegetable food. Three species of the genus are known, which are found only in Cuba and Jamaica. Just above these animals is a white-breasted trogon (Prionoteles temnurus), confined to Cuba, and the only species of the genus. Near the top of the picture are a pair of todies (Todus multicolor), singular little insectivorous birds allied to the motmots, but forming a very distinct family which is confined to the islands of the {68}Greater Antilles. They are beautifully-coloured birds,—green above, red and white beneath, and are exceedingly active in their movements. To the right are a pair of small humming-birds (Sporadinus ricordi), not very remarkable in this beautiful family, but introduced here because they belong to a genus which is confined to the Greater Antilles.

Table of distribution of West-Indian Birds.—As the birds of the West Indian islands are particularly interesting and their peculiarities comparatively little known, we give here a table of the genera of land-birds, compiled from all available sources of information. Owing to the numerous independent observations on which it is founded, the discrepancies of nomenclature, and uncertainty in some cases as to the locality of species, it can only be looked upon as an approximative summary of the existing materials on Antillean ornithology.

TABLE OF THE RESIDENT LAND-BIRDS OF THE ANTILLES.

Note.—Genera confined to the West Indies are in Italics. An (a) after (1) indicates a species common to two islands: but where there are two or more species in an island, or the localities are doubtful, this indication cannot be given. All species not otherwise noted are peculiar to the Antilles.

Key to columns:

Column 1 Cuba.

Col"mn 2 Bahamas.

Col"mn 3 Hayti.

Col"mn 4 Jamaica.

Col"mn 5 Portorico & St. Croix.

Col"mn 6 Lesser Antilles.

Col"mn 7 Total resident species.

Family and Genus. Number of Species in each Island. 7 Remarks.
1 2 3 4 5 6
Turdidæ.
Turdus 1 1 Five species migrate to Cuba
Mimocichla 2 1 1 1 5
Margarops 1a 1a 3 4 Martinique, St. Lucia, Guada.
Rhamphocinclus 1 1 Martinique and St. Lucia
Cinclocerthia 3 3 Nevis to St. Lucia
Mimus 1 1 1 (?) 3 Another species migrates to the Antilles
Sylviidæ.
Myiadestes 1 1 1 3 St. Lucia
Polioptila 1 1
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Vireonidæ.

Vireosylvia 1 1 1 1 1 2 One S. American species
Vireo 1 1 1 1 4 Five species migrate to Cuba
Laletes 1 1
Phœnicomanes 1 1
Corvidæ.
Corvus 1 1a 1 1a 3
Cyanocorax 1 1 S. American species
Mniotiltidæ.
Perissoglossa 1 1 1 1 N. American species
Dendrœca 2 2 1 3 1 1 7 Twelve sp. migrate to W. I.
Teretristis 2 2
Cœrebidæ.
Certhiola 1 1 1 2 2 7 Dominica and Martinique
Glossiptila 1 1
Cœreba 1 1 S. American species
Ampelidæ.
Dulus (?) 1 (?) (?) (?) 2 One species locality unknown
Hirundinidæ.
Progne 1 1 1 1
Pterochelidon 1 1 1 1
Hirundo 1 1a 1a 2 One S. American species
Tanagridæ.
Euphonia 1a 1a 1 1 1 4 St. Bartholom. & Martinique
Spindalis 2 1 1 1 1 5
Phænicophilus 1 1
Saltator 1 1 Guadeloupe and St. Lucia
Fringillidæ.
Loxigilla 1 1 1 3 Martinique and Dominica
Melopyrrha 1 1
Sycalis 1 1 S. American species
Phonipara 3 3 3 2 4 One S. American species
Chrysomitris 1 1
Icteridæ.
Icterus 1 1 1 2 2 6
Agelæus 2 1 3
Sturnella 1 1 Mexican species
Nesopsar 1 1
Scolecophagus 1 1
Quiscalus 1 1 2 2 4 St. Lucia, Martinique and Barbadoes
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Tyrannidæ.

Elainea 2 1 3
Pitangus 1a 1a 1 2
Contopus 1 1 2 St. Lucia
Myiarchus 2 1 3 1 1b 7 One S. American species (b)
Blacicus 1a 1a 1 2
Tyrannus 2 1b 1b 2b 3 One sp. in Cen. America (b)
Cotingidæ.
Hadrostomus 1 1
Picidæ.
Campephilus 1 1
Xiphidiopicus 1 1
Melanerpes 1 1
Chloronerpes 1 1
Centurus 1 1 1 3
Colaptes 2 2
Nesoceleus 1 1
Picumnus ?1 1
Cuculidæ.
Saurothera 1 1 1 1 4
Hyetornis 1 1 2
Coccygus 1 2 1 1 1 3 Dominica, St. Lucia, all Neotropical species
Crotophaga 1 1 1 1 2 N. & Cen. American species
Todidæ.
Todus 1 1 2 1 5
Trogonidæ.
Prionoteles 1 1
Temnotrogon 1 1
Caprimulgidæ.
Nyctibius 1 1 Neotropical species
Chordeiles 1 1
Antrostomus 2 1 1 2 One Neotropical species
Siphonorhis 1 1
Stenopsis 1 1 Martinique (S. America sp.)
Cypselidæ.
Cypselus 1 1 1
Panyptila 1 1 S. American species
Hemiprocne 1 1 1 Mexican species
Cypseloides 1 1
{71}

Trochilidæ.

Lampornis 1a 1 2a 1a 3
Doricha 2 2
Eulampis 1 2 2 St. Croix, Dominica, St. Lucia, Martinique
Aithurus 1 1
Mellisuga 1 1 1
Calypte 1 1
Orthorhynchus 1 2 3 Domin., Martini., St. Lucia
Sporadinus 1 1 1 3
Conuridæ.
Ara 1 1 S. American species
Conurus 1 1 1 1 1 St. Thomas
Psittacidæ.
Chrysotis 1 1 2 1 3 8
Columbidæ.
Columba 1 1 2 2 1 3 One in Honduras
Chæmepelia 1 1 1 1
Zenaida 1 1 1 1 2 2
Leptoptila 1 1
Geotrygon 2 1 2 1 2 5 St. Lucia, Martinique, one species Mexican
Starnœnas 1 1
Tetraonidæ.
Ortyx 1 1
Falconidæ.
Accipiter 2 2
Hypotriorchis 1 1 Mexican species
Cerchneis 2 1 1 2
Cymindis 1 1
Polyborus 1 1 Mexican species
Strigidæ.
Nyctalops 1 1 S. American species
Pseudoscops 1 1
Gymnoglaux 1 1 2 St. Croix and St. Thomas
Glaucidium 1 1
Totals brace Number of families of resident land-birds in the Antilles 26
" " genera " " " 95
" " species " " "  203
{72}

Reptiles and Amphibia.—These classes not having been systematically collected, and the numerous described genera not having undergone careful revision, little trustworthy information can be derived from them. The following enumeration of the chief groups hitherto noticed or described, will, however, show very similar features to those presented by the birds—a general relation to Neotropical forms, a more special relation to those of Central America and Mexico, and a considerable number of peculiar types.

Snakes.—Arrhyton (Calamariidæ) from Cuba, Hypsirhynchus from Barbadoes, Cryptodacus from Cuba, Ialtris from Hayti, and Coloragia from Cuba (all Colubridæ), have been described as genera peculiar to the Antilles. Phylodryas and Dromicus (Colubridæ) are Antillean and Neotropical; Ahætulla, (Dendrophidæ) has the same distribution but extends to tropical Africa; Epicrates and Corallus (Pythonidæ) are Neotropical and Antillean; while Chilabothrus from Jamaica and Ungalia from Cuba and Jamaica (both Pythonidæ) are found elsewhere only in Central America and Mexico. There appear to be no Crotalidæ except an introduced species of Craspedocephalus in St. Lucia.

Lizards are more numerous. Ameiva (Teidæ) is found all over America, Gerrhonotus (Zonuridæ) is Neotropical and occurs in Cuba; Gymnophthalmus is South American and Antillean. Of Scincidæ seven genera are noted. Celestus (with 9 species) is peculiar to the Antilles; Camilia (1 species) to Jamaica, Panoplus (1 species) and Embryopus (1 species) to Hayti; Diploglossus is Antillean and South American; while Plestiodon and Mabouya are cosmopolite. Of Geckotidæ there are four genera; Phyllodactylus and Hemidactylus which are cosmopolite; Sphærodactylus which is wholly American; and Cubina found only in Martinique and Brazil. Of Iguanidæ there are six genera; Anolis, which ranges all over America; Polychrus, which is Neotropical; Iguana and Liocephalus which are South American; Tropedurus found in Cuba and Brazil; and Cyclura only known from Jamaica, Cuba, and Central America.

Amphibia.—The genus Trachycephalus, belonging to the {73}Hylidæ or tropical tree-frogs, is almost peculiar to the Antilles; Cuba, Hayti, and Jamaica possessing seven species, while only one is recorded from South America. Other genera are, Peltaphryne (Bufonidæ) from Portorico; Phyllobates (Polypedatidæ) from Cuba; Leiuperus (Ranidæ) from Hayti,—all Neotropical. Of the Urodela, or tailed batrachians, no representative occurs, although they are so characteristic a feature of the Nearctic region.

Fresh-water fish.—The same general remarks apply to these as to the reptiles. Only one peculiar genus is noted—Lebistes, a form of Cyprinodontidæ from Barbadoes; other genera of the same family being, Haplochilus, Rivulus, and Girardinus, widely spread in the Neotropical region; while Gambusia is confined to Central America, Mexico, and the Antilles. Four other families are represented; Siluridæ by Chætostomus, found in Portorico and South America; Chromidæ by the South American Acara; Mugillidæ by the Central American Agonostoma; and Percidæ by the North American Centrarchus, of which a species is recorded from Cuba.

Insects.—The various West Indian islands have not been well explored entomologically; one reason no doubt being, that their comparative poverty renders them little attractive to the professional collector, while the abounding riches of Central and South America lie so near at hand. We can, therefore, hardly tell whether the comparative poverty, or even total absence of some families while others seem fairly represented, is a real phenomenon of distribution, or only dependent on imperfect knowledge. Bearing this in mind, we proceed to give a sketch of what is known of the chief groups of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera.

Lepidoptera.—The Neotropical butterfly-fauna is but poorly represented, the majority of the most remarkable types being entirely wanting; yet there are a few peculiar and very characteristic forms which show great isolation, while the majority of the species are peculiar. Four genera are exclusively or characteristically Antillean,—Calisto belonging to the Satyridæ, with four species, of which one ranges to South Carolina; Clothilda {74}(Nymphalidæ) a fine genus which has 4 Antillean species and 2 in Central America; Lucinia (Nymphalidæ) 2 species, confined to Jamaica and Hayti; and Kricogonia belonging to the Pieridæ, which has 2 West Indian species, while 1 inhabits Mexico and Florida. Genera which show a special relation to Central America are Euptoieta, Eumæus, and Nathalis. Almost all the other genera are South American, the total number recorded in each family as occurring in the West Indian islands, being, 3 of Danaidæ; 1 of Heliconiidæ; 2 of Satyridæ; 18 of Nymphalidæ; 1 of Erycinidæ; 4 of Lycænidæ; 6 of Pieridæ; 1 of Papilionidæ, and 10 of Hesperidæ. The genus Papilio is represented by about 20 species, 2 of which are North American, 4 South American, while the rest form little characteristic groups allied to those of Central America. The most marked feature seems to be the scarcity of Satyridæ and the almost total absence of Erycinidæ, with a great deficiency in characteristic Neotropical forms of Danaidæ and Nymphalidæ.

Coleoptera.—Cicindelidæ and Carabidæ are very poorly represented, by a few species of wide-spread groups, and hardly any peculiar genera. No Lucanidæ are recorded. Of Cetoniidæ, Gymnetis only appears to be represented. Buprestidæ seem to be more numerous; 15 genera being recorded, but almost all of wide distribution. One only is peculiar—Tetragonoschoma, found in Hayti; Halecia is the only exclusively South American genus; Chalcophora is widely scattered over the tropical regions but is absent from South America, yet it occurs in the Nearctic region and extends to Jamaica and Guadeloupe. We now come to the Longicorns, the only group of Coleoptera which seems to be well represented, or which has been carefully collected. No less than 40 genera are known from the West Indian islands, and 15 of these are peculiar. Prionidæ are proportionately very numerous, there being 10 genera, 2 of which are widely distributed in both South and North America, 1 is North American, and 1 South American, while the following are peculiar,—Stenodontes (Hayti and Cuba); Dendroblaptus (Cuba); Monodesmus (Cuba and Jamaica); Prosternodes (Cuba); Solenoptera and Elateropsis, the two largest genera found in most of the {75}islands. Of Cerambycidæ there are 16 genera, 2 of which range all over America, 4 are Neotropical, 1 South American only, while the following are confined to the islands,—Merostenus, Pentomacrus, and Eburiola (Jamaica); Bromiades (Cuba); Trichrous, Heterops, and Pœciloderma (Antilles). One genus, Smodicum, is widely spread, having a species in Carolina, 1 in South America, 1 in Hayti, and 1 in West Africa. Of Lamiidæ there are 14 genera, 8 of which are Neotropical, 1 common to Central America and Mexico, 1 to the United States and Cuba, while 2, Proecha and Phidola, are confined to Cuba. Several of the genera are curiously distributed;—Spalacopsis is South American, with 4 species in Cuba and Tropical Africa; Lagocheirus is Neotropical, with a species in Australia; while Leptostilus is characteristic of the Antilles and North America, with a few species in South America, and one in New Zealand. These cases of erratic distribution, so opposed to the general series of phenomena among which they occur, must be held to be sufficiently explained by the great antiquity of these groups and their former wide distribution. They may be supposed to be the remnants of types, now dying out, which were once, like Callichroma, Clytus, and many others, almost universally distributed.

All the peculiar Antillean genera of Cerambycidæ and Lamiidæ are allied to Neotropical forms. The peculiar Prionidæ, however, are mostly allied to Mexican and North American groups, and one, Monodesmus, belongs to a group all the other genera of which inhabit the East Indies and South Africa.

Land-shells.—This subject has already been generally treated under the Region, of which, in this class of animals, the Antilles form so important a part. We must therefore now confine ourselves mainly to the internal distribution of the genera, and to a few remarks on the general bearing of the facts.

The excessive and altogether unexampled productiveness of the West Indian islands in land-shells, may be traced to two main sets of causes. The first and least known, consist of the peculiar influences and conditions which render islands always more productive than continents. Whatever these conditions {76}are, they will be more effective where the islands have been long separated from the mainland, as is here undoubtedly the case. It seems most probable that the great development of land-shells in islands, is due to the absence or deficiency of the vertebrata, which on continents supply a variety of species adapted to prey upon these molluscs. This view is supported by the fact, that in such islands as have been united to a continent at no very distant epoch, and still maintain a continental variety of vertebrata, no such special development of land-shells has taken place. If we compare the Philippine islands with the Sunda group, we find the development of vertebrata and land-molluscs in inverse ratio to each other. The same thing occurs if we compare New Zealand and Tasmania; and we have a still more striking example in the Antillean group itself, continental Trinidad having only 20 genera and 38 species, while the highly insular Jamaica has about 30 genera and more than 500 species.

The other causes favourable to the increase and development of land-shells are of a physical nature. A great extent of limestone-rock is one; and in the larger West Indian islands we have a considerable proportion of the surface consisting of this rock. But perhaps equally or more important, is the character of the land surface, and the texture of the exposed rock itself. A much broken surface, with numerous deep ravines, cutting up the whole country into isolated valleys and ridges, seems very favourable to the specialization of forms in this very sedentary class of animals. Equally favourable is a honeycombed and highly-fissured rock-surface, affording everywhere cracks and crannies for concealment. Now, taking Jamaica as an example of the archipelago, we find all these conditions in a wonderful degree. Over a large part of this island, a yard of level ground can hardly be found; but ridges, precipices, ravines, and rock-bound valleys, succeed each other over the whole country. At least five-sixths of the entire surface is limestone, and under the influence of tropical rains this rock is worn, fissured, and honeycombed, so as to afford ample shelter and concealment for land-shells.

{77}

It is probable that the three chief islands, Cuba, Jamaica and Hayti, are nearly equally rich in land-shells; but the last is very much less known, and therefore, perhaps, appears to be much poorer. Cuba has rather more species than Jamaica; but while the former has only 1 peculiar genus (Diplopoma), the latter has 3 (Geomelania, Chittya, and Jamaicea), as well as two others only represented in the other islands by single species. From Hayti, only about one-third as many species are known as from the two former islands. It has no peculiar genera, but it has some forms in common with Cuba and others with Jamaica, which show that those islands have more connection with it, than with each other; just as we found to be the case in birds. Portorico and the Virgin islands have still fewer species than Hayti; and, as many of the genera common to the other three islands are wanting, there is, no doubt, here a real deficiency. In the islands farther south (Barbuda to Martinique) more Antillean genera disappear or become very rare, while some continental forms take their place. The islands from St. Lucia to Trinidad have a still more continental character; the genus Bulimus, so largely developed on the continent, only reaching St. Lucia. The Bahamas contain about 80 species of land-shells, of which 25 are Antillean, the rest peculiar; all the genera being Antillean. The affinity is chiefly with Hayti and Cuba, but closest with the latter island.

In the West Indian islands as a whole, there are 11 peculiar genera; 9 operculate (Geomelania, Chittya, Jamaicea, Licina, Choanopoma, Ctenopoma, Diplopoma, Stoastoma, Lucidella); and 2 inoperculate (Sagda and Stenopus), besides Cyclostomus, which belongs to the Old World and is not found on the American continent. Mr. Bland considers, that many of the Antillean land-shells exhibit decided African and Asiatic, rather than South American affinities. A species of the Asiatic genus Diplommatina has been found in Trinidad, and an Indian species of Ennea occurs in Grenada and St. Thomas; a clear indication that land-shells are liable to be accidentally imported, and to become established in the less productive islands.

Although these islands are so wonderfully rich even now, {78}there is good reason to believe that many species have become extinct since the European occupation of them. When small islands are much cultivated, many of these molluscs which can only live under the shade of forests, are soon extirpated. In St. Croix many species have become extinct at a comparatively recent period, from the burning of forests; and as we know that in all the islands many of the species are excessively local, being often confined to single valleys or ridges, we may be sure that wherever the native forests have disappeared before the hand of man, numbers of land shells have disappeared with them. As some of the smaller islands have been almost denuded of their wood, and in the larger ones extensive tracts have been cleared for sugar cultivation, a very considerable number of species have almost certainly been exterminated.

General Conclusions as to the Past History of the West Indian Islands.—The preceding sketch of the peculiarities of the animal life of these islands, enables us to state, that it represents the remains of an ancient fauna of decided Neotropical type, having on the whole most resemblance to that which now inhabits the Mexican sub-region. The number of peculiar genera in all classes of animals is so great in proportion to those in common with the adjacent mainland, as to lead us to conclude that, subsequent to the original separation from the Mexican area, a very large tract of land existed, calculated to support a rich and varied fauna, and, by the interaction of competing types, give rise to peculiar and specially modified organisms. We have already shown that the outline of the present islands and the depths of the surrounding seas, give indications of the position and extent of this ancient land; which not improbably occupied the space enclosed by uniting Western Cuba with Yucatan, and Jamaica with the Mosquito Coast. This land must have stretched eastward to include Anguilla, and probably northward to include the whole of the Bahamas. At one time it perhaps extended southward so as to unite Hayti with northern Venezuela, while Panama and Costa Pica were sunk beneath the Pacific. At this time the Lesser Antilles had no existence.

The only large island of whose geology we have any detailed {79}account, is Jamaica; and taking this as a type of what will probably be found in Cuba and Hayti, we must place the continental period as having occurred after the close of the Miocene, or during some part of the Pliocene epoch, since a large portion of the surface of the former island consists of beds of marine limestone from 2,000 to 3,000 thick, believed to be of Pliocene age. After some time, the land between Hayti and South America subsided, and still later that between Central America and Cuba with Jamaica; but a large tract of land remained insulated, and no doubt supported a very much richer and more varied fauna than now. We have evidence of this in extinct Mammalia of large size, belonging to the peculiar South American family of the chinchillas, which have been found in caves in the small islands of Anguilla, and which, from the character of the land-shells associated with them, are believed to be of Pliocene or Post-pliocene age. This discovery is most interesting, and gives promise of very valuable results from the exploration of the numerous caverns that undoubtedly exist in the abundant limestone strata of the larger islands. This extensive Antillean land, after long continuing undivided, was at length broken up by subsidence into several islands; but as this alone would not account for the almost complete annihilation of the mammalian fauna, it seems probable that the subsidence was continued much farther, so as greatly to reduce the size and increase the number of the islands. This is indicated, by the extensive alluvial plains in Cuba and Hayti, and to a less extent in Jamaica; and by elevated beds of Post-pliocene marls in the latter island.

The series of changes now suggested, will account for all the main features of the Antillean fauna in its relations to that of the American continent. There remains the affinity with Madagascar, indicated by Solenodon, and a few cases of African and Asiatic affinity in insects and land-shells; but these are far too scanty to call for any attempt at special explanation. Such cases of remote affinity and discontinuous distribution, occur in all the regions, and in almost every group of animals; and we look upon them almost all, as cases of survival, under favourable {80}conditions, of once wide-spread groups. If no wild species of the genus Equus were now to be found, except in South Africa (where they are still most abundant), and in South Temperate America, where their fossil remains show us they did exist not very long ago, what a strong fact it would have appeared for the advocates of continental extensions! Yet it would have been due to no former union of the great southern continents, but to the former extensive range of the family or the genus to which the two isolated remnants belonged. And if such an explanation will apply to the higher vertebrata, it is still more likely to be applicable to similar cases occurring among insects or mollusca, the genera of which we have every reason to believe to be usually much older than those of vertebrates. It is in these classes that examples of widely scattered allied species most frequently occur; and the facility with which they are diffused under favourable conditions, renders any other explanation than that here given altogether superfluous.

The Solenodon is a member of an order of Mammalia of low type (Insectivora) once very extensive and wide-spread, but which has begun to die out, and which has left a number of curious and isolated forms thinly scattered over three-fourths of the globe. The occurrence, therefore, of an isolated remnant of this order in the Antilles is not in itself remarkable; and the fact that the remainder of the family to which the Antillean species belong has found a refuge in Madagascar, where it has developed into several distinct types, does not afford the least shred of argument on which to found a supposed independent land connection between these two sets of islands.

Summary of the Past History of the Neotropical Region.

We have already discussed this subject, both in our account of extinct animals, and in various parts of the present chapter. It is therefore only necessary here, briefly to review and summarise the conclusions we have arrived at.

The whole character of Neotropical zoology, whether as regards its deficiencies or its specialities, points to a long continuance of isolation from the rest of the world, with a few very distant {81}periods of union with the northern continent. The latest important separation took place by the submergence of parts of Nicaragua and Honduras, and this separation probably continued throughout much of the Miocene and Pliocene periods; but some time previous to the coming on of the glacial epoch, the union between the two continents took place which has continued to our day. Earlier submergences of the isthmus of Panama probably occurred, isolating Costa Rica and Veragua, which then may have had a greater extension, and have thus been able to develope their rich and peculiar fauna.

The isthmus of Tehuantepec, at the south of Mexico, may, probably, also have been submerged; thus isolating Guatemala and Yucatan, and leading to the specialization of some of the peculiar forms that now characterise those countries and Mexico.

The West Indian Islands have been long isolated and have varied much in extent. Originally, they probably formed part of Central America, and may have been united with Yucatan and Honduras in one extensive tropical land. But their separation from the continent took place at a remote period, and they have since been broken up into numerous islands, which have probably undergone much submergence in recent times. This has led to that poverty of the higher forms of life, combined with the remarkable speciality, which now characterises them; while their fauna still preserves a sufficient resemblance to that of Central America to indicate its origin.

The great continent of South America, as far as we can judge from the remarkable characteristics of its fauna and the vast depths of the oceans east and west of it, has not during Tertiary, and probably not even during Secondary times, been united with any other continent, except through the intervention of North America. During some part of the Secondary epoch it probably received the ancestral forms of its Edentates and Rodents, at a time when these were among the highest types of Mammalia on the globe. It appears to have remained long isolated, and to have already greatly developed these groups of animals, before it received, in early Tertiary times, the ancestors of its marmosets and monkeys, and, perhaps also, some of its peculiar forms of {82}Carnivora. Later, it received its Camelidæ, peccaries, mastodons, and large Carnivora; and later still, just before the Glacial epoch, its deer, tapir, opossums, antelopes, and horses, the two latter having since become extinct. All this time its surface was undergoing important physical changes. What its earlier condition was we cannot conjecture, but there are clear indications that it has been broken up into at least three large masses, and probably a number of smaller ones; and these have no doubt undergone successive elevations and subsidences, so as at one time to reduce their area and separate them still more widely from each other, and at another period to unite them into continental masses. The richness and varied development of the old fauna of South America, as still existing, proves, however, that the country has always maintained an extensive area; and there is reason to believe that the last great change has been a long continued and steady increase of its surface, resulting in the formation of the vast alluvial plains of the Amazon, Orinoko, and La Plata, and thus greatly favouring the production of that wealth of specific forms, which distinguishes South America above all other parts of our globe.

The southern temperate portion of the continent, has probably had a considerable southward extension in late Tertiary times; and this, as well as the comparatively recent elevation of the Andes, has given rise to some degree of intermixture of two distinct faunas, with that proper to South Temperate America itself. The most important of these, is the considerable Australian element that appears in the insects, and even in the reptiles and fresh-water fishes, of South Temperate America. These may be traced to several causes. Icebergs and icefloes, and even solid fields of ice, may, during the Glacial epoch, have afforded many opportunities for the passage of the more cold-enduring groups; while the greater extension of southern lands and islands during the warm periods—which there is reason to believe prevailed in the southern as well as in the northern regions in Miocene times—would afford facilities for the passage of the reptiles and insects of more temperate zones. That no actual land-connection occurred, is proved by the total absence {83}of interchange of the mammals or land-birds of the two countries, no less than by the very fragmentary nature of the resemblances that do exist. The northern element consists almost wholly of insects; and is evidently due to the migration of arctic and north temperate forms along the ridges and plateaus of the Andes; and most likely occurred when these organisms were driven southward at successive cold or Glacial periods.

A curious parallel exists between the past history and actual zoological condition of South America and Africa. In both we see a very ancient land-area extending into the South Temperate zone, isolated at a very early period, and developing only a low grade of Mammalian life; chiefly Edentates and Rodents on the one, Lemurs and Insectivora in the other. Later we find an irruption into both of higher forms, including Quadrumana, which soon acquired a large and special development in the tropical portions of each country. Still later we have an irruption into both of northern forms, which spread widely over the two regions, and having become extinct in the land from whence they came, have been long held to be the original denizens of their adopted country. Such are the various forms of antelopes, the giraffe, the elephant, rhinoceros, and lion in Africa; while in America we have deer and peccaries, the tapir, opossums, and the puma.

On the whole, we cannot but consider that the broad outlines of the zoological history of the Neotropical region can be traced with some degree of certainty; but, owing to the absence of information as to the most important of the geological periods—the Miocene and Eocene—we have no clue to the character of its early fauna, or to the land connections with other countries, which may possibly have occurred in early Tertiary times.

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TABLES OF DISTRIBUTION.

In drawing up these tables, showing the distribution of the various classes of animals in the Neotropical region, the following sources of information have been relied on, in addition to the general treatises, monographs, and catalogues used in the compilation of the Fourth Part of this work.

Mammalia.—D'Orbigny, and Burmeister, for Brazil and La Plata; Darwin, and Cunningham, for Temperate S. America; Tschudi, for Peru; Frazer, for Ecuador; Salvin, for Guatemala; Frantzius, for Costa Rica; Sclater, for Quadrumana N. of Panama; Gundlach, for Cuba; and papers by Dr. J. E. Gray, and Mr. Tomes.

Birds.—Sclater and Salvin's Nomenclator; Notes by Darwin, and Cunningham; Gundlach, March, Bryant, Baird, Elliot, Newton, Semper, and Sundevall, for various islands of the Antilles; and papers by Hudson, Lawrence, Grayson, Abbott, Sclater, and Salvin.

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TABLE I.

FAMILIES OF ANIMALS INHABITING THE NEOTROPICAL REGION.

Explanation.

Names in italics show the families which are peculiar to the region.

Names enclosed thus (......) indicate families which barely enter the region, and are not considered properly to belong to it.

Numbers correspond with those of the series of families in Part IV.

Order and Family Sub-regions Range beyond the Region.
Chili. Brazil. Mexico. Antilles.
MAMMALIA.
Primates.
4. Cebidæ
5. Hapalidæ (?)
Chiroptera.
10. Phyllostomidæ California
12. Vespertilionidæ Cosmopolite
13. Noctilionidæ All tropical regions
Insectivora.
18. Centetidæ Madagascar
Carnivora.
23. Felidæ All regions but Australian
28. Canidæ All regions but Australian
29. Mustelidæ All regions but Australian
30. Procyonidæ N. America
32. Ursidæ All regions but Ethiopian and Australian
33. Otariidæ S. temperate zone
35. Phocidæ (?) N. and S. temperate zones
Cetacea.
36 to 41 Oceanic
Sirenia.
42. Manatidæ Tropical shores
Ungulata.
44. Tapiridæ Indo-Malaya
47. Suidæ Cosmopolite, excl. Australia
48. Camelidæ Palæarctic
50. Cervidæ All regions but Ethiopian and Australian
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Rodentia.

55. Muridæ Cosmopolite
59. Saccomyidæ Nearctic
61. Sciuridæ All regions but Australian
63. Chinchillidæ
64. Octodontidæ Africa
65. Echimyidæ Ethiopian
66. Cercolabidæ Nearctic
68. Caviidæ
70. Leporidæ All regions but Australian
Edentata.
71. Bradypodidæ
73. Dasypodidæ
75. Myrmecophagidæ
Marsupialia.
76. Didelphyidæ      Temperate N. America
BIRDS.
Passeres.
1. Turdidæ Almost cosmopolite
2. Sylviidæ Almost cosmopolite
5. Cinclidæ Nearctic, Palæarctic, Oriental
6. Troglodytidæ Nearctic, Palæarctic, Oriental
8. Certhiidæ Nearctic, Palæarctic, Oriental
9. Sittidæ All regions, excl. Africa
10. Paridæ Nearctic, Palæarctic, Oriental
20. Corvidæ Cosmopolite
26. Cœrebidæ
27. Mniotiltidæ Nearctic
28. Vireonidæ Nearctic
29. Ampelidæ Nearctic, Palæarctic
30. Hirundinidæ Cosmopolite
31. Icteridæ Nearctic
32. Tanagridæ Nearctic
33. Fringillidæ All regions but Australian
38. Motacillidæ Cosmopolite
38a. Oxyrhamphidæ
39. Tyrannidæ Nearctic
40. Pipridæ
41. Cotingidæ
42. Phytotomidæ
44. Dendrocolaptidæ
45. Formicariidæ
46. Pteroptochidæ
Picariæ.
51. Picidæ All regions but Australian
54. Megalæmidæ Ethiopian, Oriental
55. Rhamphastidæ
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58. Cuculidæ

Cosmopolite
60. Bucconidæ
61. Galbulidæ
64. Todidæ
65. Momotidæ
66. Trogonidæ Ethiopian, Oriental
67. Alcedinidæ Cosmopolite
72. Steatornithidæ
73. Caprimulgidæ Cosmopolite
74. Cypselidæ Almost cosmopolite
75. Trochilidæ Nearctic
Psittaci.
80. Conuridæ S. United States
81. Psittacidæ Ethiopian
Columbæ.
84. Columbidæ Cosmopolite
Gallinæ.
87. Tetraonidæ Almost cosmopolite
88. Phasianidæ All regions but Australian
91. Cracidæ
92. Tinamidæ
Opisthocomi.
93. Opisthocomidæ
Accipitres.
94. Vulturidæ All regions but Australian
96. Falconidæ Cosmopolite
97. Pandionidæ Cosmopolite
98. Strigidæ Cosmopolite
Grallæ.
99. Rallidæ Cosmopolite
100. Scolopacidæ Cosmopolite
101. Chionididæ
102. Thinocoridæ
103. Parridæ Tropical regions
105. Charadriidæ Cosmopolite
108. Cariamidæ
109. Aramidæ
110. Psophiidæ
111. Eurypygidæ
113. Ardeidæ Cosmopolite
114. Plataleidæ Almost cosmopolite
115. Ciconiidæ Nearly cosmopolite
116. Palamedeidæ
117. Phœnicopteridæ Ethiopian, Indian
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Anseres.

118. Anatidæ Cosmopolite
119. Laridæ Cosmopolite
120. Procellariidæ Cosmopolite
121. Pelecanidæ Cosmopolite
122. Spheniscidæ S. temperate zone
124. Podicipidæ Cosmopolite
Struthiones.
126. Struthionidæ Ethiopian
REPTILIA.
Ophidia.
1. Typhlopidæ Tropical regions and S. Palæarctic
2. Tortricidæ Oriental, N.-W. America
5. Calamariidæ All warm countries
6. Oligodontidæ Oriental, Japan
7. Colubridæ Almost cosmopolite
8. Homalopsidæ All the regions
11. Dendrophidæ All tropical regions
12. Dryiophidæ Oriental, Ethiopian
13. Dipsadidæ All tropical regions
14. Scytalidæ Philippine Islands
16. Amblycephalidæ Oriental
17. Pythonidæ All tropical regions, California
20. Elapidæ Tropical regions, Japan, S. Carolina
23. Hydrophidæ Oriental, Australian, Madagascar
24. Crotalidæ Nearctic, Palæarctic, Oriental
Lacertilia.
27. Chirotidæ Missouri
28. Amphisbænidæ Ethiopian, S. Palæarctic
29. Lepidosternidæ Ethiopian
31. Helodermidæ
32. Teidæ Nearctic
34. Zonuridæ Nearctic, Ethiopian, S. Europe, and N. India
35. Chalcidæ Nearctic
36. Anadiadæ
37. Chirocolidæ
38. Iphisadæ
39. Cercosauridæ
41. Gymnophthalmidæ Australian, Ethiopian, Palæarctic
45. Scincidæ Almost cosmopolite
49. Geckotidæ Almost cosmopolite
50. Iguanidæ Nearctic
Crocodilia.
55. Crocodilidæ Ethiopian, Oriental, N. Australian
56. Alligatoridæ Nearctic
{89}

Chelonia.

57. Testudinidæ All continents but Australian
58. Chelydidæ Ethiopian, Australian
60. Cheloniidæ Marine
AMPHIBIA.
Pseudophidia.
1. Cæciliadæ Oriental, Ethiopian
Urodela.
6. (Salamandridæ) Nearctic, Palæarctic
Anoura.
7. Rhinophrynidæ
8. Phryniscidæ Ethiopian, Australian, Java
9. Hylaplesidæ
10. Bufonidæ All continents but Australia
12. Engystomidæ All regions but Palæarctic
13. Bombinatoridæ Palæarctic, New Zealand
14. Plectromantidæ
15. Alytidæ All regions but Oriental
16. Pelodryadæ Australia
17. Hylidæ All regions but Ethiopian
18. Polypedatidæ All the regions
19. Ranidæ Almost cosmopolite
20. Discoglossidæ All regions but Nearctic
21. Pipidæ
FISHES (FRESH-WATER).
Acanthopterygii.
3. Percidæ All regions but Australian
11. (Trachinidæ) Australia
12. Sciænidæ (?) (?) All regions but Australian
33. Nandidæ Oriental
34. Polycentridæ
38. Mugillidæ (?) Australian, Ethiopian
52. Chromidæ Ethiopian, Oriental
Physostomi.
59. Siluridæ All warm regions
60. Characinidæ Ethiopian
61. Haplochitonidæ S. Australia
67. Galaxidæ Tasmania and New Zealand
73. Cyprinodontidæ Absent from Australia
78. Osteoglossidæ All tropical regions
84. Gymnotidæ
85. Symbranchidæ Oriental, Australian, (? marine)
{90}

Dipnoi.

92. Sirenoidei Ethiopian, Australian
Plagiostomata.
112. Trygonidæ
INSECTS.
LEPIDOPTERA (PART).
Diurni (Butterflies).
1. Danaidæ All warm regions, and to Canada
2. Satyridæ Cosmopolite
4. Morphidæ Australian, Oriental
5. Brassolidæ
6. Acræidæ All tropical regions
7. Heliconiidæ
8. Nymphalidæ Cosmopolite
9. Libytheidæ Absent from Australia
10. Nemeobiidæ Not in Australia or Nearctic regions
11. Eurygonidæ
12. Erycinidæ Nearctic
13. Lycænidæ Cosmopolite
14. Pieridæ Cosmopolite
15. Papilionidæ Cosmopolite
16. Hesperidæ Cosmopolite
Sphingidea.
17. Zygænidæ Cosmopolite
18. Castniidæ Australian
20. Uraniidæ All tropical regions
21. Stygiidæ Palæarctic
22. Ægeriidæ Not in Australia
23. Sphingidæ Cosmopolite
{91}

TABLE II.

GENERA OF TERRESTRIAL MAMMALIA AND BIRDS INHABITING THE NEOTROPICAL REGION.

Explanation.

Names in italics show the genera peculiar to the region.

Names enclosed thus (......) indicate genera which barely enter the region, and are not considered properly to belong to it.

Genera undoubtedly belonging to the region are numbered consecutively.

MAMMALIA.
Order, Family, and
Genus.
No. of
Species.
Range within the Region. Range beyond the Region.
PRIMATES.
Cebidæ.
1. Cebus 18 Costa Rica to Paraguay
2. Lagothrix 5 Upper Amazon and E. Andes
3. Eriodes 3 East Brazil, S. of Equator
4. Ateles 14 Almost all tropical America
5. Mycetes 10 E. Guatemala to Paraguay
6. Pithecia 7 Equatorial Forests
7. Brachiurus 5 Equatorial Forests
8. Nyctipithecus 5 Nicaragua to Amazonia
9. Saimiris 3 Costa Rica to Brazil and Bolivia
10. Callithrix 11 Panama to Paraguay
Hapalidæ.
11. Hapale 9 Brazil and Upper Amazon
12. Midas 24 Equatorial America to Panama
CHIROPTERA.
Phyllostomidæ.
13. Lonchorina 1 West Indian Islands
14. Macrophyllum 1 Brazil
15. Vampyrus brace
16. Lophostoma 25 Tropical America and Chili
17. Phyllostoma
18. Macrotus 1 Antilles and Mexico California
19. Schizostoma 5 South America
20. Brachyphylla 1 Antilles
21. Glossophaga 8 Tropical America
22. Phyllonycteris 2 Cuba
23. Artibeus 4 S. America & Antilles, Costa Rica
24. Stenoderma 7 The whole region
25. Sturnira 3 Chili to Guatemala
26. Desmodus 3 Chili to Mexico
27. Saccopteryx 1 Ecuador
{92}

28.

Diphylla 1 Brazil
29. Centurio 3 Brazil to Mexico
Vespertilionidæ.
30. Lasiurus 2 Tropical America Nearctic
31. Scotophilus 7 Antilles, Mexico to S. America Nearc., Austral., Orien.
32. Vespertilio 12 The whole region Cosmopolite
33. Nycticejus 3 S. Temperate America Nearctic, India, Tropical Africa
34. Natalus 1 S. America and Antilles
35. Furipterus 2 S. America
36. Thyroptera 2 S. America
37. Nycticellus 1 Cuba
38. Taphozous 5 S. America Ethiopian, Oriental, Austro-Malayan
39. Diclidurus 1 Brazil
Noctilionidæ.
40. Noctilio 2 Paraguay to W. Indies
41. Mormops 1 Antilles and Mexico
42. Phyllodia 1 Jamaica
43. Chilonycteris 5 Brazil and West Indies
44. Pteronotus 1 Trinidad
45. Nyctinomus 2 La Plata to Antilles & Costa Rica S. Nearc., Orien., Madag.
46. Molossus 16 Paraguay and Chili to Antilles Ethiopian, S. Palæarc., Australian
INSECTIVORA.
Centetidæ.
47. Solenodon 2 Cuba and Hayti
Soricidæ.
(Sorex 1 Guatemala and Costa Rica) All other reg. but Austrl.
CARNIVORA.
Felidæ.
48. Felis 13 The whole region, excl. Antilles All regions but Austral.
Canidæ.
49. Icticyon 1 Brazil
50. Chrysocyon 1 S. America
(Lupus 2 Mexico to Costa Rica) Northern genus
51. Lycalopex 2 S. America
52. Pseudalopex 5 S. America, Falkland Islands, & Tierra del Fuego
53. Thous 2 S. America to Chili
Mustelidæ.
54. Mustela 2 Andes of Peru All other reg. but Austrl.
55. Galictis 2 S. America to Chili & Patagonia
56. Lontra 3 Central and S. America to Chonos Archipelago
57. Nutria 1 W. coast of America to Chiloe W. coast of N. America
{93}

58.

Pteronura 1 Surinam and Brazil
59. Mephitis 3 Mexico to Sts. of Magellan Nearctic to Canada
Procyonidæ.
60. Procyon 1 Tropical America Nearctic to Canada
61. Nasua 5 Mexico to Paraguay & La Plata
62. Cercoleptes 1 Mexico to Peru and N. Brazil
63. Bassaris 2 Mexico and Guatemala California and Texas
Ursidæ.
64. Tremarctos 1 Andes of Peru and Chili
Otariidæ.
65. Otaria 1 Chili, La Plata, and Patagonia
66. Arctocephalus 1 Falkland Islands & Cape Horn New Zealand
Phocidæ.
67. Stenorhynchus 1 Falkland Islands New Zealand
68. Lobodon 1 Antarctic shores
69. Leptonyx 1 Antarctic shores, E. Patagonia S. Australia
70. Ommatophoca 1 Antarctic shores
71. Morunga 1 Falkland Islands California, S. temp. zone
72. Cystophora 1 Antilles N. Atlantic
CETACEA.
Delphinidæ.
73. Inia 1 Upper Amazon
SIRENIA.
Manatidæ.
74. Manatus 1 Gulf of Mexico to N. Brazil, Amazon R. W. Africa
UNGULATA.
Tapiridæ.
75. Tapirus 2 Equatorial S. America Indo-Malaya
76. Elasmognathus 1 Panama to Guatemala
Suidæ.
77. Dicotyles 2 Mexico to Paraguay Texas
Camelidæ.
78. Auchenia 4 Temp. S. America, from Cape Horn to Andes of Peru
Cervidæ.
79. Cervus 12 Mexico to Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego All regions but Ethiopian and Australian
RODENTIA.
Muridæ.
80. Reithrodon 4 South Temp. America to Tierra del Fuego United States
{94}

81.

Acodon 1 Peru, 14,000 ft. elevation
82. Myxomys 1 Guatemala
83. Hesperomys 76 The whole region Nearctic
84. Holochilus 4 S. America
85. Oxymycterus 3 Brazil and La Plata
86. Drymomys 1 Peru
87. Neotomys 2 S. America
(Fiber 1 Mexico) Nearctic genus
Saccomyidæ.
88. Heteromys 6 Mexico, Honduras, Costa Rica & Trinidad
Sciuridæ.
89. Sciurus 30 Mexico to Paraguay All reg. but Australian
Chinchillidæ.
90. Chinchilla 2 Andes of Chili and Peru
91. Lagidium 3 Chili to Ecuador (11,000 to 16,000 ft.)
92. Lagostomus 1 Uruguay to Rio Negro of Patagonia
Octodontidæ.
93. Habrocomus 2 Chili
94. Capromys 3 Cuba and Jamaica
95. Plagiodontia 1 Hayti
96. Spalacopus 2 Chili and E. of Andes
97. Octodon 3 Chili, Peru, and Bolivia
98. Ctenomys 6 S. Brazil to Tierra del Fuego
Echimyidæ.
99. Dactylomys 2 Guiana and Brazil
100. Cercomys 1 Central Brazil
101. Lasiuromys 1 St. Paulo, Brazil
102. Myopotamus 1 S. half of tropical S. America
103. Carterodon 1 Central Brazil
104. Mesomys 1 Upper Amazon
105. Echimys 11 Equatorial America to Paraguay
106. Loncheres 10 New Granada to Brazil
Cercolabidæ.
107. Cercolabes 12 Mexico to Paraguay
108. Chætomys 1 N. Brazil
Caviidæ.
109. Dasyprocta 9 Paraguay to Mexico and Lesser Antilles
110. Cœlogenys 2 Guatemala to Paraguay
111. Hydrochœrus 1 Guiana to La Plata
112. Cavia 9 Brazil and Peru to Magellan Sts.
113. Kerodon 6 Brazil and Peru to Magellan Sts.
114. Dolichotis 1 The Pampas and Patagonia
{95}

Leporidæ.

115. Lepus 1 Central Brazil and Andes, Costa Rica to Mexico All regions but Austral.
EDENTATA.
Bradypodidæ.
116. Cholœpus 2 Costa Rica to Brazil
117. Bradypus 2 Amazon to Rio de Janeiro
118. Arctopithecus 8 Costa Rica to Brazil and Bolivia
Dasypodidæ.
119. Tatusia 5 Rio Grande, Texas, to Patagonia
120. Prionodontes 1 Surinam to Paraguay
121. Dasypus 4 Brazil to Chili and La Plata, Costa Rica?
122. Xenurus 3 Guiana to Paraguay, Costa Rica?
123. Tolypeutes 2 Bolivia and La Plata
124. Chlamydophorus 2 La Plata and Bolivia
Myrmecophagidæ.
125. Myrmecophaga 1 Costa Rica?, & N. Braz., to Parag.
126. Tamandua 2 Guatemala to Paraguay
127. Cyclothurus 2 Honduras and Costa Rica to Paraguay
MARSUPIALIA.
Didelphyidæ.
128. Didelphys 20 Mexico to Uruguay and S. Chili Temperate N. America
129. Chironectes 1 Guiana and Brazil, Costa Rica
130. Hyracodon 1 Ecuador
BIRDS.
PASSERES.
Turdidæ.
1. Turdus 32 The whole reg. to Tierra del Fuego Almost cosmopolite
2. Rhodinocichla 1 Mexico to Venezuela
3. Melanoptila 1 Honduras
4. Catharus 10 Mexico to Ecuador and Columbia
5. Margarops 4 Hayti and Lesser Antilles
6. Mimus 16 Nearly the whole region Nearctic
7. Melanotis 2 Mexico and Guatemala
8. Galeoscoptes 1 Mexico to Panama Nearctic
9. Mimocichla 4 Cuba to Porto Rico
(Harporhynchus 3 Mexico) Nearctic genus
10. Cinclocerthia 3 Lesser Antilles
11. Ramphocinclus 1 Martinique and St. Lucia
Sylviidæ.
12. Myiadestes 8 Mexico and Antilles to Peru and Bolivia N. & W. of N. America
{96}

13.

Cichlopsis 1 Brazil
(Sialia 2 Mexico and Guatemala) United States & Canada
14. Regulus 2 Mexico and Guatemala Nearctic, Palæarctic
15. Polioptila 6 Mexico and Cuba to Bolivia and La Plata Cen. and S. U. States
Cinclidæ.
16. Cinclus 4 Mexico to Venezuela and Peru Nearctic, Palæarctic
Troglodytidæ.
17. Troglodytes 5 Mexico to Straits of Magellan Nearctic, Palæarctic
18. Thryophilus 13 Mexico to Central Brazil N.-W. America
19. Thryothorus 12 Mexico to S. Brazil N. America
20. Cistothorus 3 Mexico to Chili and Patagonia N. America
21. Donacobius 2 Columbia to Brazil and Bolivia
22. Campylorhynchus 18 Mexico to Brazil and Bolivia New Mexico
23. Cyphorhinus 5 Costa Rica to Peru
24. Microcerculus 5 Mexico to Peru
25. Henicorhina 2 Mexico to Peru
(Salpinctes 1 Mexico and Guatemala) Nearctic genus
(Catherpes 1 Mexico) Gila and Colorado
26. Cinnicerthia 2 Columbia and Ecuador
27. Uropsila 1 Mexico
Certhiidæ.
(Certhia 1 Mexico and Guatemala) North temperate genus
Sittidæ.
(Sitta 2 Mexico) North temperate genus
Paridæ.
(Parus 1 Mexico) Nearc., Palæarc., Orient.
(Lophophanes 2 Mexico) North temperate genus
(Psaltriparus 1 Mexico and Guatemala) Nearctic
Corvidæ.
28. Cyanocitta 16 Mexico to Peru and Bolivia Nearctic
29. Cyanocorax 12 Mexico to Paraguay, Jamaica
30. Calocitta 2 Mexico to Guatemala
31. Psilorhinus 3 Mexico to Costa Rica
32. Corvus 4 Mexico to Guatemala, Cuba to Porto Rico Cosmop., excl. S. Amer.
Cœrebidæ.
33. Diglossa 14 Mexico to Guiana, Peru, and Bolivia
34. Diglossopis 1 Venezuela to Ecuador
35. Oreomanes 1 Ecuador
36. Conirostrum 6 Columbia to Bolivia
37. Hemidacnis 1 Columbia and Upper Amazon
38. Dacnis 13 Costa Rica to Guiana & S. Brazil
39. Certhidea 2 Galapagos Islands
{97}

40.

Chlorophanes 2 Brazil to Central America, Cuba
41. Cœreba 4 Mexico and Cuba to Guiana and Brazil
42. Certhiola 10 Antilles to Ecuador and Brazil Florida
43. Glossiptila 1 Jamaica
Mniotiltidæ.
44. Siurus 3 Mexico to Columbia, Antilles S. & E. States & Canada
45. Mniotilta 1 Columbia to Mexico and Antilles Eastern United States
46. Parula 5 Brazil and Ecuador to Mexico Eastern U. S. & Canada
47. Protonotaria 1 Venezuela to Central America and W. India Florida to Ohio
48. Helminthophaga 5 Mexico to Columbia North America
49. Helmintherus 1 Mexico to Veragua U. States to Canada
50. Perissoglossa 1 Cuba, Hayti, and Porto Rico E. United States
51. Dendrœca 25 Mexico & W. Indies to Ecuador and Chili All N. America
52. Oporornis 1 Guatemala to Panama
53. Geothlypis 10 Brazil to Mexico All N. America
54. Setophaga 12 Mexico to Brazil E. U. States & Canada
55. Cardellina 1 Guatemala and Mexico
56. Ergaticus 2 Guatemala and Mexico
57. Myiodioctes 3 Columbia to Mexico U. States and Canada
58. Basileuterus 22 Mexico to Brazil
59. Icteria 1 Costa Rica to Mexico E. and Central United States to Canada
60. Granatellus 3 Amazon to Mexico
61. Teretristis 2 Cuba
Vireonidæ.
62. Vireosylvia 9 Venezuela to Mexico & Antilles All N. America
63. Vireo 10 Mexico to Costa Rica & Antilles All United States
64. Neochloe 1 Mexico
65. Hylophilus 16 Brazil to Mexico
66. Laletes 1 Jamaica
67. Phœnicomanes 1 Jamaica
68. Vireolanius 4 Mexico to Amazon
69. Cychloris 9 Mexico to Paraguay
Ampelidæ.
70. Dulus 2 Hayti
(Ampelis 1 Mexico and Guatemala) N. temperate genus
71. Ptilogonys 2 Mexico to Costa Rica
(Phainopepla 1 Mexico) Gila and Lower Colorado
Hirundinidæ.
72. Hirundo 9 Mexico and Antilles to Chili and La Plata Almost cosmopolite
73. Petrochelidon 3 Mexico and Antilles to Paraguay Nearctic
74. Atticora 6 Guatemala to Peru and Brazil
75. Cotyle 2 Central America to La Plata All regions but Austral.
76. Stelgidopteryx 4 Mexico to Brazil S. United States
77. Progne 4 The whole region Nearctic
{98}

Icteridæ.

78. Clypeicterus 1 Upper Amazon
79. Ostinops 8 Mexico to Guiana, Brazil, and Bolivia
80. Cassiculus 1 Mexico
81. Cassicus 10 Mexico to S. Brazil and Bolivia
82. Icterus 33 Mexico to Antilles and La Plata All U. States & Canada
83. Dolichonyx 1 Mexico to Paraguay, Galapagos E. U. States and Canada
84. Molothrus 8 Mexico to La Plata and Bolivia All U. States & Canada
85. Agelæus 6 Mexico to Paraguay, Cuba, Porto Rico All U. States & Canada
(Xanthocephalus 1 Mexico) Nearctic genus
86. Xanthosomus 4 Venezuela to La Plata
87. Amblyrhamphus 1 Bolivia and La Plata
88. Gymnomystax 1 Guiana and Amazonia
89. Pseudoleistes 2 Brazil and La Plata
90. Leistes 3 Venezuela to Paraguay & Bolivia
91. Sturnella 4 Cuba and Mexico to Chili, Falkland Islands & Tierra del Fuego All U. States & Canada
92. Curœus 1 Chili to Magellan Straits
93. Nesopsar 1 Jamaica
(Scolecophagus 1 Mexico, Cuba ?) Nearctic genus
94. Lampropsar 4 Guatemala to Peru and Guiana
95. Quiscalus 9 Mexico to Antilles & Venezuela S. and E. United States to Labrador
96. Hypopyrrhus 1 Columbia
97. Aphobus 1 Brazil Paraguay and Bolivia
98. Cassidix 1 Mexico to Brazil and Guiana
Tanagridæ.
99. Procnias 2 Brazil and Peru to Columbia
100. Chlorophonia 7 Brazil to Mexico
101. Euphonia 32 Mexico and W. Indies to Brazil and Bolivia
102. Tanagrella 4 Columbia to Guiana and Brazil
103. Chlorochrysa 2 Columbia to Peru
104. Pipridea 2 Venezuela to Brazil and Bolivia
105. Diva 1 Columbia and Ecuador
106. Calliste 56 Guatemala to Bolivia & Paraguay
107. Iridornis 4 Columbia to Peru
108. Pœcilothraupis 4 Columbia to Bolivia
109. Stephanophorus 1 Brazil and La Plata
110. Buthraupis 5 Veragua to Bolivia
111. Compsocoma 5 Columbia to Bolivia
112. Dubusia 2 Columbia and Ecuador
113. Tanagra 12 Mexico to Bolivia and La Plata
114. Spindalis 5 Porto Rico to Bahamas
115. Rhamphocœlus 11 Guatemala to Brazil and Bolivia
116. Phlogothraupis 1 Mexico to Costa Rica
117. Euchætes 1 Eastern Ecuador
118. Pyranga 11 Mexico to Bolivia and Paraguay U. States and Canada
119. Orthogonys 2 Brazil and Guiana
120. Lamprotes 2 Brazil and Columbia
121. Phænicothraupis 7 Mexico to Paraguay and Bolivia
{99}

122.

Lanio 4 Mexico to Bolivia
123. Eucometis 5 Costa Rica to Bolivia
124. Trichothraupis 1 S. Brazil and Paraguay
125. Creurgops 1 West Ecuador
126. Tachyphonus 11 Nicaragua to Paraguay
127. Cypsnagra 1 S. Brazil and Bolivia
128. Nemosia 11 Venezuela, W. Ecuador, to Brazil and Bolivia
129. Pyrrhocoma 1 S. Brazil and Paraguay
130. Chlorospingus 18 Mexico to Peru and Bolivia
131. Buarremon 20 Mexico to S. Brazil and Bolivia
132. Phænicophilus 1 Hayti
133. Arremon 12 Mexico to S. Brazil
134. Oreothraupis 1 East Ecuador
135. Cissopis 3 Columbia to Peru and Bolivia
136. Lamprospiza 1 Guiana
137. Psittospiza 2 Columbia to Peru
138. Saltator 17 Mexico to La Plata and Bolivia
139. Diucopis 2 Upper Amazon and S. Brazil
140. Orchesticus 3 Tropical S. America
141. Pitylus 8 Mexico to Brazil and Ecuador
Fringillidæ.
142. Chrysomitris 12 Mexico to Brazil, Chili and Patagonia Nearctic, Palæarctic
143. Sycalis 9 Mexico to Chili and La Plata, Jamaica
144. Coccothraustes 2 Mexico and Guatemala Nearctic, Palæarctic
145. Geospiza 7 Galapagos Islands
146. Camarhynchus 5 Galapagos Islands
147. Cactornis 4 Galapagos Islands
148. Phrygilus 10 Columbia to Fuegia and Falkland Islands
149. Xenospingus 1 Peru
150. Diuca 3 Peru, Chili, and Patagonia
151. Emberizoides 3 Venezuela to Paraguay
152. Doncacospiza 1 S. Brazil and La Plata
153. Chamæospiza 1 Mexico
154. Embernagra 9 Mexico to La Plata Rocky Mountains
155. Hæmophila 6 Mexico to Costa Rica
156. Atlapetes 1 Mexico Nearctic?
157. Pyrgisoma 5 Mexico to Costa Rica
158. Pipilo 4 Mexico to Guatemala All Nearctic region
159. Junco 2 Mexico and Guatemala United States
160. Zonotrichia 5 Mexico to Straits of Magellan Nearctic
(Melospiza 2 Mexico and Guatemala) Nearctic genus
(Spizella 3 Mexico and Guatemala) Nearctic genus
(Passerculus 1 Mexico and Guatemala) Nearctic genus
(Poœcetes 1 Mexico) Nearctic genus
161. Ammodramus 1 Guatemala Nearctic
162. Coturniculus 4 Mexico to Bolivia, Jamaica E. & N. of N. America
163. Peucæa 4 Mexico S. E. States & California
164. Tiaris 1 Brazil
165. Volatinia 1 Mexico to Brazil
{100} (Cyanospiza 4 Mexico and Central America) Nearctic
166. Paroaria 6 Trop. S. America, E. of Andes
167. Coryphospingus 4 Tropical S. America
168. Porphyrospiza 1 Brazil
169. Haplospiza 2 Mexico and Brazil
170. Phonipara 5 Mexico to Columbia, Greater Antilles
171. Poospiza 12 Mexico to Bolivia and La Plata W. & Central U. States
172. Spodiornis 1 Ecuador
(Carpodacus 2 Mexico) Nearctic, Palæarctic
173. Cardinalis 2 Mexico to Venezuela S. & S. Cent. U. States
174. Guiraca 6 Mexico to Brazil and La Plata Southern U. States
175. Amaurospiza 2 Costa Rica and Brazil
176. Hedymeles 2 Mexico to Columbia Nearctic
177. Pheucticus 5 Mexico to Peru and Bolivia
178. Oryzoborus 6 Mexico to Ecuador and S. Brazil
179. Melopyrrha 1 Cuba
180. Loxigilla 4 Antilles
181. Spermophila 44 Mexico to Bolivia and Uruguay Texas
182. Catamenia 4 Columbia to Bolivia
183. Neorhynchus 1 W. Peru
184. Catamblyrhynchus 1 Columbia
(Loxia 1 Mexico) North temperate genus
(Calamospiza 1 Mexico) Arizona and Texas
(Chondestes 1 Mexico) W. and Cent. U. States
(Euspiza 1 Mexico to Columbia) S.-E. U. States, Palæarc.
185. Gubernatrix 1 Paraguay and La Plata
(Plectrophanes 1 Mexico) N. temp. & Arctic genus
Alaudidæ.
186. Otocorys 1 Mexico, Andes of Columbia Nearc. & Palæarc. genus
Motacillidæ.
187. Anthus 4 Mexico to Patagonia and Falkland Islands Cosmopolite
Oxyrhamphidæ.
187a. Oxyrhamphus 2 Brazil to Costa Rica
Tyrannidæ.
188. Conophaga 11 Columbia to Bolivia and Brazil
189. Corythopis 2 Brazil and Guiana
190. Agriornis 5 Ecuador, Peru, and Chili
191. Myiotheretes 3 Columbia to Ecuador, Patagonia
192. Tænioptera 8 S. Brazil and Bolivia to Patago.
193. Ochthodiœta 1 Columbian Andes
194. Ochthæca 17 Andes, Bolivia to Columbia and Venezuela
195. Sayornis 4 Mexico to Ecuador E. United Sts. to Canada
196. Fluvicola 4 Guiana & W. Ecuador to Brazil, and Bolivia
197. Arundinicola 1 Tropical S. America
198. Alectorurus 2 S. Brazil and La Plata
{101}

199.

Cybernetes 1 Brazil
200. Sysopygis 1 S. Brazil and La Plata
201. Cnipolegus 9 Amazonia to Patagonia
202. Lichenops 1 Brazil and La Plata
203. Muscipipra 1 S. Brazil
204. Copurus 3 Costa Rica to S. Brazil
205. Machetornis 1 Venezuela to Brazil
206. Muscisaxicola 11 Andes of Ecuador to Chili and Patagonia
207. Centrites 2 Bolivia to Patagonia
208. Muscigralla 1 W. Ecuador
209. Platyrhynchus 7 Mexico to Brazil
210. Todirostrum 11 Tropical N. and S. America
211. Oncosotma 2 Tropical N. America
212. Euscarthmus 12 Costa Rica to W. Ecuador, Brazil, and Bolivia
213. Orchilus 2 Costa Rica to Brazil and Bolivia
214. Colopterus 2 Veragua to Columbia and Guiana
215. Hemitriccus 1 Brazil
216. Phylloscartes 1 Columbia to Brazil
217. Hapalocercus 3 Brazil to Chili and La Plata
218. Habrura 1 Uruguay
219. Pogonotriccus 2 Brazil and Columbia
220. Leptotriccus 2 Brazil and Veragua
221. Stigmatura 2 Upper Amazon to La Plata
222. Serphophaga 7 Columbia to Chili and La Plata
223. Anæretes 4 Columbia to Chili and La Plata, Magell. Sts. & Juan Fernand.
224. Cyanotis 1 W. Peru to La Plata
225. Mionectes 4 Mexico to Brazil and Bolivia
226. Leptopogon 6 Mexico to Peru and Brazil
227. Capsiempis 1 Chiriqui to Brazil
228. Phyllomyias 5 Columbia to Brazil
229. Ornithion 4 Mexico to Brazil
230. Tyrannulus 3 Guatemala to Amazonia
231. Tyranniscus 9 Guatemala to E. Peru
232. Elainea 18 Mexico to Tierra del Fuego, Antilles
233. Empidagra 1 Bolivia and La Plata
234. Legatus 2 Mexico to Brazil
235. Sublegatus 2 Venezuela and Lower Amazon
236. Myiozetetes 8 Mexico to W. Peru and Brazil
237. Rhynchocyclus 10 Mexico to W. Ecuador & Brazil
238. Conopias 3 Venezuela to Peru and Brazil
239. Pitangus 7 Mexico to La Plata, Antilles
240. Sirystes 2 Panama to Brazil
241. Myiodynastes 6 Mexico to Bolivia and Paraguay
242. Megarhynchus 1 Mexico to Brazil
243. Muscivora 5 Mexico to W. Ecuador & Brazil
244. Hirundinea 3 Columbia & Guiana to Paraguay
245. Cnipodectes 1 Panama to W. Ecuador & Amazon
246. Myiobius 13 Mexico to W. Peru, Bolivia, and La Plata
247. Pyrocephalus 3 Tropical N. and S. America and Galapagos Islands Gila and Rio Grande
{102}

248.

Empidochanes 4 Venezuela to S. Brazil.
249. Mitrephorus 2 Mexico to Costa Rica
250. Empidonax 12 Mexico to Columbia & Ecuador All N. America
251. Contopus 10 Mexico to Amazonia, Antilles N. & E. of Rocky Mtns.
252. Myiochanes 1 Amazonia and Brazil
253. Myiarchus 12 Mexico to W. Ecuador & Brazil, Galapagos and Antilles East and West Coasts to Canada
254. Blacicus 2 Cuba, Hayti, Jamaica
(Empidias 1 Mexico) Eastern United States
255. Empidonomus 1 Guiana and Brazil
256. Tyrannus 11 All tropical sub-regions All U. States to Canada
257. Milvulus 2 Tropical N. and S. America Texas
Pipridæ.
258. Piprites 4 Costa Rica to Brazil
259. Masius 2 Columbia and Ecuador
260. Chloropipo 1 Columbia
261. Xenopipo 1 Guiana and Columbia
262. Pipra 19 Trop. N. and S. America
263. Neopipo 1 Upper Amazon
264. Machæropterus 4 Columbia to Brazil
265. Ilicura 1 Brazil
266. Chiroxiphia 5 Guatemala to Brazil
267. Metopia 1 Brazil
268. Metopothrix 1 Upper Amazon
269. Chiromachæris 6 Mexico to Ecuador and Brazil
270. Heteropelma 10 Mexico to Guiana and Brazil
271. Heterocercus 2 Guiana and Upper Amazon
272. Schiffornis 2 Upper Amazon and Brazil
Cotingidæ.
273. Tityra 6 Tropical N. and S. America
274. Hadrostomus 5 Mexico to W. Ecuador & Brazil, Jamaica
275. Pachyrhamphus 11 Mexico to W. Ecuador & Brazil
276. Lathria 5 Mexico to Brazil
277. Aulia 3 Veragua to Brazil
278. Lipaugus 3 Guatemala to Brazil and Guiana
279. Ptilochloris 2 Brazil
280. Attila 8 Costa Rica to Brazil and Guiana
281. Casiornis 2 S. Brazil to Paraguay
282. Rupicola 3 Guiana to W. Ecuador & Bolivia
283. Phœnicocercus 2 Guiana and Amazonia
284. Tijuca 1 Brazil
285. Phibalura 1 Brazil
286. Pipreola 7 Venezuela to Ecuador and Peru
287. Ampelio 4 Columbia to Peru and Brazil
288. Carpodectes 1 Nicaragua and Costa Rica
289. Heliochæra 2 Columbia to Peru and Bolivia
290. Cotinga 6 Guatemala to Peru and Brazil
291. Xipholena 3 Guiana to Brazil
292. Iodopleura 3 Guiana to Brazil
293. Calyptura 1 Brazil
294. Querula 1 Panama to Amazonia
{103}

295.

Hæmatoderus 1 Guiana and Lower Amazon
296. Chasmorhynchus 4 Costa Rica to Guiana and Brazil
297. Gymnocephalus 1 Guiana and Rio Negro
298. Gymnoderus 1 Guiana and Upper Amazon
299. Pyroderus 3 Venezuela to Brazil
300. Cephalopterus 3 Costa Rica to W. Ecuador & Upr. Amazon
Phytotomidæ.
301. Phytotoma 3 Bolivia, Chili, and La Plata
Dendrocolaptidæ.
302. Geobates 1 South Brazil
303. Geositta 6 Peru to Chili and Patagonia
304. Furnarius 9 Guiana & W. Ecuador to La Plata
305. Clibanornis 1 S. Brazil
306. Upucerthia 4 Andes of Ecuador to Chili and Patagonia
307. Cinclodes 5 Ecuador to Chili, Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego
308. Henicornis 2 Patagonia
309. Lochmias 2 Venezuela and Brazil
310. Sclerurus 6 Mexico to Brazil
311. Oxyurus 2 Chili to Tierra del Fuego, and Masafuera Islands
312. Sylviorthorhynchus 1 Chili
313. Phlæocryptes 1 W. Peru to La Plata
314. Leptasthenura 5 Andes of Ecuador to Brazil and Patagonia
315. Synallaxis 55 The whole region (excl. Antilles)
316. Coryphistera 1 La Plata
317. Anumbius 1 Paraguay and La Plata
318. Limnornis 1 Uruguay and La Plata
319. Placellodomus 4 Venezuela to Peru and La Plata
320. Thripophaga 3 Brazil and Columbia
321. Pseudocolaptes 1 Columbia to Peru
322. Homorus 3 Brazil, Bolivia, and La Plata
323. Thripadectes 1 Columbia
324. Ancistrops 1 Upper Amazon
325. Automolus 9 Mexico to Amazonia
326. Philydor 14 Tropical South America
327. Heliobletus 1 Brazil
328. Anabatoides 1 Brazil
329. Anabazenops 5 Mexico to Brazil
330. Xenops 3 Trop. North and South America
331. Sittasomus 3 Mexico to Ecuador and Brazil
332. Margarornis 4 Costa Rica to Peru and Bolivia
333. Glyphorhynchus 1 Trop. North and South America
334. Pygarrhicus 1 Chili
335. Dendrocincla 10 Mexico to Venezuela and Brazil
336. Dendrocolaptes 7 Guatemala to Peru and Brazil
337. Nasica 1 Guiana
338. Drymornis 1 La Plata
339. Xiphocolaptes 5 Mexico to Bolivia and Paraguay
{104}

340.

Dendrexetastes 2 Guiana
341. Dendrornis 14 Mexico, W. Ecuador and Brazil
342. Dendroplex 2 Columbia & Venezuela to Brazil
343. Picolaptes 14 Mexico to Bolivia and La Plata
344. Xiphorhynchus 4 Veragua to Brazil
Formicariidæ.
345. Cymbilanius 1 Amazonia and Guiana
346. Batara 1 S. Brazil
347. Thamnophilus 47 Trop. North and South America
348. Biatas 1 Brazil
349. Thamnistes 2 Central America and Ecuador
350. Pygoptila 2 Amazonia
351. Neoctantes 1 Amazonia
352. Clytoctantes 1 Eastern Ecuador
353. Dysithamnus 12 Mexico to Bolivia and Brazil
354. Thamnomanes 2 Ecuador, Guiana, and Brazil
355. Herpsilochmus 4 Venezuela to Brazil and Bolivia
356. Myrmotherula 21 Tropical S. America
357. Formicivora 14 Trop. North and South America
358. Terenura 3 Veragua to W. Ecuador & Brazil
359. Psilorhamphus 1 Central Brazil
360. Microbates 1 Cayenne
361. Rhamphocænus 4 Guatemala to Brazil
362. Cercomacra 9 Cen. America to W. Equador & S. Brazil
363. Pyriglena 4 Ecuador to Peru and Brazil
364. Gymnocichla 2 Honduras to Panama
365. Percnostola 3 Guiana and Upper Amazon
366. Heterocnemis 3 Guiana and Upper Amazon
367. Myrmeciza 11 Veragua to W. Ecuador, Bolivia, and Brazil
368. Hypocnemis 15 Costa Rica to W. Ecuador & Brazil
369. Pithys 5 Nicaragua to Amazonia
370. Rhopoterpe 1 Guiana
371. Phlogopsis 4 Nicaragua to Guiana and Bolivia
372. Formicarius 9 Mexico to Brazil and Bolivia
373. Pittasoma 1 Panama and Veragua
374. Chamæza 4 Columbia to Brazil
375. Grallaria 20 Mexico to W. Ecuador & Brazil
376. Grallaricula 5 Costa Rica to Ecuador
Pteroptochidæ.
377. Scytalopus 8 Columbia & Brazil to Chili and Tierra del Fuego
378. Merulaxis 1 Central Brazil
379. Rhinocrypta 2 La Plata and Patagonia
380. Liosceles 1 Madeira Valley
381. Pteroptochus 2 Chili and Chiloe
382. Hylactes 3 Chili
383. Acropternis 1 Columbia and Ecuador
384. Triptorhinus 1 Chili
{105}

PICARIÆ.

Picidæ.
385. Picumnus 14 Honduras to Brazil and Bolivia
386. Picus 6 Mexico, Chili, La Plata, and S. Patagonia All reg. but Austral. & Ethiopian
(Sphyrapicus 1 Mexico and Guatemala) Nearctic genus
387. Campephilus 12 Mexico to Patagonia, Cuba Nearctic
388. Dryocopus 4 Mexico to S. Brazil Palæarctic
389. Celeus 15 Mexico and S. Brazil
390. Nesoceleus 1 Cuba
391. Chrysoptilus 6 Tropical S. America
392. Centurus 10 Mexico to Venezuela, Antilles Nearctic
393. Chloronerpes 35 Tropical America, Hayti
394. Xiphidiopicus 1 Cuba
395. Melanerpes 9 Mexico to Brazil, Porto Rico Nearctic
396. Leuconerpes 1 Brazil, Bolivia
397. Colaptes 7 Open country of trop. America, Greater Antilles Nearctic
398. Hypoxanthus 1 Venezuela and Ecuador
Megalæmidæ.
399. Capito 10 Costa Rica to Peru and Guiana
400. Tetragonops 2 Costa Rica and Ecuador
Rhamphastidæ.
401. Rhamphastos 12 All tropical America
402. Pteroglossus 16 Mexico to Guiana and Brazil
403. Selenidera 7 Veragua to Brazil
404. Andigena 6 Columbia to W. Ecuador, Bolivia and Brazil
405. Aulacorhamphus 10 Mexico to Venezuela and Bolivia
Cuculidæ.
406. Crotophaga 3 Tropical America and Antilles Nearctic to Pennsylvania
407. Guira 1 Brazil and Paraguay
408. Neomorphus 4 Nicaragua to Brazil and Upper Amazon
409. Geococcyx 1 Guatemala Texas to California
410. Dromococcyx 2 Mexico to Brazil
411. Diplopterus 1 Mexico to Ecuador and Brazil
412. Saurothera 4 Greater Antilles
413. Hyetornis 2 Jamaica and Hayti
414. Piaya 3 Mexico to W. Ecuador & Brazil
415. Morococcyx 1 Mexico to Costa Rica
416. Coccygus 10 Tropical America and Antilles, Cocos Islands Nearctic
Bucconidæ.
417. Bucco 21 Guatemala to Guiana, Paraguay and Bolivia
418. Malacoptila 10 Guatemala to Guiana, W. Ecuador and Bolivia
419. Nonnula 5 Columbia and Amazonia
{106}

420.

Monasa 7 Costa Rica to Brazil
421. Chelidoptera 2 Columbia to Guiana and Brazil
Galbrilidæ.
422. Galbula 9 Guatemala to Brazil and Bolivia
423. Urogalba 2 Guiana to Lower Amazon
424. Brachygalba 4 Columbia to Brazil and Bolivia
425. Jacamaralcyon 1 Brazil
426. Jacamerops 2 Columbia to Amazonia
427. Galbalcyrhynchus 1 Upper Amazon
Todidæ.
428. Todus 5 Greater Antilles
Momotidæ.
429. Momotus 10 Mexico to W. Ecuador, Brazil and Bolivia
430. Urospatha 1 Costa Rica to Columbia
431. Baryphthengus 1 Brazil and Paraguay
432. Hylomanes 2 Mexico and Guatemala
433. Prionirhynchus 2 Guatemala to Upper Amazon
434. Eumomota 1 Honduras to Chiriqui
Trogonidæ.
435. Prionoteles 1 Cuba
436. Temnotrogon 1 Hayti
437. Trogon 22 Mexico to W. Ecuador & Parag.
438. Euptilotis 1 Mexico
439. Pharomacrus 5 Guatemala to Upper Amazon and Bolivia
Alcedinidæ.
440. Ceryle 8 Mexico to Brazil, Patagonia and Chili Nearc., S. Palæarc., Orien.
Steatornithidæ.
441. Steatornis 1 Columb., Venezuela, & Trinidad
Caprimulgidæ.
442. Nyctibius 6 Brazil to Guatemala & Jamaica
443. Hydropsalis 8 Columbia & Guiana to La Plata
444. Antrostomus 10 Mexico and Cuba to Bolivia and La Plata All U. States to Canada
445. Stenopsis 4 Martinique to Columb., W. Peru and Chili
446. Siphonorhis 1 Jamaica
447. Heleothreptus 1 Central Brazil
448. Nyctidromus 1 Central America to S. Brazil
449. Podager 1 Tropical S. America
450. Lurocalis 2 Guiana to Brazil
451. Chordeiles 7 Mexico to W. Peru and Brazil, Jamaica and Porto Rico All U. States to Canada
452. Nyctiprogne 1 Amazonia
{107}

Cypselidæ.

453. Cypselus 3 Antilles to Guiana and Bolivia The Eastern Hemisphere
454. Panyptila 3 Guatemala and Guiana
455. Chætura 9 Mexico to Ecuador and Brazil Almost cosmopolite
456. Hemiprocne 3 Mexico to La Plata, Jamaica and Hayti
457. Cypseloides 2 Brazil and Peru
458. Nephœcetes 1 Jamaica
Trochilidæ.
459. Grypus 1 Brazil
460. Androdon 1 Ecuador
461. Eutoxeres 2 Costa Rica to Ecuador
462. Glaucis 2 Panama to Brazil
463. Phaethornis 14 Tropical N. and S. America
464. Pygmornis 8 Mexico to Guiana and Brazil
465. Threnetes 4 Costa Rica to Amazonia and W. Ecuador
466. Dolerisca 1 Venezuela
467. Eupetomena 1 Guiana to Brazil
468. Sphenoproctus 2 Mexico to Guatemala
469. Campylopterus 9 Mexico to Amazonia
470. Phæochroa 2 Guatemala to Columbia
471. Aphantochroa 3 Ecuador and Brazil
472. Urochroa 1 Ecuador
473. Sternoclyta 1 Venezuela
474. Eugenes 2 Mexico to Costa Rica
475. Cœligena 1 Mexico
476. Lamprolæma 1 Mexico and Guatemala
477. Delattria 2 Guatemala
478. Oreopyra 4 Costa Rica to Chiriqui
479. Heliopædica 2 Mexico and Guatemala
480. Topaza 2 Guiana
481. Oreotrochilus 6 Ecuador to Peru and Chili
482. Lampornis 7 Mexico & W. India to Amazonia
483. Eulampis 2 Lesser Antilles
484. Avocettula 1 Guiana
485. Lafresnaya 2 Venezuela and Columbia
486. Doryphora 5 Costa Rica to Ecuador
487. Chalybura 5 Costa Rica to Columbia
488. Heliodoxa 5 Costa Rica to Venezue. & Boliv.
489. Iolæma 2 Ecuador to Peru
490. Phæolæma 2 Columbia and Ecuador
491. Eugenia 1 Ecuador
492. Aithurus 1 Jamaica
493. Thalurania 10 Costa Rica to Guiana, Ecuador and Brazil
494. Panoplites 3 Columbia and Ecuador
495. Florisuga 2 Guatemala to Brazil
496. Microchera 2 Nicaragua to Veragua
497. Lophorius 7 Mexico to Brazil, Peru, & Bolivia
498. Polemistria 2 Columbia to S. Brazil
499. Discura 2 Brazil
500. Gouldia 4 Costa Rica to Brazil & Bolivia
{108}

501.

Trochilus 2 Mexico to Veragua To Canada and Sitka
502. Mellisuga 1 Jamaica to Hayti
503. Calypte 3 Mexico and Cuba
504. Selasphorus 7 Mexico to Veragua W. & Cen. United States
505. Atthis 1 Mexico and Guatemala California and Colorado
506. Stellula 1 Mexico
507. Calothorax 2 Mexico
508. Acestrura 3 Venezuela to Ecuador & Bolivia
509. Chætocercus 3 Venezuela and Ecuador
510. Myrtis 2 Ecuador to Bolivia, W. of Andes
511. Thaumastura 1 W. Peru
512. Rhodopis 2 W. Peru and Chili
513. Doricha 5 Mexico to Veragua, Bahamas
514. Tilmatura 1 Guatemala
515. Calliphlox 2 Ecuador and Brazil
516. Loddigesia 1 Peruvian Andes
517. Steganura 6 Venezuela to Ecuador & Bolivia
518. Lesbia 6 Columbia to Peru
519. Cynanthus 2 Venezuela to Ecuador
520. Sparganura 4 Columbia to Bolivia & La Plata
521. Pterophanes 1 Columbia to Peru
522. Aglæactis 4 Columbia to Bolivia
523. Oxypogon 2 Venezuela and Columbia
524. Oreonympha 1 Peru
525. Rhamphomicron 6 Columbia to Bolivia
526. Urosticte 2 Ecuador
527. Metallura 6 Columbia to Bolivia
528. Adelomia 4 Venezuela to Peru & Bolivia
529. Avocettinus 1 Columbia
530. Anthocephala 1 Columbia
531. Chrysolampis 1 Venezuela to Brazil
532. Orthorhynchus 2 Lesser Antilles
533. Cephalolepis 3 Brazil
534. Clais 1 Venezuela and Columbia
535. Baucis 1 Mexico to Veragua
536. Heliactin 1 Brazil
537. Heliothrix 3 Guatemala to Ecuador & Brazil
538. Schistes 2 Columbia and Ecuador
539. Phlogophilus 1 Ecuador
540. Augastes 2 Brazil
541. Petasophora 5 Mexico to Peru and Brazil
542. Chrysobronchus 3 Venezuela to Brazil
543. Patagona 1 Ecuador to Bolivia and Chili
544. Docimastes 1 Columbia and Ecuador
545. Helianthea 7 Columbia to Bolivia
546. Heliotrypha 2 Columbia and Ecuador
547. Heliangelus 6 Venezuela to Peru
548. Diphlogæna 3 Bolivia
549. Clytolæma 2 E. Ecuador and Brazil
550. Bourcieria 5 Venezuela to Peru
551. Lampropygia 4 Venezuela to Bolivia
552. Heliomastes 5 Mexico to Ecuador & Venezuela
553. Lepidolarynx 1 Brazil
554. Calliperidia 1 Central Brazil and Paraguay
555. Eustephanus 3 Chili, S. Patagonia, and Juan Fernandez Island
{109}

556.

Eriocnemis 14 Venezuela to Ecuador
557. Cyanomyia 6 Mexico to Peru
558. Hemistilbon 1 Mexico
559. Leucippus 2 Peru and Bolivia
560. Thaumatias 15 Mexico to Guiana, Upr. Amazon, and Brazil
561. Amazilia 14 Mexico to W. Ecuador & Peru
562. Saucerottia 7 Costa Rica to Columb. & Venezue.
563. Eupherusa 3 Mexico to Veragua
564. Chrysuronia 5 Guatemala to Ecuador & La Plata
565. Eucephala 7 Venezuela to Guiana and Brazil
566. Panterpe 1 Costa Rica and Chiriqui
567. Juliamyia 2 Panama to Ecuador
568. Circe 3 Mexico
569. Phæoptila 1 Mexico
570. Damophila 1 Costa Rica to Ecuador
571. Hylocharis 3 Amazonia and Brazil
572. Sapphironia 2 Columbia and Veragua
573. Sporadinus 3 Cuba, Bahamas, Hayti, Porto Rico
574. Chlorostilbon 8 Mexico to Brazil and La Plata
575. Panychlora 3 Venezuela and Columbia
576. Smaragdochrysis 1 Brazil
PSITTACI.
Conuridæ.
577. Ara 15 Trop. North and South America, Cuba, Jamaica (extinct)
578. Rhynchopsitta 1 Mexico
579. Henicognathus 1 Chili
580. Conurus 30 The whole region S. & S.E. United States
581. Pyrrhura 16 Costa Rica to Paraguay & Bolivia
582. Bolborhynchus 7 Mexico to Peru, Central Brazil, and La Plata
583. Brotogerys 9 Trop. North and South America
Psittacidæ.
584. Caica 9 Mexico to Amazonia
585. Chrysotis 32 All the tropical sub-regions
586. Triclaria 1 Brazil
587. Deroptyus 1 Guiana and Rio Negro
588. Pionus 9 Costa Rica to Bolivia and Brazil
589. Urochroma 7 Venezuela to Brazil
590. Psittacula 6 Mexico to W. Ecuador & Brazil
COLUMBÆ.
591. Columba 18 Trop. sub-regions with Chili and La Plata All regions but Austral.
592. Zenaidura 2 Mexico to Veragua Nearctic
593. Chæmepelia 6 Mexico to Brazil and Bolivia S. Nearctic
594. Columbula 2 Brazil and La Plata to Chili
595. Scardafella 2 Guatemala and Brazil
596. Zenaida 10 Antilles and S. America to Chili and La Plata
{110}

597.

Melopelia 2 Mexico to Chili South & West Nearctic
598. Peristera 4 Mexico to Brazil
599. Metriopelia 2 W. America from Ecuador to Chili
600. Gymnopelia 1 West Peru and Bolivia
601. Leptoptila 11 Tropical sub-regions
602. Geotrygon 14 Tropical sub-regions
603. Starnœnas 1 Cuba
GALLINÆ.
Tetraonidæ.
604. Odontophorus 17 Trop. North and South America
605. Dendrortyx 3 Mexico to Costa Rica
606. Cyrtonyx 3 Mexico to Guatemala S. Central United States
607. Ortyx 5 Mexico to Costa Rica, Cuba Nearctic to Canada
608. Eupsychortyx 5 Mexico to Columbia and Guiana
(Callipepla 2 Mexico) California
Phasianidæ.
609. Meleagris 2 Mexico and Honduras Nearctic
Cracidæ.
610. Crax 8 Mexico to Venezuela & S. Brazil
611. Nothocrax 1 Guiana and Upper Amazon
612. Pauxi 1 Guiana and Venezuela
613. Mitua 2 Guiana to Peru
614. Stegnolæma 1 Columbia and Ecuador
615. Penelope 13 Trop. North and South America
616. Penelopina 1 Guatemala
617. Pipile 3 Venezuela to Brazil and Peru
618. Aburria 1 Columbia
619. Chamæpetes 2 Costa Rica to Peru
620. Ortalida 18 Trop. North and South America New Mexico
621. Oreophasis 1 Guatemala
Tinamidæ.
622. Tinamus 7 Trop. North and South America
623. Nothocercus 3 Costa Rica to Venezue. & Ecuador
624. Crypturus 16 Trop. North and South America
625. Rhynchotus 2 Brazil to Bolivia and La Plata
626. Nothoprocta 4 Ecuador to Bolivia and Chili
627. Nothura 4 Brazil to Bolivia and La Plata
628. Taoniscus 1 Brazil and Paraguay
629. Calodromas 1 La Plata
630. Tinamotis 1 Andes of Peru and Bolivia
OPISTHOCOMI.
Opisthocomidæ
631. Opisthocomus 1 Guiana and Lower Amazon
{111}

ACCIPITRES.

Vulturidæ.
  (Cathartinæ.)
632. Sarcorhamphus 2 The Andes and S. of 41° S. Lat.
633. Cathartes 1 Mexico to 20° S. Lat.
634. Catharista 1 Mexico to 40° S. Lat. S. United States
635. Pseudogryphis 3 Mexico to Falkland Ids., Cuba, Jamaica United States
Falconidæ.
636. Polyborus 2 The whole region California and Florida
637. Ibycter 8 Guatemala to Terra del Fuego
638. Circus 3 Nearly the whole region Almost cosmopolite
639. Micrastur 7 Trop. North and South America
640. Geranospiza 2 Trop. North and South America
641. Antenor 1 Mexico to Chili and La Plata California and Texas
642. Astur 2 Trop. N. and S. America Almost cosmopolite
643. Accipiter 9 The whole region Almost cosmopolite
644. Heterospizias 1 Trop. S. America, E. of Andes
645. Tachytriorchis 2 Mexico to Paraguay California
646. Buteo 9 Mexico to Patagonia Almost cosmopolite
647. Buteola 1 Veragua to Amazonia
648. Asturina 7 Mexico to Bolivia and La Plata S.E. United States
649. Busarellus 1 Brazil and Guiana
650. Buteogallus 1 Columbia and Guiana
651. Urubutinga 12 Mexico to Brazil and Bolivia
652. Harpyhaliæetus 1 Veragua to Chili & N. Patagonia
653. Morphnus 1 Panama to Amazonia
654. Thrasaëtus 1 Mexico to Bolivia and Paraguay
655. Lophotriorchis 1 Bogota Indo-Malaya
656. Spiziastur 1 Guatemala to Brazil
657. Spizaëtus 4 Mexico to Paraguay Africa, India, Malaya
658. Herpetotheres 1 S. Mexico to Bolivia & Paraguay
659. Nauclerus 1 Mexico to Brazil S. United States
660. Rostrhamus 3 Antilles to Brazil and Peru Florida
661. Leptodon 4 Central America to S. Brazil and Bolivia
662. Elanus 1 Mexico to Chili Califor., Old World trop.
663. Gampsonyx 1 Trinidad to Brazil
664. Harpagus 3 Central America to Brazil & Peru
665. Ictinia 2 Mexico to Brazil South United States
666. Spiziapteryx 1 La Plata
667. Falco 3 The whole region Almost cosmopolite
668. Cerchneis 3 The whole region Almost cosmopolite
Pandionidæ.
669. Pandion 1 The whole region Cosmopolite
Strigidæ.
670. Glaucidium 6 The whole region W. United Sts., Palæarc.
671. Micrathene 1 Mexico Arizona, New Mexico
672. Pholeoptynx 1 The whole region N. W. America & Texas
673. Bubo 1 The whole region All regions but Austral.
{112}

674.

Scops 6 Mexico to Brazil and La Plata Almost cosmopolite
675. Gymnoglaux 2 West India Islands
676. Lophostrix 2 Guatemala to Lower Amazon
677. Syrnium 3 Mexico to Patagonia All regions but Austral.
678. Ciccaba 10 Mexico to Peru and Paraguay
679. Nyctalatinus 1 Columbia
680. Pulsatrix 2 Guatemala to Brazil and Peru
681. Asio 2 The whole region All regions but Austral.
682. Nyctalops 1 Cuba and Mexico to Brazil
683. Pseudoscops 1 Jamaica
(Nyctale 1 Mexico) N. Temperate genus
684. Strix 2 The whole region Almost cosmopolite
Peculiar or very characteristic Genera of Wading and Swimming Birds.
GRALLÆ.
Rallidæ.
Aramides 23 The whole region Nearctic
Heliornis 1 Tropical America
Scolopacidæ.
Eureunetes 3 The whole region Nearctic
Chionididæ.
Chionis 2 Sts. of Magellan, Falkland Ids. Kerguelen's Island
Thinocoridæ.
Attagis 4 Andes to Fuegia and Falkland Islands
Thinocorus 2 Peru, Chili, and La Plata
Charadriidæ.
Phegornis 1 Temperate S. America
Oreophilus 1 Temperate S. America
Pluvianellus 1 Temperate S. America
Aphriza 1 W. coast of S. America W. coast of N. America
Cariamidæ.
Cariama 2 S. Brazil and La Plata
Aramidæ.
Aramus 5 Mexico and Cuba to Brazil
Psophiidæ.
Psophia 6 Equatorial S. America
Eurypygidæ.
Eurypyga 2 Tropical America
{113}

Ardeidæ.

Tigrisoma 3 The whole region
Cancroma 1 Tropical S. America
Palamedeidæ.
Palamedea 1 Equatorial America
Chauna 2 Columbia, Brazil, and La Plata
ANSERES.
Anatidæ.
Cairina 1 Tropical S. America
Merganetta 3 Andes
Micropterus 1 Temperate S. America
Spheniscidæ.
Eudyptes 6 Temperate S. America Antarctic shores
Aptenodytes 2 Falkland Islands Antarctic shores
STRUTHIONES.
Struthionidæ.
685. Rhea 3 S. Temperate America
{114}

CHAPTER XV.

THE NEARCTIC REGION.

This region consists almost wholly of Temperate North America as defined by physical geographers. In area it is about equal to the Neotropical region. It possesses a vast mountain range traversing its entire length from north to south, comparable with, and in fact a continuation of, the Andes,—and a smaller range near the east coast, equally comparable with the mountains of Brazil and Guiana. These mountains supply its great river-system of the Mississippi, second only to that of the Amazon; and in its vast group of fresh-water lakes or inland seas, it possesses a feature unmatched by any other region, except perhaps by the Ethiopian. It possesses every variety of climate between arctic and tropical; extensive forests and vast prairies; a greatly varied surface and a rich and beautiful flora. But these great advantages are somewhat neutralized by other physical features. It extends far towards the north, and there it reaches its greatest width; while in its southern and warmest portion it suddenly narrows. The northern mass of land causes its isothermal lines to bend southwards; and its winter temperature especially, is far lower than at corresponding latitudes in Europe. This diminishes the available area for supporting animal life; the amount and character of which must be, to a great extent, determined by the nature of the least favourable part of the year. Again, owing to the position of its mountain ranges and the direction of prevalent winds, a large extent of its interior, east of the Rocky Mountains, is bare and arid, and often almost desert; while the most favoured districts,—those east of the Mississippi and west of the Sierra Nevada, bear but a small proportion to its whole area. Again, we know that at a very recent period geologically, it was subjected to a very severe Glacial epoch, which wrapped a full half of it in a mantle of ice, and exterminated a large number of animals which previously inhabited it. Taking all this into account, we need not be surprised to find the Nearctic region somewhat less rich and varied in its forms of life than the Palæarctic or the Australian regions, with which alone it can fairly be compared. The wonder rather is that it should be so little inferior to them in this respect, and that it should possess such a variety of groups, and such a multitude of forms, in every class of animals.

NEARCTIC REGION
{115}

Zoological characteristics of the Nearctic Region.—Temperate North America possesses representatives of 26 families of Mammalia, 48 of Birds, 18 of Reptiles, 11 of Amphibia, and 18 of Fresh-water Fish. The first three numbers are considerably less than the corresponding numbers for the Palæarctic region, while the last two are greater—in the case of fishes materially so, a circumstance readily explained by the wonderful group of fresh-water lakes and the noble southward-flowing river system of the Mississippi, to which the Palæarctic region has nothing comparable. But although somewhat deficient in the total number of its families, this region possesses its full proportion of peculiar and characteristic family and generic forms. No less than 13 families or sub-families of Vertebrata are confined to it, or just enter the adjacent Neotropical region. These are,—three of mammalia, Antilocaprinæ, Saccomyidæ and Haploodontidæ; one of birds, Chamæidæ; one of reptiles, Chirotidæ; two of amphibia, Sirenidæ and Amphiumidæ; and the remaining six of fresh-water fishes. The number of peculiar or characteristic genera is perhaps more important for our purpose; and these are very considerable, as the following enumeration will show.

Mammalia.—Of the family of moles (Talpidæ) we have 3 peculiar genera: Condylura, Scapanus, and Scalops, as well as the remarkable Urotrichus, found only in California and Japan. In the weasel family (Mustelidæ) we have Latax, a peculiar kind of otter; Taxidea, allied to the badgers; and one of the {116}remarkable and characteristic skunks is separated by Dr. J. E. Gray as a genus—Spilogale. In the American family Procyonidæ, a peculiar genus (Bassaris) is found in California and Texas, extending south along the mountains of Mexico and Guatemala. Eumetopias, and Halicyon, are seals confined to the west coast of North America. The Bovidæ, or hollow-horned ruminants, contain three peculiar forms; Antilocapra, the remarkable prong-buck of the Rocky Mountains; Aplocerus, a goat-like antelope; and Ovibos, the musk-sheep, confined to Arctic America and Greenland. Among the Rodents are many peculiar genera: Neotoma, Sigmodon, and Fiber, belong to the Muridæ, or rats; Jaculus to the Dipodidæ, or jerboas. The very distinct family Saccomyidæ, or pouched rats, which have peculiar cheek pouches, or a kind of outer hairy mouth, consists of five genera all confined to this region, with one of doubtful affinities in Trinidad and Central America. In the squirrel family (Sciuridæ), Cynomys, the prairie-dogs, are peculiar; and Tamias, the ground squirrel, is very characteristic, though found also in North Asia. Haploodon, or sewellels, consisting of two species, forms a distinct family; and Erethizon is a peculiar form of tree porcupine (Cercolabidæ). True mice and rats of the genus Mus are not indigenous to North America, their place being supplied by a distinct genus (Hesperomys), confined to the American continent.

Birds.—The genera of birds absolutely peculiar to the Nearctic region are not very numerous, because, there being no boundary but one of climate between it and the Neotropical region, most of its characteristic forms enter a short distance within the limits we are obliged to concede to the latter. Owing also to the severe winter-climate of a large part of the region (which we know is a comparatively recent phenomenon), a large proportion of its birds migrate southwards, to pass the winter in the West-Indian islands or Mexico, some going as far as Guatemala, and a few even to Venezuela.

In our chapter on extinct animals, we have shown, that there is good reason for believing that the existing union of North and South America is a quite recent occurrence; and that the {117}separation was effected by an arm of the sea across what is now Nicaragua, with perhaps another at Panama. This would leave Mexico and Guatemala joined to North America, and forming part of the Nearctic region, although no doubt containing many Neotropical forms, which they had received during earlier continental periods; and these countries might at other times have been made insular by a strait at the isthmus of Tehuantepec, and have then developed some peculiar species. The latest climatal changes have tended to restrict these Neotropical forms to those parts where the climate is really tropical; and thus Mexico has attained its present strongly marked Neotropical character, although deficient in many of the most important groups of that region.

In view of these recent changes, it seems proper not to draw any decided line between the Nearctic and Neotropical regions, but rather to apply, in the case of each genus, a test which will show whether it was probably derived at a comparatively recent date from one region or the other. The test referred to, is the existence of peculiar species of the genus, in what are undoubtedly portions of ancient North or South America. If, for example, all the species of a genus occur in North America, some, or even all, of them, migrating into the Neotropical region in winter, while there are no peculiar Neotropical species, then we must class that genus as strictly Nearctic; for if it were Neotropical it would certainly have developed some peculiar resident forms. Again, even if there should be one or two resident species peculiar to that part of Central America north of the ancient dividing strait, with an equal or greater number of species ranging over a large part of Temperate North America, the genus must still be considered Nearctic. Examples of the former case, are Helminthophaga and Myiodioctes, belonging to the Mniotiltidæ, or wood-warblers, which range over all Temperate North America to Canada, where all the species are found, but in each case one of the species is found in South America, probably as a winter migrant. Of the latter, are Ammodramus and Junco (genera of finches), which range over the whole United States, but each have one peculiar species in Guatemala. These {118}may be claimed as exclusively Nearctic genera, on the ground that Guatemala was recently Nearctic; and is now really a transition territory, of which the lowlands have been invaded and taken exclusive possession of by a Neotropical fauna, while the highlands are still (in part at least) occupied by Nearctic forms.

In his article on "Birds," in the new edition of the "Encyclopædia Britannica" (now publishing), Professor Newton points out, that the number of peculiar genera of Nearctic birds is much less than in each of the various sub-divisions of the Neotropical region; and that the total number of genera is also less, while the bulk of them are common either to the Neotropical or Palæarctic regions. This is undoubtedly the case if any fixed geographical boundary is taken; and it would thus seem that the "Nearctic" should, in birds, form a sub-region only. But, if we define "Nearctic genera" as above indicated, we find a considerable amount of speciality, as the following list will show. The names not italicised are those which are represented in Mexico or Guatemala by peculiar species:—

List of Typical Nearctic Genera of Land Birds.

1. Oreoscoptes 17. Phænopepla 33. Empidias
2. Harporhynchus 18. Xanthocephalus 34. Sphyrapicus
3. Sialia 19. Scolecophagus 35. Hylatomus
4. Chamæa 20. Pipilo 36. Trochilus
5. Catherpes 21. Junco 37. Atthis
6. Salpinctus 22. Melospiza 38. Ectopistes
7. Psaltriparus 23. Spizella 39. Centrocercus
8. Auriparus 24. Passerculus 40. Pediocætes
9. Gymnokitta 25. Poœcetes 41. Cupidonia
10. Picicorvus 26. Ammodromus     ? Ortyx
11. Mniotilta 27. Cyanospiza 42. Oreortyx
12. Oporornis 28. Pyrrhuloxia 43. Lophortyx
13. Icteria 29. Calamospiza 44. Callipepla
14. Helmintherus 30. Chondestes 45. Cyrtonyx
15. Helminthophaga 31. Centronyx 46. Meleagris
16. Myiodioctes 32. Neocorys 47. Micrathene

The above are all groups which are either wholly Nearctic or typically so, but entering more or less into the debatable ground of the Neotropical region; though none possess any peculiar species in the ancient Neotropical land south of Nicaragua. But we have, besides these, a number of genera which we are {119}accustomed to consider as typically European, or Palæarctic, having representatives in North America; although in many cases it would be more correct to say that they are Nearctic genera, represented in Europe, since America possesses more species than Europe or North Asia. The following is a list of genera which have as much right to be considered typically Nearctic as Palæarctic:—

1. Regulus 9. Corvus 16. Euspiza
2. Certhia 10. Ampelis 17. Plectrophanes
3. Sitta 11. Loxia 18. Tetrao
4. Parus 12. Pinicola 19. Lagopus
5. Lophophanes 13. Linota 20. Nyctala
6. Lanius 14. Passerella 21. Archibuteo
7. Perisoreus 15. Leucosticte 22. Haliæetus
8. Pica

The seven genera italicized have a decided preponderance of Nearctic species, and have every right to be considered typically Nearctic; while the remainder are so well represented by peculiar species, that it is quite possible many of them may have originated here, rather than in the Palæarctic region, all alike being quite foreign to the Neotropical.

On the whole, then, we have 47 in the first and 7 in the second table, making 54 genera which we may fairly class as typically Nearctic, out of a total of 168 genera of land-birds, or nearly one-third of the whole. This is an amount of peculiarity which is comparable with that of either of the less isolated regions; and, combined with the more marked and more exclusively peculiar forms in the other orders of vertebrates, fully establishes Temperate North America as a region, distinct alike from the Neotropical and the Palæarctic.

Reptiles.—Although temperate climates are always comparatively poor in reptiles, a considerable number of genera are peculiar to the Nearctic region. Of snakes, there are, Conophis, Chilomeniscus, Pituophis, and Ischnognathus, belonging to the Colubridæ; Farancia, and Dimodes, Homalopsidæ; Lichanotus, one of the Pythonidæ; Cenchris, Crotalophorus, Uropsophorus, and Crotalus, belonging to the Crotalidæ or rattlesnakes.

Of Lizards, Chirotes, forming a peculiar family; Ophisaurus, {120}the curious glass-snake, belonging to the Zonuridæ; with Phrynosoma (commonly called horned toads), Callisaurus, Uta, Euphryne, Uma, and Holbrookia, genera of Iguanidæ.

Testudinidæ, or Tortoises, show a great development of the genus Emys; with Aromochelys and Chelydra as peculiar genera.

Amphibia.—In this class the Nearctic region is very rich, possessing representatives of nine of the families, of which two are peculiar to the region, and there are no less than fifteen peculiar genera. Siren forms the family Sirenidæ; Menobranchus belongs to the Proteidæ; Amphiuma is the only representative of the Amphiumidæ; there are nine peculiar genera of Salamandridæ. Among the tail-less batrachians (frogs and toads) we have Scaphiopus, belonging to the Alytidæ; Pseudacris to the Hylidæ; and Acris to the Polypedatidæ.

Fresh-water Fishes.—The Nearctic region possesses no less than five peculiar family types, and twenty-four peculiar genera of this class. The families are Aphredoderidæ, consisting of a single species found in the Eastern States; Percopsidæ, founded on a species peculiar to Lake Superior; Heteropygii, containing two genera peculiar to the Eastern States; Hyodontidæ and Amiidæ, each consisting of a single species. The genera are as follows: Paralabrax, found in California; Huro, peculiar to Lake Huron; Pileoma, Boleosoma, Bryttus and Pomotis in the Eastern States—all belonging to the perch family. Hypodelus and Noturus, belonging to the Siluridæ. Thaleichthys, one of the Salmonidæ peculiar to the Columbia river. Moxostoma, Pimephales, Hyborhynchus, Rhinichthys, in the Eastern States; Ericymba, Exoglossum, Leucosomus, and Carpiodes, more widely distributed; Cochlognathus, in Texas; Mylaphorodon and Orthodon, in California; Meda, in the river Gila; and Acrochilus, in the Columbia river—all belonging to the Cyprinidæ. Scaphirhynchus, found only in the Mississippi and its tributaries, belongs to the sturgeon family (Accipenseridæ).

Summary of Nearctic Vertebrata.—The Nearctic region possesses 24 peculiar genera of mammalia, 49 of birds, 21 of reptiles, and 29 of fresh-water fishes, making 123 in all. Of these 70 are mammals and land-birds, out of a total of 242 {121}genera of these groups, a proportion of about two-sevenths. This is the smallest proportion of peculiar genera we have found in any of the regions; but many of the genera are of such isolated and exceptional forms that they constitute separate families, so that we have no less than 12 families of vertebrata confined to the region. The Palæarctic region has only 3 peculiar families, and even the Oriental region only 12; so that, judged by this test, the Nearctic region is remarkably well characterized. We must also remember that, owing to the migration of many of its peculiar forms during the Glacial period, it has recently lost some of its speciality; and we should therefore give some weight to the many characteristic groups it possesses, which, though not quite peculiar to it, form important features in its fauna, and help to separate it from the other regions with which it has been thought to be closely allied. It is thus well distinguished from the Palæarctic region by its Procyonidæ, or racoons, Hesperomys, or vesper mice, and Didelphys, or opossums, among Mammalia; by its Vireonidæ, or greenlets, Mniotiltidæ, or wood-warblers, Icteridæ, or hang-nests, Tyrannidæ, or tyrant shrikes, and Trochilidæ, or humming-birds, among birds, families which, extending to its extreme northern limits must be held to be as truly characteristic of it as of the Neotropical region; by its Teidæ, Iguanidæ, and Cinosternon, among reptiles; and by its Siluridæ, and Lepidosteidæ, among fishes. From the Neotropical region it is still more clearly separated, by its numerous insectivora; by its bears; its Old World forms of ruminants; its beaver; its numerous Arvicolæ, or voles; its Sciuropterus, or flying squirrels; Tamias, or ground-squirrels; and Lagomys, or marmots, among mammals; its numerous Paridæ, or tits, and Tetraonidæ, or grouse, among birds; its Trionychidæ among reptiles; its Proteidæ, and Salamandridæ, among Amphibia; and its Gasterosteidæ, Atherinidæ, Esocidæ, Umbridæ, Accipenseridæ, and Polydontidæ, among fishes.

These characteristic features, taken in conjunction with the absolutely peculiar groups before enumerated, demonstrate that the Nearctic region cannot with propriety be combined with {122}any other. Though not very rich, and having many disadvantages of climate and of physical condition, it is yet sufficiently well characterized in its zoological features to rank as one of the well-marked primary divisions of the earth's surface.

There is one other consideration bearing on this question which should not be lost sight of. In establishing our regions we have depended wholly upon their now possessing a sufficient number and variety of animal forms, and a fair proportion of peculiar types; but when the validity of our conclusion on these grounds is disputed, we may supplement the evidence by an appeal to the past history of the region in question. In this case we find a remarkable support to our views. During the whole Tertiary period, North America was, zoologically, far more strongly contrasted with South America than it is now; while, during the same long series of ages, it was always clearly separated from the Eastern hemisphere or the Palæarctic region by the exclusive possession of important families and numerous genera of Mammalia, as shown by our summary of its extinct fauna in Chapter VII. Not only may we claim North America as now forming one of the great zoological regions, but as having continued to be one ever since the Eocene period.

Insects.

In describing the Palæarctic and Neotropical regions, many of the peculiarities of the insect-fauna of this region have been incidentally referred to; and as a tolerably full account of the distribution of the several families is given in the Fourth Part of our work (Chapter XXI.), we shall treat the subject very briefly here.

Lepidoptera.—The butterflies of the Nearctic region have lately been studied with much assiduity, and we are now able to form some idea of their nature and extent. Nearly 500 species belonging to about 100 genera have been described; showing that the region, which a few years ago was thought to be very poor in species of butterflies, is really much richer than Europe, and probably about as rich as the more extensive Palæarctic region. There is, however, very little speciality in the {123}forms. A considerable number of Neotropical types enter the southern States; but there are hardly any peculiar genera, except one of the Lycænidæ and perhaps a few among the Hesperidæ, The most conspicuous feature of the region is its fine group of Papilios, belonging to types (P. turnus and P. troilus) which are characteristically Nearctic. It is also as rich as the Palæarctic region in some genera which we are accustomed to consider as pre-eminently European; such as Argynnis, Melitæa, Grapta, Chionabas, and a few others. Still, we must acknowledge, that if we formed our conclusions from the butterflies alone, we could hardly separate the Nearctic from the Palæarctic region. This identity probably dates from the Miocene period; for when our existing arctic regions supported a luxuriant vegetation, butterflies would have been plentiful; and as the cold came on, these would move southwards both in America and Europe, and, owing to the long continuance of the generic types of insects, would remain little modified till now.

Coleoptera.—Only a few indications can be given of the peculiarities of the Nearctic coleoptera. In Cicindelidæ the region possesses, besides the cosmopolite Cicindela, four other genera, two of which—Amblychila and Omus—are peculiar to the West Coast and the Rocky Mountains. Of Carabidæ it possesses Dicælus, Pasimachus, Eurytrichus, Sphæroderus, Pinacodera, and a number of smaller genera, altogether peculiar to it; Helluomorpha, Galerita, Callida, and Tetragonoderus, in common with South America; and a large number of characteristic European forms.

The Lucanidæ are all of European types. The region is poor in Cetoniidæ, but has representatives of the South American Euphoria, as well as of four European genera. Of Buprestidæ it has the South American Actenodes; a single species of the Ethiopian and Eastern Belionota, in California; and about a dozen other genera of European and wide distribution.

Among Longicorns it possesses fifty-nine peculiar genera, representatives of five Neotropical, and thirteen Palæarctic genera; as well as many of wider distribution. Prionus is the chief representative of the Prionidæ; Leptura and Crossidius of the {124}Cerambycidæ; Leptostylus, Liopus, Graphidurus, and Tetraopes, of the Lamiidæ, the latter genus being confined to the region.

Terrestrial and Fluviatile Mollusca.

The land-shells of temperate North America almost all belong to the Inoperculate or Pulmoniferous division; the Operculata being represented only by a few species of Helicina and Truncatella, chiefly in the Southern States. According to Mr. Binney's recent "Catalogue of the Terrestrial Air-breathing Mollusks of North America," the fauna consists of the following genera:—Glandina (6 sp.); Macrocyclis (5 sp.); Zonites (37 sp.); Vitrina (4 sp.); Limax (5 sp.); Arion (3 sp.); Ariolimax (3 sp.); Prophysaon (1 sp.); Binneia (1 sp.); Hemphillia (1 sp.); Patula (16 sp.); Helix (80); Holospira (2 sp.); Cylindrella (2 sp.); Macroceramus (2 sp.); Bulimulus (8 sp.); Cionella (2 sp.); Stenogyra (4 sp.); Pupa (19 sp.); Strophia (1 sp.); Vertigo (6 sp.); Liguus (1 sp.); Orthalicus (2 sp.); Punctum (1 sp.); Succinea (26 sp.); Tebennophorus (1 sp.); Pallifera (1 sp.); Veronicella (2 sp.).

All the larger genera range over the whole region, but the following have a more restricted distribution; Macrocyclis has only one species in the East, the rest being Californian or Central; Ariolimax, Prophysaon, Binneia, and Hemphillia, are confined to the Western sub-region. Lower California has affinities with Mexico, 18 species being peculiar to it, of which two are true Bulimi, a genus unknown in other parts of the region. The Central or Rocky Mountain sub-region is chiefly characterised by six peculiar species of Patula. The Eastern sub-region is by far the richest, nine-tenths of the whole number of species being found in it. The Alleghany Mountains form the richest portion of this sub-region, possessing nearly half the total number of species, and at least 24 species found nowhere else. The southern States have also several peculiar species, but they are not so productive as the Alleghanies. The Canadian sub-region possesses 32 species, of which nearly half are northern forms more or less common to the whole Arctic regions, and several of this character have spread southwards all {125}over the United States. Species of Vitrina, Zonites, Pupa, and Succinea, are found in Greenland; and Eastern Palæarctic species of Vitrina, Patula, and Pupa occur in Alaska. More than 30 species of shells living in the Eastern States, are found fossil in the Post-Pliocene deposits of the Ohio and Mississippi.

Fresh-water Shells.—North America surpasses every other part of the globe in the number and variety of its fresh-water mollusca, both univalve and bivalve. The numbers up to 1866 were as follows:—Melaniadæ, 380 species; Paludinidæ, 58 species; Cycladidæ, 44 species; and Unionidæ, 552 species. The last family had, however, increased to 832 species in 1874, according to Dr. Isaac Lea, who has made them his special study; but it is probable that many of these are such as would be considered varieties by most conchologists. Many of the species of Unio are very large, of varied forms, and rich internal colouring, and the group forms a prominent feature of the Nearctic fauna. By far the larger proportion of the fresh-water shells inhabit the Eastern or Alleghany sub-region; and their great development is a powerful argument against any recent extensive submergence beneath the ocean of the lowlands of North America.

The Nearctic Sub-regions.

The sub-divisions of the Nearctic region, although pretty clearly indicated by physical features and peculiarities of climate and vegetation, are by no means so strongly marked out in their zoology as we might expect. The same genera, as a rule, extend over the whole region; while the species of the several sub-regions are in most cases different. Even the vast range of the Rocky Mountains has not been an effectual barrier against this wide dispersal of the same forms of life; and although some important groups are limited by it, these are exceptions to the rule. Even now, we find fertile valleys and plateaus of moderate elevation, penetrating the range on either side; and both to the north and south there are passes which can be freely traversed by most animals during the summer. Previous to the glacial epoch there was probably a warm period, when every part of the range supported an abundant and varied {126}fauna, which, when the cold period arrived, would descend to the lowlands, and people the country to the east, west, and south, with similar forms of life.

The first, and most important sub-division we can make, consists of the Eastern United States, extending across the Mississippi and the more fertile prairies, to about the 100°th. meridian of west longitude, where the arid and almost desert country commences. Southwards, the boundary bends towards the coast, near the line of the Brazos or Colorado rivers. To the north the limits are undefined; but as a considerable number of species and genera occur in the United States but not in Canada, it will be convenient to draw the line somewhere near the boundary of the two countries, except that the district between lakes Huron and Ontario, and probably Nova Scotia, may be included in the present sub-region. As far west as the Mississippi, this was originally a vast forest country; and it is still well wooded, and clothed with a varied and luxuriant vegetation.

The next, or Central sub-region, consists of the dry, elevated, and often arid district of the Rocky Mountains, with its great plateaus, and the barren plains of its eastern slope; extending northwards to near the commencement of the great forests north of the Saskatchewan, and southward to the Rio Grande del Norte, the Gulf of California, and to Cape St. Lucas, as shown on our maps. This sub-region is of an essentially desert character, although the higher valleys of the Rocky Mountains are often well wooded, and in these are found some northern and some western types.

The third, or Californian sub-region, is small, but very luxuriant, occupying the comparatively narrow strip of country between the Sierra Nevada and the Pacific. To the north it may include Vancouver's Island and the southern part of British Columbia, while to the south it extends to the head of the Gulf of California.

The fourth division, comprises the remainder of North America; and is a country of pine forests, and of barren wastes towards the Arctic Ocean. It has fewer peculiar species to characterise it than any other, but it possesses several characteristic arctic {127}forms, while many of those peculiar to the south are absent; so that it is a very convenient, if it should not be considered an altogether natural, sub-region.

We will now give an outline of the most important zoological features of each of these divisions, taking them in the order in which they are arranged in the Fourth Part of this work. California comes first, as it has some tropical forms not found elsewhere, and thus forms a transition from the Neotropical region.

I. The Western or Californian Sub-region.

This small district possesses a fruitful soil and a highly favourable climate, and is, in proportion to its extent, perhaps the richest portion of the continent, both zoologically and botanically. Its winters are far milder than those of the Eastern States in corresponding latitudes; and this, perhaps, has enabled it to support several tropical forms which give a special character to its fauna. It is here only, in the whole region, that bats of the families Phyllostomidæ and Noctilionidæ, and a serpent of the tropical family, Pythonidæ, are found, as well as several Neotropical forms of birds and reptiles.

Mammalia.—The following genera are not found in any other part of the Nearctic region. Macrotus (Phyllostomidæ), one species in California; Antrozous (Vespertilionidæ), one species on the West Coast; Urotrichus (Talpidæ) one species in British Columbia; sub-genus Nesorex (Soricidæ), one species in Oregon; Bassaris (Procyonidæ), California; Enhydra (Mustelidæ), Pacific Coast; Morunga (Phocidæ), California; Haploodon (Haploodontidæ) a rat-like animal, allied to the beavers and marmots, and constituting a peculiar family found only in California and British Columbia. The following characteristic Nearctic forms also extend into this sub-region:—Taxidea, Procyon, Didelphys, Sciuropterus, Tamias, Spermophilus, Dipodomys, Perognathus, Jaculus.

Birds.—Few genera of birds are quite peculiar to this sub-region, since most of the Western forms extend into the central district, yet it has a few. Glaucidium, a genus of Owls, is confined {128}(in the Nearctic region) to California; Chamæa, a singular form allied to the wrens, and forming a distinct family, is quite peculiar; Geococcyx, a Neotropical form of cuckoo, extends to California and Southern Texas. The following genera are very characteristic of the sub-region, and some of them almost confined to it: Myiadestes (Sylviidæ); Psaltriparus (Paridæ); Cyanocitta, Picicorvus (Corvidæ); Hesperiphona, Peucæa, Chondestes (Fringillidæ); Selasphorus, Atthis (Trochilidæ); Columba, Melopelia (Columbidæ); Oreortyx (Tetraonidæ).

Reptiles.—The following genera are not found in any other part of the Nearctic region: Charina (Tortricidæ); Lichanotus (Pythonidæ); Gerrhonotus (Zonuridæ); Phyllodactylus (Geckotidæ); Anolius and Tropidolepis (Iguanidæ). Sceloporus (Iguanidæ) is only found elsewhere in Florida. All the larger North American groups of lizards and snakes are also represented here; but in tortoises it is deficient, owing to the absence of lakes and large rivers.

Amphibia.—California possesses two genera of Salamandridæ, Aneides and Heredia, which do not extend to the other sub-regions.

Fresh-water Fish.—There are two or three peculiar genera of Cyprinidæ, but the sub-region is comparatively poor in this group.

Plate XVIII. Illustrative of the Zoology of California and the Rocky Mountains.—We have chosen for the subject of this illustration, the peculiar Birds of the Western mountains. The two birds in the foreground are a species of grouse (Pediocætes Columbianus), entirely confined to this sub-region; while the only other species of the genus is found in the prairies north and west of Wisconsin, so that the group is peculiar to northern and western America. The crested birds in the middle of the picture (Oreortyx picta), are partridges, belonging to the American sub-family Odontophorinæ. This is the only species of the genus which is confined to California and Oregon. The bird at the top is the blue crow (Gymnokitta cyanocephala), confined to the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada from New Mexico and Arizona northwards, and more properly belonging to the Central sub-region. It is allied to the European nutcracker; but according to the American ornithologist, Dr. Coues, has also resemblances to the jays, and certainly forms a distinct genus. The grizzly bear (Ursus ferox) in the background, is one of the characteristic animals of the Californian highlands.

Plate XVIII.

SCENE IN CALIFORNIA, WITH SOME
    CHARACTERISTIC BIRDS.

SCENE IN CALIFORNIA, WITH SOME CHARACTERISTIC BIRDS.

{129}

II. The Central, or Rocky Mountain Sub-region.

This extensive district is, for the greater part of its extent, from 2,000 to 5,000 feet above the sea, and is excessively arid; and, except in the immediate vicinity of streams and on some of the higher slopes of the mountains, is almost wholly treeless. Its zoology is therefore peculiar. Many of the most characteristic genera and families of the Eastern States are absent; while a number of curious desert and alpine forms give it a character of its own, and render it very interesting to the naturalist.

Mammalia.—The remarkable prong-horned antelope (Antilocapra), the mountain goat (Aplocerus), the mountain sheep or bighorn (Ovis montana), and the prairie-dog (Cynomys), one of the Rodentia, are peculiar to this sub-region; while the family of the Saccomyidæ, or pouched rats, is represented by many forms and is very characteristic. Here is also the chief home of the bison. The glutton (Gulo) and marmot (Lagomys) enter it from the north; while it has the racoon (Procyon), flying squirrel (Sciuropterus), ground squirrel (Tamias), pouched marmot (Spermophilus) and jumping mouse (Jaculus) in common with the countries east or west of it.

Plate XIX. Illustrative of the Zoology of the Central Plains or Prairies.—We here introduce four of the most characteristic mammalia of the great American plains or prairies, three of them being types confined to North America. The graceful animals on the left are the prong-horned antelopes (Antilocapra americana), whose small horns, though hollow like those of the antelopes, are shed annually like those of the deer. To the right we have the prairie-dogs of the trappers (Cynomys ludovicianus) which, as will be easily seen, are rodents, and allied to the marmots of the European Alps. Their burrows are numerous on the prairies, and the manner in which they perch {130}themselves on little mounds and gaze on intruders, is noticed by all travellers. On the left, in the foreground, is one of the extraordinary pouched rats of America (Geomys bursarius). These are burrowing animals, feeding on roots; and the mouth is, as it were, double, the outer portion very wide and hairy, behind which is the small inner mouth. Its use may be to keep out the earth from the mouth while the animal is gnawing roots. A mouth so constructed is found in no other animals but in these North American rats. In the distance is a herd of bisons (Bison americanus), the typical beast of the prairies.

Birds.—This sub-region has many peculiar forms of birds, both residents, and migrants from the south or north. Among the peculiar resident species we may probably reckon a dipper, (Cinclus); Salpinctes, one of the wrens; Poospiza, Calamospiza, genera of finches; Picicorvus, Gymnokitta, genera of the crow family; Centrocercus and Pediocætes, genera of grouse. As winter migrants from the north it has Leucosticte and Plectrophanes, genera of finches; Perisoreus, a genus of the crow family; Picoides, the Arctic woodpecker; and Lagopus, ptarmigan. Its summer migrants, many of which may be resident in the warmer districts, are more numerous. Such are, Oreoscoptes, a genus of thrushes; Campylorhynchus and Catherpes, wrens; Paroides, one of the tits; Phænopepla, allied to the waxwing; Embernagra and Spermophila, genera of finches; Pyrocephalus, one of the tyrant shrikes; Callipepla and Cyrtonyx, American partridges. Besides these, the more widely spread genera, Harporhynchus, Lophophanes, Carpodacus, Spizella, and Cyanocitta, are characteristic of the central district, and two genera of humming-birds—Atthis and Selasphorus—only occur here and in California. Prof. Baird notes 40 genera of birds which are represented by distinct allied species in the western, central, and eastern divisions of the United States, corresponding to our sub-regions.

Plate XIX.

THE AMERICAN PRAIRIES, WITH
    CHARACTERISTIC MAMMALIA.

THE AMERICAN PRAIRIES, WITH CHARACTERISTIC MAMMALIA.

{131}

It is a curious fact that the birds of this sub-region should extend across the Gulf of California, and that Cape St. Lucas, at the southern extremity of the peninsula, should be decidedly more "Central" than "Californian" in its ornithology. Prof. Baird says, that its fauna is almost identical with that of the Gila River, and has hardly any relation to that of Upper California. It possesses a considerable number (about twenty) of peculiar species of birds, but all belong to genera characteristic of the present sub-region; and there is no resemblance to the birds of Mazatlan, just across the gulf in the Neotropical region.

Reptiles, Amphibia, and Fishes.—A large number of snakes and lizards inhabit this sub-region, but they have not yet been classified with sufficient precision to enable us to make much use of them. Among lizards, Iguanidæ, Geckotidæ, Scincidæ, and Zonuridæ, appear to be numerous; and many new genera of doubtful value have been described. Among snakes, Calamariidæ, Colubridæ, and Crotalidæ are represented. Among Amphibia, Siredon, one of the Proteidæ, is peculiar. The rivers and lakes of the Great Central Basin, and the Colorado River, contain many peculiar forms of Cyprinidæ.

III. The Eastern or Alleghany Sub-region.

This sub-region contains examples of all that is most characteristic of Nearctic zoology. It is for the most part an undulating or mountainous forest-clad country, with a warm or temperate climate, but somewhat extreme in character, and everywhere abounding in animal and vegetable life. To the west, across the Mississippi, the country becomes more open, gradually rises, becomes much drier, and at length merges into the arid plains of the central sub-region. To the south, in Georgia, Florida, and Louisiana, a sub-tropical climate prevails, and winter is almost unknown. To the north, in Michigan and New England, the winters are very severe, and streams and lakes are frozen for months together. These different climates, however, produce little effect on the forms of animal life; the species to some extent change as we go from north to south, but the same types everywhere prevail. This portion of the United States, having been longest inhabited by Europeans, has been more thoroughly explored than other parts of North America; and to this more complete knowledge its superior zoological richness {132}may be to some extent due; but there can be little doubt that it is also positively, and not merely relatively, more productive in varied forms of animal life than either of the other sub-regions.

Mammalia.—There seems to be only one genus absolutely peculiar to this sub-region—the very remarkable Condylura, or star-nosed mole, only found from Pennsylvania to Nova Scotia, and as far as about 94° west longitude. It also has opossums (Didelphys) in common with California, and three out of four species of Scalops, a genus of moles; as well as the skunk (Mephitis), American badger (Taxidea), racoon (Procyon), pouched rat (Geomys), beaver rat (Fiber), jumping mouse (Jaculus), tree porcupine (Erethizon), and other characteristic Nearctic forms.

Birds.—The birds of this sub-region have been carefully studied by American naturalists, and many interesting facts ascertained as to their distribution and migrations. About 120 species of birds are peculiar to the east coast of the United States, but only about 30 of these are residents all the year round in any part of it; the bird population being essentially a migratory one, coming from the north in winter and the south in summer. The largest number of species seems to be congregated in the district of the Alleghany mountains. A considerable proportion of the passerine birds winter in Central America and the West Indian Islands, and go to the Middle States or Canada to breed; so that even the luxuriant Southern States do not possess many birds which may be called permanent residents. Thus, in East Pennsylvania there are only 52, and in the district of Columbia 54 species, found all the year round, out of about 130 which breed in these localities; very much below the number which permanently reside in Great Britain.

This sub-region is well characterised by its almost exclusive possession of Ectopistes, the celebrated passenger pigeon, whose enormous flocks and breeding places have been so often described; and Cupidonia, a remarkable genus of grouse. The only Nearctic parrot, Conurus carolinensis, is found in the Southern States; as well as Crotophaga, a South American genus usually associated with the cuckoos. Helmintherus and {133}Oporornis, genera of wood-warblers, may be considered to be peculiar to this sub-region, since in each case only one of the two species migrates as far as Central America; while two other genera of the same family, Siurus and Setophaga, as well as the finch genus, Euspiza, do not extend to either of the western sub-regions. Parus, a genus of tits, comes into the district from the north; Otocorys, an alpine lark, and Coturniculus, an American finch, from the west; and such characteristic Nearctic genera as Antrostomus (the whip-poor-will goatsuckers); Helminthophaga, Dendrœca, and Myiodioctes (wood-warblers); Vireo (greenlets); Dolichonyx (rice-bird); Quiscalus (troupial); Meleagris (turkey); and Ortyx (American partridge), are wide-spread and abundant. In Mr. J. A. Allen's elaborate and interesting paper on the birds of eastern North America, he enumerates 32 species which breed only in the more temperate portions of this province, and may therefore be considered to be especially characteristic of it. These belong to the following genera:—Turdus, Galeoscoptes, Harporhynchus, Sialia, Dendrœca, Wilsonia, Pyranga, Vireo, Lanivireo, Lophophanes, Coturniculus, Ammodromus, Spizella, Euspiza, Hedymeles, Cyanospiza, Pipilo, Cardinalis, Icterus, Corvus, Centurus, Melanerpes, Antrostomus, Coccyzus, Ortyx, and Cupidonia.

Reptiles.—In this class the Eastern States are rich, possessing many peculiar forms not found in other parts of the region. Among snakes it has the genera Farancia and Dimodes belonging to the fresh-water snakes (Homalopsidæ); the South American genus Elaps; and 3 genera of rattlesnakes, Cenchris, Crotalophorus, and Crotalus. The following genera of snakes are said to occur in the State of New York:—Coluber, Tropidonotus, Leptophis, Calamaria, Heterodon, Trigonocephalus, Crotalus, Psammophis, Helicops, Rhinostoma, Pituophis, and Elaps.

Among lizards, Chirotes, forming a peculiar family of Amphisbænians, inhabits Missouri and Mexico; while the remarkable glass-snake, Ophisaurus, belonging to the family Zonuridæ, is peculiar to the Southern States; and the South American Sphærodactylus, one of the gecko family, reaches Florida. Other genera which extend as far north as the State of New {134}York are, Scincus, Tropidolepis, Plestiodon, Lygosoma, Ameiva, and Phrynosoma.

Tortoises, especially the fresh-water kind, are very abundant; and the genera Aromochelys, Chelydra, Terrapene, and Trionyx, are nearly, if not quite, confined to this division of the region.

Amphibia.—Almost all the remarkable forms of Urodela, or tailed batrachians, peculiar to the region are found here only; such as Siren and Pseudobranchus, constituting the family Sirenidæ; Menobranchus, allied to the Proteus of Europe; Amphiuma, an eel-like creature with four rudimentary feet, constituting the family Amphiumidæ; Notopthalmus, Desmognathus, and Menopoma, belonging to the Salamandridæ; together with several other genera of wider range. Of Anura, or tail-less batrachians, there are no peculiar genera, but the Neotropical genus of toads, Engystoma, extends as far as South Carolina.

Fishes.—Owing to its possession of the Mississippi and the great lakes, almost all the peculiar forms of North American fishes are confined to this sub-region. Such are Perca, Pileoma, Huro, Bryttus, and Pomotis (Percidæ); the families Aphredoderidæ and Percopsidæ; several genera of Cyprinodontidæ and Cyprinidæ; and the family Polydontidæ.

Islands of the Alleghany Sub-region.

The Bermudas.—These islands, situated in the Atlantic, about 700 miles from the coast of Carolina, are chiefly interesting for the proof they afford of the power of a great variety of birds to cross so wide an extent of ocean. There are only 6 or 8 species of birds which are permanent residents on the islands, all common North American species; while no less than 140 species have been recorded as visiting them. Most of these are stragglers, many only noticed once; others appear frequently and in great numbers, but very few, perhaps not a dozen, come every year, and can be considered regular migrants. The permanent residents are, a greenlet (Vireo noveboracensis), the catbird (Galeoscoptes carolinensis), the blue bird (Sialia sialis), the cardinal (Cardinalis virginianus), the American crow (Corvus {135}americanus), and the ground dove (Chæmepelia passerina). The most regular visitants are a kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon), the wood-wagtail (Siurus noveboracensis), the rice-bird (Dolichonyx oryzivorus), and a moorhen (Gallinula galeata). Besides the American species, four European birds have been taken at the Bermudas: Saxicola œnanthe, Alauda arvensis (perhaps introduced), Crex pratensis, and Scolopax gallinago.

A common American lizard, Plestiodon longirostris, is the only land reptile found on the islands.

IV. The Sub-Arctic or Canadian Sub-region.

This sub-region serves to connect together the other three, since they all merge gradually into it; while to the north it passes into the circumpolar zone which is common to the Palæarctic and Nearctic regions. The greater portion of it is an extensive forest-district, mostly of coniferæ; and where these cease towards the north, barren wastes extend to the polar ocean. It possesses several northern or arctic forms of Mammalia, such as the glutton, lemming, reindeer, and elk, which barely enter the more southern sub-regions; as well as the polar bear and arctic fox; but it also has some peculiar forms, and many of the most characteristic Nearctic types. The remarkable musk-sheep (Ovibos) is confined to this sub-region, ranging over a considerable extent of country north of the forests, as well as Greenland. It has been extinct in Europe and Asia since the Post-pliocene epoch. Such purely Nearctic genera as Procyon, Latax, Erethizon, Jaculus, Fiber, Thomomys, and Hesperomys, abound, many of them ranging to the shores of Hudson's Bay and the barren wastes of northern Labrador. Others, such as Blarina, Condylura, and Mephitis, are found only in Nova Scotia and various parts of Canada. About 20 species of Mammalia seem to be peculiar to this sub-region.

Plate XX. Illustrating the Zoology of Canada.—We have here a group of Mammalia characteristic of Canada and the colder parts of the United States. Conspicuous in the foreground is the skunk (Mephitis mephitica), belonging to a genus of the weasel family found only in America. This animal is {136}celebrated for its power of ejecting a terribly offensive liquid, the odour of which is almost intolerable. The skunks are nocturnal animals, and are generally marked, as in the species represented, with conspicuous bands and patches of white. This enables them to be easily seen at night, and thus serves to warn larger animals not to attack them. To the left is the curious little jumping mouse (Jaculus hudsonius), the American representative of the Palæarctic jerboa. Climbing up a tree on the left is the tree porcupine (Erethizon dorsatus), belonging to the family Cercolabidæ, which represents, on the American continent, the porcupines of the Old World. In the background is the elk or moose (Alces americanus), perhaps identical with the European elk, and the most striking inhabitant of the northern forests of America, as the bison is of the prairies.

Birds.—Although the Canadian sub-region possesses very few resident birds, the numbers which breed in it are perhaps greater than in the other sub-regions, because a large number of circumpolar species are found here exclusively. From a comparison of Mr. Allen's tables it appears, that more than 200 species are regular migrants to Canada in the breeding season, and nearly half of these are land-birds. Among them are to be found a considerable number of genera of the American families Tyrannidæ and Mniotiltidæ, as well as the American genera Sialia, Progne, Vireo, Cistothorus, Junco, Pipilo, Zonotrichia, Spizella, Melospiza, Molothrus, Agelæus, Cyanura, Sphyrapicus, and many others; so that the ornithology of these northern regions is still mainly Nearctic in character. Besides these, it has such specially northern forms as Surnia (Strigidæ); Picoides (Picidæ); Pinicola (Fringillidæ); as well as Leucosticte, Plectrophanes, Perisoreus, and Lagopus, which extend further south, especially in the middle sub-region. No less than 212 species of birds have been collected in the new United States territory of Alaska (formerly Russian America), where a humming-bird (Selasphorus rufus) breeds. The great majority of these are typically American, including such forms as Colaptes, Helminthophaga, Siurus, Dendrœca, Myiodioctes, Passerculus, Zonotrichia, Junco, Spizella, Melospiza, Passerella, Scolecophagus, Pediocætes, and Bonasa; together with many northern birds common to both continents. Yet a few Palæarctic forms, not known in other parts of the sub-region, appear here. These are Budytes flava, Phylloscopus kennicottii, and Pyrrhula coccinea, all belonging to genera not occurring elsewhere in North America. Considering the proximity of the district to North-east Asia, and the high probability that there was an actual land connection at, and south of, Behring's Straits, in late Tertiary times, it is somewhat remarkable that the admixture of Palæarctic and Nearctic groups is not greater than it is. The Palæarctic element, however, forms so small apportion of the whole fauna, that it may be satisfactorily accounted for by the establishment of immigrants since the Glacial period. The great interest felt by ornithologists in the discovery of the three genera above-named, with a wren allied to a European species, is an indication that the faunas even of the northern parts of the Nearctic and Palæarctic regions are, as regards birds, radically distinct. It may be mentioned that the birds of the Aleutian Isles are also, so far as known, almost wholly Nearctic. The number of land-birds known from Alaska is 77; and from the Aleutian Isles 16 species, all of which, except one, are North American.

Plate XX.

A CANADIAN FOREST, WITH CHARACTERISTIC
    MAMMALIA.

A CANADIAN FOREST, WITH CHARACTERISTIC MAMMALIA.

{137}

Reptiles.—These are comparatively few and unimportant. There are however five snakes and three tortoises which are limited to Canada proper; while further north there are only Amphibia, represented by frogs and toads, and a salamander of the genus Plethodon.

Fishes.—Most of the groups of fresh-water fish of the Nearctic region are represented here, especially those of the perch, salmon, and pike families; but there seem to be few or no peculiar genera.

Insects.—These are far less numerous than in the more temperate districts, but are still tolerably abundant. In Canada there are 53 species of butterflies, viz., Papilionidæ, 4; Pieridæ, 2; Nymphalidæ, 21; Satyridæ, 3; Lycænidæ 16, and Hesperidæ 7. Most of these are, no doubt, found chiefly in the southern parts of Canada. That Coleoptera are pretty numerous is shown, by more than 800 species having been collected on the {138}shores of Lake Superior; 177 being Geodephaga and 39 Longicorns.

Greenland.—This great arctic island must be considered as belonging to the Nearctic region, since of its six land mammals, three are exclusively American (Myodes torquatus, Lepus glacialis, and Ovibos moschatus), while the other three (Vulpes lagopus, Ursus maritimus, and Rangifer tarandus) are circumpolar. Only fourteen land-birds are either resident in, or regular migrants to the country; and of these two are European (Haliæetus albicilla, and Falco peregrinus), while three are American (Anthus ludovicianus, Zonotrichia leucophrys, and Lagopus rupestris), the rest being arctic species common to both continents. The waders and aquatics (49 in number) are nearly equally divided between both continents; but the land-birds which visit Greenland as stragglers are mostly American. Yet although the Nearctic element somewhat preponderates, Greenland really belongs to that circumpolar debateable land, which is common to the two North Temperate regions.

 

Concluding remarks.—We have already discussed pretty fully, though somewhat incidentally, the status and relations of the Nearctic region; first in our chapter on Zoological regions, then in our review of extinct faunas, and lastly in the earlier part of this chapter. It will not therefore be necessary to go further into the question here; but we shall, in our next chapter, give a brief summary of the general conclusions we have reached as to the past history and mutual zoological relations of all the great divisions of the earth.

{139}

TABLES OF DISTRIBUTION.

In drawing up these tables, showing the distribution of various classes of animals in the Nearctic region, the following sources of information have been chiefly relied on, in addition to the general treatises, monographs, and catalogues used in the compilation of the 4th Part of this work.

Mammalia.—Professor Baird's Catalogue; Allen's List of the Bats; Mr. Lord's List for British Columbia; Brown, for Greenland; Packard for Labrador.

Birds.—Baird, Cassin, and Allen's Lists for United States; Richardson's Fauna Boreali Americana; Jones, for Bermudas; and papers by Brown, Coues, Lord, Packard, Dall, and Professor Newton.

{140}

TABLE I.

FAMILIES OF ANIMALS INHABITING THE NEARCTIC REGION.

Explanation.

Names in italics show the families which are peculiar to the region.

Names inclosed thus (......) show families which barely enter the region, and are not considered properly to belong to it.

Numbers correspond to the series of numbers to the families in Part IV.

Order and Family Sub-regions Range beyond the Region.
California. Rocky Mntns. Alleghanies. Canada.
MAMMALIA.
Chiroptera.
10. Phyllostomidæ Neotropical
12. Vespertilionidæ Cosmopolite
13. Noctilionidæ Tropical regions
Insectivora.
21. Talpidæ Palæarctic
22. Soricidæ The Eastern Hemisphere, excl. Australia
Carnivora.
23. Felidæ All regions but the Australian
28. Canidæ All regions but the Australian
29. Mustelidæ All regions but the Australian
30. Procyonidæ Neotropical
32. Ursidæ Palæarctic, Oriental
33. Otariidæ N. and S. temperate zones
34. Trichechidæ Arctic regions
35. Phocidæ N. and S. temperate zones
Cetacea.
36 to 41. Oceanic
Ungulata.
47. Suidæ All other continents but Australia
50. Cervidæ All regions but Ethiopian and Australian
52. Bovidæ Palæarctic, Ethiopian, Oriental
Rodentia.
55. Muridæ Almost cosmopolite
57. Dipodidæ Palæarctic, Ethiopian
59. Saccomyidæ Mexican sub-region
60. Castoridæ Palæarctic
61. Sciuridæ All regions but Australian
{141}

62. Haploodontidæ

66. Cercolabidæ Neotropical
69. Lagomyidæ Palæarctic
70. Leporidæ All regions but Australian
Marsupialia.
76. Didelphyidæ Neotropical
BIRDS.
Passeres.
1. Turdidæ Almost cosmopolite
2. Sylviidæ Almost cosmopolite
5. Cinclidæ Palæarctic, Oriental, Andes
6. Troglodytidæ All regions but Australian
7. Chamæidæ
8. Certhiidæ Palæarctic, Oriental, Australian
9. Sittidæ Palæarctic, Oriental, Australian
10. Paridæ The Eastern Hemisphere
19. Laniidæ The Eastern Hemisphere
20. Corvidæ Cosmopolite
26. (Cœrebidæ) Neotropical family
27. Mniotiltidæ Neotropical
28. Vireonidæ Neotropical
29. Ampelidæ Palæarctic, Antilles, Guatemala
30. Hirundinidæ Cosmopolite
31. Icteridæ Neotropical
32. Tanagridæ Neotropical
33. Fringillidæ All regions but Australian
37. Alaudidæ All regions but Neotropical
38. Motacillidæ Cosmopolite
39. Tyrannidæ Neotropical
Picariæ.
51. Picidæ All regions but Australian
58. Cuculidæ Almost cosmopolite
67. Alcedinidæ Cosmopolite
73. Caprimulgidæ Cosmopolite
74. Cypselidæ Almost cosmopolite
75. Trochilidæ Neotropical
Psittaci.
80. Conuridæ Neotropical
Columbæ.
84. Columbidæ Cosmopolite
Gallinæ.
87. Tetraonidæ Almost cosmopolite
88. Phasianidæ Palæarctic, Oriental, Ethiopian, Honduras
91. (Cracidæ) Neotropical
{142}

Accipitres.

94. Vulturidæ All regions but Australian
96. Falconidæ Cosmopolite
97. Pandionidæ Cosmopolite
98. Strigidæ Cosmopolite
Grallæ.
99. Rallidæ Cosmopolite
100. Scolopacidæ Cosmopolite
105. Charadriidæ Cosmopolite
107. Gruidæ All regions but Neotropical
113. Ardeidæ Cosmopolite
114. Plataleidæ Almost cosmopolite
115. Ciconiidæ All the regions
Anseres.
118. Anatidæ Cosmopolite
119. Laridæ Cosmopolite
120. Procellariidæ Cosmopolite
121. Pelecanidæ Cosmopolite
123. Colymbidæ North temperate and arctic zones
124. Podicipidæ Cosmopolite
125. Alcidæ North temperate and arctic zones
REPTILIA.
Ophidia.
5. Calamariidæ All the regions
6. Oligodontidæ Neotropical, Oriental, Japan
7. Colubridæ Almost cosmopolite
8. Homalopsidæ All the regions
17. Pythonidæ All tropical regions
20. Elapidæ All tropical regions, Japan
24. Crotalidæ Neotropical, Palæarctic, Oriental
Lacertilia.
27. Chirotidæ Mexico
32. Teidæ Neotropical
34. Zonuridæ All regions but Australian
35. Chalcidæ Neotropical
45. Scincidæ Almost cosmopolite
49. Geckotidæ Almost cosmopolite
50. Iguanidæ Neotropical
Crocodilia.
56. Alligatoridæ Neotropical
Chelonia.
57. Testudinidæ All continents but Australian
59. Trionychidæ Ethiopian, Oriental, Japan
60. Cheloniidæ Marine
{143}

AMPHIBIA.

Urodela.
2. Sirenidæ
3. Proteidæ Palæarctic
4. Amphiumidæ
5. Menopomidæ Palæarctic
6. Salamandridæ Andes, Palæarctic
Anoura.
10. Bufonidæ All continents but Australia
12. Engystomidæ All regions but Nearctic
15. Alytidæ All regions but Oriental
17. Hylidæ All regions but Ethiopian
18. Polypedatidæ All the regions
19. Ranidæ Almost cosmopolite
FISHES (FRESH-WATER).
Acanthopterygii.
1. Gasterosteidæ Palæarctic
3. Percidæ Cosmopolite
4. Aphredoderidæ
12. Sciænidæ All regions but Australian
37. Atherinidæ Palæarctic
Physostomi.
59. Siluridæ All warm regions
65. Salmonidæ Palæarctic, New Zealand
66. Percopsidæ
70. Esocidæ Palæarctic
71. Umbridæ Palæarctic
73. Cyprinodontidæ All regions but Australian
74. Heteropygii
75. Cyprinidæ Not in S. America or Australia
77. Hyodontidæ
Ganoidei.
93. Amiidæ
95. Lepidosteidæ
96. Accipenseridæ Palæarctic
97. Polydontidæ Palæarctic
INSECTS.
LEPIDOPTERA (PART).
Diurni (Butterflies).
1. Danaidæ All warm regions
2. Satyridæ Cosmopolite
7. (Heliconidæ) Neotropical
{144}

8. Nymphalidæ

Cosmopolite
9. Libytheidæ Not in Australia
12. Erycinidæ Neotropical
13. Lycænidæ Cosmopolite
14. Pieridæ Cosmopolite
15. Papilionidæ Cosmopolite
16. Hesperidæ Cosmopolite
Sphingidea.
17. Zygænidæ Cosmopolite
18. Castniidæ Neotropical, Australian
22. Ægeriidæ Not in Australia
23. Sphingidæ Cosmopolite
{145}

TABLE II.

LIST OF GENERA OF TERRESTRIAL MAMMALIA AND BIRDS INHABITING THE NEARCTIC REGION.

Explanation.

Names in italics show genera peculiar to the region.

Names enclosed thus (...) indicate genera which barely enter the region, and are not considered properly to belong to it.

Genera properly belonging to the region are numbered consecutively.

MAMMALIA.
Order, Family, and
Genus.
No. of
Species.
Range within the Region. Range beyond the Region.
CHIROPTERA.
Phyllostomidæ.
1. Macrotus 1 California Mexico, Antilles
Vespertilionidæ.
2. Scotophilus 5 Universal, to Hudson's Bay Neotr., Orient., Austral.
3. Vespertilio 6 Universal, to Hudson's Bay Cosmopolite.
4. Nycticejus 1 South and East India, Tropical Africa, temperate S. America
5. Lasiurus 3 Temp. N. Amer. to Nova Scotia Tropical America
6. Synotus 2 S. E. and Central States
7. Antrozous 1 W. Coast
Noctilionidæ.
8. Nyctinomus 1 Cal. and S. Central Sub-region Neotropical, Oriental, S. Palæarctic
INSECTIVORA.
Talpidæ.
9. Condylura 1 Eastern N. America
10. Scapanus 2 New York to San Francisco
11. Scalops 3 S. of Great Lakes & Brit. Columb.
12. Urotrichus 1 British Columbia Japan
Soricidæ.
13. Sorex 16 The whole region Palæarc., Ethiop., Orien.
14. Neosorex 1 Vancouver's Island (a sub-genus)
15. Blarina 7 Canada to Mexico (a sub-genus)
CARNIVORA.
Felidæ.
16. Felis 5 S. of 55° N. Latitude All regs. but Australian
17. Lynx 3 S. of 56° N. Latitude Palæarctic
{146}

Canidæ.

18. Lupus 6 All N. America Palæarctic, Oriental
19. Vulpes 6 N. America to Arctic Ocean and Greenland Palæarc., Ethiop., Orient.
Mustelidæ.
20. Martes 2 Pennsylvania to Paget's Sound Palæarctic, Oriental
21. Mustela 11 All N. America Peru, Palæarctic, Ethiopian, Oriental
22. Gulo 1 Rocky Mountains and Canada N. Palæarctic
23. Latax 2 United States and Canada
24. Enhydris 1 Pacific coast W. coast of S. America
25. Taxidea 2 Arkansas to 58° N. Lat.
26. Mephitis 6 United States and Canada Neotropical
Procyonidæ.
27. Procyon 2 Texas to Canada, California Neotropical
28. Bassaris 1 California and Texas Guatemala and Mexico
Ursidæ.
29. Ursus 3 N. America and Greenland Palæarctic, Oriental
Otariidæ.
30. Callorhinus 1 Behring's Straits Kamschatka
31. Zalophus 1 S. California to N. Pacific Japan
Eumetopias 1 California to Behring's Straits
Trichechidæ.
32. Trichechus 1 Arctic Ocean to 66° N. Lat. in N. America Palæarctic
Phocidæ.
33. Callocephalus 1 Greenland Palæarctic
34. Pagomys 1 N. Atlantic and N. Pacific Japan
35. Pagophilus 1 N. Atlantic and N. Pacific Palæarctic
36. Halicyon 1 N. W. coast of America
37. Phoca 1 Northern Coast Palæarctic
38. Halichœrus 1 Greenland Palæarctic
39. Morunga 1 California S. temperate shores
40. Cystophora Greenland N. Atlantic
UNGULATA.
Suidæ.
41. Dicotyles 1 Texas to Red River, Arkansas Neotropical
Cervidæ.
42. Alces 1 N. E. United States & Canada N. Palæarctic
43. Rangifer 2 Maine to Arctic Ocean & Greenl. Arctic zone
44. Cervus 6 N. America to 57° N. Lat. Neotr., Palæarc., Orien.
Bovidæ.
45. Bison 1 Between Missouri & Rocky Mtns. E. Europe
46. Antilocapra 1 Central plains from Rio Grande to British Columbia
{147}

47.

Aplocerus 1 Northern Rocky Mountains
48. Capra 1 Upper Missouri and Rocky Mountains northwards Palæarctic
49. Ovibos 1 Arctic America and Greenland
RODENTIA.
Muridæ.
50. Reithrodon 5 N. America to Lat. 39° N. Neotropical
51. Hesperomys 16 Temperate N. America Neotropical
52. Neotoma 7 Temperate N. America
53. Sigmodon 2 S. and S. E. States
54. Arvicola 27 Texas and California to Hudson's Bay Palæarctic
55. Myodes 3 N. United States to Arctic Reg. and Greenland N. Palæarctic
56. Fiber 1 All N. America Mexico
Dipodidæ.
57. Jaculus 1 Pennsylvania to Canada and California
Saccomyidæ.
58. Dipodomys 5 New Mexico to Columbia River and Carolina
59. Perognathus 6 New Mexico to British Columbia
60. Thomomys 2 Upper Missouri to Hudson's Bay
61. Geomys 5 New Mexico to Alabama and Nebraska
62. Saccomys 1 N. America
Castoridæ.
63. Castor 1 N. Mexico to Labrador Palæarctic
Sciuridæ
64. Sciurus 18 N. America to Labrador All regs. but Australian
65. Sciuropterus 4 California & E. States northwds. Palæarctic, Oriental
66. Tamias 4 Mexico and Virginia to Canada Mexico, N. Asia
67. Spermophilus 15 N., W., & Central N. America Palæarctic
68. Cynomys 2 Rio Grande to Missouri (Central)
69. Arctomys 4 Virginia and Nebraska, northws. N. Palæarctic
Haploodontidæ.
70. Haploodon 2 California and British Columbia
Cercolabidæ
71. Erethizon 2 Pennsylvania to Canada, & Pacific coast
Lagomyidæ.
72. Lagomys 1 Rocky Mountains, 42° to 60° N. Lat. Palæarctic
Leporidæ.
73. Lepus 15 All N. America to Greenland All regs. but Australian
{148}

MARSUPIALIA.

Didelphyidæ.
74. Didelphys 2 From Hudson's River & Lower California, southward Neotropical
BIRDS.
PASSERES.
Turdidæ.
1. Turdus 9 The whole region Almost cosmopolite
2. Mimus 2 All U. States and to Canada Neotropical
3. Galeoscoptes 1 E. of N. America To Panama
4. Oreoscoptes 1 California and Rocky Mountains Mexico
5. Harporhynchus 7 N. America, chiefly the west Mexico
Sylviidæ.
6. Myiadestes 1 W. of Rocky Mountains and to Canada Neotropical
7. Sialia 3 All United States and to Canada Mexico and Guatemala
8. Regulus 3 All United States & to Labrador Palæarc., Cent. America
9. Polioptila 3 Central and Southern U. States Neotropical
Cinclidæ.
10. Cinclus 1 Rocky Mountains and British America Andes, Palæarctic
Troglodytidæ.
11. Troglodytes 3 N. America Neotropical, Palæarctic
12. Thryophilus 1 N. W. America Neotropical
13. Thryothorus 3 All N. America Neotropical
14. Cistothorus 2 N. America Neotropical
(Campylorhynchus 1 Gila and Rio Grande) Neotropical genus
15. Salpinctes 1 Rocky Mountains to Oregon
16. Catherpes 1 Gila and Colorado
Chamæidæ.
17. Chamæa 1 California
Certhiidæ.
18. Certhia 2 All United States and Canada Palæarctic, Guatemala
Sittidæ.
19. Sitta 5 All United States and Canada Palæarctic, Mexico
Paridæ.
20. Parus 8 All United States and Canada Palæarc., Orien., Mexico
21. Lophophanes 4 All United States Palæarctic, Mexico
22. Psaltriparus 3 Central & Western N. America Mexico and Guatemala
23. Auriparus 1 Rio Grande Valley
{149}

Laniidæ.

24. Lanius 4 All N. America Palæarc., Ethio., Orient.
Corvidæ.
25. Perisoreus 1 Canada and Rocky Mountains Palæarctic
26. Cyanocitta 9 All United States and to Canada Neotropical
27. Gymnokitta 1 Central and N. W. States
28. Picicorvus 1 Central and Western States to Sitka
29. Pica 2 Central and Western States to Arctic Ocean Palæarctic
30. Corvus 7 All N. America Cosmop., excl. S. Amer.
Cœrebidæ.
(Certhiola 1 Florida; summer migrant) Neotropical genus
Mniotiltidæ.
31. Mniotilta 1 Eastern States Antilles, Andes of Columbia (migrant)
32. Parula 1 Eastern States and Canada Neotropical
33. Protonotaria 1 Ohio and southwards Neotrop. to Venezuela
34. Helminthophaga 8 All N. America Mexico to Columbia
35. Helmintherus 2 S. and E. States to Canada Mexico to Veragua
36. Perissoglossa 1 Eastern United States Antilles
37. Dendrœca 22 All N. America Mex. to Ecuador & Chili
38. Oporornis 2 Eastern States Guatemala and Panama
39. Geothlypis 4 All N. America Neotropical
40. Setophaga 2 E. States & Canadian sub-region Neotropical
41. Myiodioctes 5 United States and Canada Mex. to Columb. (migr.)
42. Siurus 3 S. and E. States to Canada Mexico to Columbia
43. Icteria 2 E. and Central States to Canada Mexico to Costa Rica
Vireonidæ.
44. Vireosylvia 7 All N. America Antilles and Venezuela
45. Vireo 6 All United States Antilles and Costa Rica
Ampelidæ.
46. Ampelis 2 All N. America Palæarctic, Guatemala
47. Phænopepla 1 Gila and Lower Colorado Mexico
Hirundinidæ.
48. Hirundo 3 All N. America Almost cosmopolite
49. Petrochelidon 1 All N. America Neotropical
50. Cotyle 1 All N. America All regs. but Australian
51. Stelgidopteryx 1 Southern States Neotropical
52. Progne 1 All N. America Neotropical
Icteridæ.
53. Icterus 7 All United States and Canada Neotropical
54. Dolichonyx 1 Eastern States and Canada Neotropical
55. Molothrus 1 All United States and Canada Neotropical
56. Agelæus 3 All United Slates and Canada Neotropical
{150}

57.

Xanthocephalus 1 The whole region Mexico
58. Sturnella 2 All United States and Canada Neotropical
59. Scolecophagus 2 All United States and Canada Mexico
60. Quiscalus 4 S. and E. States to Labrador Mexico to Venezuela
Tanagridæ.
61. Pyranga 4 United Stales and Canada Neotropical
Fringillidæ.
62. Chrysomitris 7 The whole region Neotropical, Palæarctic
63. Coccothraustes 1 W. and N. W. America Palæarctic, Guatemala
64. Embernagra 1 Rocky Mountain district Neotropical
65. Pipilo 9 All N. America Mexico and Guatemala
66. Junco 5 All United States Mexico and Guatemala
67. Zonotrichia 5 The whole region Neotropical
68. Melospiza 7 All United States to Sitka Mexico and Guatemala
69. Spizella 6 N. America Mexico and Guatemala
70. Passerella 3 The whole region Northern Asia
71. Passerculus 6 The whole region Mexico and Guatemala
72. Poœcetes 1 All United States Mexico
73. Ammodromus 3 All United States Mexico and Guatemala
74. Coturniculus 3 E. and N. of N. America Neotropical
75. Peucæa 3 S. Atlantic States and California Mexico
76. Cyanospiza 5 All United States to Canada Central American
77. Poospiza 2 California and S. Central States Neotropical
78. Carpodacus 5 The whole region Mexico, Palæarctic
79. Cardinalis 1 S. and S. Central States Mexico to Venezuela
80. Pyrrhuloxia 1 Texas and Rio Grande
81. Guiraca 1 Southern States Neotropical
82. Hedymeles 2 All United States Mexico to Columbia
(Spermophila 1 Texas) Neotropical genus
83. Loxia 2 N. of Pennsylvania Palæarctic
84. Pinicola 1 Boreal America Palæarctic
85. Linota 2 E. and N. of N. America Palæarctic
86. Leucosticte 4 Alaska to Utah Palæarctic
87. Calamospiza 1 Arizona and Texas to Mexico Mexico
88. Chondestes 1 Western, Cen., & Southern States Mexico
89. Euspiza 2 S. Eastern States Palæarc., Columb. (mig.)
90. Plectrophanes 6 Boreal America and E. side of Rocky Mountains Palæarctic
91. Centronyx 1 Mouth of Yellowstone River
Alaudidæ.
92. Otocorys 1 High central plains to E. States and Canada Palæarc., Mexico, Andes of Columbia
Motacillidæ.
93. Anthus 1 The whole region Cosmopolite
94. Neocorys 1 Nebraska
Tyrannidæ.
95. Sayornis 3 E. States to Canada, California Mexico to Ecuador
(Pyrocephalus 1 Gila and Rio Grande) Neotropical
96. Empidonax 7 The whole region Mexico to Ecuador
{151}

97.

Contopus 3 N. and E. of Rocky Mountains Mexico to Amazonia
98. Myiarchus 2 E. and W. coasts and Canada Neotropical
99. Empidias 1 Eastern States Mexico
100. Tyrannus 4 All United States to Canada Neotropical
(Milvulus 1 Texas) Neotropical genus
PICARIÆ.
Picidæ.
101. Picoides 3 Arctic zone and Rocky Mounts. Palæarctic
102. Picus 6 All United States and Canada All regs. but Eth. & Aus.
103. Sphyrapicus 6 Brit. Columbia and Pennsylvania southwards Mexico and Guatemala
104. Campephilus 2 United States and Canada Neotropical
105. Hylatomus 1 E. and W. States and Canada
106. Centurus 3 The whole region Mexico to Venezuela
107. Melanerpes 3 United States and S. Canada Neotropical
108. Colaptes 3 United States and Canada Neotropical
Cuculidæ.
109. Crotophaga 2 E. States from Pennsylvania S. Neotropical
110. Coccyzus 3 S. E. and Cen. States to Canada Neotropical
111. Geococcyx 1 California to New Mex. & Texas Guatemala
Alcedinidæ.
112. Ceryle 2 The whole region, Neotropical S. Palæarctic, Oriental
Caprimulgidæ.
113. Chordeiles 3 All United States to Canada Neotropical
114. Antrostomus 3 All United States to Canada Neotropical
Cypselidæ.
115. Nephœcetes 1 N. W. America Jamaica
116. Chætura 2 All U. States & British Columbia Almost cosmopolite
Trochilidæ.
117. Trochilus 2 The whole region Mexico to Veragua (? mi.)
118. Selasphorus 2 W. coast and Centre Mexico to Veragua
119. Atthis 2 California and Colorado Valley Mexico to Guatemala
PSITTACI.
Conuridæ.
120. Conurus 1 S. and S. E. States Neotropical
COLUMBÆ.
Columbidæ.
121. Columba 3 W. and Central States to Canada All regs. but Australian
122. Ectopistes 1 E. coast to Cen. plains, Canada and British Columbia
123. Melopelia 1 W. and S. Central States Neotropical
124. Zenaidura 1 All United States to Canada Mexico to Veragua
125. Chæmepelia 1 California and S. E. States Neotropical
{152}

GALLINÆ.

Tetraonidæ.
126. Cyrtonyx 1 S. Central States Mexico and Guatemala
127. Ortyx 5 All United States and to Canada Mexico to Honduras and Costa Rica
128. Callipepla 1 California Mexico
129. Lophortyx 2 Arizona and California
130. Oreortyx 1 California and Oregon
131. Tetrao 3 N. and N. W. America Palæarctic
132. Centrocercus 1 Rocky Mountains
133. Pediocætes 2 N. and N. W. America
134. Cupidonia 1 E. & N. Cen. States and Canada
135. Bonasa 1 N. United States and Canada Palæarctic
136. Lagopus 4 Arctic zone and to 39° N. Lat. in Rocky Mountains Palæarctic
Phasianidæ.
137. Meleagris 2 E. and Central States to Canada Mexico, Honduras
Cracidæ.
(Ortalida 1 New Mexico) Neotropical genus
ACCIPITRES.
Vulturidæ.
  Sub-Family
(Cathartinæ.)
138. Catharista 1 United States to 40° N. Lat. Neotropical
139. Pseudogryphis 2 United States to 49° N. Lat. Neotropical
Falconidæ.
140. Polyborus 1 S. States to Florida & California Neotropical
141. Circus 1 All N. America Nearly cosmopolite
142. Antenor 2 California and Texas Neotropical
143. Astur 1 All N. America Almost cosmopolite
144. Accipiter 3 All temperate N. America Almost cosmopolite
145. Tachytriorchis 1 New Mexico to California Neotropical
146. Buteo 12 All N. America All regs. but Australian
147. Archibuteo 3 All N. America N. Palæarctic
148. Asturina 1 S. E. States Neotropical
149. Aquila 1 The whole region Palæarc., Ethiop., Indian
150. Haliæetus 2 All N. America All regs. but Neotropical
151. Nauclerus 1 E. coast to Pennsylvania and Wisconsin Neotropical
(Rostrhamus 1 Florida) Neotropical
152. Elanus 1 Southern and Western States Tropical regions
153. Ictinia 1 Southern States Neotropical
154. Falco 7 The whole region Almost cosmopolite
155. Hierofalco 2 N. of N. America N. Palæarctic
156. Cerchneis 1 All N. America Almost cosmopolite
Pandionidæ.
157. Pandion 1 Temperate N. America Cosmopolite
{153}

Strigidæ.

158. Surnia 1 Arctic & N. Temperate America N. Palæarctic
159. Nyctea 1 S. Carolina to Greenland N. Palæarctic
160. Glaucidium 1 Oregon and California Neotropical, Palæarctic
161. Micrathene 1 Arizona and New Mexico Mexico
162. Pholeoptynx 1 N. W. America, Texas Neotropical
163. Bubo 1 All N. America All regs. but Australian
164. Scops 2 The whole region Almost cosmopolite
165. Syrnium 2 E. States, California, Canada All regs. but Australian
166. Asio 2 The whole region All regs. but Australian
167. Nyctale 3 All N. America Palæarctic
168. Strix 1 Temperate N. America Almost cosmopolite
Peculiar or very characteristic Genera of Wading and Swimming Birds.
GRALLÆ
Scolopacidæ.
Micropalama 1 N. America Andes to Chili
Philohela 1 Eastern States to Canada
Charadriidæ.
Aphriza 1 W. coast of America West of S. America
ANSERES.
Anatidæ.
Aix 1 N. America China
Bucephala 4 N. America Europe
Œdemia 3 N. America Europe
Harelda 1 Arctic Arctic Seas
Somateria 5 Arctic North Palæarctic
Camptolæmus 1 N. E. America (? extinct)
Laridæ.
Creagrus 1 California and N. Pacific coasts
{154}

CHAPTER XVI.

SUMMARY OF THE PAST CHANGES AND GENERAL RELATIONS OF THE SEVERAL REGIONS.

Having now closed our survey of the animal life of the whole earth—a survey which has necessarily been encumbered with a multiplicity of detail—we proceed to summarize the general conclusions at which we have arrived, with regard to the past history and mutual relations of the great regions into which we have divided the land surface of the globe.

All the palæontological, no less than the geological and physical evidence, at present available, points to the great land masses of the Northern Hemisphere as being of immense antiquity, and as the area in which the higher forms of life were developed. In going back through the long series of the Tertiary formations, in Europe, Asia, and North America, we find a continuous succession of vertebrate forms, including all the highest types now existing or that have existed on the earth. These extinct animals comprise ancestors or forerunners of all the chief forms now living in the Northern Hemisphere; and as we go back farther and farther into the past, we meet with ancestral forms of those types also, which are now either confined to, or specially characteristic of, the land masses of the Southern Hemisphere. Not only do we find that elephants, and rhinoceroses, and hippopotami, were once far more abundant in Europe than they are now in the tropics, but we also find that the apes of West Africa and Malaya, the lemurs of Madagascar, the Edentata of Africa and South America, and the {155}Marsupials of America and Australia, were all represented in Europe (and probably also in North America) during the earlier part of the Tertiary epoch. These facts, taken in their entirety, lead us to conclude that, during the whole of the Tertiary and perhaps during much of the Secondary periods, the great land masses of the earth were, as now, situated in the Northern Hemisphere; and that here alone were developed the successive types of vertebrata from the lowest to the highest. In the Southern Hemisphere there appear to have been three considerable and very ancient land masses, varying in extent from time to time, but always keeping distinct from each other, and represented, more or less completely, by Australia, South Africa, and South America of our time. Into these flowed successive waves of life, as they each in turn became temporarily united with some part of the northern land. Australia appears to have had but one such union, perhaps during the middle or latter part of the Secondary epoch, when it received the ancestors of its Monotremata and Marsupials, which it has since developed into a great variety of forms. The South African and South American lands, on the other hand, appear each to have had several successive unions and separations, allowing first of the influx of low forms only (Edentata, Insectivora and Lemurs); subsequently of Rodents and small Carnivora, and, latest of all, of the higher types of Primates, Carnivora and Ungulata.

During the whole of the Tertiary period, at least, the Northern Hemisphere appears to have been divided, as now, into an Eastern and a Western continent; always approximating and sometimes united towards the north, and then admitting of much interchange of their respective faunas; but on the whole keeping distinct, and each developing its own special family and generic types, of equally high grade, and generally belonging to the same Orders. During the Eocene and Miocene periods, the distinction of the Palæarctic and Nearctic regions was better marked than it is now; as is shown by the floras no less than by the faunas of those epochs. Dr. Newberry, in his Report on the Cretaceous and Tertiary floras of the Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers, states, that although the Miocene flora of Central North {156}America corresponds generally with that of the European Miocene, yet many of the tropical, and especially the Australian types, such as Hakea and Dryandra, are absent. Owing to the recent discovery of a rich Cretaceous flora in North America, probably of the same age as that of Aix-la-Chapelle in Europe, we are able to continue the comparison; and it appears, that at this early period the difference was still more marked. The predominant feature of the European Cretaceous flora seems to have been the abundance of Proteaceæ, of which seven genera now living in Australia or the Cape of Good Hope have been recognised, besides others which are extinct. There are also several species of Pandanus, or screw-pine, now confined to the tropics of the Eastern Hemisphere, and along with these, oaks, pines, and other more temperate forms. The North American Cretaceous flora, although far richer than that of Europe, contains no Proteaceæ or Pandani, but immense numbers of forest trees of living and extinct genera. Among the former we have oaks, beeches, willows, planes, alders, dog-wood, and cypress; together with such American forms as magnolias, sassafras, and liriodendrons. There are also a few not now found in America, as Araucaria and Cinnamomum, the latter still living in Japan. This remarkable flora has been found over a wide extent of country—New Jersey, Alabama, Kansas, and near the sources of the Missouri in the latitude of Quebec—so that we can hardly impute its peculiarly temperate character to the great elevation of so large an area. The intervening Eocene flora approximates closely, in North America, to that of the Miocene period; while in Europe it seems to have been fully as tropical in character as that of the preceding Cretaceous period; fruits of Nipa, Pandanus, Anona, Acacia, and many Proteaceæ, occurring in the London clay at the mouth of the Thames.

These facts appear, at first sight, to be inconsistent, unless we suppose the climates of Europe and North America to have been widely different in these early times; but they may perhaps be harmonised, on the supposition of a more uniform and a somewhat milder climate then prevailing over the whole Northern Hemisphere; the contrast in the vegetation of these countries {157}being due to a radical difference of type, and therefore not indicative of climate. The early European flora seems to have been a portion of that which now exists only in the tropical and sub-tropical lands of the Eastern Hemisphere; and, as much of this flora still survives in Australia, Tasmania, Japan, and the Cape of Good Hope, it does not necessarily imply more than a warm and equable temperate climate. The early North American flora, on the other hand, seems to have been essentially the same in type as that which now exists there, and which, in the Miocene period, was well represented in Europe; and it is such as now flourishes best in the warmer parts of the United States. But whatever conclusion we may arrive at on the question of climate, there can be no doubt as to the distinctness of the floras of the ancient Nearctic and Palæarctic regions; and the view derived from our study of their existing and extinct faunas—that these two regions have, in past times, been more clearly separated than they are now—receives strong support from the unexpected evidence now obtained as to the character and mutations of their vegetable forms, during so vast an epoch as is comprised in the whole duration of the Tertiary period.

The general phenomena of the distribution of living animals, combined with the evidence of extinct forms, lead us to conclude that the Palæarctic region of early Tertiary times was, for the most part, situated beyond the tropics, although it probably had a greater southward extension than at the present time. It certainly included much of North Africa, and perhaps reached far into what is now the Sahara; while a southward extension of its central mass may have included the Abyssinian highlands, where some truly Palæarctic forms are still found. This is rendered probable by the fossils of Perim Island a little further east, which show that the characteristic Miocene fauna of South Europe and North India prevailed so far within the tropics. There existed, however, at the extreme eastern and western limits of the region, two extensive equatorial land-areas, our Indo-Malayan and West African sub-regions—both of which must have been united for more or less considerable periods with the northern continent. They would then have received {158}from it such of the higher vertebrates as were best adapted for the peculiar climatal and organic conditions which everywhere prevail near the equator; and these would be preserved, under variously modified forms, when they had ceased to exist in the less favourable and constantly deteriorating climate of the north. At later epochs, both these equatorial lands became united to some part of the great South African continent (then including Madagascar), and we thus have explained many of the similarities presented by the faunas of these distant, and generally very different countries.

During the Miocene period, when a subtropical climate prevailed over much of Europe and Central Asia, there would be no such marked contrast as now prevails between temperate and tropical zones; and at this time much of our Oriental region, perhaps, formed a hardly separable portion of the great Palæarctic land. But when, from unknown causes, the climate of Europe became less genial, and when the elevation of the Himalayan chain and the Mongolian plateau caused an abrupt difference of climate on the northern and southern sides of that great mountain barrier, a tropical and a temperate region were necessarily formed; and many of the animals which once roamed over the greater part of the older and more extensive region, now became restricted to its southern or northern divisions respectively. Then came the great change we have already described (vol. i. p. 288), opening the newly-formed plains of Central Africa to the incursions of the higher forms of Europe; and following on this, a still further deterioration of climate, resulting in that marked contrast between temperate and tropical faunas, which is now one of the most prominent features in the distribution of animal as well as of vegetable forms.

It is not necessary to go into any further details here, as we have already, in our discussion of the origin of the fauna of the several regions, pointed out what changes most probably occurred in each case. These details are, however, to a great extent speculative; and they must remain so till we obtain as much knowledge of the extinct faunas and past geological history of the southern lands, as we have of those of Europe and North {159}America. But the broad conclusions at which we have now arrived seem to rest on a sufficiently extensive basis of facts; and they lead us to a clearer conception of the mutual relations and comparative importance of the several regions than could be obtained at an earlier stage of our inquiries.

If our views of the origin of the several regions are correct, it is clear that no mere binary division—into north and south, or into east and west—can be altogether satisfactory, since at the dawn of the Tertiary period we still find our six regions, or what may be termed the rudiments of them, already established. The north and south division truly represents the fact, that the great northern continents are the seat and birth-place of all the higher forms of life, while the southern continents have derived the greater part, if not the whole, of their vertebrate fauna from the north; but it implies the erroneous conclusion, that the chief southern lands—Australia and South America—are more closely related to each other than to the northern continent. The fact, however, is that the fauna of each has been derived, independently, and perhaps at very different times, from the north, with which they therefore have a true genetic relation; while any intercommunion between themselves has been comparatively recent and superficial, and has in no way modified the great features of animal life in each. The east and west division, represents—according to our views—a more fundamental diversity; since we find the northern continent itself so divided in the earliest Eocene, and even in Cretaceous times; while we have the strongest proof that South America was peopled from the Nearctic, and Australia and Africa from the Palæarctic region: hence, the Eastern and Western Hemispheres are the two great branches of the tree of life of our globe. But this division, taken by itself, would obscure the facts—firstly, of the close relation and parallelism of the Nearctic and Palæarctic regions, not only now but as far back as we can clearly trace them in the past; and, secondly, of the existing radical diversity of the Australian region from the rest of the Eastern Hemisphere.

Owing to the much greater extent of the old Palæarctic region (including our Oriental), and the greater diversity of {160}Mammalia it appears to have produced, we can have little doubt that here was the earliest seat of the development of the vertebrate type; and probably of the higher forms of insects and land-molluscs. Whether the Nearctic region ever formed one mass with it, or only received successive immigrations from it by northern land-connections both in an easterly and westerly direction, we cannot decide; but the latter seems the most probable supposition. In any case, we must concede the first rank to the Palæarctic and Oriental regions, as representing the most important part of what seems always to have been the Great Continent of the earth, and the source from which all the other regions were supplied with the higher forms of life. These once formed a single great region, which has been since divided into a temperate and a tropical portion, now sufficiently distinct; while the Nearctic region has, by deterioration of climate, suffered a considerable diminution of productive area, and has in consequence lost a number of its more remarkable forms. The two temperate regions have thus come to resemble each other more than they once did, while the Oriental retains more of the zoological aspect of the great northern regions of Miocene times. The Ethiopian, from having been once an insular region, where lower types of vertebrates alone prevailed, has been so overrun with higher types from the old Palæarctic and Oriental lands that it now rivals, or even surpasses, the Oriental region in its representation of the ancient fauna of the great northern continent. Both of our tropical regions of the Eastern Hemisphere possess faunas which are, to some extent, composite, being made up in different proportions of the productions of the northern and southern continents,—the former prevailing largely in the Oriental, while the latter constitutes an important feature in the Ethiopian fauna. The Neotropical region has probably undergone great fluctuations in early times; but it was, undoubtedly, for long periods completely isolated, and then developed the Edentate type of Mammals and the Formicaroid type of Passerine birds into a variety of forms, comparable with the diversified Marsupials of Australia, and typical Passeres of the Eastern Hemisphere. {161}It has, however, received successive infusions of higher types from the north, which now mingle in various degrees with its lower forms. At an early period it must have received a low form of Primates, which has been developed into the two peculiar families of American monkeys; while its llamas, tapirs, deer, and peccaries, came in at a later date, and its opossums and extinct horses probably among the latest. The Australian region alone, after having been united with the great northern continent at a very early date (probably during the Secondary period) has ever since remained more or less completely isolated; and thus exhibits the development of a primeval type of mammal, almost wholly uninfluenced by any incursions of a later and higher type. In this respect it is unique among all the great regions of the earth.

We see, then, that each of our six regions has had a history of its own, the main outlines of which we have been able to trace with tolerable certainty. Each of them is now characterised—as it seems to have been in all past time of which we have any tolerably full record—by well-marked zoological features; while all are connected and related in the complex modes we have endeavoured to unravel. To combine any two or more of these regions, on account of existing similarities which are, for the most part, of recent origin, would obscure some of the most important and interesting features of their past history and present condition. And it seems no less impracticable to combine the whole into groups of higher rank; since it has been shown that there are two opposing modes of doing this, and that each of them represents but one aspect of a problem, which can only be solved by giving equal attention to all its aspects.

 

For reasons which have been already stated, and which are sufficiently obvious, we have relied almost exclusively on the distribution of living and extinct mammalia, in arriving at these conclusions. But we believe they will apply equally to elucidate the phenomena presented by the distribution of all terrestrial organisms, when combined with a careful consideration of the {162}various means of dispersal of the different groups, and the comparative longevity of their species and genera. Even insects, which are perhaps of all animals the farthest removed from mammalia in this respect, agree, in the great outlines of their distribution, with the vertebrate orders. The Regions are admittedly the same, or nearly the same for both; and the discrepancies that occur are of a nature which can be explained by two undoubted facts—the greater antiquity, and the greater facilities for dispersal, of insects.

But this principle, if sound, must be carried farther, and be applied to plants also. There are not wanting indications that this may be successfully done; and it seems not improbable, that the reason why botanists have hitherto failed to determine, with any unanimity, which are the most natural phytological regions, and to work out any connected theory of the migrations of plants, is, because they have not been furnished with the clue to the past changes of the great land masses, which could only be arrived at by such an examination of the past and present distribution of the higher animals as has been here attempted. The difficulties in the way of the study of the distribution of plants, from this point of view, will be undoubtedly very great; owing to the unusual facilities for distribution many of them possess, and the absence of any group which might take the place of the mammalia among animals, and serve as a guide and standard for the rest. We cannot expect the regions to be so well defined in the case of plants as in that of animals; and there are sure to be many anomalies and discrepancies, which will require long study to unravel. The Six Great Regions here adopted, are however, as a whole, very well characterised by their vegetable forms. The floras of tropical America, of Australia, of South Africa, and of Indo-Malaya, stand out with as much individuality as do the faunas; while the plants of the Palæarctic and Nearctic regions, exhibit resemblances and diversities, of a character not unlike those found among the animals.

This is not a mere question of applying to the vegetable kingdom a series of arbitrary divisions of the earth which have been {163}found useful to zoologists; for it really involves a fundamental problem in the theory of evolution. The question we have to answer, is, firstly—whether the distribution of plants is, like that of animals, mainly and primarily dependent on the past revolutions of the earth's surface; or, whether other, and altogether distinct causes, have had a preponderating influence in determining the range and limits of vegetable forms; and, secondly—whether those revolutions have been, in their general outlines, correctly interpreted by means of a study of the distribution and affinities of the higher animals. The first question is one for botanists alone to answer; but, on the second point, the author ventures to hope for an affirmative reply, from such of his readers as will weigh carefully the facts and arguments he has adduced.

 

The remaining part of this volume, will consist, of a systematic review of the distribution of each family of animals, and an application of the principles already established to elucidate the chief phenomena they present. The present chapter must, therefore, be considered as the conclusion of the argumentative and theoretical part of the present work; but it must be read in connection with the various discussions in Parts II. and III., in which the conclusions to be drawn from the several groups of facts have been successively given;—and especially in connection with the general observations at the end of each of the six chapters on the Zoological Regions.

The hypothetical view, as to the more recent of the great Geographical changes of the Earth's surface, here set forth, is not the result of any preconceived theory, but has grown out of a careful study of the facts accumulated, and has led to a considerable modification of the author's previous views. It may be described, as an application of the general theory of Evolution, to solve the problem of the distribution of animals; but it also furnishes some independent support to that theory, both by showing what a great variety of curious facts are explained by its means, and by answering some of the objections, {164}which have been founded on supposed difficulties in the distribution of animals in space and time.

It also illustrates and supports the geological doctrine, of the general permanence of our great continents and oceans, by showing how many facts in the distribution of animals can only be explained and understood on such a supposition; and it exhibits, in a striking manner, the enormous influence of the Glacial epoch, in determining the existing zoological features of the various continents.

And, lastly, it furnishes a more consistent and intelligible idea than has yet been reached by any other mode of investigation, of all the more important changes of the earth's surface that have probably occurred during the entire Tertiary period; and of the influence of these changes, in bringing about the general features, as well as many of the more interesting details and puzzling anomalies, of the Geographical Distribution of Animals.

 

PART IV.

GEOGRAPHICAL ZOOLOGY:

A SYSTEMATIC SKETCH OF THE CHIEF FAMILIES OF LAND ANIMALS IN THEIR GEOGRAPHICAL RELATIONS.

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INTRODUCTION.

In the preceding part of our work, we have discussed the geographical distribution of animals from the point of view of the geographer; taking the different regions of the earth in succession, and giving as full an account as our space would permit of their chief forms of animal life. Now, we proceed from the standpoint of the systematic zoologist; taking in succession each of the families with which we deal, and giving an account of the distribution, both of the entire family and, as far as practicable, of each of the genera of which it is composed. As in the former part, our mode of treatment led us to speculate on the past changes of the earth's surface; so here we shall endeavour to elucidate the past migrations of animals, and thus, to some extent, account for their actual distribution.

The tabular headings, showing the range of the family in each region, will enable the reader to determine at a glance the general distribution of the group, as soon as he has familiarised himself, by a study of our general and regional maps, with the limits of the regions and sub-regions, and the figures (1 to 4) by which the latter are indicated. Much pains have been taken, to give the number of the known genera and species in each family, correctly; but these numbers must, in most cases, only be looked upon as approximations; because, owing to constant accessions of fresh material on the one hand, and the discovery that many supposed species are only varieties, on the other, such statistics are in a continual state of fluctuation. In the number of genera there is the greatest uncertainty; as will be seen by the two sets of numbers sometimes given, which denote the genera according to different modern authorities.

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There is also a considerable difference in the dependence to be placed on the details given in the different classes of animals. In Mammalia and Birds some degree of accuracy has, it is hoped, been attained; the classification of these groups being much advanced, and the materials for their study ample. In Reptiles this is not the case, as there is no recently published work dealing with the whole subject, or with either of the larger orders. An immense number of new species and new genera of snakes and lizards, have been described in the last twenty years; and Dr. Günther—our greatest authority on reptiles in this country—has kindly assisted me in incorporating such of these as are most trustworthy, in a general system; but until entire Orders have been described or catalogued on a uniform plan, nothing more than a general approximation to the truth can be arrived at. Still, so many of the groups are well defined, and have a clearly limited distribution, that some interesting and valuable comparisons may be made.

For Fishes, the valuable "Catalogue" of Dr. Günther was available, and it has rarely been attempted to go beyond it. A large number of new species have since been described, in all parts of the world; but it is impossible to say how many of these are really new, or what genera they actually belong to. The part devoted to this Class is, therefore, practically a summary of Dr. Günther's Catalogue; and it is believed that the discoveries since made will not materially invalidate the conclusions to be drawn from such a large number of species, which have been critically examined and classified on a uniform system by one of our most able naturalists. When a supplement to this catalogue is issued, it will be easier to make the necessary alterations in distribution, than if a mass of untrustworthy materials had been mixed up with it.

For Insects, excellent materials are furnished, in the Catalogue of Mr. Kirby for Butterflies and in that of Drs. Gemminger and Harold for Coleoptera. I have also made use of some recently published memoirs on the Insects of Japan and St. Helena, and a few other recent works; and have, I believe, elaborated a more extensive series of facts to illustrate the distribution of insects, {169}than has been made use of by any previous writer. Several discussions on the bearing of the facts of insect distribution, will also be found under the several Regions, in the preceding part of this work.

Terrestrial Mollusca form a group, as to the treatment of which I have most misgivings; owing to my almost entire ignorance of Malacology, and the great changes recently made in the classification of shells. There is also much uncertainty as to genera and sub-genera, which is very puzzling to one who merely wishes to get at general results. Finding it impossible to incorporate the new matter with the old, or to harmonise the different classifications of modern conchologists, I thought it better to confine myself to the standard works of Martens and Pfeiffer, with such additions of new species as I could make without fear of going far wrong. In some cases I have made use of recent monographs—especially on the shells of Europe, North America, the West Indian Islands, and the Sandwich Islands; and have, I venture to hope, not fallen into much error in the general conclusions at which I have arrived.

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CHAPTER XVII.

THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE FAMILIES AND GENERA OF MAMMALIA.

Order I.—PRIMATES.

Family 1.—SIMIIDÆ. (4 Genera, 12 Species).

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — — — — — 2 — — — — 3. 4 — — — —

The Simiidæ, or Anthropoid Apes, comprehend those forms of the monkey-tribe which, in general organization, approach nearest to man. They inhabit the tropics of the Old World, and are most abundant near the equator; but they are limited to certain districts, being quite unknown in eastern and southern Africa, and the whole peninsula of Hindostan.

The genus Troglodytes (or Mimetes, as it is sometimes named) comprehends the chimpanzee and gorilla. It is confined to the West African sub-region, being found on the coast about 12° North and South of the equator, from the Gambia to Benguela, and as far inland as the great equatorial forests extend. There are perhaps other species of chimpanzee; since Livingstone met with what he supposed to be a new species in the forest region west of Lake Tanganyika, while Dr. Schweinfurth found one in the country beyond the western watershed of the Nile. The gorilla is confined within narrower limits on and near the equator.

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We have to pass over more than 70° of longitude before we again meet with Anthropoid Apes, in the northern part of Sumatra—where a specimen of the orang-utan (Simia satyrus) now in the Calcutta Museum, was obtained by Dr. Abel, and described by him in the Asiatic Researches, vol. xv.—and in Borneo, from which latter island almost all the specimens in European museums have been derived. There are supposed to be two species of Simia in Borneo, a larger and a smaller; but their distinctness is not admitted by all naturalists. Both appear to be confined to the swampy forests near the north, west, and south coasts.

The Gibbons, or long-armed apes, forming the genus Hylobates, (7 species) are found in all the large islands of the Indo-Malayan sub-region, except the Philippines; and also in Sylhet and Assam south of the Brahmaputra river, eastward to Cambodja and South China to the west of Canton, and in the island of Hainan.

The Siamang (Siamanga syndactyla) presents some anatomical peculiarities, and has the second and third toes united to the last joint, but in general form and structure it does not differ from Hylobates. It is the largest of the long-armed apes, and inhabits Sumatra and the Malay peninsula.

Family 2.—SEMNOPITHECIDÆ. (2 Genera, 30 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — — — 4 1. 2 — — 1. 2. 3. 4 — — — —

The Semnopithecidæ, are long-tailed monkeys without cheek-pouches, and with rather rounded faces, the muzzle not being prominent. They have nearly the same distribution as the last family, but are more widely dispersed in both Africa and Asia, one species just entering the Palæarctic region.

The Eastern genus Presbytes or Semnopithecus (29 species), is spread over almost the whole of the Oriental region wherever the forests are extensive. They extend along the Himalayas to beyond Simla, where a species has been observed at an altitude of 11,000 {172}feet, playing among fir-trees laden with snow wreaths. On the west side of India they are not found to the north of 14° N. latitude. On the east they extend into Arakan, and to Borneo and Java, but not apparently into Siam or Cambodja. Along the eastern extension of the Himalayas they again occur in East Thibet; a remarkable species with a large upturned nose (S. roxellana) having been discovered by Père David at Moupin (about Lat. 32° N.) in the highest forests, where the winters are severe and last for several months, and where the vegetation, and the other forms of animal life, are wholly those of the Palæarctic region. It is very curious that this species should somewhat resemble the young state of the proboscis monkey (S. nasalis), which inhabits one of the most uniform, damp, and hot climates on the globe—the river-swamps of Borneo.

Colobus, the African genus (11 species), is very closely allied to the preceding, differing chiefly in the thumb being absent or rudimentary. They are confined to the tropical regions—Abyssinia on the east, and from the Gambia to Angola and the island of Fernando Po, on the west.

Family 3.—CYNOPITHECIDÆ. (7 Genera, 67 Species).

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — 2 — 4 1. 2. 3 — 1. 2. 3. 4 1 — — —

This family comprehends all the monkeys with cheek pouches, and the baboons. Some of these have very long tails, some none; some are dog-faced, others tolerably round-faced; but there are so many transitions from one to the other, and such a general agreement in structure, that they are now considered to form a very natural family. Their range is more extensive than any other family of Quadrumana, since they not only occur in every part of the Ethiopian and Oriental regions, but enter the Palæarctic region in the east and west, and the Australian region as far as the islands of Timor and Batchian. The African genera {173}are Myiopithecus, Cercopithecus, Cercocebus, Theropithecus, and Cynocephalus; the Oriental genera, Macacus, and Cynopithecus.

Myiopithecus (1 species), consisting of the talapoin monkey of West Africa, differs from the other African monkeys in the structure of the last molar tooth; in the large ears, short face, and wide internasal septum; in this respect, as well as in its grace and gentleness, resembling some of the American monkeys.

Cercopithecus (24 species), contains all the more graceful and prettily coloured monkeys of tropical Africa, and comprises the guenons, the white-nosed, and the green monkeys. They range from the Gambia to the Congo, and from Abyssinia to the Zambesi.

Cercocebus (5 species), the mangabeys, of West Africa, are very closely allied to the eastern genus Macacus.

Theropithecus (2 species), including the gelada of Abyssinia and an allied species, resemble in form the baboons, but have the nostrils placed as in the last genus.

Cynocephalus (10 species), the baboons, are found in all parts of Africa. They consist of animals which vary much in appearance, but which agree in having an elongated dog-like muzzle with terminal nostrils, and being of terrestrial habits. Some of the baboons are of very large size, the mandrill (C. maimon) being only inferior to the orang and gorilla.

Macacus (25 species), is the commonest form of eastern monkey, and is found in every part of the Oriental region, as well as in North Africa, Gibraltar, Thibet, North China, and Japan; and one of the commonest species, M. cynomolgus, has extended its range from Java eastward to the extremity of Timor. The tail varies greatly in length, and in the Gibraltar monkey (M. innus) is quite absent. A remarkable species clothed with very thick fur, has lately been discovered in the snowy mountains of eastern Thibet.

Cynopithecus (? 2 sp.).—This genus consists of a black baboon-like Ape, inhabiting Celebes, Batchian, and the Philippine Islands; but perhaps introduced by man into the latter islands and into Batchian. It is doubtful if there is more than one species. The tail of this animal is a fleshy tubercle, the nostrils as in Macacus, but the muzzle is very prominent; and the {174}development of the maxillary bones into strong lateral ridges corresponds to the structure of the most typical baboons. This species extends further east than any other quadrumanous animal.

Family 4.—CEBIDÆ. (10 Genera, 78 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— 2. 3 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

The Cebidæ, which comprehend all the larger American Monkeys, differ from those of the Old World by having an additional molar tooth in each jaw, and a broad nasal septum; while they have neither cheek-pouches nor ischial callosities, and the thumb is never completely opposable. Some have prehensile tails, especially adapting them for an arboreal life. They are divided into four sub-families,—Cebinæ, Mycetinæ, Pitheciinæ, and Nyctipithecinæ. The Cebidæ are strictly confined to the forest regions of tropical America, from the southern part of Mexico to about the parallel of 30° South Latitude. The distribution of the genera is as follows:—

Sub-family, Cebinæ.—Cebus (18 sp.), is the largest genus of American monkeys, and ranges from Costa Rica to Paraguay. They are commonly called sapajous. Lagothrix (5 sp.), the woolly monkeys, are rather larger and less active than the preceding; they are confined to the forests of the Upper Amazon Valley, and along the slopes of the Andes to Venezuela and Bolivia. Ateles (14 sp.), the spider monkeys, have very long limbs and tail. They range over the whole area of the family, and occur on the west side of the Equatorial Andes and on the Pacific coast of Guatemala. Eriodes (3 sp.), are somewhat intermediate between the last two genera, and are confined to the eastern parts of Brazil south of the equator. The three last mentioned genera have very powerful prehensile tails, the end being bare beneath; whereas the species of Cebus have the tail {175}completely covered with hair, although prehensile, and therefore not so perfect a grasping organ.

Sub-family, Mycetinæ, consists of but a single genus, Mycetes (10 sp.), the howling monkeys, characterized by having a hollow bony vessel in the throat formed by an enlargement of the hyoid bone, which enables them to produce a wonderful howling noise. They are large, heavy animals, with a powerful and perfect prehensile tail. They range from East Guatemala to Paraguay. (Plate XIV., vol. ii., p. 24.)

Sub-family, Pitheciinæ, the sakis, have a non-prehensile bushy tail. Pithecia (7 sp.), has the tail of moderate length; while Brachiurus (5 sp.) has it very short. Both appear to be restricted to the great equatorial forests of South America.

Sub-family, Nyctipithecinæ, are small and elegant monkeys, with long, hairy, non-prehensile tails. Nyctipithecus (5 sp.), the night-monkeys or douroucoulis, have large eyes, nocturnal habits, and are somewhat lemurine in their appearance. They range from Nicaragua to the Amazon and eastern Peru. Saimiris or Chrysothrix (3 sp.), the squirrel-monkeys, are beautiful and active little creatures, found in most of the tropical forests from Costa Rica to Brazil and Bolivia. Callithrix (11 sp.), are somewhat intermediate between the last two genera, and are found all over South America from Panama to the southern limits of the great forests.

Family 5.—HAPALIDÆ. (2 Genera, 32 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— 2 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

The Hapalidæ, or marmosets, are very small monkeys, which differ from the true Cebidæ in the absence of one premolar tooth, while they possess the additional molar tooth; so that while they have the same number of teeth (thirty-two) as the Old World monkeys, they differ from them even more than do the {176}Cebidæ. The thumb is not at all opposable, and all the fingers are armed with sharp claws. The hallux, or thumb-like great toe, is very small; the tail is long and not prehensile. The two genera Hapale (9 sp.), and Midas (24 sp.), are of doubtful value, though some naturalists have still further sub-divided them. They are confined to the tropical forests of South America, and are most abundant in the districts near the equator.

Sub-order—LEMUROIDEA.

Family 6.—LEMURIDÆ. (11 Genera, 53 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — 1. 2. 3. 4 — 2. 3. 4 — — — — — — — —

The Lemuridæ, comprehending all the animals usually termed Lemurs and many of their allies, are divided by Professor Mivart—who has carefully studied the group—into four sub-families and eleven genera, as follows:—

Sub-family Indrisinæ, consisting of the genus Indris (5 sp.), is confined to Madagascar.

Sub-family Lemurinæ, contains five genera, viz.:—Lemur, (15 sp.); Hapalemur (2 sp.); Microcebus (4 sp.); Chirogaleus (5 sp.); and Lepilemur (2 sp.);—all confined to Madagascar.

Sub-family Nycticebinæ, contains four genera, viz.:—Nycticebus (3 sp.)—small, short-tailed, nocturnal animals, called slow-lemurs,—range from East Bengal to South China, and to Borneo and Java; Loris (1 sp.)—a very small, tail-less, nocturnal lemur, which inhabits Madras, Malabar, and Ceylon; Perodicticus (1 sp.)—the potto—a small lemur with almost rudimentary forefinger, found at Sierra Leone (Plate V., vol. i., p. 264); Arctocebus (1 sp.)—the angwantibo,—another extraordinary form in which the forefinger is quite absent and the first toe armed with a long claw,—inhabits Old Calabar.

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Sub-family Galaginæ, contains only the genus Galago (14 sp.), which is confined to the African continent, ranging from Senegal and Fernando Po to Zanzibar and Natal.

Family 7.—TARSIIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 4 — — — —

The curious Tarsius spectrum, which constitutes this family, inhabits Sumatra, Banca, and Borneo, and is also found in some parts of Celebes, which would bring it into the Australian region; but this island is altogether so anomalous that we can only consider its productions to have somewhat more affinity with the Australian than the Oriental region, but hardly to belong to either. The Tarsier is a small, long-tailed, nocturnal animal, of curious structure and appearance; and it forms the only link of connection with the next family, which it resembles in the extraordinary development of the toes, one of which is much larger and more slender than the rest. (Plate VIII., vol. i. p. 337.)

Family 8.—CHIROMYIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 4 — — — — — — — —

The Aye-aye, (Chiromys), the sole representative of this family, is confined to the island of Madagascar. It was for a long time very imperfectly known, and was supposed to belong to the Rodentia; but it has now been ascertained to be an exceedingly specialized form of the Lemuroid type, and must be considered to be one of the most extraordinary of the mammalia now inhabiting the globe. (Plate VI., vol. i., p. 278.)

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Fossil Quadrumana.

Not much progress has yet been made in tracing back the various forms of Apes and Monkeys to their earliest appearance on the globe; but there have been some interesting recent discoveries, which lead us to hope that the field is not yet exhausted. The following is a summary of what is known as to the early forms of each family:—

Simiidæ.—Two or three species of this family have been found in the Upper Miocene deposits of France and Switzerland. Pliopithecus, of which a species has been found at each locality, was allied to the gibbons (Hylobates), and perhaps to Semnopithecus. A more remarkable form, named Dryopithecus, as large as a man, and having peculiarities of structure which are thought by Gervais and Lartet to indicate a nearer approach to the human form than any existing Ape, has been found in strata of the same age in France.

Semnopithecidæ.—Species of Semnopithecus have been found in the Upper Miocene of Greece, and others in the Siwalik Hills of N. W. India, also of Upper Miocene age. An allied form also occurs in the Miocene of Wurtemburg. Mesopithecus from Greece is somewhat intermediate between Semnopithecus and Macacus.

Remains supposed to be of Semnopithecus, have also occurred in the Pliocene of Montpellier.

Cynopithecidæ.Macacus has occurred in Pliocene deposits at Grays, Essex; and also in the South of France along with Cercopithecus.

Cebidæ.—In the caves of Brazil remains of the genera Cebus, Mycetes, Callithrix, and Hapale, have been found; as well as an extinct form of larger size—Protopithecus.

Lemuroidea.—A true lemur has recently been discovered in the Eocene of France; and it is supposed to be most nearly allied to the peculiar West African genera, Perodicticus and Arctocebus.

Cænopithecus, from the Swiss Jura, is supposed to have affinities both for the Lemuridæ and the American Cebidæ.

In the lower Eocene of North America remains have been {179}discovered, which are believed to belong to this sub-order: but they form two distinct families,—Lemuravidæ and Limnotheridæ. Other remains from the Miocene are believed to be intermediate between these and the Cebidæ,—a most interesting and suggestive affinity, if well founded. For the genera of these American Lemuroidea, see vol. i., p. 133.

General Remarks on the Distribution of Primates.

The most striking fact presented by this order, from our present point of view, is the strict limitation of well-marked families to definite areas. The Cebidæ and Hapalidæ would alone serve to mark out tropical America as the nucleus of one of the great zoological divisions of the earth. In the Eastern Hemisphere, the corresponding fact is the entire absence of the order from the Australian region, with the exception of one or two outlying forms, which have evidently transgressed the normal limits of their group. The separation of the Ethiopian and Oriental regions is, in this order, mainly indicated by the distribution of the genera, no one of which is common to the two regions. The two highest families, the Simiidæ and the Semnopithecidæ, are pretty equally distributed about two equatorial foci, one situated in West Africa, the other in the Malay archipelago,—in Borneo or the Peninsula of Malacca;—while the third family, Cynopithecidæ, ranges over the whole of both regions, and somewhat overpasses their limits. The Lemuroid group, on the other hand, offers us one of the most singular phenomena in geographical distribution. It consists of three families, the species of which are grouped into six sub-families and 13 genera. One of these families and two of the sub-families, comprising 7 genera, and no less than 30 out of the total of 50 species, are confined to the one island of Madagascar. Of the remainder, 3 genera, comprising 15 species, are spread over tropical Africa; while three other genera with 5 species, inhabit certain restricted portions of India and the Malay islands. These curious facts point unmistakably to the former existence of a large tract of land in what is now the Indian Ocean, connecting Madagascar on the one hand with Ceylon, and with the Malay countries on the {180}other. About this same time (but perhaps not contemporaneously) Madagascar must have been connected with some portion of Southern Africa, and the whole of the country would possess no other Primates but Lemuroidea. After the Madagascar territory (very much larger than the existing island) had been separated, a connection appears to have been long maintained (probably by a northerly route) between the more equatorial portions of Asia and Africa; till those higher forms had become developed, which were afterwards differentiated into Simia, Presbytes, and Cynopithecus, on the one hand, and into Troglodytes, Colobus, and Cynocephalus, on the other. In accordance with the principle of competition so well expounded by Mr. Darwin, we can understand how, in the vast Asiatic and African area north of the Equator, with a great variety of physical conditions and the influence of a host of competing forms of life, higher types were developed than in the less extensive and long-isolated countries south of the Equator. In Madagascar, where these less complex conditions prevailed in a considerable land-area, the lowly organized Lemuroids have diverged into many specialized forms of their own peculiar type; while on the continents they have, to a great extent, become exterminated, or have maintained their existence in a few cases, in islands or in mountain ranges. In Africa the nocturnal and arboreal Galagos are adapted to a special mode of life, in which they probably have few competitors.

How and when the ancestors of the Cebidæ and Hapalidæ entered the South American continent, it is less easy to conceive. The only rays of light we yet have on the subject are, the supposed affinities of the fossil Cænopithecus of the Swiss, and the Lemuravidæ of the North American Eocene, with both Cebidæ and Lemuroids, and the fact that in Miocene or Eocene times a mild climate prevailed up to the Arctic circle. The discovery of an undoubted Lemuroid in the Eocene of Europe, indicates that the great Northern Continent was probably the birthplace of this low type of mammal, and the source whence Africa and Southern Asia were peopled with them, as it was, at a later period, with the higher forms of monkeys and apes.

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Order II.—CHIROPTERA.

Family 9.—PTEROPIDÆ. (9 Genera, 65 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — — — 4 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3 —

The Pteropidæ, or fruit-eating Bats, sometimes called flying-foxes, are pretty evenly distributed over the tropical regions of the Old World and Australia. They range over all Africa and the whole of the Oriental Region, and northward, to Amoy in China and to the South of Japan. They are also found in the more fertile parts of Australia and Tasmania, and in the Pacific Islands as far east as the Marianne and Samoa Islands; but not in the Sandwich Islands or New Zealand.

The genera of bats are exceedingly numerous, but they are in a very unsettled state, and the synonymy is exceedingly confused. The details of their distribution cannot therefore be usefully entered into here. The Pteropidæ differ so much from all other bats, that they are considered to form a distinct suborder of Chiroptera, and by some naturalists even a distinct order of Mammalia.

No fossil Pteropidæ have been discovered.

Family 10.—PHYLLOSTOMIDÆ. (31 Genera, 60 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
1. 2. 3. 4 1 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

The Phyllostomidæ, or simple leaf-nosed Bats, are confined to the Neotropical region, from Mexico and the Antilles to the {182}southern limits of the forest region east of the Andes, and to about lat. 33° S. in Chili. None are found in the Nearctic region, with the exception of one species in California (Macrotus Californicus), closely allied to Mexican and West Indian forms. The celebrated blood-sucking vampyre bats of South America belong to this group. Two genera, Desmodus and Diphylla, form Dr. Peters' family Desmodidæ. Mr. Dobson, in his recently published arrangement, divides the family into five groups:—Mormopes, Vampyri, Glossophagæ, Stenodermata, and Desmodontes.

Numerous remains of extinct species of this family have been found in the bone-caves of Brazil.

Family 11.—RHINOLOPHIDÆ. (7 Genera, 70 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. — —

The Rhinolophidæ, or Horse-shoe Bats (so-called from a curiously-shaped membranous appendance to the nose), range over all the Ethiopian and Oriental regions, the southern part of the Palæarctic region, Australia and Tasmania. They are most abundant and varied in the Oriental region, where twelve genera are found; while only five inhabit the Australian and Ethiopian regions respectively. Europe has only one genus and four species, mostly found in the southern parts, and none going further north than the latitude of England, where two species occur. Two others are found in Japan, at the opposite extremity of the Palæarctic region.

The genera Nycteris and Megaderma, which range over the Ethiopian and Oriental regions to the Moluccas, are considered by Dr. Peters to form a distinct family, Megadermidæ; and Mr. Dobson in his recent arrangement (published after our first {183}volume was printed) adopts the same family under the name of Nycteridæ. The curious Indian genus Rhinopoma, which, following Dr. J. E. Gray, we have classed in this family, is considered by Mr. Dobson to belong to the Noctilionidæ.

Fossil Rhinolophidæ.—Remains of a species of Rhinolophus still living in England, have been found in Kent's Cavern, near Torquay.

Family 12.—VESPERTILIONIDÆ (18 Genera, 200 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4

The small bats constituting the family Vespertilionidæ, have no nose-membrane, but an internal earlet or tragus, and often very large ears. They range over almost the whole globe, being apparently only limited by the necessity of procuring insect food. In America they are found as far north as Hudson's Bay and the Columbia river; and in Europe they approach, if they do not pass the Arctic circle. Such remote islands as the Azores, Bermudas, Fiji Islands, Sandwich Islands, and New Zealand, all possess species of this group of bats, some of which probably inhabit every island in warm or temperate parts of the globe.

The genus Taphozous, which, in our Tables of Distribution in vol. i. we have included in this family, is placed by Mr. Dobson in his family Emballonuridæ, which is equivalent to our next family, Noctilionidæ.

Fossil Vespertilionidæ.—Several living European bats of this family—Scotophilus murinus, Plecotus auritus, Vespertilio noctula, and V. pipestrellus—have been found fossil in bone-caves in various parts of Europe.

Extinct species of Vespertilio have occurred in the Lower Miocene at Mayence, in the Upper Miocene of the South of France, and in the Upper Eocene of the Paris basin.

{184}

Family 13.—NOCTILIONIDÆ. (14 Genera, 50 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
1. 2. 3. 4 1 — — — — 2 — 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 — — — 4

The Noctilionidæ, or short-headed Bats, are found in every region, but are very unequally distributed. Their head-quarters is the Neotropical region, where most of the genera occur, and where they range from Mexico to Buenos Ayres and Chili, while in North America there is only one species in California. They are unknown in Australia; but one species occurs in New Zealand, and another in Norfolk Island. Several species of Dysopes (or Molossus) inhabit the Oriental region; one or two species being widely distributed over the continent, while two others inhabit the Indo-Malayan Islands. A species of this same genus occurs in South Africa, and another in Madagascar and in the Island of Bourbon; while one inhabits Southern Europe and North Africa, and another is found at Amoy in China. It will be seen therefore, that these are really South American bats, which have a few allies widely scattered over the various regions of the globe. Their affinities are, according to Mr. Tomes, with the Phyllostomidæ, a purely South American family. The species which forms the connecting link is the Mystacina tuberculata, a New Zealand bat, which may, with almost equal propriety be placed in either family, and which affords an interesting illustration of the many points of resemblance between the Australian and Neotropical regions.

Dr. Peters has separated this family into three,—Mormopidæ, which is wholly Neotropical, and is especially abundant in the West Indian Islands; Molossidæ, chiefly consisting of the genus Molossus; and Noctilionidæ, comprising the remainder of the family, and wholly Neotropical. Mr. Dobson, however, classes the Mormopes with the Phyllostomidæ, and reduces the {185}Molossi to the rank of a sub-family. In our first volume we have classed Rhinopoma with the Rhinolophidæ, and Taphozous with the Vespertilionidæ; but according to Mr. Dobson both these genera belong to the present family.

Remarks on the Distribution of the Order Chiroptera.

Although the bats, from their great powers of flight, are not amenable to the limitations which determine the distribution of other terrestrial mammals, yet certain great facts of distribution come out in a very striking manner. The speciality of the Neotropical region is well shown, not only by its exclusive possession of one large family (Phyllostomidæ), but almost equally so by the total absence of two others (Pteropidæ and Rhinolophidæ). The Nearctic region is also unusually well marked, by the total absence of a family (Rhinolophidæ) which is tolerably well represented in the Palæarctic. The Pteropidæ well characterize the tropical regions of the Old World and Australia; while the Vespertilionidæ are more characteristic of the Palæarctic and Nearctic regions, which together possess about 60 species of this family.

The bats are a very difficult study, and it is quite uncertain how many distinct species are really known. Schinz, in his Synopsis Mammalium (1844) describes 330, while the list given by Mr. Andrew Murray in his Geographical Distribution of Mammalia (1866), contains 400 species. A small number of new species have been since described, but others have been sunk as synonyms, so that we can perhaps hardly obtain a nearer approximation to the truth than the last number. In Europe there are 35 species, and only 17 in North America.

Fossil Chiroptera.—The fossil remains of bats that have yet been discovered, being chiefly allied to forms still existing in the same countries, throw no light on the origin or affinities of this remarkable and isolated order of Mammalia; but as species very similar to those now living were in existence so far back as Miocene or even Eocene times, we may be sure the group is one of immense antiquity, and that there has been ample time for the amount of variation and extinction required to bring about {186}the limitation of types, and the peculiarities of distribution we now find to exist.

Order III.—INSECTIVORA.

Family 14.—GALEOPITHECIDÆ. (1 Genus, 2 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 4 — — — —

The singular and isolated genus Galeopithecus, or flying lemur, has been usually placed among the Lemuroidea, but it is now considered to come best at the head of the Insectivora. Its food however, seems to be purely vegetable, and the very small, blind, and naked young, closely attached to the wrinkled skin of the mother's breast, perhaps indicates some affinity with the Marsupials. This animal seems, in fact, to be a lateral offshoot of some low form, which has survived during the process of development of the Insectivora, the Lemuroidea, and the Marsupials, from an ancestral type. Only two species are known, one found in Malacca, Sumatra, and Borneo, but not in Java; the other in the Philippine islands (Plate VIII. vol. i. p. 337).

Family 15.—MACROSCELIDIDÆ. (3 Genera, 10 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — 2 — — 1 — 3 — — — — — — — — —

The Macroscelides, or elephant shrews, are extraordinary little animals, with trunk-like snout and kangaroo-like hind-legs. They are almost confined to South Africa, whence they extend up the east coast as far as the Zambezi and Mozambique. A {187}single outlying species of Macroscelides inhabits Barbary and Algeria; while the two genera Petrodromus, and Rhynchocyon, each represented by a single species, have only been found at Mozambique.

Family 16.—TUPAIIDÆ. (3 Genera, 10 species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 2. 3. 4 — — — —

The Tupaiidæ are squirrel-like shrews, having bushy tails, and often climbing up trees, but also feeding on the ground and among low bushes. The typical Tupaia (7 species), are called ground squirrels by the Malays. They are most abundant in the Malay islands and Indo-Chinese countries, but one species is found in the Khasia Mountains, and one in the Eastern Ghauts near Madras. The small shorter-tailed Hylomys (2 species) is found from Tenasserim to Java and Borneo; while the elegant little Ptilocerus (1 species) with its long pencilled tail, is confined to Borneo; (Plate VIII. vol. i. p. 337). The family is therefore especially Malayan, with outlying species in northern and continental India.

Extinct Species.Oxygomphus, found in the Tertiary deposits of Germany, is believed to belong to this family; as is Omomys, from the Pliocene of the United States.

Family 17.—ERINACEIDÆ. (2 Genera, 15 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — 1. 2. 3. 4 — — 3 — 1. 2. — 4 — — — —

The Hedgehogs, comprised in the genus Erinaceus (14 species), are widely distributed over the Palæarctic, and a part of the {188}Oriental regions; but they only occur in the Ethiopian region in South Africa and in the Deserts of the north, which more properly belong to the Palæarctic region. They are absent from the Malayan, and also from the Indo-Chinese sub-regions; except that they extend from the north of China to Amoy and Formosa and into the temperate highlands of the Western Himalayas. The curious Gymnura (1 species) is found in Borneo, Sumatra, and the Malay peninsula.

Extinct Species.—The common hedgehog has been found fossil in several Post-tertiary deposits, while extinct species occur in the lower Miocene of Auvergne and in some other parts of Europe. Many of these remains are classed in different genera from the living species;—(Amphechinus, Tetracus, Galerix.)

Family 18.—CENTETIDÆ. (6 Genera, 10 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — 4 — — — — — — — — — — — 4 — — — — — — — —

The Centetidæ are small animals, many of them having a spiny covering, whence the species of Centetes have been called Madagascar hedgehogs. The genera Centetes (2 species), Hemicentetes (1 species), Ericulus (1 species), Echinops (3 species), and the recently described Oryzorictes (1 species), are all exclusively inhabitants of Madagascar, and are almost or quite tail-less. The remaining genus, Solenodon, is a more slender and active animal, with a long, rat-like tail, shrew-like head, and coarse fur; and the two known species are among the very few indigenous mammals of the West Indian islands, one being found in Cuba (Plate XVII., vol. ii., p. 67), the other in Hayti. Although presenting many points of difference in detail, the essential characters of this curious animal are, according to Professors Peters and Mivart, identical with the rest of the Centetidæ. We have thus a most remarkable and well-established case of discontinuous distribution, two portions of the same family {189}being now separated from each other by an extensive continent, as well as by a deep ocean.

Extinct Species.—Remains found in the Lower Miocene of the South of France are believed to belong to the genus Echinops, or one closely allied to it.

Family 19.—POTAMOGALIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — — — — — 2 — — — — — — — — — —

The genus Potamogale was founded on a curious, small, otter-like animal from West Africa, first found by M. Du Chaillu at the Gaboon, and afterwards by the Portuguese at Angola. Its affinities are with several groups of Insectivora, but it is sufficiently peculiar to require the establishment of a distinct family for its reception. (Plate V., vol. i., p. 264.)

Family 20.—CHRYSOCHLORIDÆ. (2 Genera, 3 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — 3.— — — — — — — — —

The Chrysochloridæ, or golden moles, of the Cape of Good Hope have been separated by Professor Mivart into two genera, Chrysochloris and Chalcochloris. They are remarkable mole-like animals, having beautiful silky fur, with a metallic lustre and changeable golden tints. They are peculiar to the Cape district, but one species extends as far north as the Mozambique territory. Their dentition is altogether peculiar, so as to completely separate them from the true moles.

{190}

Family 21.—TALPIDÆ. (8 Genera, 19 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 — — — — — — 3 — — — — —

The Moles comprise many extraordinary forms of small mammalia especially characteristic of the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, only sending out a few species of Talpa along the Himalayas as far as Assam, and even to Tenasserim, if there is no mistake about this locality; while one species is found in Formosa, the northern part of which is almost as much Palæarctic as Oriental. The genus Talpa (7 species), spreads over the whole Palæarctic region from Great Britain to Japan; Scaptochirus (1 species) is a recent discovery in North China; Condylura (1 species), the star-nosed mole, inhabits Eastern North America from Nova Scotia to Pennsylvania; Scapanus (2 species) ranges across from New York to St. Francisco; Scalops (3 species), the shrew-moles, range from Mexico to the great lakes on the east side of America, but on the west only to the north of Oregon. An allied genus, Myogale (2 species), has a curious discontinuous distribution in Europe, one species being found in South-East Russia, the other in the Pyrenees (Plate II., vol. i., p. 218). Another allied genus, Nectogale (1 species), has recently been described by Professor Milne-Edwards from Thibet. Urotrichus is a shrew-like mole which inhabits Japan, and a second species has been discovered in the mountains of British Columbia; an allied form, Uropsilus, inhabits East Thibet. Anurosorex and Scaptonyx, are new genera from North China.

Extinct Species.—The common mole has been found fossil in bone-caves and diluvial deposits, and several extinct species of mole-like animals occur in the Miocene deposits of the South of France and of Germany. These have been described under the generic names Dimylus, Geotrypus, Hyporissus, Galeospalax; while Palæospalax has been found in the Pliocene forest-beds of Norfolk {191}and Ostend. Species of Myogale also occur from the Miocene downwards.

Family 22.—SORICIDÆ. (1 Genus, 11 Sub-genera, 65 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — 3 — 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 — — — —

The Shrews have a wide distribution, being found throughout every region except the Australian and Neotropical; although, as a species is found in Timor and in some of the Moluccas, they just enter this part of the former region, while one found in Guatemala brings them into the latter. A number of species have recently been described from India and the Malay Islands, so that the Oriental region is now the richest in shrews, having 28 species; the Nearctic comes next with 24; while the Ethiopian has 11, and the Palæarctic 10 species. The sub-genera are Crossopus, Amphisorex, Neosorex, Crocidura, Diplomesodon, Pinulia, Pachyura, Blarina, Feroculus, Anausorex.

Extinct Species.—Several species of Sorex have been found fossil in the Miocene of the South of France, as well as the extinct genera Mysarachne and Plesiosorex; and some existing species have occurred in Bone Caves and Diluvial deposits.

General Remarks on the Distribution of the Insectivora.

The most prominent features in the distribution of the Insectivora are,—their complete absence from South America and Australia; the presence of Solenodon in two of the West Indian islands while the five allied genera are found only in Madagascar; and the absence of hedgehogs from North America. If we consider that there are only 135 known species of the order, 65 of which belong to the one genus Sorex; while the remaining 26 genera contain only 70 species, which have to be classed in 8 distinct families, and present such divergent and highly specialized forms as Galeopithecus, Erinaceus, Solenodon, and Condylura, it becomes evident that we have here the detached fragments of a much more {192}extensive group of animals, now almost extinct. Many of the forms continue to exist only in islands, removed from the severe competition of a varied mammalian population, as in Madagascar and the Antilles; while others appear to have escaped extermination either by their peculiar habits—as the various forms of Moles; by special protection—as in the Hedgehogs; or by a resemblance in form, coloration, and habits to dominant groups in their own district—as the Tupaias of Malay which resemble squirrels, and the Elephant-shrews of Africa which resemble the jerboas. The numerous cases of isolated and discontinuous distribution among the Insectivora, offer no difficulty from this point of view; since they are the necessary results of an extensive and widely-spread group of animals slowly becoming extinct, and continuing to exist only where special conditions have enabled them to maintain themselves in the struggle with more highly organized forms.

The fossil Insectivora do not throw much light on the early history of the order, since even as far back as the Miocene period they consist almost wholly of forms which can be referred to existing families. In North America they go back to the Eocene period, if certain doubtful remains have been rightly placed. The occurrence of fossil Centetidæ in Europe, supports the view we have maintained in preceding chapters, that the existing distribution of this family between Madagascar and the Antilles, proves no direct connection between those islands, but only shows us that the family once had an extensive range.

Order IV—CARNIVORA.

Family 23.—FELIDÆ. (3 Genera, 14 Sub-genera, 66 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
1. 2. 3 — 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. — 1. 2. 3. 4 — — — —

The Cats are very widely distributed over the earth—with the exception of the Australian region and the island sub-region {193}of Madagascar and the Antilles—universally; ranging from the torrid zone to the Arctic regions and the Straits of Magellan. They are so uniform in their organization that many naturalists group them all under one genus, Felis; but it is now more usual to class at least the lynxes as a separate genus, while the hunting leopard, or cheetah, forms another. Dr. J. E. Gray divides these again, and makes 17 generic groups; but as this subdivision is not generally adopted, and does not bring out any special features of geographical distribution, I shall not further notice it.

The genus Felis (56 species) has the same general range as the whole family, except that it does not go so far north; the Amoor river in Eastern Asia, and 55° N. Lat. in America, marking its limits. Lyncus (10 species) is a more northern group, ranging to the polar regions in Europe and Asia, and to Lat. 66° N. in America, but not going further south than Northern Mexico and the European shores of the Mediterranean, except the caracal, which may be another genus, and which extends to Central India, Persia, North Africa and even the Cape of Good Hope. The lynxes are thus almost wholly peculiar to the Nearctic and Palæarctic regions. Cynælurus (1 species) the hunting leopard, ranges from Southern and Western India through Persia, Syria, Northern and Central Africa, to the Cape of Good Hope.

Extinct Felidæ.—More than twenty extinct species of true Felidæ have been described, ranging in time from the epoch of prehistoric man back to the Miocene or even the Eocene period. They occur in the south of England, in Central and South Europe, in North-West India, in Nebraska in North America, and in the caves of Brazil. Most of them are referred to the genus Felis, and closely resemble the existing lions, tigers, and other large cats. Another group however forms the genus Machairodus, a highly specialized form with serrated teeth. Five species have been described from Europe, Northern India, and both North and South America; and it is remarkable that they exhibit at least as wide a range, both in space and time, as the more numerous species referred to Felis. One of them undoubtedly coexisted {194}with man in England, while another, as well as the allied Dinictis, has been found in the Mauvaises Terres of Nebraska, associated with Anchitherium and other extinct and equally remarkable forms, which are certainly Miocene if not, as some geologists think, belonging to the Eocene period. These facts clearly indicate that we have as yet made little approach to discovering the epoch when Felidæ originated, since the oldest forms yet discovered are typical and highly specialized representatives of a group which is itself the most specialized of the Carnivora. Another genus, Pseudælurus, is common to the Miocene deposits of Europe and North America.

Family 24.—CRYPTOPROCTIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 4 — — — — — — — —

The Cryptoprocta ferox, a small and graceful cat-like animal, peculiar to Madagascar, was formerly classed among the Viverridæ, but is now considered by Professor Flower to constitute a distinct family between the Cats and the Civets.

Family 25.—VIVERRIDÆ. (8-33 Genera, 100 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — 2 — — 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 1 — — —

The Viverridæ comprise a number of small and moderate-sized carnivorous animals, popularly known as civets, genets, and ichneumons, highly characteristic of the Ethiopian and Oriental regions, several of the genera being common to both. A species of Genetta, and one of Herpestes, inhabit South Europe; while Viverra extends to the Moluccas, but is doubtfully indigenous. The extreme geographical limits of the family are marked by {195}Genetta in France and Spain, Viverra in Shanghae and Batchian Island, and Herpestes in Java and the Cape of Good Hope.

The following are the genera with their distribution as given by Dr. J. E. Gray in his latest British Museum Catalogue:

Sub-family Viverrinæ.—Viverra (3 species), North and tropical Africa, the whole Oriental region to the Moluccas; Viverricula (1 species) India to Java; Genetta (5 species), South Europe, Palestine, Arabia, and all Africa; Fossa (1 species), Madagascar; Linsang (2 species), Malacca to Java; Poiana (1 species), West Africa; Galidia (3 species), Madagascar; Hemigalea (1 species), Malacca and Borneo; Arctictis (1 species) Nepal to Sumatra and Java; Nandinia (1 species), West Africa; Paradoxurus (9 species), the whole Oriental region; Paguma (3 species), Nepal to China, Sumatra, and Borneo; Arctogale (1 species), Tenasserim to Java.

Sub-family Herpestinæ.—Cynogale (1 species), Borneo; Galidictis (2 species), Madagascar; Herpestes (22 species), South Palæarctic, Ethiopian, and Oriental regions; Athylax (3 species), Tropical and South Africa; Galogale (13 species), all Africa, North India, to Cambodja; Galerella (1 species), East Africa; Calictis (1 species), Ceylon (?); Ariella (1 species), South Africa; Ichneumia (4 species), Central, East, and South Africa; Bdeogale (3 species), West and East Africa; Urva (1 species), Himalayas to Aracan; Tæniogale (1 species), Central India; Onychogale (1 species), Ceylon; Helogale (2 species) East and South Africa; Cynictis (3 species), South Africa.

Sub-family Rhinogalidæ.—Rhinogale (1 species), East Africa; Mungos (3 species), all Africa; Crossarchus (1 species), Tropical Africa; Eupleres (1 species), Madagascar; Suricata (1 species), South Africa.

Fossil Viverridæ.—Several species of Viverra and Genetta have been found in the Upper Miocene of France, and many extinct genera have also been discovered. The most remarkable of these was Ictitherium, from the Upper Miocene of Greece, which has also been found in Hungary, Bessarabia, and France. Some of the species were larger than any living forms of Viverridæ, and approached the hyænas. Other extinct genera are Thalassictis {196}and Soricictis from the Upper Miocene, the former as large as a panther; Tylodon, of small size, from the Upper Eocene; and Palæonyctis from the Lower Eocene, also small and showing a very great antiquity for this family, if really belonging to it.

Family 26.—PROTELIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — 3 — — — — — — — — —

The curious Proteles or Aard-wolf, a highly-modified form of hyæna, approaching the ichneumons, and feeding on white ants and carrion, is peculiar to South Africa.

Family 27.—HYÆNIDÆ. (1 Genus, 3 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — 2 — — 1. 2. 3 — 1 — — — — — — —

The Hyænas are characteristically Ethiopian, to which region two of the species are confined. The third, Hyæna striata, ranges over all the open country of India to the foot of the Himalayas, and through Persia, Asia Minor, and North Africa. Its fossil remains have been found in France.

Extinct Species.—The cave hyæna (H. spelæa) occurs abundantly in the caverns of this country and of Central Europe, and is supposed to be most nearly allied to the H. crocuta of South Africa. Another species is found in some parts of France. The earliest known true hyænas occur in the Pliocene formation in France, in the Red Crag (Older Pliocene) of England, and in the Upper Miocene of the Siwalik hills. In the Miocene period in Europe, quite distinct genera are found, such as Hyænictis and Lycæna from the Upper Miocene of Greece; {197}Ictitherium, supposed to be intermediate between Viverridæ and Hyænidæ; and Thalassictis, uniting the weasels and hyænas.

Family 28.—CANIDÆ. (3 Genera, 17 Sub-Genera, 54 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
1. 2. 3 — 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3 — 1. 2. 3. 4 — 2? — —

The Canidæ, comprising the animals commonly known as dogs, wolves, and foxes, have an almost universal range over the earth, being only absent from the island sub-regions of Madagascar, the Antilles, Austro-Malaya, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands. With the exception of two remarkable forms—the hyæna dog (Lycaon picta), and the great-eared fox (Megalotis Lalandei), both from South Africa—all the species are usually placed in the genus Canis, the distribution of which will be the same as that of the family. Dr. J. E. Gray, in his arrangement of the family (Proc. Zool. Soc., 1868), subdivides it into fifteen genera, the names and general distribution of which are as follows:—

Icticyon (1 species), Brazil; Cuon (4 species), Siberia to Java; Lupus (5 species), North America, Europe, India to Ceylon; Dieba (1 species), North and West Africa; Simenia (1 species), Abyssinia; Chrysocyon (2 species), North and South America; Canis (4 species), India, Australia (indigenous?) Lycalopex (2 species), South America; Pseudalopex (5 species), South America and Falkland Islands; Thous (2 species), South America to Chili; Vulpes (17 species), all the great continents, except South America and Australia; Fennecus (4 species), all Africa; Leucocyon (1 species), Arctic regions; Urocyon (2 species), North America; Nyctereutes (1 species), Japan, Amoorland to Canton (Plate III., vol. i. p. 226). These are all sub-genera according to Professor Carus, except Icticyon. The same author makes Lycaon a sub-genus, while Dr. Gray makes it a sub-family!

Extinct Species.—The dog, wolf, and fox, are found fossil in {198}caverns in many parts of Europe, and several extinct species have been found in Tertiary deposits in Europe, North India, and South America. Two species have been found so far back as the Eocene of France, but the fragments discovered are not sufficient to determine the characters with any certainty. In North America, several species of Canis occur in the Pliocene of Nebraska and La Plata. The genus Galecynus, of the Pliocene of Œninghen, and Palæocyon, of the Brazilian caves, are supposed to belong to the Canidæ. Amphicyon abounded in the Miocene period, both in Europe and North America; and some of the species were as large as a tiger. Other extinct genera are, Cynodictis, Cyotherium, and Galethylax, from the Eocene of France; Pseudocyon, Simocyon, and Hemicyon, from the Miocene; but all these show transition characters to Viverridæ or Ursidæ, and do not perhaps belong to the present family.

Family 29.—MUSTELIDÆ. (21-28 Genera, 92 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
1. 2. 3 — 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3 — 1. 2. 3. 4 — — — —

The Mustelidæ constitute one of those groups which range over the whole of the great continental areas. They may be divided into three sub-families—one, the Mustelinæ, containing the weasels, gluttons, and allied forms; a second, the Lutrinæ, containing the otters; and a third, often considered a distinct family, the Melininæ, containing the badgers, ratels, skunks, and their allies.

In the first group (Mustelinæ) the genera Martes and Putorius (13 species), range over all the Palæarctic region, and a considerable part of the Oriental, extending through India to Ceylon, and to Java and Borneo. Two species of Martes (= Mustela of Baird) occur in the United States. The weasels, forming the genus Mustela (20 species), have a still wider range, extending into tropical Africa and the Cordilleras of Peru, but {199}not going south of the Himalayas in India. The North American species are placed in the genus Putorius by Professor Baird. An allied genus, Gymnopus (4 species), is confined to the third and fourth Oriental sub-regions. Gulo (1 species), the glutton, is an arctic animal keeping to the cold regions of Europe and Asia, and coming as far south as the great lakes in North America. Galictis (2 species), the grisons, are confined to the Neotropical region.

The Otters (Lutrinæ) range over the whole area occupied by the family. They have been subdivided into a number of groups, such as Barangia (1 species), found only in Sumatra; Lontra, containing 3 South American species; Lutra (7 species), ranging over the whole of the Palæarctic and Oriental regions; Nutria (1 species), a sea-otter confined to the west coast of America from California to Chiloe; Lutronectes (1 species), from Japan only; Aonyx (5 species), found in West and South Africa, and the third and fourth Oriental sub-regions. Hydrogale (1 species), confined to South Africa; Latax (2 species), Florida and California to Canada and British Columbia; Pteronura (1 species), Brazil and Surinam; and Enhydris (1 species), the peculiar sea-otter of California, Kamschatka and Japan. The last two are the only groups of otters, besides Lutra, admitted by Professor Carus as genera.

The Badgers and allies (Melininæ) have also a wide range, but with one exception are absent from South America. They comprise the following genera: Arctonyx (1 species), Nepal to Aracan; Meles (4 species), North Europe to Japan, and China as far south as Hongkong (Plate I., vol. i., p. 195); Taxidea (2 species), Central and Western North America to 58° N. Lat.; Mydaus (1 species), mountains of Java and Sumatra; Melivora (3 species), Tropical and South Africa and India to foot of Himalayas; Mephitis (12 species), America from Canada and British Columbia to the Straits of Magellan (Plate XX., vol. ii., p. 136). Ictonyx (2 species), Tropical Africa to the Cape; Helictis (4 species), Nepal to Java, Formosa and Shanghai (Plate VII., vol. i. p. 331).

Fossil Mustelidæ.—Species of otter, weasel, badger, and glutton, occur in European bone caves and other Post-tertiary deposits; and in North America Galictis, now found only in the Neotropical region, and, with Mephitis, occurring in Brazilian caves.

{200}

Species of Mustela have been found in the Pliocene of France and of South America; and Lutra in the Pliocene of North America.

In the Miocene deposits of Europe several species of Mustela and Lutra have been found; with the extinct genera Taxodon, Potamotherium, and Palæomephitis; as well as Promephitis in Greece.

In the Upper Miocene of the Siwalik Hills species of Lutra and Mellivora are found, as well as the extinct genera Enhydrion and Ursitaxus.

The family appears to have been unknown in North America during the Miocene period.

Family 30.—PROCYONIDÆ. (4 Genera, 8 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— 2. 3 — 1. 2. 3. 4 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

The Procyonidæ are a small, but very curious and interesting family of bear-like quadrupeds, ranging from British Columbia and Canada on the north, to Paraguay and the limits of the tropical forests on the south.

The Racoons, forming the genus Procyon, are common all over North America; a well-marked variety or distinct species inhabiting the west coast, and another, most parts of South America. The genus Nasua, or the coatis (5 species?), extends from Mexico and Guatemala to Paraguay. The curious arboreal prehensile-tailed kinkagou (Cercoleptes candivolvus) is also found in Mexico and Guatemala, and in all the great forests of Peru and North Brazil. Bassaris (2 species), a small weasel-like animal with a banded tail, has been usually classed with the Viverridæ or Mustelidæ, but is now found to agree closely in all important points of internal structure with this family. It is found in California, Texas, and the highlands of Mexico, and belongs therefore as much to the Nearctic as to the Neotropical region. A second species has recently been described by Professor Peters {201}from Coban in Guatemala, in which, country it has also been observed by Mr. Salvin.

Fossil Procyonidæ.—A species of Nasua has been found in the bone caves of Brazil, and a Procyon in the Pliocene or Post-pliocene deposits of Illinois and Carolina.

Family 31.—ÆLURIDÆ. (2 Genera, 2 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — — — 4 — — — — — — 3 — — — — —

The Panda (Ælurus fulgens), of the forest regions of the Eastern Himalayas and East Thibet, a small cat-like bear, has peculiarities of organization which render it necessary to place it in a family by itself. (Plate VII. vol. i. p. 331). An allied genus, Æluropus, a remarkable animal of larger size and in colour nearly all white, has recently been described by Professor Milne-Edwards, from the mountains of East Thibet; so that the family may be said to inhabit the border lands of the Oriental and Palæarctic regions. These animals have their nearest allies in the coatis and bears.

Family 32.—URSIDÆ. (5 Genera, or Sub-genera, 15 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
1 — — — 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 — — — — 1. 2. 3. 4 — — — —

The Bears have a tolerably wide distribution, although they are entirely absent from the Australian and Ethiopian, and almost so from the Neotropical region, one species only being found in the Andes of Peru and Chili. They comprise the following groups, some of which are doubtfully ranked as genera.

Thalassarctos, the polar bear (1 species) inhabiting the Arctic regions; Ursus, the true bears (12 species), which range over {202}all the Nearctic and Palæarctic regions as far as the Atlas Mountains, the Indo-Chinese sub-region in the mountains, and to Hainan and Formosa; Helarctos, the Malay or sun-bear (1 species) confined to the Indo-Malayan sub-region; Melursus or Prochilus, the honey-bear (1 species), confined to the first and second Oriental sub-regions, over which it ranges from the Ganges to Ceylon; and Tremarctos, the spectacled bear—commonly known as Ursus ornatus—which is isolated in the Andes of Peru and Chili, and forms a distinct group.

Fossil Ursidæ.—Two bears (Ursus spelæus and U. priscus) closely allied to living species, abound in the Post-tertiary deposits of Europe; and others of the same age are found in North America, as well as an extinct genus, Arctodus.

Ursus arvernensis is found in the Pliocene formation of France, and the extinct genus Leptarchus in that of North America.

Several species of Amphicyon, which appears to be an ancestral form of this family, are found in the Miocene deposits of Europe and N. India; while Ursus also occurs in the Siwalik Hills and Nerbudda deposits.

Family 33.—OTARIIDÆ (4 Genera, 8 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
1 — — — 1 — — 4 — — — 4 — — 3 — — — — — — 2. — 4

The Otariidæ, or Eared Seals, comprehending the sea-bears and sea-lions, are confined to the temperate and cold shores of the North Pacific, and to similar climates in the Southern Hemisphere, where the larger proportion of the species are found. They are entirely absent from the North Atlantic shores. Mr. J. A. Allen, in his recent discussion of this family (Bull. Harvard Museum) divides them into the following genera:—

Otaria (1 species), Temperate South America, from Chili to La Plata; Callorhinus (1 species), Behring's Straits and Kamschatka; Arctocephalus (3 species), temperate regions of the {203}Southern Hemisphere; Zalophus (2 species), North Pacific, from California to Japan, and the shores of Australia and New Zealand; Eumetopias (1 species), Behring's Straits and California.

Fossil Otariidæ.—Remains supposed to belong to this family have been found in the Miocene of France.

Family 34.—TRICHECHIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — 4 1 — 3 — — — — — — — — — — — — —

The Morse, or Walrus (Trichechus rosmarus), which alone constitutes this family, is a characteristic animal of the North Polar regions, hardly passing south of the Arctic circle except on the east and west coasts of North America, where it sometimes reaches Lat. 60°. It is most abundant on the shores of Spitzbergen, but is not found on the northern shores of Asia between Long. 80° and 160° E., or on the north shores of America from 100° to 150° west.

Its remains have been found fossil in Europe as far south as France, and in America as far as Virginia; but the small fragments discovered may render the identification uncertain.

Family 35.—PHOCIDÆ. (13 Genera, 21 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
1 — — 4? 1 — — 4 1. 2. 3. 4 — — — — — — — — — 2. — 4

The earless or true Seals are pretty equally divided between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, frequenting almost exclusively the temperate and cold regions, except two species said to occur among the West Indian islands. The genus Phoca and its close allies, as well as Halichœrus and Pelagius, are {204}northern; while Stenorhynchus and Morunga, with their allies, are mostly southern. The genera admitted by Dr. Gray in his catalogue are as follows:—

Callocephalus (3 species), Greenland, North Sea, also the Caspian Sea, and Lakes Aral and Baikal; Pagomys (2 species), North Sea, North Pacific, and Japan; Pagophilus (2 species), North Pacific and North Atlantic; Halicyon (1 species), North West coast of America; Phoca (2 species), North Atlantic and North Pacific, Japan; Halichœrus (1 species), Greenland, North Sea, and Baltic; Pelagius (2 species), Madeira, Mediterranean, Black Sea; Stenorhynchus (1 species), Antarctic Ocean, Falkland Islands, New Zealand; Lobodon (1 species), Antarctic Ocean; Leptonyx (1 species), Antarctic Ocean, South Australia, East Patagonia; Ommatophoca (1 species), Antarctic Ocean; Morunga (2 species), California, Falkland Islands, Temperate regions of Southern Ocean; Cystophora (2 species), North Atlantic, Antilles.

Fossil Seals.—Remains of living species of seals have been found in Post-tertiary deposits in many parts of Europe and in Algeria, as well as in New Zealand. Pristiphoca occitana is a fossil seal from the Pliocene of Montpellier, while a species of Phoca is said to have been found in the Miocene deposits of the United States.

General Remarks on the Distribution of the Carnivora.

Terrestrial Carnivora.—For the purposes of geographical distribution, the terrestrial and aquatic Carnivora differ too widely to be considered in one view, their areas being limited by barriers of a very different nature. The terrestrial Carnivora form a very extensive and considerably varied group of animals, having, with the doubtful exception of Australia, a world-wide distribution. Yet the range of modification of form is not very great, and the occurrence of three families consisting of but one species each, is an indication of a great amount of recent extinction. One of the most marked features presented by this group is its comparative scarcity in the Neotropical region, only four families being represented there (not counting the Ursidæ, which has only one Andean species), and both genera and species are few in number. Even the Procyonidæ, which are especially South {205}American, have but two genera and six species in that vast area. We might therefore, from these considerations alone, conclude that Carnivora are a development of the northern hemisphere, and have been introduced into the Neotropical region at a comparatively recent epoch. The claim of the Nearctic region to be kept distinct from the Palæarctic (with which some writers have wished to unite it) is well maintained by its possession of at least six species of Mephitis, or skunk, a group having no close allies in any other region,—and the genera Procyon and Bassaris,—for the latter, ranging from the high lands of Guatemala and Mexico to Texas and California, may be considered a Nearctic rather than a Neotropical form. In the other families, the most marked feature is the total absence of Ursidæ from the Ethiopian region. The great mass of the generic forms of Carnivora, however, are found in the Oriental and Ethiopian regions, which possess all the extensive group of Viverridæ (except a few species in the fourth Palæarctic sub-region) and a large number of Felidæ and Mustelidæ.

Aquatic Carnivora.—The aquatic Carnivora present no very marked features of distribution, except their preference for cold and temperate rather than tropical seas. Their nearest approximation to the terrestrial group, is supposed to be that of the Otariidæ to the Ursidæ; but this must be very remote, and the occurrence of both seals and bears in the Miocene period, shows, that until we find some late Secondary or early Tertiary formation rich in Mammalian remains, we are not likely to get at the transition forms indicating the steps by which the aquatic Carnivora were developed. The most interesting special fact of distribution to be noticed, is the occurrence of seals, closely allied to those inhabiting the northern seas, in the Caspian, Lake Aral, and Lake Baikal. In the case of the two first-named localities there is little difficulty, as they are connected with the North Sea by extensive plains of low elevation, so that a depression of less than 500 feet would open a free communication with the ocean. At a comparatively recent epoch, a great gulf of the Arctic ocean must have occupied the valley of the Irtish, and extended to the Caspian Sea; till the elevation of the Kirghiz Steppes cut off the {206}communication with the ocean, leaving an inland sea with its seals. Lake Baikal, however, offers much greater difficulties; since it is not only a fresh-water lake, but is situated in a mountain district nearly 2,000 feet above the sea level, and entirely separated from the plains by several hundred miles of high land. It is true that such an amount of submergence and elevation is known to have occurred in Europe so recently as during the Glacial period; but Lake Baikal is so surrounded by mountains, that it must at that time have been filled with ice, if at anything like its present elevation. Its emergence from the sea must therefore have taken place since the cold epoch, and this would imply that an enormous extent of Northern Asia has been very recently under water.

We are accustomed to look on Seals as animals which exclusively inhabit salt water; but it is probably from other causes than its saltness that they usually keep to the open sea, and there seems no reason why fresh-water should not suit them quite as well, provided they find in it a sufficiency of food, facilities for rearing their young, and freedom from the attacks of enemies. As already remarked in vol. i. p. 218, Mr. Belt's ingenious hypothesis (founded on personal examination of the Siberian Steppes), that during the Glacial period the northern ice-cap dammed up the waters of the northward flowing Asiatic rivers, and thus formed a vast fresh-water lake which might have risen as high as Lake Baikal, seems to offer the best solution of this curious problem of distribution.

Range of Carnivora in Time.—Carnivora have been found in all the Tertiary deposits, and comprise a number of extinct genera and even families. Several genera of Canidæ occur in the Upper Eocene of Europe; but the most remarkable fact is, that even in the Lower Eocene are found two well-marked forms, Palæonyctis, one of the Viverridæ, and Arctocyon, forming a distinct family type of very generalized characters, but unmistakably a carnivore. This last has been found at La Fère, in the north-east of France, in a deposit which, according to M. Gaudry, is the very lowest of the Lower Eocene formation in Europe. Arctocyon is therefore one of the oldest, if not the very oldest, of the higher forms of mammal yet discovered.

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Order V.—CETACEA.

Family 36.—BALÆNIDÆ. (6 Genera, 14 Species.)

General Distribution.—Temperate and Cold Seas of both Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

This family comprises the whalebone or "right" whales, the best known species being the Greenland whale (Balæna mysticetus). Allied species are found in all parts of the southern seas, as far north as the Cape of Good Hope; while some of the northern species are found off the coast of Spain, and even enter the Mediterranean. As most of the species indicated are imperfectly known, and their classification by no means well settled, no useful purpose will be served by enumerating the genera or sub-genera.

Family 37.—BALÆNOPTERIDÆ. (9 Genera, 22 Species.)

General Distribution.—Cold and Temperate Seas of both Hemispheres.

This family comprises the finner whales and rorquals, and are characterised by possessing a dorsal fin and having the baleen or whalebone less developed. They are abundant in all northern seas, less so in the southern hemisphere, but they seem occasionally to enter the tropical seas. The best known genera are Megaptera (7 species); Physalus (4 species); and Balænoptera (2 species); all of which have species in the North Sea.

Family 38.—CATODONTIDÆ. (4 Genera, or Sub-Genera, 6 Species.)

General Distribution.—All the Tropical Oceans, extending north and south into Temperate waters.

This family, comprising the cachalots or sperm whales, and black-fish, are separated from the true whales by having teeth in the lower jaw and no whalebone. They are pre-eminently a tropical, as distinguished from the two preceding which are {208}arctic and antarctic families. The spermaceti whale (Catodon macrocephalus) abounds in the Pacific Ocean and in the deep Moluccan Sea, and also in the Indian Ocean and the Mozambique Channel. In the Atlantic it is scarce, although it occasionally comes north as far as our shores.

The genera of Catodontidæ as given by Dr. Gray are, Catodon (2 species?), Warm Eastern Oceans; Physeter (1 species), "the black fish," North Sea; Cogia (2 species), South Temperate Oceans; Euphysetes (1 species), Coast of Australia.

Family 39.—HYPEROODONTIDÆ. (9 Genera or Sub-Genera, 12 Species.)

General Distribution.—Atlantic, Mediterranean, Indian Ocean, and Southern Ocean.

This family consists of the beaked whales, which have no permanent teeth in the upper jaw. The genera, according to Dr. Gray, are, Hyperoodon (2 species) "bottle-nosed whales," North Sea; Lagenocetus (1 species), North Sea; Epiodon (2 species), North and South Atlantic; Petrorhynchus (2 species), Mediterranean Sea and Southern Ocean; Berardius (1 species), New Zealand; Xiphius (1 species) North Atlantic; Dolichodon (1 species), Cape of Good Hope; Neoziphius (1 species) Mediterranean; Dioplodon (1 species), Indian Ocean.

Family 40.—MONODONTIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

The "Narwhal" (Monodon monoceros) which constitutes this family, is placed by Dr. Gray along with the "white whales," in his family Belugidæ. It inhabits the North Sea.

Family 41.—DELPHINIDÆ. (24 Genera or Sub-Genera, 100 Species.)

General Distribution.—All Oceans, Seas, and Great Rivers of the globe.

This family, including the Porpoises, Dolphins, White Whales, &c., may be described as small, fish-shaped whales, having teeth {209}in both jaws. According to Dr. Gray they form seven families and 24 genera; according to Professor Carus, four sub-families and 8 genera, but as these groups appear to be established on quite different principles, and often differ widely from each other, I shall simply enumerate Dr. Gray's genera with their distribution as given in his British Museum Catalogue.

Platanista (2 species), long-snouted porpoises, inhabiting the Ganges and Indus; Inia (1 species), a somewhat similar form, inhabiting the upper waters of the Amazonian rivers: Steno (8 species), Indian Ocean, Cape of Good Hope, and West Pacific; Sotalia (1 species), Guiana; Delphinus (10 species), all the oceans; Clymenia (14 species), all the oceans; Delphinapterus (1 species), South Atlantic; Tursio (7 species), Atlantic and Indian Oceans; Eutropia (2 species), Chili, and Cape of Good Hope; Electra, (8 species), all the oceans; Leucopleurus (1 species), North Sea; Lagenorhynchus (1 species), North Sea; Pseudorca (2 species), North Sea, Tasmania; Orcaella (2 species), Ganges; Acanthodelphis (1 species), Brazil; Phocæna (2 species), North Sea; Neomeris (1 species), India; Grampus (3 species), North Sea, Mediterranean, Cape of Good Hope; Globiocephalus (14 species), all the oceans; Sphærocephalus (1 species), North Atlantic; Orca (9 species), Northern and Southern Oceans; Ophysia (1 species), North Pacific; Beluga (6 species), Arctic Seas, Australia; Pontoporia (1 species), Monte Video.

Fossil Cetacea.

Remains of Cetacea are tolerably abundant in Tertiary deposits, both in Europe and North America. In the Lower Pliocene of England, France, and Germany, extinct species of five or six living genera of whales and dolphins have been found; and most of these occur also in the Upper Miocene, along with many others, referred to about a dozen extinct genera.

In the Post-pliocene deposits of Vermont and South Carolina, several extinct species have been found belonging to living genera; but in the Miocene deposits of the Eastern United States cetacean remains are much more abundant, more than 30 species of {210}extinct whales and dolphins having been described, most of them belonging to extinct genera.

The Zeuglodontidæ, an extinct family of carnivorous whales, with double-fanged serrated molar teeth, whose affinities are somewhat doubtful, are found in the older Pliocene of Europe, and in the Miocene and Eocene of the Eastern United States. Zeuglodon abounds in the United States, and one species reached a length of seventy feet. A species of this genus is said to have been found in Malta. Squalodon occurs in Europe and North America; and in the latter country four or five other genera have been described, of which one, Saurocetes, has been found also at Buenos Ayres.

Order VI.—SIRENIA.

Family 42.—MANATIDÆ. (3 Genera, 5 Species?)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— 2 — 4 — — — — 1. 2. 3 — 1. 2 — — 1. 2. — 4 1 — — —

The Sea-cows are herbivorous aquatic animals living on the coasts or in the great rivers of several parts of the globe. Manatus (2 species) inhabits both shores of the Atlantic, one species ranging from the Gulf of Mexico to North Brazil, and ascending the Amazon far into the interior of the continent; while the other is found on the west coast of Africa. Halicore (2 species?), the Dugong, is peculiar to the Indian Ocean, extending from Mozambique to the Red Sea, thence to Western India and Ceylon, the Malay Archipelago and the north coast of Australia. Rhytina (1 species), supposed to be now extinct, inhabited recently the North Pacific, between Kamschatka and Behring's Straits.

Fossil Sirenia.—Extinct species of Manatus have been found in the Post-pliocene deposits of Eastern North America from {211}Maryland to Florida; and an extinct genus, Prorastomus, in some Tertiary deposits in the Island of Jamaica.

In Post-pliocene deposits in Siberia, remains of Rhytina have been found; while several species of the extinct genus Halitherium, perhaps intermediate between Manatus and Halicore, have been found in the older Pliocene and Upper Miocene of France and Germany.

Order VII.—UNGULATA.

Family 43.—EQUIDÆ. (1 Genus, 8 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
Living Species.
— — — — — — — — — 2. 3 — 1. 2. 3 — — — — — — — — —
Extinct Species.
1. 2 — — 1. 2. 3 — 1. 2. 3. 4 — — — — 1 — 3 — — — — —

The Horses, Asses, and Zebras form a highly specialized group now confined to the Ethiopian and Palæarctic regions, but during the middle and later tertiaries having a very extensive range. The zebras (3 species) inhabit the greater part of the Ethiopian region, while the asses (4 species) are characteristic of the deserts of the Palæarctic region from North Africa and Syria to Western India, Mongolia, and Manchuria. The domestic horse is not known in a wild state, but its remains are found in recent deposits from Britain to the Altai Mountains, so that its disappearance is probably due to human agency.

Extinct Equidæ.—Extinct forms of this family are very numerous. The genus Equus occurs in Post-pliocene and Pliocene deposits in Europe, North America, and South America. In North America the species are most numerous. An allied genus Hipparion, having rudimentary lateral toes, is represented {212}by several species in the Pliocene of North America, while in Europe it occurs both in the Older Pliocene and Upper Miocene. Various other allied forms, in which the lateral toes are more and more developed, and most of which are now classed in a distinct family, Anchitheridæ, range back through the Miocene to the Eocene period. A sufficient account of these has already been given in vol. i. chap. vi. p. 135, to which the reader is referred for the supposed origin and migrations of the horse.

Family 44—TAPIRIDÆ. (2 Genera? 6 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— 2. 3 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 4 — — — —

The Tapirs form a small group of animals whose discontinuous distribution plainly indicates their approaching extinction. For a long time only two species were known, the black American, and the white-banded Malay tapir, the former confined to the equatorial forests of South America, the latter to the Malay peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo (Plate VIII. vol. i. p. 337). Lately however another, or perhaps two distinct species (or according to Dr. J. E. Gray, four!) have been discovered in the Andes of New Granada and Ecuador, at an elevation of from 8,000 to 12,000 feet; while one or perhaps two more, forming the allied genus Elasmognathus, have been found to inhabit Central America from Panama to Guatemala.

Extinct Tapirs.—True tapirs inhabited Western Europe, from the latest Pliocene back to the earliest Miocene times; while they only occur in either North or South America in the Post-pliocene deposits and caves. The singular distribution of the living species is thus explained, since we see that they are an Old World group which only entered the American continent at a comparatively recent epoch. An ancestral form of this group—Lophiodon—is found in Miocene and Eocene deposits of {213}Europe and North America; while a still more ancient form of large size is found in the Lower Eocene of France and England, indicating an immense antiquity for this group of Mammalia. There are many other extinct forms connecting these with the Palæotheridæ, already noticed in chapter vi. (vol. i. pp. 119-125).

Family 45.—RHINOCEROTIDÆ. (1 Genus, 9 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
Living Species.
— — — — — — — — — — — — 1. 2. 3 — — — 3. 4 — — — —
Extinct Species.
— — — — 1. 2 — — 1. 2. 3. 4 — — — — 1 — 3 — — — — —

Living Rhinoceroses are especially characteristic of Africa, with Northern and Malayan India. Four or perhaps five species, all two-horned, are found in Africa, where they range over the whole country south of the desert to the Cape of Good Hope. In the Oriental region there are also four or five species, which range from the forests at the foot of the Himalayas eastwards through Assam, Chittagong, and Siam, to Sumatra, Borneo and Java. Three of these are one-horned, the others found in Sumatra, and northwards to Pegu and Chittagong, two-horned. The Asiatic differ from the African species in some dental characters, but they are in other respects so much alike that they are not generally considered to form distinct genera. In his latest catalogue however (1873), Dr. Gray has four genera, Rhinoceros (4 species), and Ceratorhinus (2 species), Asiatic; Rhinaster (2 species), and Ceratotherium (2 species), African.

Extinct Rhinocerotidæ.—Numerous species of Rhinoceros ranged over Europe and Asia from the Post-pliocene back to the Upper Miocene period, and in North America during the Pliocene period {214}only. The hornless Acerotherium is Miocene only, in both countries. Other genera are Leptodon from Greece, and Hyracodon from Nebraska, both of Miocene age. More than 20 species of extinct rhinoceroses are known, and one has even been found at an altitude of 16,000 feet in Thibet.

Family 46.—HIPPOPOTAMIDÆ. (1 Genus, 2 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
Living Species.
— — — — — — — — — — — — 1. 2. 3 — — — — — — — — —
Extinct Species.
— — — — — — — — 1. 2 — — — — — — 1 — 3 — — — — —

The Hippopotamus inhabits all the great rivers of Africa; a distinct species of a smaller size being found on the west coast, and on some of the rivers flowing into Lake Tchad.

Fossil Hippopotami.—Eight extinct species of Hippopotamus are known from Europe and India, the former Post-pliocene or Pliocene, the latter of Upper Miocene age. They ranged as far north as the Thames valley. An extinct genus from the Siwalik Hills, Merycopotamus, according to Dr. Falconer connects Hippopotamus with Anthracotherium, an extinct form from the Miocene of Europe, allied to the swine.

Family 47.—SUIDÆ. (5 Genera, 22 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— 2. 3 — — 2. 3 — 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 1. — — —

The Swine may be divided into three well-marked groups, from peculiarities in their dentition. 1. The Dicotylinæ, or {215}peccaries (1 genus, Dicotyles). These offer so many structural differences that they are often classed as a separate family. 2. The true swine (3 genera, Sus, Potamochœrus, and Babirusa); and, 3. The Phacochœrinæ, or wart hogs (1 genus, Phacochœrus). These last are also sometimes made into a separate family, but they are hardly so distinct as the Dicotylinæ.

The Peccaries (2 species), are peculiar to the Neotropical region, extending from Mexico to Paraguay. They also spread northwards into Texas, and as far as the Red River of Arkansas, thus just entering the Nearctic region; but with this exception swine are wholly absent from this region, forming an excellent feature by which to differentiate it from the Palæarctic.

Sus (14 species), ranges over the Palæarctic and Oriental regions and into the first Australian sub-region as far as New Guinea; but it is absent from the Ethiopian region, or barely enters it on the north-east. Potamochœrus (3 species?), is wholly Ethiopian (Plate V. vol. i. p. 278). Babirusa (1 species), is confined to two islands, Celebes and Bouru, in the first Australian sub-region.

Phacochœrus (2 species), ranges over tropical Africa from Abyssinia to Caffraria.

Dr. J. E. Gray divides true swine (Sus) into 7 genera, but it seems far better to keep them as one.

Fossil Suidæ.—These are very numerous. Many extinct species of wild hog (Sus), are found in Europe and North India, ranging back from the Post-pliocene to the Upper Miocene formations. In the Miocene of Europe are numerous extinct genera, Bothriodon, Anthracotherium, Palæochœrus, Hyotherium, and some others; while in the Upper Eocene occur Cebochœrus, Chœropotamus, and Acotherium,—these early forms having more resemblance to the peccaries.

None of these genera are found in America, where we have the living genus Dicotyles in the Post-pliocene and Pliocene deposits, both of North and South America; with a number of extinct genera in the Miocene. The chief of these are, Elotherium, Perchœrus, Leptochœrus, and Nanohyus, all from Dakota, and Thinohyus, from Oregon. One extinct genus, Platygonus, closely allied to Dicotyles, is found in the Post-pliocene of Nebraska, {216}Oregon, and Arkansas. Elotherium is said to be allied to the peccary and hippopotamus. Hyopotamus, from the Miocene of Dakota, is allied to Anthracotherium, and forms with it (according to Dr. Leidy) a distinct family of ancestral swine.

It thus appears, that the swine were almost equally well represented in North America and Europe, during Miocene and Pliocene times, but by entirely distinct forms; and it is a remarkable fact that these hardy omnivorous animals, should, like the horses, have entirely died out in North America, except a few peccaries which have preserved themselves in the sub-tropical parts and in the southern continent, to which they are comparatively recent emigrants. We can hardly have a more convincing proof of the vast physical changes that have occurred in the North American continent during the Pliocene and Post-pliocene epochs, than the complete extinction of these, along with so many other remarkable types of Mammalia.

According to M. Gaudry, the ancestors of all the swine, with the hippopotami and extinct Anthracotherium, Merycopotamus, and many allied forms,—are the Hyracotherium and Pliolophus, both found only in the London clay belonging to the Lower Eocene formation.

Family 48.—CAMELIDÆ. (2 Genera, 6 Species).

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
Living Species.
1. — — — — — — — — 2. 3 — — — — — — — — — — — — —
Extinct Species.
1. — — — — 2. 3. 4 — — 3 — — — — — — — 3. — — — — —

The Camels are an exceedingly restricted group, the majority of the species now existing only in a state of domestication. The genus Camelus (2 species), is a highly characteristic desert form {217}of the Palæarctic region, from the Sahara to Mongolia as far as Lake Baikal. Auchenia (4 species), comprehending the Llamas and Alpacas, is equally characteristic of the mountains and deserts of the southern part of South America. Two species entirely domesticated inhabit the Peruvian and Bolivian Andes; and two others are found in a wild state, the vicuna in the Andes of Peru and Chili (Plate XVI. vol. ii. p. 40), and the guanaco over the plains of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

Extinct Camelidæ.—No fossil remains of camels have been found in Europe, but one occurs in the deposits of the Siwalik Hills, usually classed as Upper Miocene, but which some naturalists think are more likely of Older Pliocene age. Merycotherium, teeth of which have been found in the Siberian drift, is supposed to belong to this family.

In North America, where no representative of the family now exists, the camel-tribe were once abundant. In the Post-pliocene deposits of California an Auchenia has been found, and in those of Kansas one of the extinct genus Procamelus. In the Pliocene period, this genus, which was closely allied to the living camels, abounded, six or seven species having been described from Nebraska and Texas, together with an allied form Homocamelus. In the Miocene period different genera appear,—Pœbrotherium, and Protomeryx,—while a Procamelus has been found in deposits of this age in Virginia.

In South America a species of Auchenia has been found in the caves of Brazil, and others in the Pliocene deposits of the pampas, together with two extinct genera, Palæolama and Camelotherium.

We thus find the ancestors of the Camelidæ in a region where they do not now exist, but which is situated so that the now widely separated living forms could easily have been derived from it. This case offers a remarkable example of the light thrown by palæontology on the distribution of living animals; and it is a warning against the too common practice of assuming the direct land connection of remote continents, in order to explain similar instances of discontinuous distribution to that of the present family.

{218}

Family 49.—TRAGULIDÆ. (2 Genera, 6 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — — — — — 2 — — 1. 2. 3. 4 — — — —

The Tragulidæ are a group of small, hornless, deer-like animals, with tusks in the upper jaw, and having some structural affinities with the camels. The musk-deer was formerly classed in this family, which it resembles externally; but a minute examination of its structure by M. Milne-Edwards, has shown it to be more nearly allied to the true deer. The Chevrotains, or mouse-deer, Tragulus (5 species), range over all India to the foot of the Himalayas and Ceylon, and through Assam, Malacca, and Cambodja, to Sumatra, Borneo, and Java (Plate VIII., vol. i. p. 337). Hyomoschus (1 species), is found in West Africa.

Extinct Tragulidæ.—A species of Hyomoschus is said to have been found in the Miocene of the South of France, as well as three extinct genera, Dremotherium (also found in Greece), with Lophiomeryx from the Upper Miocene, said to be allied to Tragulus; and Amphitragulus from the Lower Miocene, of more remote affinities, and sometimes placed among the Deer. There seems to be no doubt, however, that this family existed in Europe in Miocene times; and thus another case of discontinuous distribution is satisfactorily accounted for.

Family 50.—CERVIDÆ. (8 Genera, 52 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
1. 2. 3 — 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 — — — — 1. 2. 3. 4 1 — — —

The Cervidæ, or deer tribe, are an extensive group of animals equally adapted for inhabiting forests or open plains, the Arctic {219}regions or the Tropics. They range in fact over the whole of the great continents of the globe, with the one striking exception of Africa, where they are only found on the shores of the Mediterranean which form part of the Palæarctic region. The following is the distribution of the genera.

Alces (1 species), the elk or moose, ranges all over Northern Europe and Asia, as far south as East Prussia, the Caucasus, and North China; and over Arctic America to Maine on the East, and British Columbia on the west. The American species may however be distinct, although very closely allied to that of Europe. Tarandus (1 species), the reindeer, has a similar range to the last, but keeps farther north in Europe, inhabiting Greenland and Spitzbergen; and in America extends farther south, to New Brunswick and the north shore of Lake Superior. There are several varieties or species of this animal confined to special districts, but they are not yet well determined. Cervus (40 species), the true deer, have been sub-divided into numerous sub-genera characteristic of separate districts. They range over the whole area of the family, except that they do not go beyond 57° N. in America and a little further in Europe and Asia. In South America they extend over Patagonia and even to Tierra del Fuego. They are found in the north of Africa, and over the whole of the Oriental region, and beyond it as far as the Moluccas and Timor, where however they have probably been introduced by man at an early period. Dama (1 species), the fallow deer, is a native of the shores of the Mediterranean, from Spain and Barbary to Syria. Capreolus (2 species), the roe-deer, inhabits all Temperate and South Europe to Syria, with a distinct species in N. China. Cervulus (4 species), the muntjacs, are found in all the forest districts of the Oriental region, from India and Ceylon to China as far north as Ningpo and Formosa, also southward to the Philippines, Borneo, and Java. Moschus (1 species), the musk-deer, inhabits Central Asia from the Amoor and Pekin, to the Himalayas and the Siamese mountains above 8000 ft. elevation. This is usually classed as a distinct family, but M. Milne-Edwards remarks, that it differs in no important points of organisation from the rest of the Cervidæ. Hydropotes {220}(1 species) inhabits China from the Yang-tse Kiang northwards. This new genus has recently been discovered by Mr. Swinhoe, who says its nearest affinities are with Moschus. Other new forms are Lophotragus, and Elaphodus, both inhabiting North China; the former is hornless, the latter has very small horns about an inch long.

Extinct Deer.—Numerous extinct species of the genus Cervus are found fossil in many parts of Europe, and in all formations between the Post-pliocene and the Upper Miocene. The Elk and Reindeer are also found in caves and Post-pliocene deposits, the latter as far south as the South of France. Extinct genera only, occur in the Upper Miocene in various parts of Europe:—Micromeryx, Palæomeryx, and Dicrocerus have been described; with others referred doubtfully to Moschus, and an allied genus Amphimoschus.

In N. America, remains of this family are very scarce, a Cervus allied to the existing wapiti deer, being found in Post-pliocene deposits, and an extinct genus, Leptomeryx, in the Upper Miocene of Dakota and Oregon. Another extinct genus, Merycodus, from the Pliocene of Oregon, is said to be allied to camels and deer.

In South America, several species of Cervus have been found in the Brazilian caves, and in the Pliocene deposits of La Plata.

It thus appears, that there are not yet sufficient materials for determining the origin and migrations of the Cervidæ. There can be little doubt that they are an Old World group, and a comparatively recent development; and that some time during the Miocene period they passed to North America, and subsequently to the Southern continent. They do not however appear to have developed much in North America, owing perhaps to their finding the country already amply stocked with numerous forms of indigenous Ungulates.

{221}

Family 51.—CAMELOPARDALIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
Living Species.
— — — — — — — — — — — — 1 — 3 — — — — — — — — —
Extinct Species.
— — — — — — — — — 2 — — 1 — — — — — 3 — — — — —

The Camelopardalidæ, or giraffes, now consist of but a single species which ranges over all the open country of the Ethiopian region, and is therefore almost absent from West Africa, which is more especially a forest district. During the Middle Tertiary period, however, these animals had a wider range, over Southern Europe and Western India as far as the slopes of the Himalayas.

Extinct Species.—Species of Camelopardalis have been found in Greece, the Siwalik Hills, and Perim Island at the entrance to the Red Sea; and an extinct genus, Helladotherium, more bulky but not so tall as the giraffe, ranged from the south of France to Greece and North-west India.

Family 52.—BOVIDÆ. (34 Genera, 149 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — 1. 2 — 4 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3 — 1. 2. 3. 4 1 — — —

This large and important family, includes all the animals commonly known as oxen, buffaloes, antelopes, sheep, and goats, which have been classed by many naturalists in at least three, and sometimes four or five, distinct families. Zoologically, they {222}are briefly and accurately defined as, "hollow-horned ruminants;" and, although they present wide differences in external form, they grade so insensibly into each other, that no satisfactory definition of the smaller family groups can be found. As a whole they are almost confined to the great Old World continent, only a few forms extending along the highlands and prairies of the Nearctic region; while one peculiar type is found in Celebes, an island which is almost intermediate between the Oriental and Australian regions. In each of the Old World regions there are found a characteristic set of types. Antelopes prevail in the Ethiopian region; sheep and goats in the Palæarctic; while the oxen are perhaps best developed in the Oriental region.

Sir Victor Brooke, who has paid special attention to this family, divides them into 13 sub-families, and I here adopt the arrangement of the genera and species which he has been so good as to communicate to me in MSS.

Sub-family I. Bovinæ (6 genera, 13 species). This group is one of the best marked in the family. It comprises the Oxen and Buffaloes with their allies, and has a distribution very nearly the same as that of the entire family. The genera are as follows: Bos (1 sp.), now represented by our domestic cattle, the descendants of the Bos primigenius, which ranged over a large part of Central Europe in the time of the Romans. The Chillingham wild cattle are supposed to be the nearest approach to the original species. Bison (2 sp.), one still wild in Poland and the Caucasus; the other in North America, ranging over the prairies west of the Mississippi, and on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains (Plate XIX., vol. ii., p. 129). Bibos (3 sp.), the Indian wild cattle, ranging over a large part of the Oriental region, from Southern India to Assam, Burmah, the Malay Peninsula, Borneo, and Java. Poephagus (1 sp.), the yak, confined to the high plains of Western Thibet. Bubalus (5 sp.), the buffaloes, of which three species are African, ranging over all the continental parts of the Ethiopian region; one Northern and Central Indian; and the domesticated animal in South Europe and North Africa. Anoa (1 sp.), the small wild cow of Celebes, {223}a very peculiar form more nearly allied to the buffaloes than to any other type of oxen.

Sub-family II. Tragelaphinæ: (3 genera, 11 species). The Bovine Antelopes are large and handsome animals, mostly Ethiopian, but extending into the adjacent parts of the Palæarctic and Oriental regions. The genera are: Oreas (2 sp.), elands, inhabiting all Tropical and South Africa. Tragelaphus (8 sp.), including the bosch-bok, kudu, and other large antelopes, ranges over all Tropical and South Africa (Plate IV., vol. i., p. 261). Portax (1 sp.) India, but rare in Madras and north of the Ganges.

Sub-family III. Oryginæ: (2 genera, 5 species). Oryx (4 sp.) is a desert genus, ranging over all the African deserts to South Arabia and Syria; Addax (1 sp.) inhabits North Africa, North Arabia, and Syria.

Sub-family IV. Hippotraginæ (1 genus, 3 species). The Sable Antelopes, Hippotragus, form an isolated group inhabiting the open country of Tropical Africa and south to the Cape.

Sub-family V. Gazellinæ (6 genera, 23 species). This is a group of small or moderate-sized animals, most abundant in the deserts on the borders of the Palæarctic, Oriental, and Ethiopian regions. Gazella (17 sp.) is typically a Palæarctic desert group, ranging over the great desert plateaus of North Africa, from Senegal and Abyssinia to Syria, Persia, Beloochistan, and the plains of India, with one outlying species in South Africa. Procapra (2 sp.), Western Thibet and Mongolia to about 110° east longitude. Antilope (1 sp.) inhabits all the plains of India. Æpyceros (1 sp.) the pallah, inhabits the open country of South and South-east Africa. Saiga (1 sp.) a singular sheep-faced antelope, which inhabits the steppes of Eastern Europe and Western Asia from Poland to the Irtish River, south of 55° north latitude. (Plate II., vol. i., p. 218.) Panthalops (1 sp.) confined to the highlands of Western Thibet and perhaps Turkestan.

Sub-family VI. Antilocaprinæ (1 genus, 1 species), Antilocapra, the prong-horned antelope, inhabit both sides of the Rocky Mountains, extending north to the Saskatchewan and {224}Columbia River, west to the coast range of California, and east to the Missouri. Its remarkable deciduous horns seem to indicate a transition to the Cervidæ. (Plate XIX., vol. ii., p. 129.)

Sub-family VII. Cervicaprinæ (5 genera, 21 species). This group of Antelopes is wholly confined to the continental portion of the Ethiopian region. The genera are: Cervicapra (4 sp.), Africa, south of the equator and Abyssinia; Kobus (6 sp.), grassy plains and marshes of Tropical Africa; Pelea (1 sp.), South Africa; Nanotragus (9 species), Africa, south of the Sahara; Neotragus (1 sp.) Abyssinia and East Africa.

Sub-family VIII. Cephalophinæ (2 genera, 24 species), Africa and India; Cephalophus (22 sp.), continental Ethiopian region; Tetraceros (2 sp.) hilly part of all India, but rare north of the Ganges.

Sub-family IX. Alcephalinæ (2 genera, 11 species), large African Antelopes, one species just entering the Palæarctic region. The genera are: Alcephalus (9 sp.) all Africa and north-east to Syria; Catoblepas (2 sp.), gnus, Africa, south of the Equator.

Sub-region X. Budorcinæ (1 genus, 2 species) Budorcas inhabits the high Himalayas from Nepal to East Thibet.

Sub-family XI. Rupicaprinæ (1 genus, 2 species) the Chamois, Rupicapra, inhabit the high European Alps from the Pyrenees to the Caucasus. (Plate I., vol. i., p. 195.)

Sub-family XII. Nemorhedinæ (2 genera, 10 species). These goat-like Antelopes inhabit portions of the Palæarctic and Oriental regions, as well as the Rocky Mountains in the Nearctic region. Nemorhedus (9 sp.) ranges from the Eastern Himalayas to N. China and Japan, and south to Formosa, the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. Aplocerus (1 sp.), the mountain goat of the trappers, inhabits the northern parts of California and the Rocky Mountains.

Sub-family XIII. Caprinæ (2 genera, 23 species). The Goats and Sheep form an extensive series, highly characteristic of the Palæarctic region, but with an outlying species on the Neilgherries in Southern India, and one in the Rocky Mountains and California. The genera are Capra (22 sp.) and Ovibos (1 sp.). {225}The genus Capra consists of several sub-groups which have been named as genera, but it is unnecessary here to do more than divide them into "Goats and Ibexes" on the one hand and "Sheep" on the other—each comprising 11 species. The former range over all the South European Alps from Spain to the Caucasus; to Abyssinia, Persia, and Scinde; over the high Himalayas to E. Thibet and N. China; with an outlying species in the Neilgherries. The latter are only found in the mountains of Corsica, Sardinia, and Crete, in Europe; in Asia Minor, Persia, and in Central and North-Eastern Asia, with one somewhat isolated species in the Atlas mountains; while in America a species is found in the Rocky Mountains and the coast range of California. Ovibos (1 sp.), the musk-sheep, inhabits Arctic America north of lat. 60; but it occurs fossil in Post-glacial gravels on the Yena and Obi in Siberia, in Germany and France along with the Mammoth and with flint implements, and in caves of the Reindeer period; also in the brick earth in the south of England, associated with Rhinoceros megarhinus and Elephas antiquus.

Extinct Bovidæ.—In the caverns and diluviums of Europe, of the Post-Pliocene period, the remains are found of extinct species of Bos, Bison, and Capra; and in the caverns of the south of France Rupicapra, and an antelope near Hippotragus. Bos and Bison also occur in Pliocene deposits. In the Miocene of Europe, the only remains are antelopes closely allied to existing species, and these are especially numerous in Greece, where remains referred to two living and four extinct genera have been discovered. In the Miocene of India numerous extinct species of Bos, and two extinct genera, Hemibos and Amphibos, have been found, one of them at a great elevation in Thibet. Antelopes, allied to living Indian species, are chiefly found in the Nerbudda deposits.

In North America, the only bovine remains are those of a Bison, and a sheep or goat, in the Post-pliocene deposits; and of two species of musk-sheep, sometimes classed in a distinct genus Bootherium, from beds of the same age in Arkansas and Ohio. Casoryx, from the Pliocene of Nebraska, is supposed to be allied to the antelopes and to deer.

{226}

In the caves of Brazil remains of two animals said to be antelopes, have been discovered. They are classed by Gervais in the genera Antilope and Leptotherium, but the presence of true antelopes in S. America at this period is so improbable, that there is probably some error of identification.

The extinct family Sivatheridæ, containing the extraordinary and gigantic four-horned Sivatherium and Bramatherium, of the Siwalik deposits, are most nearly allied to the antelopes.

From the preceding facts we may conclude, that the great existing development of the Bovidæ is comparatively recent. The type may have originated early in the Miocene period, the oxen being at first most tropical, while the antelopes inhabited the desert zone a little further north. The sheep and goats seem to be the most recent development of the bovine type, which was probably long confined to the Eastern Hemisphere.

General Remarks on the Distribution of the Ungulata.

With the exception of the Australian region, from which this order of mammalia is almost entirely wanting, the Ungulata are almost universally distributed over the continental parts of all the other regions. Of the ten families, 7 are Ethiopian, 6 Oriental, 5 Palæarctic, 4 Neotropical, and 3 Nearctic. The Ethiopian region owes its superiority to the exclusive possession of the hippopotamus and giraffe, both of which inhabited the Palæarctic and Oriental regions in Miocene times. The excessive poverty of the Nearctic region in this order is remarkable; the swine being represented only by Dicotyles in its extreme southern portion, while the Bovidæ are restricted to four isolated species. Deer alone are fairly well represented. But, during the Eocene and Miocene periods, North America was wonderfully rich in varied forms of Ungulates, of which there were at least 8 or 9 families; while we have reason to believe that during the same periods the Ethiopian region was excessively poor, and that it probably received the ancestors of all its existing families from Europe or Western Asia in later Miocene or Pliocene times. Many types that once abounded in both Europe and North America are now preserved only in South America and Central or Tropical Asia,—as {227}the tapirs and camels; while others once confined to Europe and Asia have found a refuge in Africa,—as the hippopotamus and giraffe; so that in no other order do we find such striking examples of those radical changes in the distribution of the higher animals which were effected during the latter part of the Tertiary period. The present distribution of this order is, in fact, utterly unintelligible without reference to the numerous extinct forms of existing and allied families; but as this subject has been sufficiently discussed in the Second Part of this work (Chapters VI. and VII.) it is unnecessary to give further details here.

Order VIII.—PROBOSCIDEA.

Family 53.—ELEPHANTIDÆ. (1 Genus, 2 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
Living Species.
— — — — — — — — — — — — 1. 2. 3 — 1. 2. 3. 4 — — — —
Extinct Species.
1. 2 — — 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 1 — — — 1 — 3 — — — — —

The elephants are now represented by two species, the African, which ranges all over that continent south of the Sahara, and the Indian, which is found over all the wooded parts of the Oriental region, from the slopes of the Himalayas to Ceylon, and eastward, to the frontiers of China and to Sumatra and Borneo. These, however, are but the feeble remnants of a host of gigantic creatures, which roamed over all the great continents except Australia during the Tertiary period, and several of which were contemporary with man.

Extinct Elephants.—At least 14 extinct species of Elephas, and a rather greater number of the allied genus Mastodon (distinguished by their less complex grinding teeth) have now been {228}discovered. Elephants ranged over all the Palæarctic and Nearctic regions in Post-Pliocene times; in Europe and Central India they go back to the Pliocene; and only in India to the Upper Miocene period; the number of species increasing as we go back to the older formations.

In North America two or three species of Mastodon are Post-pliocene and Pliocene; and a species is found in the caves of Brazil, and in the Pliocene deposits of the pampas of La Plata, of the Bolivian Andes, and of Honduras and the Bahamas. In Europe the genus is Upper Miocene and Pliocene, but is especially abundant in the former period. In the East, it extends from Perim island to Burmah and over all India, and is mostly Miocene, but with perhaps one species Pliocene in Central India.

An account of the range of such animals as belong to extinct families of Proboscidea, will be found in Chapters VI. and VII.; from which it will be seen that, although the family Elephantidæ undoubtedly originated in the Eastern Hemisphere, it is not improbable that the first traces of the order Proboscidea are to be found in N. America.

Order IX.—HYRACOIDEA.

Family 54.—HYRACIDÆ. (1 Genus. 10-12 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — 2. — — 1. 2. 3 — — — — — — — — —

The genus Hyrax, which alone constitutes this family, consists of small animals having the appearance of hares or marmots, but which more resemble the genus Rhinoceros in their teeth and skeleton. They range all over the Ethiopian region, except Madagascar; a peculiar species is found in Fernando Po, and they just enter the Palæarctic as far as Syria. They may therefore be considered as an exclusively Ethiopian group. In Dr. Gray's {229}last Catalogue (1873) he divides the genus into three—Hyrax, Euhyrax and Dendrohyrax—the latter consisting of two species confined apparently to West and South Africa.

No extinct forms of this family have yet been discovered; the Hyracotherium of the London clay (Lower Eocene) which was supposed to resemble Hyrax, is now believed to be an ancestral type of the Suidæ or swine.

Order X.—RODENTIA.

Family 55.—MURIDÆ. (37 Genera, 330 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 — 2 — —

The Muridæ, comprising the rats and mice with their allies, are almost universally distributed over the globe (even not reckoning the domestic species which have been introduced almost everywhere by man), the exceptions being the three insular groups belonging to the Australian region, from none of which have any species yet been obtained. Before enumerating the genera it will be as well to say a few words on the peculiarities of distribution they present. The true mice, forming the genus Mus, is distributed over the whole of the world except N. and S. America where not a single indigenous species occurs, being replaced by the genus Hesperomys; five other genera, comprehending all the remaining species found in South America are peculiar to the Neotropical region. Three genera are confined to the Palæarctic region, and three others to the Nearctic. No less than twelve genera are exclusively Ethiopian, while only three are exclusively Oriental and three Australian.

Mus (100-120 sp.) the Eastern Hemisphere, but absent from the Pacific and Austro-Malayan Islands, except Celebes and Papua; Lasiomys (1 sp.) Guinea; Acanthomys (5-6 sp.) Africa, India and {230}N. Australia; Cricetomys (1 sp.) Tropical Africa; Saccostomus (2 sp.) Mozambique; Cricetus (9 sp.) Palæarctic region and Egypt; Cricetulus (1 sp., Milne-Edwards, 1870) Pekin; Pseudomys (1 sp.) Australia; Hapalotis (13 sp.) Australia; Phlæomys (1 sp.) Philippines; Platacanthomys (1 sp., Blyth, 1865) Malabar; Dendromys (2 sp.) S. Africa; Nesomys (1 sp. Peters, 1870) Madagascar; Steatomys (2 sp.) N. and S. Africa; Pelomys (1 sp.) Mozambique; Reithrodon (9 sp.) N. America, Lat. 29° to Mexico, and south to Tierra del Fuego; Acodon (1 sp.) Peru; Myxomys (1 sp.) Guatemala; Hesperomys (90 sp.) North and South America; Holochilus (4 sp.) South America; Oxymycterus (4 sp.) Brazil and La Plata; Neotoma (6 sp.) U.S., East coast to California; Sigmodon (2 sp.) Southern United States; Drymomys (1 sp.) Peru; Neotomys (2 sp.) S. America; Otomys (6 sp.) S. and E. Africa; Meriones = Gerbillus (20-30 sp.) Egypt, Central Asia, India, Africa; Rhombomys (6 sp.) S. E. Europe, N. Africa, Central Asia; Malacothrix (2 sp.) South Africa; Mystromys (1 sp.) South Africa; Psammomys (1 sp.) Egypt; Spalacomys (1 sp.) India; Sminthus (1-3 sp.) East Europe, Tartary, Siberia; Hydromys (5 sp.) Australia and Tasmania; Hypogeomys (1 sp., Grandidier, 1870) Madagascar; Brachytarsomys (1 sp., Günther, 1874) Madagascar; Fiber (2 sp.) N. America to Mexico; Arvicola (50 sp.) Europe to Asia Minor, North Asia, Himalayas, Temp. N. America; Cuniculus (1 sp.) N. E. Europe, Siberia, Greenland, Arctic America; Myodes (4 sp.) Europe, Siberia, Arctic America, and Northern United States; Myospalax = Siphneus (2 sp.) Altai Mountains and N. China[4]; Lophiomys (1 sp.) S. Arabia, and N. E. Africa; Echiothrix (1 sp.) Australia.

Extinct Muridæ.—Species of Mus, Cricetus, Arvicola, and Myodes, occur in the Post-Pliocene deposits of Europe; Arvicola, Meriones, and the extinct genus Cricetodon, with some others, in the Miocene.

In North America, Fiber, Arvicola, and Neotoma, occur in caves; {231}an extinct genus, Eumys, in the Upper Miocene of Dakota, and another, Mysops, in the Eocene of Wyoming.

In South America Mus, or more probably Hesperomys, is abundant in Brazilian caverns, and Oxymycterus in the Pliocene of La Plata; while Arvicola is said to have occurred both in the Pliocene and Eocene deposits of the same country.

Family 56.—SPALACIDÆ. (7 Genera, 17 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — 1. 2. 3 — 1. 2. 3 — 1 — 3. 4 — — — —

The Spalacidæ, or mole-rats, have a straggling distribution over the Old World continents. They are found over nearly the whole of Africa, but only in the South-east of Europe, and West of Temperate Asia, but appearing again in North India, Malacca, and South China. Ellobius (1 sp.), is found in South Russia and South-west Siberia; Spalax (1 sp.), Southern Russia, West Asia, Hungary, Moldavia, and Greece (Plate II., vol. i. p. 218); Rhizomys (6 sp.), Abyssinia, North India, Malacca, South China; Heterocephalus (1 sp.), Abyssinia; Bathyerges (= Orycterus 1 sp.), South Africa; Georychus (6 sp.), South, Central, and East Africa; Heliophobus (1 sp.), Mozambique.

Family 57.—DIPODIDÆ. (3 Genera, 22 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — 1. 2. 3. 4 — 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3 — — — — — — — — —

The Jerboas, or jumping mice, are especially characteristic of the regions about the eastern extremity of the Mediterranean, being found in South Russia, the Caspian district, Arabia, Egypt, {232}and Abyssinia; but they also extend over a large part of Africa, and eastward to India; while isolated forms occur in North America, and the Cape of Good Hope. Dipus = Gerbillus (20 sp.), inhabits North and Central Africa, South-East Europe, and across Temperate Asia to North China, also Afghanistan, India, and Ceylon; Pedetes (1 sp.), South Africa to Mozambique and Angola; Jaculus = Meriones (1 sp.), North America, from Nova Scotia and Canada, south to Pennsylvania and west to California and British Columbia (Plate XX., vol. ii. p. 135).

Extinct Dipodidæ.Dipus occurs fossil in the Miocene of the Alps; and an extinct genus, Issiodromys, said to be allied to Pedetes of the Cape of Good Hope, is from the Pliocene formations of Auvergne in France.

Family 58.—MYOXIDÆ. (1 Genus, 12 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3 — — — — — — — — —

The Dormice (Myoxus), are small rodents found over all the temperate parts of the Palæarctic region, from Britain to Japan; and also over most parts of Africa to the Cape, but wanting in India. Some of the African species have been separated under the name of Graphidurus, while those of Europe and Asia form the sub-genera Glis, Muscardinus, and Eliomys.

Extinct Myoxidæ.Myoxus ranges from the Post-pliocene of the Maltese caverns to the Miocene of Switzerland and the Upper Eocene of France; and an extinct genus Brachymys is found in the Miocene of Central Europe.

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Family 59.—SACCOMYIDÆ. (6 Genera, 33 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — 3. 1. 2. 3. 4 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

The Saccomyidæ, or pouched rats, are almost wholly confined to our second Nearctic sub-region, comprising the Rocky Mountains and the elevated plains of Central North America. A few species range from this district as far as Hudson's Bay on the north, to South Carolina on the east, and to California on the west, while one genus, doubtfully placed here, goes south as far as Honduras and Trinidad. The group must therefore be considered to be pre-eminently characteristic of the Nearctic region.

The genera are,—Dipodomys (5 sp.), North Mexico, California, the east slope of the Rocky Mountains to the Columbia River, and one species in South Carolina; Perognathus (6 sp.), North Mexico, California, east slope of the Rocky Mountains to British Columbia; Thomomys (2 sp.), Upper Missouri, and Upper Columbia Rivers to Hudson's Bay; Geomys (5 sp.), North Mexico, and east slope of Rocky Mountains to Nebraska (Plate XIX., vol. ii. p. 129); Saccomys (1 sp.), North America, locality unknown; Heteromys (6 sp.), Mexico, Honduras, and Trinidad. Geomys and Thomomys constitute a separate family Geomyidæ, of Professor Carus; but I follow Professor Lilljeborg, who has made a special study of the Order, in keeping them with this family.

In the Post-Pliocene deposits of Illinois and Nebraska, remains of an existing species of Geomys have been found.

{234}

Family 60.—CASTORIDÆ. (1 Genus, 2 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — 1. 2. 3. 4 1 — 3 — — — — — — — — — — — — —

The Beavers, forming the genus Castor, consist of two species, the American (Castor canadensis) ranging over the whole of North America from Labrador to North Mexico; while the European (Castor fiber) appears to be confined to the temperate regions of Europe and Asia, from France to the River Amoor, over which extensive region it doubtless roamed in prehistoric times, although now becoming rare in many districts.

Extinct Castoridæ.—Extinct species of Castor range back from the Post-pliocene to the Upper Miocene in Europe, and to the Newer Pliocene in North America. Extinct genera in Europe are, Trogontherium, Post-Pliocene and Pliocene; Chalicomys, Older Pliocene; and Steneofiber, Upper Miocene. In North America Castoroides is Post-Pliocene, and Palæocastor, Upper Miocene. The family thus first appears on the same geological horizon in both Europe and North America.

Family 61.—SCIURIDÆ.—(8 Genera, 180-200 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— 2. 3 — 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3 — 1. 2. 3. 4 — — — —

The Squirrel family, comprehending also the marmots and prairie-dogs, are very widely spread over the earth. They are especially abundant in the Nearctic, Palæarctic, and Oriental regions, and rather less frequent in the Ethiopian and Neotropical, in which last region they do not extend south of Paraguay. They are absent from the West Indian islands, Madagascar, and Australia, only occurring in Celebes which doubtfully belongs to the Australian region. The genera are as follows:—

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Sciurus (100-120 sp., including the sub-genera Spermosciurus, Xerus, Macroxus, Rheithrosciurus, and Rhinosciurus), comprises the true squirrels, and occupies the area of the whole family wherever woods and forests occur. The approximate number of species in each region is as follows: Nearctic 18, Palæarctic 6, Ethiopian 18, Oriental 50, Australian (Celebes) 5, Neotropical 30. Sciuropterus (16-19 sp.), comprises the flat-tailed flying squirrels, which range from Lapland and Finland to North China and Japan, and southward through India and Ceylon, to Malacca and Java, with a species in Formosa; while in North America they occur from Labrador to British Columbia, and south to Minnesota and Southern California. Pteromys (12 sp.), comprising the round-tailed flying squirrels, is a more southern form, being confined to the wooded regions of India from the Western Himalayas to Java and Borneo, with species in Formosa and Japan. Tamias (5 sp.), the ground squirrels, are chiefly North American, ranging from Mexico to Puget's Sound on the west coast, and from Virginia to Montreal on the Atlantic coast; while one species is found over all northern Asia. Spermophilus (26 sp.), the pouched marmots, are confined to the Nearctic and Palæarctic regions; in the former extending from the Arctic Ocean to Mexico and the west coast, but not passing east of Lake Michigan and the lower Mississippi; in the latter from Silesia through South Russia to the Amoor and Kamschatka, most abundant in the desert plains of Tartary and Mongolia. Arctomys (8 sp.), the marmots, are found in the northern parts of North America as far down as Virginia and Nebraska to the Rocky Mountains and British Columbia, but not in California; and from the Swiss Alps eastward to Lake Baikal and Kamschatka, and south as far as the Himalayas, above 8,000 feet elevation. Cynomys (2 sp.), the prairie-dogs, inhabit the plains east of the Rocky Mountains from the Upper Missouri to the Red River and Rio Grande (Plate XIX., vol. ii. p. 129). Anomalurus (5 sp.), consists of animals which resemble flying-squirrels, but differ from all other members of the family in some points of internal structure. They form a very aberrant portion of the Sciuridæ, and, according to some naturalists, a distinct family. They inhabit West Africa and the island of Fernando Po.

{236}

Extinct Sciuridæ.—These are tolerably abundant. The genus Sciurus appears to be a remarkably ancient form, extinct species being found in the Miocene, and even in the Upper Eocene formations of Europe. Spermophilus goes back to the Upper Miocene; Arctomys to the Newer Pliocene. Extinct genera are, Brachymys, Lithomys and Plesiarctomys, from the European Miocene, the latter said to be intermediate between marmots and squirrels.

In North America, Sciurus, Tamias, and Arctomys occur in the Post-pliocene deposits only. The extinct genera are Ischyromys, from the Upper Miocene of Nebraska; Paramys, allied to the marmots, and Sciuravus, near the squirrels, from the Eocene of Wyoming.

Here we have unmistakable evidence that the true squirrels (Sciurus) are an Old World type, which has only recently entered North America; and this is in accordance with the comparative scarcity of this group in South America, a country so well adapted to them, and their great abundance in the Oriental region, which, with the Palæarctic, was probably the country of their origin and early development. The family, however, has been traced equally far back in Europe and North America, so that we have as yet no means of determining where it originated.

Family 62—HAPLOODONTIDÆ.—(1 Genus, 2 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — 1 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

The genus Haploodon or Aplodontia, consists of two curious rat-like animals, inhabiting the west coast of America, from the southern part of British Columbia to the mountains of California. They seem to have affinities both with the beavers and marmots, and Professor Lilljeborg constitutes a separate family to receive them.

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Family 63.—CHINCHILLIDÆ. (3 Genera, 6 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
1 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

The Chinchillidæ, including the chinchillas and viscachas, are confined to the alpine zones of the Andes, from the boundary of Ecuador and Peru to the southern parts of Chili; and over the Pampas, to the Rio Negro on the south, and the River Uruguay on the east. Chinchilla (2 sp.), the true chinchillas, are found in the Andes of Chili and Peru, south of 9° S. lat., and from 8,000 to 12,000 feet elevation (Plate XVI. vol. ii. p. 40); Lagidium (3 sp.), the alpine viscachas, inhabit the loftiest plateaus and mountains from 11,000 to 16,000 feet, and extend furthest north of any of the family; while Lagostomus (1 sp.), the viscacha of the Pampas, has the range above indicated. The family is thus confined within the limits of a single sub-region.

Extinct Chinchillidæ.Lagostomus has been found fossil in the caves of Brazil, and in the Pliocene deposits of La Plata. The only known extinct forms of this family are Amblyrhiza and Loxomylus, found in cavern-deposits in the island of Anguilla, of Post-Pliocene age. These are very interesting, as showing the greater range of this family so recently; though its absence from North America and Europe indicates that it is a peculiar development of the Neotropical region.

Family 64.—OCTODONTIDÆ. (8 Genera, 19 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
1. 2 — 4 — — — — — 2 — — 1 — — — — — — — — — — —
{238}

The Octodontidæ include a number of curious and obscure rat-like animals, mostly confined to the mountains and open plains of South America, but having a few stragglers in other parts of the world, as will be seen by our notes on the genera. The most remarkable point in their distribution is, that two genera are peculiar to the West Indian islands, while no species of the family inhabits the northern half of South America. The distribution of the genera is as follows:—Habrocomus (2 sp.), Chili; Capromys (3 sp.), two of which inhabit Cuba, the third Jamaica (Plate XVII. vol. ii. p. 67); Plagiodontia (1 sp.), only known from Hayti; Spalacopus, including Schizodon (2 sp.), Chili, and east side of Southern Andes; Octodon (3 sp.), Peru, Bolivia, and Chili; Ctenomys (6 sp.), the tuco-tuco of the Pampas, the Campos of Brazil to Bolivia and Tierra del Fuego; Ctenodactylus (1 sp.), Tripoli, North Africa; Pectinator (1 sp.), East Africa, Abyssinia, 4,000 to 5,000 feet.

Capromys and Plagiodontia, the two West Indian genera, were classed among the Echimyidæ by Mr. Waterhouse, but Professor Lilljeborg removes them to this family.

Extinct Octodontidæ.—Species of Ctenomys have been found in the Pliocene of La Plata, and an extinct genus Megamys, said to be allied to Capromys, in the Eocene of the same country. In Europe, Palæomys and Archæomys from the lower Miocene of Germany and France, are also said to be allied to Capromys.

Family 65.—ECHIMYIDÆ. (10 Genera, 30 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
1. 2 — — — — — — — — — — 1 — 3 — — — — — — — — —

The Echimyidæ, or spiny rats, are a family, chiefly South American, of which the Coypu, a large beaver-like water-rat from Peru and Chili is the best known. Two of the genera are found in South Africa, but all the rest inhabit the continent of South America, East of the Andes, none being yet known north {239}of Panama. The genera are as follows:—Dactylomys (2 sp.), Guiana and Brazil; Cercomys (1 sp.), Central Brazil; Lasiuromys (1 sp.), San Paulo, Brazil; Petromys (1 sp.), South Africa; Myopotamus (1 sp.), the coypu, on the East side of the Andes from Peru to 42° S. lat., on the West side from 33° to 48° S. lat.; Carterodon (1 sp.), Minaes Geraes, Brazil; Aulacodes (1. sp.), West and South Africa; Mesomys (1 sp.), Borba on the Amazon; Echimys (11 sp.), from Guiana and the Ecuadorian Andes to Paraguay; Loncheres (10 sp.), New Granada to Brazil.

Fossil and Extinct Echimyidæ.—The genus Carterodon was established on bones found in the Brazilian caves, and it was several years afterwards that specimens were obtained showing the animal to be a living species. Extinct species of Myopotamus and Loncheres have also been found in these caves, with the extinct genera Lonchophorus and Phyllomys.

No remains of this family have been discovered in North America; but in the Miocene and Upper Eocene deposits of France there are many species of an extinct genus Theridomys, which is said to be allied to this group or to the next (Cercolabidæ). Aulacodon, from the Upper Miocene of Germany, is allied to the West African Aulacodes; and some other remains from the lower Miocene of Auvergne, are supposed to belong to Echimys.

Family 66.—CERCOLABIDÆ. (3 Genera, 13-15 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— 2. 3 — 1. 2. 3. 4 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

The Cercolabidæ, or arboreal porcupines, are a group of rodents entirely confined to America, where they range from the northern limit of trees on the Mackenzie River, to the southern limit of forests in Paraguay. There is however an intervening district, the Southern United States, from which they are absent. Erethizon (3 sp.), the Canadian porcupine, is found throughout {240}Canada and as far south as Northern Pennsylvania, and west to the Mississippi (Plate XX., vol. ii. p. 135); an allied species inhabiting the west coast from California to Alaska, and inland to the head of the Missouri River; while a third is found in the north-western part of South America; Cercolabes (12 sp.), ranges from Mexico and Guatemala to Paraguay, on the eastern side of the Andes; Chætomys (1 sp.), North Brazil.

Extinct Cercolabidæ.—A large species of Cercolabes has been found in the Brazilian caves, but none have been discovered in North America or Europe. We may conclude therefore that this is probably a South American type, which has thence spread into North America at a comparatively recent epoch. The peculiar distribution of Cercolabes may be explained by supposing it to have migrated northwards along the west coast by means of the wooded slopes of the Rocky Mountains. It could then only reach the Eastern States by way of the forest region of the great lakes, and then move southward. This it may be now doing, but it has not yet reached the Southern States of Eastern North America.

Family 67.—HYSTRICIDÆ. (3 Genera, 12 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — 2 — — 1. 2. 3 — 1. 2. 3. 4 — — — —

The true Porcupines have a very compact and well-marked distribution, over the whole of the Oriental and Ethiopian regions (except Madagascar), and the second Palæarctic sub-region. There is some confusion as to their sub-division into genera, but the following are those most usually admitted:—Hystrix (5 sp.), South Europe to the Cape of Good Hope, all India, Ceylon, and South China; Atherura (5 sp.), "brush-tailed porcupines," inhabit West Africa, India, to Siam, Sumatra, and Borneo; Acanthion (2 sp.), Nepal and Malacca, to Sumatra, Borneo, and Java.

Extinct Hystricidæ.—Several extinct species of Hystrix have {241}been found in the Pliocene and Miocene deposits of Europe, and one in the Pliocene of Nebraska in North America.

Family 68.—CAVIIDÆ. (6 Genera, 28 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
1. 2. 3. 4 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

The Cavies and Agoutis were placed in distinct families by Mr. Waterhouse, in which he is followed by Professor Carus, but they have been united by Professor Lilljeborg, and without pretending to decide which classification is the more correct I follow the latter, because there is a striking external resemblance between the two groups, and they have an identical distribution in the Neotropical region, and with one exception are all found east of the Andes. Dasyprocta (9 sp.), the agouti, ranges from Mexico to Paraguay, one species inhabiting the small West Indian islands of St. Vincent, Lucia, and Grenada; Cælogenys (2 sp.), the paca, is found from Guatemala to Paraguay, and a second species (somewhat doubtful) in Eastern Peru; Hydrochœrus (1 sp.), the capybara inhabits the banks of rivers from Guayana to La Plata; Cavia (9 sp.), the guinea-pigs, Brazil to the Straits of Magellan, and one species west of the Andes at Yça Peru; Kerodon (6 sp.), Brazil and Peru to Magellan; Dolichotis (1 sp,), the Patagonian cavy, from Mendoza to 48° 30′ south latitude, on sterile plains.

Extinct Caviidæ.Hydrochœrus, Cælogenys, Dasyprocta, and Kerodon, have occurred abundantly in the caves of Brazil, and the last-named genus in the Pliocene of La Plata. Hydrochœrus has been found in the Post-Pliocene deposits of South Carolina. Cavia and Dasyprocta are said to have been found in the Miocene of Switzerland and France. No well-marked extinct genera of this family have been recorded.

If the determination of the above-mentioned fossil species of Cavia and Dasyprocta are correct, it would show that this now {242}exclusively South American family is really derived from Europe, where it has long been extinct.

Family 69.—LAGOMYIDÆ. (1 Genus, 11 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — 2 — 4 — — 3 — — — — — — — — — — — — —

The Lagomyidæ, or pikas, are small alpine and desert animals which range from the south of the Ural Mountains to Cashmere and the Himalayas, at heights of 11,000 to 14,000 feet, and northward to the Polar regions and the north-eastern extremity of Siberia. They just enter the eastern extremity of Europe as far as the Volga, but with this exception, seem strictly limited to the third Palæarctic sub-region. In America they are confined to the Rocky Mountains from about 42° to 60° north latitude.

Extinct Lagomyidæ.—Extinct species of Lagomys have occurred in the southern parts of Europe, from the Post-Pliocene to the Miocene formations. Titanomys, an extinct genus, is found in the Miocene of France and Germany.

Family 70.—LEPORIDÆ. (1 Genus, 35-40 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— 2. 3 — 1. 2. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 4 1 — 3 — 1. 2. 3 — — — — —

The Hares and Rabbits are especially characteristic of the Nearctic and Palæarctic, but are also thinly scattered over the Ethiopian and Oriental regions. In the Neotropical region they are very scarce, only one species being found in South America, in the mountains of Brazil and various parts of the Andes, while one or two of the North American species extend into Mexico {243}and Guatemala. In the Nearctic region, they are most abundant in the central and western parts of the continent, and they extend to the Arctic Ocean and to Greenland. They are found in every part of the Palæarctic region, from Ireland to Japan; three species range over all India to Ceylon, and others occur in Hainan, Formosa, South China, and the mountains of Pegu; the Ethiopian region has only four or five species, mostly in the southern extremity and along the East coast. An Indian species is now wild in some parts of Java, but it has probably been introduced.

Extinct Leporidæ.—Species of Lepus occur in the Post-Pliocene and Newer Pliocene of France; but only in the Post-Pliocene of North America, and the caves of Brazil.

General Remarks on the Distribution of the Rodentia.

With the exception of the Australian region and Madagascar, where Muridæ alone have been found, this order is one of the most universally and evenly distributed over the entire globe. Of the sixteen families which compose it, the Palæarctic region has 10; the Ethiopian, Nearctic, and Neotropical, each 9; and the Oriental only 5. These figures are very curious and suggestive. We know that the rodentia are exceedingly ancient, since some of the living genera date back to the Eocene period; and some ancestral types might thus have reached the remote South American and South African lands at the time of one of their earliest unions with the northern continents. In both these countries the rodents diverged into many special forms, and being small animals easily able to conceal themselves, have largely survived the introduction of higher Mammalia. In the Palæarctic and Nearctic regions, their small size and faculty of hibernation may have enabled them to maintain themselves during those great physical changes which resulted in the extermination or banishment of so many of the larger and more highly organised Mammalia, to which, in these regions, they now bear a somewhat inordinate proportion. The reasons why they are now less numerous and varied in the Oriental region, may be of two kinds. The comparatively small area of that region and its {244}uniformity of climate, would naturally lead to less development of such a group as this, than in the vastly more extensive and varied and almost equally luxuriant Palæarctic region of Eocene and Miocene times; while on the other hand the greater number of the smaller Carnivora in the tropics during the Pliocene and Post-Pliocene epochs, would be a constant check upon the increase of these defenceless animals, and no doubt exterminate a number of them.

The Rodents thus offer a striking contrast to the Ungulates; and these two great orders afford an admirable illustration of the different way in which physical and organic changes may affect large and small herbivorous Mammalia; often leading to the extinction of the former, while favouring the comparative development of the latter.

Order XI.—EDENTATA.

Family 71.—BRADYPODIDÆ. (3 Genera, 12 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— 2. 3 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

The Sloths are a remarkable group of arboreal mammals, strictly confined to the great forests of the Neotropical region, from Guatemala to Brazil and Eastern Bolivia. None are found west of the Andes, nor do they appear to extend into Paraguay, or beyond the Tropic of Capricorn on the east coast. The genera as defined by Dr. Gray in 1871 are:—Cholœpus (2 sp.), "Sloths with two toes on fore limbs, sexes alike," Costa Rica to Brazil; Bradypus (2 sp.), "Sloths with three toes on fore limbs, sexes alike," Central Brazil, Amazon to Rio de Janeiro; Arctopithecus (8 sp.), "Sloths with three toes on fore limbs, males with a coloured patch on the back," Costa Rica to Brazil and Eastern Bolivia (Plate XIV., vol ii. p. 24).

{245}

Extinct Bradypodidæ.—In the caves of Brazil are found three extinct genera of Sloths—Cælodon, Sphenodon, and Ochotherium. More distantly allied, and probably forming distinct families, are Scelidotherium and Megatherium, from the caves of Brazil and the Pliocene deposits of La Plata and Patagonia.

Family 72.—MANIDIDÆ. (1 Genus, 8 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — — — — 1. 2. 3 — 1. 2. 3. 4 — — — —

The Manididæ, or scaly ant-eaters, are the only Edentate Mammalia found out of America, They are spread over the Ethiopian and Oriental regions; in the former from Sennaar to West Africa and the Cape; in the latter from the Himalayas to Ceylon, and Eastward to Borneo and Java, as well as to South China, as far as Amoy, Hainan, and Formosa. They have been sub-divided, according to differences in the scaly covering, into five groups, Manis, Phatagin, Smutsia, Pholidotus and Pangolin, the three former being confined to Africa, the last common to Africa and the East, while Pholidotus seems confined to Java. It is doubtful if these divisions are more than sub-genera, and as such they are treated here.

No extinct species referable to this family are yet known.

Family 73.—DASYPODIDÆ. (6 Genera, 17 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
1. 2. 3 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

The Dasypodidæ, or armadillos, are a highly characteristic Neotropical family, ranging from the northern extremity of the region {246}in south Texas, to 50° south latitude on the plains of Patagonia. The distribution of the genera is as follows:—Tatusia (5 sp.), has the range of the whole family from the lower Rio Grande of Texas to Patagonia; Prionodontes (1 sp.), the giant armadillo, Surinam to Paraguay; Dasypus (4 sp.), Brazil to Bolivia, Chili, and La Plata; Xenurus (3 sp.), Guiana to Paraguay; Tolypeutes (2 sp.), the three-banded armadillos, Bolivia and La Plata; Chlamydophorus (2 sp.), near Mendoza in La Plata, and Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Bolivia.

Extinct Armadillos.—Many species of Dasypus and Xenurus have been found in the caves of Brazil, together with many extinct genera—Hoplophorus, Euryodon, Heterodon, Pachytherium, and Chlamydotherium, the latter as large as a rhinoceros. Eutatus, allied to Tolypeutes, is from the Pliocene deposits of La Plata.

Family 74.—ORYCTEROPODIDÆ. (1 Genus, 2 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — — — — 1 — 3 — — — — — — — — —

The Aard-vark, or Cape ant-eater (Orycteropus capensis) is a curious form of Edentate animal, with the general form of an ant-eater, but with the bristly skin and long obtuse snout of a pig. A second species inhabits the interior of North-East Africa and Senegal, that of the latter country perhaps forming a third species (Plate IV. vol. i. p. 261).

Extinct Orycteropodidæ.—The genus Macrotherium, remains of which occur in the Miocene deposits of France, Germany, and Greece, is allied to this group, though perhaps forming a separate family. The same may be said of the Ancylotherium, a huge animal found only in the Miocene deposits of Greece.

{247}

Family 75.—MYRMECOPHAGIDÆ. (3 Genera, 5 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
1. 2. 3 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

The true ant-eaters are strictly confined to the wooded portions of the Neotropical region, ranging from Honduras to Paraguay on the East side of the Andes. The three genera now generally admitted are: Myrmecophaga (1 sp.), the great ant-eater, Northern Brazil to Paraguay; Tamandua (2 sp.), 4-toed ant-eaters, Guatemala, Ecuador to Paraguay (Plate XIV. vol. ii. p. 24); Cyclothurus (2 sp.), 2-toed ant-eaters, Honduras and Costa Rica to Brazil.

Extinct Ant-eaters.—The only extinct form of this family seems to be the Glossotherium, found in the caves of Brazil, and the Tertiary deposits of Uruguay. It is said to be allied to Myrmecophaga and Manis.

General Remarks on the Distribution of the Edentata.

These singular animals are almost confined to South America, where they constitute an important part of the fauna. In Africa, two family types are scantily represented, and one of these extends over all the Oriental region. In Pliocene and Post-Pliocene times the Edentata were wonderfully developed in South America, many of them being huge animals, rivalling in bulk, the rhinoceros and hippopotamus. As none of these forms resemble those of Africa, while the only European fossil Edentata are of African type, it seems probable that South Africa, like South America, was a centre of development for this group of mammalia; and it is in the highest degree probable that, should extensive fluviatile deposits of Pliocene or Miocene age be discovered in the former country, an extinct fauna, not less strange and grotesque than that of South America, will be brought to {248}light. From the fact that so few remains of this order occur in Europe, and those of one family type, and in Miocene deposits only, it seems a fair conclusion, that this represents an incursion of an ancient Ethiopian form into Europe analogous to that which invaded North America from the south during the Post-Pliocene epoch. The extension of the Manididæ, or scaly ant-eaters, over tropical Asia may have occurred at the same, or a somewhat later epoch.

For a summary of the Numerous Edentata of North and South America which belong to extinct families, see vol. i. p. 147.

Order XII.—MARSUPIALIA.

Family 76.—DIDELPHYIDÆ. (3 Genera, 22 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
1. 2. 3 — 1 — 3 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

The Didelphyidæ, or true opossums, range throughout all the wooded districts of the Neotropical region from the southern boundary of Texas to the River La Plata, and on the west coast to 42° S. Lat., where a species of Didelphys was obtained by Professor Cunningham. One species only is found in the Nearctic region, extending from Florida to the Hudson River, and west to the Missouri. The species named Didelphys californica inhabits Mexico, and only extends into the southern extremity of California. The species are most numerous in the great forest region of Brazil, and they have been recently found to the west of the Andes near Guayaquil, as well as in Chili. The exact number of species is very doubtful, owing to the difficulty of determining them from dried skins. All but two belong to the genus Didelphys, which has the range above given for the family (Plate XIV., vol. ii. p. 24); Chironectes (1 sp.), the yapock or water opossum, inhabits Guiana and Brazil; Hyracodon (1 sp.), is a small {249}rat-like animal discovered by Mr. Fraser in Ecuador, and which may perhaps belong to another family.

Extinct Didelphyidæ.—No less than seven species of Didelphys have been found in the caves of Brazil, but none in the older formations. In North America the living species only, has been found in Post-Pliocene deposits. In Europe, however, many species of small opossums, now classed as a distinct genus, Peratherium, have been found in various Tertiary deposits from the Upper Miocene to the Upper Eocene.

We have here a sufficient proof that the American Marsupials have nothing to do with those of Australia, but were derived from Europe, where their ancestors lived during a long series of ages.

Family 77.—DASYURIDÆ. (10 Genera, 30 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 1. 2 — —

The Dasyuridæ, or native cats, are a group of carnivorous or insectivorous marsupials, ranging from the size of a wolf to that of a mouse. They are found all over Australia and Tasmania, as well as in New Guinea and the adjacent Papuan islands. Several new genera and species have recently been described by Mr. G. Krefft, of the Sydney Museum, and are included in the following enumeration. Phascogale (3 sp.), New Guinea, West, East, and South Australia; Antechinomys (1 sp.), Interior of South Australia; Antechinus (12 sp.), Aru Islands, all Australia, and Tasmania; Chætocercus (1 sp.), South Australia; Dactylopsila (1 sp.), Aru Islands and North Australia; Podabrus (5 sp.), West, East, and South Australia, and Tasmania; Myoictis (1 sp.), Aru Islands; Sarcophilus (1 sp.), Tasmania; Dasyurus (4 sp.), North, East, and South, Australia, and Tasmania; Thylacinus (1 sp.), Tasmania (Plate XI., vol. i. p. 439).

Extinct species of Dasyurus and Thylacinus have been found in the Post-Pliocene deposits of Australia.

{250}

Family 78.—MYRMECOBIIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 2 — —

The only representative of this family is the Myrmecobius fasciatus, or native ant-eater, a small bushy-tailed squirrel-like animal, found in the South and West of Australia.

Family 79.—PERAMELIDÆ. (3 Genera, 10 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 1. 2 — —

The Peramelidæ, or bandicoots, are small insectivorous Marsupials, having something of the form of the kangaroos. They range over the whole of Australia and Tasmania, as well as the Papuan Islands. The genus Perameles (8 sp.), has the range of the family, one species being found in New Guinea and the Aru Islands (Plate XI., vol. i. p. 440); Peragalea (1 sp.), inhabits West Australia only; and Chœropus (1 sp.), a beautiful little animal with something of the appearance of a mouse-deer, is found in both South, East, and West Australia.

Family 80.—MACROPODIDÆ. (10 Genera, 56 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 1. 2 — —
{251}

The well-known Kangaroos are the most largely developed family of Marsupials, and they appear to be the form best adapted for the present conditions of life in Australia, over every part of which they range. One genus of true terrestrial kangaroos (Dorcopsis), inhabits the Papuan Islands, as do also the curious tree kangaroos (Dendrolagus) which, without much apparent modification of form, are able to climb trees and feed upon the foliage. The genera, as established by Mr. Waterhouse, are as follows: Macropus (4 sp.), West, South, and East Australia, and Tasmania (Plate XII., vol. i. p. 441); Osphranter (5 sp.), all Australia; Halmaturus (18 sp.), all Australia and Tasmania; Petrogale (7 sp.), all Australia; Dendrolagus (2 sp.), New Guinea (Plate X., vol. i. p. 414); Dorcopsis (2 sp.) Aru and Mysol Islands, and New Guinea; Onychogalea (3 sp.), Central Australia; Lagorchestes (5 sp.), North, West, and South Australia; Bettongia (6 sp.), West, South, and East, Australia, and Tasmania; Hypsiprymnus (4 sp.), West and East Australia, and Tasmania.

Extinct Macropodidæ.—Many species of the genera Macropus and Hypsiprymnus have been found in the cave-deposits and other Post-Tertiary strata of Australia. Among the extinct genera are Protemnodon and Sthenurus, which are more allied to the tree-kangaroos of New Guinea than to living Australian species; the gigantic Diprotodon, a kangaroo nearly as large as an elephant; and Nototherium, of smaller size.

Family 81.—PHALANGISTIDÆ. (8 Genera, 27 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 1. 2 — —

The Phalangistidæ, or phalangers, are one of the most varied and interesting groups of Marsupials, being modified in a variety of ways for an arboreal life. We have the clumsy-looking tail-less koala, or native sloth; the prehensile-tailed opossum-like phalangers; the beautiful flying oppossums, so closely resembling {252}in form the flying squirrels of North America and India, but often no larger than a mouse; the beautiful dormouse-like Dromiciæ, one species of which is only 2¼ inches long or less than the harvest-mouse; and the little Tarsipes, a true honey-sucker with an extensile tongue, and of the size of a mouse. These extreme modifications and specializations within the range of a single family, are sufficient to indicate the great antiquity of the Australian fauna; and they render it almost certain that the region it occupied was once much more extensive, so as to supply the variety of conditions and the struggle between competing forms of life, which would be required to develop so many curiously modified forms, of which we now probably see only a remnant.

The Phalangistidæ not only range over all Australia and Tasmania, but over the whole of the Austro-Malayan sub-region from New Guinea to the Moluccas and Celebes. The distribution of the genera is as follows:—Phascolarctos (1 sp.), the koala, East Australia; Phalangista (5 sp.), East, South, and West Australia, and Tasmania; Cuscus (8 sp.), woolly phalangers, New Guinea, North Australia, Timor, Moluccas and Celebes; Petaurista (1 sp.) large flying phalanger, East Australia; Belideus (5 sp.), flying opossums, South, East, and North Australia, New Guiana and Moluccas; Acrobata (1 sp.), pigmy flying opossum, South and East Australia; Dromicia (5 sp.), dormouse-phalangers, West and East Australia, and Tasmania; Tarsipes (1 sp.), West Australia.

Thylacoleo, a large extinct marsupial of doubtful affinities, seems to be somewhat intermediate between this family and the kangaroos. Professor Owen considered it to be carnivorous, and able to prey upon the huge Diprotodon, while Professor Flower and Mr. Gerard Krefft, believe that it was herbivorous.

Family 82.—PHASCOLOMYIDÆ. (1 Genus, 3 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 2 — —
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The Wombats are tail-less, terrestrial, burrowing animals, about the size of a badger, but feeding on roots and grass. They inhabit South Australia and Tasmania (Plate XI. vol. i. p. 439).

An extinct wombat, as large as a tapir, has been found in the Australian Pliocene deposits.

General Remarks on the Distribution of Marsupialia.

We have here the most remarkable case, of an extensive and highly varied order being confined to one very limited area on the earth's surface, the only exception being the opossums in America. It has been already shown that these are comparatively recent immigrants, which have survived in that country long after they disappeared in Europe. As, however, no other form but that of the Didelphyidæ occurs there during the Tertiary period, we must suppose that it was at a far more remote epoch that the ancestral forms of all the other Marsupials entered Australia; and the curious little mammals of the Oolite and Trias, offer valuable indications as to the time when this really took place.

A notice of these extinct marsupials of the secondary period will be found at vol. i. p. 159.

Order XIII.—MONOTREMATA.

Family 83.—ORNITHORHYNCHIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.
Oriental
Sub-regions.
Australian
Sub-regions.
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 2 — —

The Ornithorhynchus, or duck-billed Platypus, one of the most remarkable and isolated of existing mammalia, is found in East and South Australia, and Tasmania.

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Family 84.—ECHIDNIDÆ. (1 Genus, 2 Species.)

General Distribution.
brace
Neotropical
Sub-regions.
Nearctic
Sub-regions.
Palæarctic
Sub-regions.
Ethiopian
Sub-regions.