Milwaukee, Wis.: THE AUTHOR.






Electrotyped and Printed by the Germania Pub. Co., Milwaukee, Wis.



The main object of this Gothic Grammar is to render service to academic instruction, as a basis for lectures and Gothic excercises; it is intended, at the same time, to afford the student sufficient aid in acquiring a practical knowledge of the Gothic language and thus enable him to follow more advantageously the lectures on historical and comparativ grammar. For this purpose the Gothic Fonology and Inflection ar, as far as possibl, set forth by themselves, without resorting to Comparativ Grammar for an explanation of the facts. Occasionally another Germanic dialect, as the Old High German, has rather been referd to. The linguistic elucidation is left to the lectures. To him, however, who lerns Gothic from this book, without any possibility of hearing lectures, wishing at the same time to gain profounder knowledge, there may be especially recommanded the following helps: K. Brugmann's 'Grundriss der vergleichenden grammatik' and Fr. Kluge's 'Vorgeschichte der altgermanischen dialekte' (in Paul's 'Grundriss der germ. philologie', I, 300-406).

The references to literary works containd in the Grammar itself ar not intended to act as linguistic explanations, but refer to works and treatises which present much of profit concerning the establishment and conception of facts from a purely Gothic point of view; several references to Brugmann's 'Grundriss' ar perhaps the only exceptions.

The Reading Exercises ar intended to offer sufficient material for Gothic exercises; they giv students working independently of a teacher an opportunity to apply what they hav lernd from the Grammar. The beginner may be {IV}advized at first simply to read over the chapters on Fonology, but to giv more attention to those on Inflection (for the beginning without the notes) and then to commence reading a text. This exercise ought to be accumpanied by a more extended lerning of the Grammar, just as a thuro analysis of the text wil require a constant reference to the Grammar.

The Glossary contains not only the vocabulary of the Reading Exercises, but also all words occurring in the Grammar. The citations from the Inflection hav been givn in ful, those from the Fonology in every case where a word is not givn merely as an arbitrary chozen exampl. Thus the Glossary may at the same time serv as an Index to the Grammar.

Sinse its first appearance in 1880, this book has not undergone essential changes; the success seemd to me to garantee the appropriateness of the plan, so that also in the present edition I hav not complied with several wishes for a farther scope. I stil hold that an admixture of elements from Comparativ Filology would be opposed to the object of the book. The question could rather arize as to whether there ought not to be added any chapters on Word-Formation and Syntax as main parts to the Fonology and Inflection. However this also has been disregarded. Such points of word-formation as may promote the practical study of the Gothic language, wil be found interwoven in the Inflection; a systematic presentation of the Gothic alone does not seem to me to prove very beneficial, but only in connection with the other Germanic, resp. Indo-Germanic, languages. And particularly with respect to this, excellent assistance is afforded the student by Kluge's 'Nominale stammbildungslehre der altgermanischen dialekte' (cp. 223) which has been amply referd to under Inflection, and which is easily accessibl as a supplementary number to the 'Sammlung kurzer grammatiken germanischer dialekte'. The addition of a syntax in harmony with the rest of the grammar would likely hav increast the book to dubl its size, which, as regards its sale, seemd to me a point wurthy of consideration. There are, moreover, easily attainabl summaries of the Gothic language. {V}Therefore I hav for the present contented myself with annexing a list of grammatical and lexical helps ( 224), which may serv as a guide to the inquirer.

For this edition I hav again receivd kind informations from sum that uze the book. Beside the correction of misprints, the contents of the book has been favorably influenced by notes receivd from Mssrs. G. H. Balg, R. Bethge, J. Franck, and M. H. Jellinek. I herewith express my sincerest thanks to all. Mr. Roediger's review has also been thankfully uzed. For assistance renderd me in correcting the proof-sheets, I ow many thanks to my friend E. Sievers.

Heidelberg, May 1st, 1895.




The present edition contains all of the latest (fourth) German edition and such additional matter as has been deemd fit to enable the student to lern Gothic more quickly than he would without it. The addition of the Explanatory Notes and of the comprehensiv amplification of the Glossary has, in a mezure, been suggested and desired by many. At first it was intended to ad explanatory notes only, leaving the glossary intact. But from numerous communications I lernd that the present glossary must be welcum to many, if not all, students of Gothic.

In writing down the Notes I hav taken great pains to place myself in the position of the beginner, and it is hoped that the more advanced student wil pardon what might seem superfluous to him. Sum of the explanations ar due to Bernhardt's critical notes in his 'Wulfila' to which I hav often referd. The Notes wer much more comprehensiv before the glossary was workt out, but many of them hav been transferd to the latter, in a few cases without being deleted in their first place, as I observd in reading the proof-sheets. The Glossary has been prepared upon the following plan: It is strictly alfabetic. The compound verbs ar mentiond with the simpl verbs. Many inflectional forms which the beginner who has not yet fully masterd the declensions and conjugations, is not likely to recognize in the texts, hav been givn as vocabulary words. The inflection of every word is indicated by figures in parentheses. The figures in () immediately after the vocabulary words refer to the paragrafs on Fonology. Proper nouns hav been inflected in full inasmuch as they occur in the Selections. The references to the texts ar complete and may be regarded as the first supplement to my 'Comparativ Glossary of the Gothic Language'. Tho admitting accidental omissions in this respect, I am certain that the references ar more complete than those of any other glossary. This {VIII}tiresum work has cost me much time and labor, but I hope soon to be able to continue and complete it for the remaining part of the Gothic texts.

In the square brackets the derivation of the Gothic words is givn first; then follow the correspondences or cognates, both being, with one or two exceptions, Germanic. The cognates ar always preceded by cp. or cf. It is possibl, however, that I hav faild in sum cases to point out the transference of a word from one declension or conjugation to another.

This part of the book makes no claim to completeness. Several articls had been laid aside for further consideration, but professional and other duties as wel as the sudden appearance of the German edition ar the causes of leaving them untucht. As regards derivation and composition, the student wil do wel by reading carefully 79-82 and 88a together with the notes. To point out the various root-grades from which words are derived, is left to the lecturer.

The translation of the Grammar was made from the advanced plate proofs for which I am obliged to the eminent author, Prof. Wm. Braune, who kindly and promptly forwarded them to me. Altho this part of the work was done as fast as it was demanded by the printer, I feel sure that nothing has been omitted. In this respect I am indetted to my wife and one of my pupils, Miss Matilda Uihlein who, in comparing my translation with the German text, red the latter from the beginning to the end. Another pupil, Miss Ida Uihlein, is to be credited for the translation of Prof. Braune's preface, which could be sent to press with comparativly few emendations.

Beside the books often cited in the square brackets and in the Notes I have thankfully uzed Mayhew and Skeat's Midl English Dictionary, Skeat's Etymological Dictionary, and Mac Lean's Old and Midl English Reader.

Milwaukee, Aug. 15th, 1895.



Fonology. Page
Chap. I. Alfabet ( 1-2) 1
Chap. II. Vowels ( 3-27) 3
Chap. III. Table of the Vowels ( 28-36) 14
A. Fonetic System ( 28).
B. Historical System ( 29-36).
Chap. IV. Consonants ( 37-82) 18
A. Sonorous Consonants ( 38-50).
B. Noizd Sounds ( 51-78).
 Labials ( 51-56).
 Gutturals ( 57-68).
 Dentals ( 69-78).
Appendix. General Remarks on the Consonants
  ( 79-82).
Chap. I. Declension of Substantivs ( 83-120) 37
General Remarks ( 83-88).
A. Vowel (Strong) Declension ( 89-106).
B. N-Declension (Weak Declension) ( 107-113).
C. Minor Declensions ( 114-118).
Appendix. Declension of Foren Words ( 119-120).
Chap. II. Declension of Adjectivs ( 121-139) 51
A. Strong Adjectivs ( 122-139).
B. Weak Adjectivs ( 132).
C. Declension of Participls ( 133-134).
D. Comparison of Adjectivs ( 135-139).
Chap. III. Numerals ( 140-149) 58
Chap. IV. Pronouns ( 150-166) 61
Chap. V. Conjugation ( 167-209) 66
III. Strong Verbs ( 169-182).
III. Weak Verbs ( 183-195).
III. Irregular Verbs ( 196-209).
Chap. VI. Particls ( 210-219) 85
Appendix. The Goths, Sources, Editions, Grammatical and
 Lexical Helps, Literature of the Goth. Syntax ( 220-224)
Selections for Reading 97
Explanatory Notes 117
Glossary 135


anv., anomalous verb.

cf. or cp., compare.

E., English.

follg., following.

G., German.

Gr., Greek.

Idg., Indo-Germanic.

Lt., Latin.

ME., Midl English.

MHG., Midl High German.

NE., New English.

NHG., New High German.

Nth., Northumbrian.

OE., Old English.

OHG., Old High German.

ON., Old Norse.

OS., Old Saxon.

pp., past participl.

prec., preceding.

prsp., present participl.

prt.-prs., preterit present.

Sc., Scotch.

Shak., Shakspere.

Sp., Spenser.

sta., strong adjectiv.

stv., strong verb.

th. s., the same.

w., with or word.

wa., weak adjectiv.

wv., weak verb.

<, from; >, whense.

Anz. fda., Anzeiger fr deutsches alterthum, s. Zs. fda.

Beitr., Beitrge zur geschichte der deutschen sprache und literatur. Halle 1874 ff.

Bezzenb. beitr., Beitrge zur kunde der indogerm. sprachen, hg. v. A. Bezzenberger. Gttingen 1875 ff.

Brugm., Grundriss der vergleichenden grammatik der indog. sprachen von K. Brugmann (Engl. edition). Strassburg 1886-92.

Dietrich, aussprache des got., s. 2 n. 1.

Germ., Germania hg. von Pfeiffer-Bartsch-Behaghel (1856-92).

Grundr., Grundriss der germ. philologie, hg. v. H. Paul. Strassburg 1889-93.

IF, Indogerm. forschungen, hg. v. K. Brugmann und W. Streitberg. Strassburg 1892 ff.

Kl. W., Kluge, Wrterbuch.

Kuhns zs., Zeitschrift fr vergleichende sprachforschung. Berlin 1852 ff.

Litbl., Literaturblatt fr germ. und roman. philologie. Heilbronn 1880 ff.

Sk., Skeat, Etymological Dictionary.

vB., von Bahder, Verbalabstracta.

Wrede, Wand., Sprache der Wandalen, s. 220 n. 4.

Wrede, Ostg., Sprache der Ostgoten, s. 221 n. 4.

Zs. fda., Zeitschrift fr deutsches alterthum. Berlin 1841 ff. With this sinse vol. 19: Anzeiger fr d. alt. Berlin 1876 ff.

Zs. fdph., Zeitschrift fr deutsche philologie. Halle 1869 ff.




1. The monuments of the Gothic language ar handed down to us in a peculiar alfabet which, according to Greek ecclesiastic writers, was invented by Wulfila (s. 221). The Gothic alfabet, however, is not entirely a new creation, but Wulfila based it on the Greek alfabet which he accomodated to the Gothic sounds, increasing it by several signs from the Latin alfabet, and, in a few cases, availing himself of the familiar runic alfabet. Of the Greek alfabet he also retaind the order and numerical value. The Gothic alfabet is now sufficiently represented in Roman letters. In the following we giv in the first line the original Gothic characters, in the second their numerical values, in the third the transliteration of the Gothic characters by Roman letters, which latter we shall uze exclusivly in this book.

a b g d e q z h th
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
a b g d e q z h
i k l m n j u p 90
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
i k l m n j u p
r s t w f ch hv o 900
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
r s t w f χ ƕ o

Note 1. Of these signs one (i, 10) is represented by two forms. The i without dots occurs oftener, the i with dots stands at the beginning of a word, and in the midl of a word after a vowel, to show that it forms a syllabl for itself and does not form a difthong with the preceding vowel; e. g., frati (= fra-iti). In transliteration i is employd thruout.

Note 2. Two characters, the Greek episema 'koppa' (90) and 'sampi' (900), hav no fonetic values, but serv only as numerals. When the symbols denote numerals, they ar markt by a horizontal stroke abuv them, or by dots before and after them: ib or ib = 12.

Note 3. The transliteration of the Gothic symbols is not alike in all cases. Most editors hav hitherto uzed v for w ( 39, n. 1); for the singl symbols q ( 39, n. 1) and ƕ ( 63) we find kv or qu and hv or w, respectivly; for , which is borrowd from the Norse-A.-S. alfabet, also th occurs ( 70, n. 1).

Note 4. The Gothic monuments show but few abbreviations; the holy names, gu, frauja, isus, Χristus, ar always abbreviated. Abbreviations ar denoted by a stroke abuv the word, but in our texts the abbreviated words ar uzually printed in ful; as, g = gu, fa, fins = frauja, fraujins.—For more on this point, s. Gabelentz-Loebe's grammar, p. 19 et seq.

Note 5. The Goths alredy had the Germanic runic letters before Wulfila. The names of these letters wer uzed also for the new characters. The names of the Gothic symbols, together with a few Gothic words and alfabets, ar preservd in a Salzburg-Vienna manuscript of the 9th century: W. Grimm, 'Wiener Jahrbcher der Litteratur 43', p. 4 et seq. Massmann, zs. fda. 1, p. 296 et seq.—The form of the names, however, is very corrupt. As to this, cp. A. Kirchhoff, 'Das Gotische Runenalphabet', 2nd edit., Berlin 1854; J. Zacher, 'Das Gotische Alphabet Vulfilas und das Runenalphabet', Leipzig 1855.—Of special importance is Wimmer's treatis on Wulfila's alfabet, as 'Appendix I' to his book: 'Die Runenschrift', Berlin 1887, pp. 259-274.

2. Of the 27 characters two hav only numerical values, ( 1, n. 2), a third, the χ, is retaind only in Greek foren words, especially in the name 'Christus', and denotes no Gothic sound. Hense there remain the following 24 characters whose fonetic values ar to be determind:

(a) Consonants:

p   b   f   m   w  |  t   d     s   z   n   l   r  |  k   q   g   h   ƕ   j.

(b) Vowels:

a   e   i   o   u.

(c) Difthongs:

ei   iu   ai   au.

In determining the fonetic values of these characters we ar guided by the following means: (1) The Gothic alfabet is based on the Greek alfabet; hense, the pronunciation of {3}the Greek letters to be determind for the 4th century, must also be regarded as that of the Gothic letters so long as there is no proof to the contrary. (2) The rendition of the numerous Greek foren words and proper nouns by Wulfila. (3) The transliteration of the Gothic proper nouns in Latin documents and by Latin authors of the 4th-8th centuries. (4) The testimony of the cognate Germanic languages. (5) Fonetic changes and grammatical fenomena in the Gothic language itself permit us to draw conclusions about the nature of the sounds.

Note 1. Concerning the pronunciation of the Gothic letters, cp. Weingrtner, 'Die Aussprache des Gotischen zur Zeit des Ulfilas', Leipzig 1858; Fr. Dietrich, 'Ueber die Aussprache des Gotischen whrend der Zeit seines Bestehens', Marburg 1862; about the consonants, Paul, 'Zur Lautverschiebung', Beitr. 1, p. 147 et seq.

Note 2. An old testimony for the Gothic pronunciation in the Salzburg-Vienna MS.:

uuortun otan auar euangeliu ther lucam
waurun uan afar aiwaggeljo airh Lokan
uuorthun auar thuo iachuedant iachuatun
waurun afar o jah qeun.

ubi dicit. genuit .j. ponitur ubi gabriel .g. ponunt et alia his sim ubi aspiratione . ut dicitur gah libeda jah libaida diptongon ai pro e longa p ch q ponunt.—Cp. 1, n. 5, and, for explanation, especially Kirchhoff, p. 20 et seq.



3. The Gothic a signifies as a rule the short a-sound [as in G. mann].

Note 1. Foren words and names; as, Annas, Ἀννας; Akaja, Ἀκαΐα; barbarus, βάρβαρος; aggilus, ἄγγελος; karkara, carcer; lukarn, lucerna; Kafarnaum, Καπερναούμ.

Note 2. Gothic names: Athanaricus, Ariaricus, Amalafrigda (Ammian.)

4. Short a is very frequent both in stem-syllabls and in inflection. E. g.

(a) Stem-syllabls: agis, aw; aljis, 'alius'; tagr, tear; aƕa, 'aqua'; alan, to grow; hafjan, to heav; saltan, to salt; haldan, to hold; waldan, to rule; fadar, father; stas, place.—ahtau, 'octo'; gasts, guest; ƕaar, 'uter'; awistr, sheepfold (OHG. au, 'ovis'; ahd. gr., 219, n. 3); bandi, band; barn, child; saggws, song; all preterits of the III.—V. {4}ablaut-series: bar, I bore; hlaf, I stole; band, I bound; gaf, I gave, etc.

(b) Inflections: daga (dat. sg., 90), warda (nom. acc. pl., 93), giba (nom. acc. sg., 96), guma (nom. sg., 107), hartna (nom. acc. pl., 109);—blindamma, blindana, blinda, blindata (str. adj., 123);—imma, ina, ita, ija, meina (prn.; 150 et seq.);—nima (1st pers. sg. prs. ind.); nimaima, nimaiwa, nimaina (1st pers. pl. du. and 3d pers. pl. opt., 170); haitada (medio-passiv, 170); skida (weak prt., 184);—adverbs: -ba (as, glaggwuba), nƕa, inna, ana, wala, etc.

Note 1. Apocope of an unaccented a before enclitics: at-ist, at-ei, an-uh, amm-uh, an-ei, amm-ei, kar-ist.—Also frt and frtum (prt. of fra-itan, to devour, 176, n. 3).

Note 2. For a in the difthongs ai, au, s. 21. 25.

5. In a few cases a is long [as in E. father]. (Comp. Holtzmann, Altd. Gr., I, 3 et seq.).

(a) In foren words: Silbnus (Silvanus), aurli (orale), spakultur (speculator), Peiltus, etc.;

(b) In the following Gothic words: fhan (OHG. fhan), to cach; hhan (OHG. hhan), to hang; hta (prt. of agkjan, to think); brhta (prt. of briggan, to bring); gafhs, a haul; farhh, curtain; gahhj, in order; -ghts, a going; also h (OHG. dha), clay; unwhs, blameless (OE. wh, wrong).

Note. In the words mentiond under (b) h arose from anh ( 50, n. 1). Cp. also Litbl. 1886, p. 485.


6. e is always a long, close vowel () approaching very much the sound of i [as in E. they].

Note 1. In Greek words η is regularly represented by ; e. g., Gabril, Kfas, akklsj, Krta;—sumtimes also ι: Nan, Ναίν; Tykkus, Τυχικός; alo, ἐλωί; likewise ε: Jard, Ἰαρέδ.

Note 2. In Gothic names Latin writers employ e for Gothic : Sigismres, Gelimr, Reccard; besides, as erly as the 6th century, quite regularly also i; as, Theodemir, Valamir. Cp. Beitr., 11, 7 et seq.; Wrede, Wand., 92 et seq.

7. Goth. (which regularly corresponds to OHG. and OS. ; ahd. gr., 34) is found:

(a) in reduplicating verbs, in part with the ablaut ( 179. 181): grtan, ltan, slpan; (b) in the prt. pl. of {5}the IV. and V. ablaut-series: stum (inf. sitan, to sit), nmun (inf. niman, to take), tmum (inf. timan, to befit), tum (inf. itan), and in the prt. sg. frt; Luc. XV, 30 ( 176, n. 3); (c) in derivativs from the verbal stems givn under (b); as, andanms, agreeabl; andanm, a receiving; gatmiba, becumingly; uzta, manger; (d) in other words; as, jr, year; qns, wife; mna, moon; lkeis, fysician; mrjan, to preach; manass ('man-seed'), world, etc.; (e) in formativ syllabls: fahs, joy; awi, flock of sheep (cp. however 17, n. 1); azts, easy; 2nd pers. sg. prt. of wvs., -ds (nasids, 184); (f) final: in the ending of the gen. pl.; as, dag; in monosyllabic instrumentals: , ƕ ( 153. 159); in particls and advs.; as, sw, unt, hidr, bisunjan; lastly, in the dativs ƕammh, ƕarjammh, ainumm-hun (cp. 163-166).

Note 1. before vowels appears as ai; s. 22.

Note 2. ei occurs quite often for , especially in the Gospel of St. Luke; as, qeins (= qns), faheid (= fahd), fraleitais (= fraltais); Lu. II, 5. 10. 29; afleitan; Mt. IX, 6, etc.

Note 3. Sporadically also i for ; so, frequently, in the Gospel of St. Lu.; as, birusjs; Lu. II, 41; qieina; VIII, 56. IX, 21; tawidideina; VI, 11; duatsniwun; Mk. VI, 53. Only i is found in wrius, herd; Lu. VIII, 33 (for wrus; cp. Bezzenb. Beitr. 3, 114).

Note 4. Reversely, also e occurs for i and ei ( 10, n. 5; 17, n. 1).—These deviations (in ns. 2-4) seem due to East Gothic writers; cp. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 161.

8. From the preceding must be separated the of sum Gothic words in which it corresponds to OHG. ea, ia (not ): hr, here; Krks, Greek; fra, side, region; ms, table. Cp. ahd. gr., 35. 36; Beitr., 18, 409 et seq.


9. Gothic i, as a rule, denotes the short vowel i [as in E. it], while its corresponding long sound is represented by ei [= ie in E. believ]; s. 16.

Note 1. The i in Greek words stands for short ι, only exceptionally for η which is generally represented by ; e. g., Anisimus, Ὀνήσιμος; Biania, Βηθανία.

Note 2. i in Gothic words is long, when it is incorrectly employd for (cp. 7, n. 3).

10. The Gothic i, from an historical point of view, is of two kinds: It represents two originally distinct sounds {6}which, from a purely Gothic standpoint, can not be separated.

(a) Goth. i = proethnic Germanic e (OHG. or i; cp. ahd. gr., 28-30, as in the prs. tense of verbs of the III.-V. ablaut-series ( 32-34): niman, OHG. nman; giban, OHG. gban; giba, OHG. gba; bindan, OHG. bintan; itan, to eat; midjis, 'medius'; hlifan, to steal; swistar, OHG. swster; fidwr, four; gifts, gift; -qiss, speech; the pps. of the V. ablaut-series: gibans, itans, lisans, wigans, qians.

(b) Goth. i = proethnic Germanic i (OHG. i; ahd. gr., 31); e. g., lists, stratagem; fisks, fish; is, he; wissa, I knew; skritnan, to rend (intr.); prt. pl. and pp. of the verbs of the I. ablaut-series ( 30): bitun, bitans (inf. beitan); stigun, stigans (inf. steigan); liun, lians (inf. leian).

Note 1. Final i occurs in ni, bi, si, hiri; in the nominativs of feminin and neuter j-stems: bandi ( 96), kuni ( 93); in the acc. and voc. sg. of the masculin j-stems: hari ( 90); 3d pers. sg. prt. opt.: nmi. This final i appears as j, when it becums medial ( 45).

Note 2. Final i before a following i of an enclitic word is elided in nist (= ni-ist), sei (= si-ei), niba (= ni-iba).

Note 3. Every i before h and r is broken to a; cp. 20.

Note 4. ij is found in ija, 'eam'; rija, 'tria'; fijan, to hate; frijn, to luv; sijum, we ar; kijans, germinated, etc. i for ij is rare: fian, sium, etc., but friawa (beside frijawa), luv, occurs very often.

Note 5. Occasionally e takes the place of i; as, usdrebi; Mk. V, 10; seneigana; I. Tim. V, 1.

Note 6. For i in the difthong iu, s. 18. 19.

Note 7. For a separation of the two is (= OHG. and i) in East Gothic names, s. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 162.


11. The Gothic character o always denotes a long close o approaching sumwhat the sound of (= o in E. home).

Note 1. In Greek words o, as a rule, corresponds to ω, rarely to ο; e. g., Makidonja, Μακεδονία; it also stands for ου: Iodas, Ἰούδας; Lu. III, 26.

Note 2. o in Gothic words often stands for (short) u ( 14, n. 3).

12. (= OHG. uo; s. ahd. gr., 38 et seq.) is frequent in Gothic words. E. g., brar, brother; bka, beech; frs, wise; fldus, flud; ftus, foot.

In the prt. of the VI. series ( 35) and of the --series ( 36): l, hf, g, pl. lum, hfum, gum; lalt, laltum, {7}sas. In endings, as in nom. pl. gibs, dags; wvs. II.: salbn; final, in gen. pl. f. gib, tuggn; nom. sg. tugg, hart. Prns.: ƕ, , s, ƕan-h, ainn-hun, ƕarjan-h. Verb salb. Advs. in - ( 211).

Note 1. For we sumtimes find u: gakrtda (inf. krtn), he is crusht; Lu. XX, 18; htdun (prs. g), they feard; Mk. XI, 32.—In East Gothic names u often takes the place of ; s. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 164.

Note 2. In a few words before vowels becums au; s. 26.

Note 3. and u interchange in the inflection of fn, gen. funins ( 118). Concerning this and other relations between and u, cp. Beitr. 6, 377 et seq.; 564; also Kuhns Zs., 26, 16 et seq.


13. The letter u in Gothic denotes both a short and a long vowel; the short u, however, occurs oftener than long .

Note 1. u in foren words regularly represents Gr. ου. In unaccented syllabls, however, it stands for Gr. ο: diabulus, διάβολος (beside diabalus), apastulus (beside apastalus), pantkust, πεντηκοστή.

Note 2. u for seldom ( 12, n. 1), u for u ( 25, n. 3).

14. Short u is very frequent in Gothic. E. g.

(a) juk, yoke; sunus, sun; drus, fall; us-drusts, a falling; fra-lusts, lost; lusnan, to perish;—in the prt. pl. and pp. of the verbs of the II. series ( 31); e. g., gutum, gutans; lusum, lusans;—in endings of the sbs. of the u-decl.: handus, handu;—final, as in u, prn., thou; nu, now; -u (interr. particl).

(b) wulfs, wolf; wulla, wool; gaqums, council; gul, gold; swumfsl, pond; hund, 100; sibun, 7; tahun, 10; fulls, ful; un- (privativ prefix); in the prt. pl. and pp. of the verbs of the III. series ( 32): bundum, bundans; in the pp. of the verbs of the IV. series ( 33): numans, stulans.

brukans, broken; us-bruknan, to break off (intr.); trudan, to tred, pp. trudans; snutrs, wise.

Note 1. As a rule, the final u of stems is dropt before derivativ j-suffixes; e. g., -hardjan, to harden (< hardus); -agljan, to trubl (< aglus); manwjan, to prepare (< manwus); ufarassjan, to increase (< ufarassus); L. Meyer, 'Got. Spr.', p. 325 et seq. But skadwjan, to overshadow (< skadus), and skadweins, a shading (cp. Zs. fda. 36, 269).—Concerning u beside w, cp. 42.

Note 2. Every u before h and r is broken to a; cp. 24.


Note 3. u is eight times (mostly in Lu.) represented by o; e. g., lahmoni, lightning: Lu. XVII, 24; sunjos, suns; Lu. XVI, 8; ushfon; Lu. XVII, 13; ainomhun; Lu. VIII, 43; faho, muney; Mk. X, 23.

Note 4. In the endings of the u-declension u is occasionally represented by au; as, sunaus (nom. sg.); Lu. IV, 3; cp. 105, n. 2.

15. Long certainly appears in: (a) t, out (ta, etc.); db, duv; rna, mystery; rms, room, roomy; *ml (in farmljan, to muzl); brs, bride; hs, house; skra, shower; hltrs, pure; fls, foul; *mks (in mkamdei), meek; sundi, 1000; brkjan, to uze (prt. brhta; adj. brks); lkan, to lock ( 173, n. 2); hrkjan, to crow (s. Beitr., 6, 379); hn, sting (Icel. hna; s. Noreen, Nord. revy, April 1883).

(b) for nasalized u, the primitiv nasal being lost (cp. 5, b; 50, n. 1): hta (prt. of ugkjan, to think), htus, thought (adj. hts); hhrus, hunger; jhiza (compar. to juggs), yunger; htw, daybreak; hteigs, htiugs, seasonabl; bi-hts, accustomd (s. Brgm., I, 181).

Note 1. u is perhaps long in: rtsfill, leprosy (cp. ON. rtinn, swoln; OE. rstfell; Beitr., 9, 254); anabsns, commandment (Beitr., 9, 152 and 10, 497; Brgm., II, 287); lns, ransom (Brgm., II, 285); sts, sweet (OS. swti, OE. swte; cp. however Kuhn's Zs., 26, 380); the suff. -ds ( 103; cp. Beitr. 6, 380); js, ye ( 150; Brgm., III, 374. 398). Sum write also fidr- and -h (cp. 24, n. 2).

Note 2. In Rma, Rome, Rmneis, a Roman, stands for the Lt. o.

Note 3. o for occurs only in hteig; II. Tim. IV, 2 (in codex B, for hteig in A).

Note 4. For becuming au before vowels, s. 26, b.


16. Like Greek ει at the time of Wulfila, and in imitation of it, Gothic ei denotes long .

Note 1. In Greek words ei uzually stands for ι, but also for ει, and sumtimes for η.

Note 2. Concerning ei for Goth. , s. 7, n. 2.

Note 3. The difthongal pronunciation of ei suggested by J. Grimm is refuted also for linguistic reasons. Cp. J. Schmidt, 'Idg. Vocalismus', I, 485; Litbl. 1886, 485; Brgm., I, 57.

17. ei in stem syllabls of Gothic words occurs especially in the prs. tense of the I. series ( 30): beitan, to bite; steigan, to mount; eihan, to thrive; in the inflection of these verbs it interchanges with ai and i.


Other exampls: ƕeila, time; eisarn, iron; leiu, cider; reis, 3; leihts, light; weihs, holy; skeirs, clear; pronouns: weis, we; meins, eins, seins;—very often in formativ and inflectional syllabls; as, adjs. in -eigs (mahteigs, mighty); in -eins (aiweins, eternal); nomina actionis in -eins (laiseins, doctrin); nom. and gen. sg. of the m. ja-stems: hardeis, herd; laisareis, teacher; nom. pl. of the i-decl.: gasteis; opt. prt.: nmeis; final, in feminins in -ei: managei ( 113); imperativs: skei, etc. ( 186); the rel. particl ei ( 157), alone and in composition.

Note 1. ei is quite often represented by ; as aktis; Mt. XXVII, 48; whsa; Mk. VIII, 26. 27; ak; Gal. II, 14; iz; Mk. IX, 1. Lu. VIII, 13. 15, etc.—Here perhaps belongs also awi ( 7, e), which, however, occurs three times with : Jo. XVI, 16. I. Cor. IX, 7; cp. Beitr., 11, 32; 18, 286.

Note 2. Onse (in seiteina; II. Cor. XI, 28) occurs ei beside in (in sinteins, daily; sintein, always).

Note 3. Beside gabeigs, rich (gabei, riches), which occurs 5 times in Luke, also II. Cor. VIII, 9. Eph. II, 4 (in B), we find more frequently (11 times) gabigs (> gabigjan, to enrich; gabignan, to grow rich); cp. Brgm., II, 261. 271.


18. In the pronunciation of iu the stress is on the i, and u is a consonant.

Note 1. In Gothic words Latin writers render iu by eu, eo: Theudes, Theudicodo; Theodoricus. As to this, cp. Wrede, 'Wand.', 100 et seq.; 'Ostg.', 167.

Note 2. In sium ( 10, n. 4), niu (interr. particl = ni-u, 216) iu is dissyllabic, i. e. -.

19. iu is a normal vowel of the present tense of the II. series ( 31), and here it interchanges with the ablauts au, u: biugan, to bend; biudan, to offer.—In other words; as, iuda, peple; dius, animal; liuha, light; diups, deep; siuks, sick; niujis, new; niun, 9; iup, upward.—In formativ and inflectional syllabls iu does not occur, except in the isolated htiugs (I. Cor. XVI, 12. Cp. Beitr., 12, 202).

Note. In triu, tree; qiujan, to quicken, etc., iu interchanges with iw before an inflectional vowel: gen. triwis; prt. qiwida; cp. 42.


ai in Gothic words denotes two etymologically, and certainly also fonetically, different sounds.


20. I. The short vowel a [= a in E. fat]. ai is uzed in Gothic to denote a short, open e[1]-sound. In this case, according to Grimm's exampl, grammarians put an accute accent over the i (a) in order to distinguish it from i ( 21). Gothic ai corresponds to e or i in OHG. and in the other Germanic languages. The short e-sound represented by a occurs:

(1) before h (ƕ) and r, which sounds hav caused breaking of every preceding short i to e (a; 10, n. 3); e. g., ara, erth; warpan, to throw; barhts, bright; fahu, catl; mahstus, dung; rahts, right; tahun, 10; saƕan, to see; ahum (prt. pl. of eihan, to grow). (2) in reduplicated syllabls ( 178 et seq.): hahald, aaik, lalt, sas, etc. Cp. Osthoff, 'Zur Geschichte des Perfects', p. 276 et seq. Brugmann, IV, 15. (3) in the conj. aau, or (= OHG. ddo, ahd. gr. 167, n. 11; cp. Beitr. 12, 211); probably, also, in wala, wel (= OHG. wla, ahd. gr., 29, n. 4), but cp. Beitr. 11, 553.

Note 1. The law for the transition of i to ai before h and r (so-calld breaking or refraction) is almost without exception, and equally concerns the Germanic i in general and the Gothic is ( 10) in particular. The i before h, r, is retaind only in the following words: nih, 'neque' (= ni uh), hiri, (cum) here!; du. hirjats, pl. hirji (219); and in the isolated forms: sihu, victory (cp. 106, n. 1), arihis (a probably corrupt form in Mt. IX, 16), adj. in gen. sg., not fuld (said of cloth). Cp. IF. 4, 334 et seq.

Note 2. Not every ai before h, r is a, but may also be the old difthong; e. g., ih (prt. of eihan, like ris, prt. of reisan, but pl. ahum, like risum, 30), ih, I hav; ihts, property; hihs, one-eyd; fih, deceit (Beitr., 12, 397); ir, erly (OHG. r); sir (OHG. sr), sorrow; irus, messenger. Whether ai has the value of i or a can in most cases only be inferd from the remaining Germanic languages.

Note 3. In Latin orthografy a is exprest by e; e. g., Ermanaricus = Goth. *Armanareiks, Ermenberga = Goth. *Arminbarga. Cp. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 162.

Note 4. ai is to be regarded as a difthong (i) in baitrs, bitter; jains, yon, that (and its derivations), while formerly, according to OHG. bittar, jenr, it was thought to be short (a). Cp. Holtzmann, 'Altd. Gr.', p. 11 et seq.; Brgm., I, 392; Bezzenb. Beitr., 16, 156.—Scherer (Zur Gesch. d. dtsch. Sprache) presumed short a also in the 3d pers. sg. prs. opt. (like nimai) and in several forms of the strong inflection of adjs. (nom. pl. m. blindai, gen. sg. f. blindaizs, gen. pl. blindaiz, blindaiz). Hirt (Beitr., 18, 284 et seq.) goes stil farther in this direction.—Cp. also 22, n. 3.


21. II. The old Difthong ai. By far the greater number of the Gothic ais express a difthongal sound which is equivalent to OHG. ei or (ahd. gr., 43. 44), OS. , ON. ei. The Goths of Wulfila's time indeed seem to hav stil pronounced this ai as a + i.—For the difthong ai we employ Grimm's sign i whenever it is likely to be confused with a. Exampls of difthongal ai (before h, r, cp. 20, n. 2): The prts. sg. of the I. ablaut-series ( 30),—bait, I bit (inf. beitan); staig, I mounted (inf. steigan); etc.; wait ( 197); ains, one; hlaifs, (loaf of) bred; staiga, path; laisjan, to teach;—haitan, to be calld; maitan, to cut; skaidan, to separate; aiws, time;—hails, hale, sound; dails, deal.

ai appears also in inflectional syllabls of the III. Weak Conjugation ( 191): habais, habaida, etc.; in the prs. opt.: nimais, etc.; anstais, gen. sg. of the i-decl.; in the str. adjs.: blindaizs, etc. ( 123);—final: gibai, anstai, dat. sg.: nimai, 3 prs. sg. opt.; blindai, dat. sg. f. and nom. pl. m. of the str. adj.;—monosyllabls: ai, nom. pl., these; twai, 2; bai, both; jai, yes; sai, behold!; wai, woe!

Note 1. Latin writers express the Gothic ai predominantly by ai, ei: Dagalaiphus, Gaina, Radagaisus, Gisaleicus (cp. Dietrich, 'Ausspr.'), eils in a Lt. epigram (Zs. fda., 1, 379). On the Bukarest rune-ring (cp. 221, n. 3) stands hailag (Paul's 'Grundriss', I, 411).—Concerning the difthongal pronunciation of the Gothic ai, cp. especially Wrede, 'Wand.', 95 et seq.; about monofthongization in East Goth., s. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 165.

Note 2. ai and aj interchange in wai, woe!; wai-ddja, evil-doer, and waja-mrjan, to blasfeme; in aiws, time, and ajukds, eternity.

22. Many scholars hold that also the ai in the reduplicating ablaut vs. ( 182) saian and waian is difthongal. This ai, however, stands etymologically for Gothic , and its OHG. equivalent is (not ei): OHG. sen, wen (cp. ahd. gr., 359, n. 3. The difthong ai before a vowel would becum aj; hense, *sajan, *wajan. Here ai perhaps has the sound of long , i. e. open e representing close e () when followd by a vowel; thus, saian, waian, for san, wan.

Note 1. Before the i of the 3d pers. sg. prs. a j is often found: saiji (Mk. IV, 14), saiji (II. Cor. IX, 6 in A, for saii in B; Gal. VI, 7. 8. in A, for saii in B). Before a the j occurs but onse: saijands (Mk. IV, 14). Cp. Beitr. 11, 75 et seq.

Note 2. Here belongs also the isolated faian (Rom. IX, 19, in prs. faianda); but the prs. to the prt. lalun is lauan rather than laian. Cp. Beitr. 11, 56.


Note 3. Also the ai in armai, alms (Bezzenb. Beitr. 7, 210; Beitr. 11, 74), is likely to belong here.—Concerning the fonetic values of the ais discust here, cp. especially Beitr. 11, 51 et seq.; Brgm., I, pp. 126. 127; Wrede, 'Wand.' 99, who, beside Holtzmann, is inclined to assume a long sound for these ais; Noreen, 'Urg. Lautlehre', p. 35 et seq.

23. That the Goth. ai may be both short and long (like a in E. at, fare) is evident from its regular occurence in Greek words. As a rule, ai = ε in aikklsj, ἐκκλησία; Aileisabai, Ἐλισάβετ; Baiailzaibul, Βεελζεβούλ; Gainnsarai, Γεννησαρέτ, etc.; likewise = αι (i. e. long ): Idumaia, Ἰδουμαία; Habraius, Ἑβραῖος; hairasis, αἵρεσις, etc.

Note. Gothic ai for Greek η is exceptional; e. g., Hairodiadins, gen. to Ἡρωδίας (Mk. VI, 17); Neikadaimus (Skeir. 52); Νικόδημος (for Nikadmus elsewhere.)


Also Goth. au (like ai) stands for historically and fonetically different sounds.

24. I. The short vowel a.—au in Gothic denotes a short open o-sound. In this case grammarians put an accute accent over the u (a) in order to keep it apart from the difthong au. Goth. a corresponds to o or u in OHG. and in the other Germanic languages.

The a, before h and r in Gothic words, has in every instance developt from a short u which, when immediately followd by these sounds, was 'broken' to short ŏ. E. g.

warms, wurm; harn, horn; bargs (OHG. burg), city; ward, word; warpum, prt. pl. of warpan, to throw (cp. 32); sahts (OHG. suht), sickness; dahtar, daughter; ahsa, ox; tahum, prt. pl. of tiuhan, to pul; bahta, prt. of bugjan, to buy.

Note 1. a before other sounds is entirely exceptional and sumwhat doutful. Thus, in auft, perhaps (onse also ufto; Mt. XXVII, 64), bisauljan, to sully; bisaulnan, to becum sullied. Holtzmann (altd. gr., p. 14) regards also ufbauljan (II. Tim. III, 4) as belonging to this class.

Note 2. The change of short u into a before h is without exception. An apparent exception is the enclitic -uh, and, the u of which must be referd to a secondary development; it is never found after a short accented vowel, nor after a long vowel or difthong; e. g., sa-h, ni-h, ai-h, wilju-h, ƕarjan-h; u occurs after consonants, and in polysyllabic words in which a final short a before the u was elided; as, ƕaz-uh, ammuh (= amma uh), qiuh (= qia uh). Sum, however, assume -h (cp. Beitr. 18, 299).—Other us before h ar all long: hta (cp. 15).—There ar a few cases of {13}u before r in unaccented syllabls ( 13, n. 1), namely in the foren words spaikultur and parpura (beside parpara), purpl; so, also, in the Gothic fidur- ( 141, n. 1) which, however, stands perhaps for fidr- (cp. IF. 4, 334).—The prefix ur- (in urreisan, urruns, etc.) does not belong here; it is a late form for us the s of which was assimilated to a following r ( 78, n. 4).

Note 3. Not every au before h and r has developt from u, but may also be the difthong au; as, huhs, high; tuh, prt. of tiuhan (but pl. tahum, 31); gurs, sorry (cp. OHG. grag, wreched, and Goth. gaunn, to mourn).

Note 4. The au for u in the endings of the u-declension may be a, but also u which would be due to confusion caused by analogy. Beitr., 18, 280.—Cp. also uft for auft, 24, n. 1.

Note 5. As a rule, the Greek ο is represented by a; e. g., apaustaulus, ἀπόστολος; alabalstraun, ἀλάβαστρον; Baraulaumaius, Βαρθολομαῖος; Pauntius, Πόντιος. a = υ in Sar, Σύρος; parpara, πορφύρα.—Goth. a = o in the East Gothic name Thorisa. (Wrede, 'Ostg.', 76. 165).

25. II. The old difthong au [= ou in E. house]. Every au not broken from u (before h, r; s. 24 and note 3) is a difthong; it corresponds to OHG. au, ou, or (ahd. gr., 45. 46), OS. , ON. au. Whenever it is likely to be confused with a, we put (according to Grimm), an accute accent over the a (u). E. g.

The prts. sg. of the II. ablaut-series ( 31): gaut, I pour (inf. giutan); laug, I lied, etc.; laugnjan, to deny; daupjan, to baptize; galaubjan, to believ; galaubeins, belief; raus, red; dauus, deth;—aukan, to increase; hlaupan, to run; stautan, to push, strike;—haubi, hed; aug, ey.

au in inflections and final occurs in the u-declension: sunaus, sunau; 1st pers. sg. opt.: nimau, nmjau; 3d pers. sg. imper.: lausjadau; opt. midl: haitaidau.

Note 1. au often interchanges with aw (cp. 42); e. g., taujan, prt. tawida, to do; mawi, gen. maujs, girl; sniwan, prt. snau, to hasten.

Note 2. Latin writers express Goth. au by au; as, Ausila, Austrovaldus, Audericus. Cp. Wrede, 'Wand.', 96 et seq. Concerning East Gothic monofthongizations, s. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 165 et seq. (Zs. fda., 36, 2732).

Note 3. In the u-declension u is often found for u; cp. 24, n. 4; 105, n. 2.

26. Another au, historically, and probably also fonetically, different from the preceding ones occurs before vowels.

(a) For original : stauida, prt. of stjan, to judge; staua, f., judgment; staua, m., judge; taui, n., gen. tjis, {14}deed (cp. also ubiltjis, evil-doer; taujan, to do, prt. tawida); afmauidai and afdauidai, pps. of *afmjan, and *afdjan, to tire out, weary; sauil, n., sun.

(b) For in the other Germanic languages: trauan (OHG. trn), to trust; bauan (OHG. ban), to dwel; bnauan, to rub (to pieces or powder. ON. (g)na, OHG. nan). Cp. also 179, n. 2.

Sinse this au does not change into aw before vowels, it must denote a monofthong which is likely to be the long of a, hense a long open o (= a in E. fall), while long close o (shading very much to , like in E. home) is denoted by . Accordingly, Goth. antevocalic , past into au. Cp. Brgm., I, 156. For the extensiv literature on this question, s. Noreen's 'Urgerm. Lautlehre', p. 34; also Beitr., 17, 563-567.

Note 1. Also Gr. ω before a vowel, which is represented as a rule by , is renderd by au: Trauada, Τρῳάς; Naul, Νωέ; Lauidja, Λωίς.

Note 2. before u occurs, however, in the preterit forms waiwun (inf. waian, 182), lailun (inf. *lauan, 179, 4). Cp. Beitr., 11, 742.


27. Beside the vowel-signs discust in the foregoing paragrafs, a few consonant-signs may likewise discharge the function of vowels, for the Gothic liquids l, r and the nasals m, n ar very often vocalic (i. e. syllabic) at the end of a word after a consonant. Here an original suffixal vowel was lost in most cases, and in its place the following liquid or nasal became the bearer of the accent. Thus the Gothic has dissyllabic words with vocalic liquids or vocalic nasals (sonant liquids or sonant nasals); as, akrs, field; fugls, bird; taikns, token; maims, present.

Note 1. In the West Germanic languages a new vowel (OHG. a) has developt from these vocalic liquids and nasals; e. g., OHG. akkar, fogal, zeihhan, OS. mom. Cp. ahd. gr., 65, and Brgm., I, 190. 237.



28. In the preceding paragrafs the Gothic vowels hav been givn according to the letters by which they ar represented. Now they wil be arranged according to the nature {15}of their sounds, the following scale of seven vowels from i to u being taken as a basis:

i   e     a   ǫ   o   u.

e and o denote here the close e and o (which shade very much to i and u, respectivly); = open e (= a in fat, fare); ǫ = open o.

In the following survey we shal state after each of these vowel grades whether it occurs in Gothic, and by what letter it is exprest.

i: Short, i ( 10).
Long, ei ( 16. 17).
e: Short, wanting.
Long, ( 6-8).
: Short, a ( 20).
Long? (perhaps the ai in 22).
a: Short, a ( 3. 4).
Long, ( 5).
ǫ: Short, wanting.
Long, ( 11. 12).
u: Short, u ( 13. 14).
Long, ( 15).
iu: 18. 19.
ai: 21.
au: 25.


29. The Gothic vowels, as regarded from a historico-etymological point of view, may be groupt into a number of series of related vowels. The vowels belonging to such a series may interchange in formations with the same root; in the formation of tenses and in the verbal and nominal derivation all vowels of the same series may occur, but not such as hav nothing in common with that series. This change of vowels within a series is calld ablaut (or gradation), the series themselvs ablaut-series. The ablaut-series ar most perceptibl in the verb. The relation between the vowels of the same series is not a fonetic but a historical one; to establish it, we must pass beyond the {16}limits of the Germanic languages and take recourse to the comparativ grammar of the Indo-Germanic languages. The Gothic ablaut-series as appearing in verbal inflection ar these (cp. 172 et seq.):

30. I. Series: ei   ai   i (a).

Exampls: reisan (urreisan), rais, risum, risans, to rize; urraisjan, to raiz; urrists, f., resurrection;—eihan, ah, ahum, ahans, to thrive;—wait, I know; pl. witum; weitan, to see; weitwds, witness; mi-wissei, conscience; witubni, n., knowledge;—lais, I know; lubja-leisei, f., wichcraft; lists, f. (?), stratagem; laisjan, to teach.

Note. The i of this series is the proethnic Germanic i mentiond in 10, b.

31. II. Series: iu   au   u (a).

Exampls: giuta, gaut, gutum, gutans, to pour; gutnan, to pour (intr.);—liugan, laug, lugum, lugans, to lie; liugnja, m., liar; liugn, n., lie; analaugns, hidn; laugnjan, to deny;—galaubjan, to believ; galaubeins, belief; liufs, dear; lub, f., luv; lubains, f., hope;—siuks, sick; sahts, f., sickness;—driusan, to fall; drausjan, to drop (tr.); drus, m., fall; drius, f., slope.

Note. The vowel is rare in this series; cp. lkan, to lock ( 173, n. 2); anabsns (? 15, n. 1), command, < biudan.

32. III. Series: i (a)   a   u (a).

The themes of this series always hav two consonants after the vowel, mostly a liquid or a nasal in gemination, or a liquid or a nasal + another consonant. E. g.

bindan, band, bundum, bundans, to bind; bandi, f., band; bandja, m., prisoner; gabinda, f., band, bond; andbundnan, to becum loose; gabundi, f., bond;—rinnan, to run; rannjan, to cause to run; runs, m., a run, course; rinn, f., brook;—warpan, warp, warpum, warpans, to throw; uswarpa, f., a casting out or away, an outcast;—arsan, to be dry; arsnan, to wither; arsus, dry, witherd; arstei, thirst;—drigkan, to drink; dragkjan, to giv to drink; dragk, n., a drink, potion; -drukja, m., a drinker; drugkanei, f., drunkenness;—riskan, to thresh; garask, n., threshing-floor.

Note. The i of this and the following two series is that givn in 10, a (= proethnic Germanic e).


33. IV. Series: i (a)   a     u (a).

The stems of this series hav a simpl liquid or nasal after the vowel. E. g.

niman, nam, nmum, numans, to take; -numja, m., taker; anda-numts, f., a receiving; andanms, agreeabl; andanm, n., a receiving;—baran, bar, brum, barans, to bear; bar, m., 'natus'; barn, n., child; brusjs, parents;—ga-timan, to becum, suit; ga-tamjan, to tame; gatmiba, fitly.

Note. To this series belongs also brikan, brak, brkum, brukans, to break: gabruka, f., a broken bit; us-bruknan, to break off (intr.); brakja, f., strugl.—Also trudan, to tred; 175, n. 2.

34. V. Series: i (a)   a   .

The vowel of the stems of this series is followd by a singl consonant other than a liquid or a nasal. E. g.

giban, gaf, gbum, gibans, to giv; giba, f., gift; gabei, f., richess;—sitan, to sit; satjan, to set; anda-sts, abominabl;—mitan, to mezure; mitn, to consider; mitas, f., mezure; usmt, n., manner of life;—ga-nisan, to be saved, recuver; nasjan, to save; ganists, salvation.

Note. Also saƕan, saƕ, sƕum, saƕans, belongs to this class, because ƕ represents a singl sound; 63, n. 1.

35. VI. Series: a   .

Most of the stems of this series end in a singl consonant. E. g.

wakan, wk, wkum, wakans, to wake; waknan, to awake; wahtw, f., wach; wkains, f., a waching;—graban, to dig; grba, f., pit, hole; graba, f., dich;—frajan, fr, to understand; frai, n., understanding; frs, wise; frdei, f., understanding, wisdom;—hafjan, hf, to heav (tr.); -hafnan, to heav (intr.); haban, to hav, hold; ungahbains, f., incontinency;—g, I fear; unagands, fearless; gjan, to frighten; usagjan, to terrify; agis, n., fear;—sakan, to contend; sakj, f., strife; skjan, to seek; skns, f., serch, inquiry; unand-sks, irrefutabl.

36. Series:   (VII. Ablaut-Series).

A connection between and occurs in the so-calld reduplicating ablaut-verbs ltan, lalt, etc.; saian (= *san, 22), sas, etc.; cp. 180 et seq.

Note. This series is no longer found in the verbal inflection of the remaining Germanic languages, but its existence is proved by its occurring in word-formation; as, OHG. ( : ) tt, f.,: tn, tuon, to do;—knan, to know,: knt, chnuat, f., kin.—For more on this point, s. Beitr. 11, 262 et seq.



37. The consonant-signs to be discust here both in regard to value and occurrence in the Gothic language hav alredy been enumerated in 2. We divide the consonantal sounds in sonorous consonants and noizd sounds. Cp. Sievers, Grundzge der Phonetik4, p. 70 et seq. Accordingly, the Gothic consonant-signs w, j, l, m, n, r, represent the sonorous sounds, the rest the noizd sounds.


1. The semivowels w and j.

38. Germanic w and j ar the vowels u and i uzed as consonants; hense in Gothic the interchange between i and j, u and w, according to their position which determins their fonetic values as vowels or consonants. The consonantal i and u, which in other languages ar denoted by the same signs as the vocalic i and u, hav special signs in Gothic, j and w. These sounds ar also calld 'semivowels'.


39. The sign of the Gothic alfabet which we represent by w, is, according to its form and alfabetic position, the Gr. υ. For this it also stands in Greek foren words, for exampl, Pawlus, Παῦλος; Daweid, Δαυίδ; awagglj, ἐυαγγέλιον; paraskaw, παρασκευή. But the Gothic w stands not only for the Gr. υ of the combinations αυ, ευ, in which it had perhaps at that time assumed the value of a spirant, but also for simpl Greek υ, namely vocalic υ; as, Swman, Συμεών; swnagg, συναγωγή; martwr, μάρτυρ. But in our transcriptions of the Gothic texts the Greek vocalic υ is exprest by y instead of w (Syman, synagg, martyr); so, also, for practical reasons, in this book.

Note 1. A noteworthy Gothic transcription is kawtsj (= Lt. cautio) in the document at Naples ( 221, n. 3). Cp. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 166; Zs. fda., 36, 273.

Note 2. The Gothic sign is in most of the later editions represented by v. But because of its correspondence in the other Germanic languages the letter w should be uzed (as, Goth. wilja, MHG. NHG. wille, OE. willa, NE. wil). Cp. Beitr., 12, 218 et seq.


40. In Gothic words the w originally had the fonetic value of the consonantal u (= E. w). But at Wulfila's time the u-sound seems to hav alredy containd sumwhat of a spirant. Cp. Zs. fda., 36, 266 et seq. (37, 121 et seq.).

Note. Latin writers uzually express the w in proper nouns by uu. Vvilia, Uualamir; but also often by Ub: Ubadala (= Wadila), Ubadamirus (= Wadamrs), etc. Greek authors mostly put ου for the Goth. w (as in Ὀυάνδαλοι), but also β (as in Βάνδαλοι). Cp. Dietrich, pp. 77-80. Wrede, 'Wand.', 102; 'Ostg.', 167 et seq.

41. Initial Gothic w occurs frequently; e. g., wasjan, to clothe; witan, to know; wiljan, to wil; war, man; warmjan, to warm.

So also before l and r; as, wlits, countenance; wrikan, to persecute; wrhjan, to accuse.

After the consonants: t, d, , s; e. g., twai, two; dwals, foolish; wahan, to wash; swistar, sister.

Medial w before vowels; e. g., awistr, sheepfold; saiwala, soul; hneiwan, to bow; siggwan, to sing; htw, dawn; tahsw, right hand; nidwa, rust.

Note. The signs q (kw) and ƕ (hw) ar also uzually explaind as combinations of w with k and h. There ar reasons, however, to assume that q and ƕ ar simpl labialized gutturals ( 59. 63). But on the other hand q and ƕ in High German ar treated precisely like Goth. tw, gw, etc. (= t, g, etc., medial w being dropt); for exampl, Goth. htw, siggwan = OHG. hta, singan; and Goth. sigqan, saƕan = OHG. sinkan, sehan. Altho this proves nothing as to the values of the Gothic signs, it certainly shows that in proethnic Germanic the tw, gw, etc., must hav denoted sounds analogous to those of kw and hw.

42. (1) w remains unchanged after long vowels, difthongs, and consonants, (a) finally, (b) before the s of the nominativ, (c) before j; e. g., (a) lw, n., opportunity; hlaiw, n., grave;, warstw, n., work; (b) snaiws, snow; triggws, tru, faithful; (c) lwjan, to betray; hnaiwjan, to abase; skadwjan, to cast a shade (< skadus, shade); arwj, adv., in vain.

(2) in all three positions, however, w becums u after a short vowel; e. g., (a) snau (prt. to sniwan, 176, n. 2); triu, tree (gen. triwis); *kniu, knee (gen. kniwis, 94, n. 1); (b) naus, m., a ded person (gen. nawis); *ius, servant (gen. iwis, 91, n. 3); (c) mawi, gen. maujs, girl; gawi, gen. gaujis, district; iwi, gen. iujs, maid-servant; tawida, pres. taujan, to do; *straujan, to strew, prt. strawida; {20}qiujan, to quicken, prt. qiwida.—Cp. Grundr., I, 414; Zs. fda., 36, 277.

Note 1. Hense a word does not end in aw, iw; aws, iws, except the isolated lasiws, weak (II. Cor. X, 10).

Note 2. aw for au occurs before j in usskawjan, to awake; II. Tim. II, 26 (in B); I. Cor. XV, 34 (ussk..ji in MS.); and in the nom. pl. usskawai (unskawai in MS.), wakeful; I. Thess. V, 8; cp. 124, n. 3.

Note 3. No exampl occurs for the position of medial w before consonants other than j and s; before n after a short vowel u is found in qiunan (< qiwa-), to becum alive; siuns (cp. saƕa-).


43. The sign j stands, as a rule, for the Greek antevocalic ι, in Akaja, Αχαία; Marja, Μαρία; Judas, Ἰούδας; Iskarjts, Ἰσκαριώτης, etc. But Gr. antevocalic ι is also often represented by Goth. i; as, Iskarits, Zakarias, Gabril, Iudas.—The sign j in Gothic pronunciation probably has the value of a consonantal i, not that of the spirant j in German.

44. (a) Initial j in Gothic words: juk, yoke; jr, year; ju, alredy; jus, yu. (b) Medial j occurs after vowels and after consonants, but always before vowels, never before consonants; e. g., midjis, 'medius'; lagjan, to lay; niujis, new; frauja, lord; rija, 'tria'; bajs, both. (c) ji is contracted into ei after a consonant belonging to the same syllabl, but is retaind when the syllabl begins with j (cp. Beitr. 16, 282). The latter is the case when it is preceded by a short high-toned vowel with a singl consonant or by a long stem-vowel without a consonant. Exampls—concerning particularly the masculins (and neuters) of the ja-stems ( 92. 127)—ar: har-jis, t-jis (doer), but har-deis, dat. hard-ja;—also the I. Weak Conjugation ( 185): s-kja, s-keis, s-kei; san-dja, san-dei; miki-lja, miki-lei; but nas-ja, nas-jis, nas-ji; st-ja, st-jis, st-ji.

Note 1. The rule under (c) may, practically, also be worded in the following manner: ji becums ei after a long stem-syllabl and after secondary syllabls, but remains ji after a short stem-syllabl and immediately after a long stem-vowel.—For exceptions, s. 95; 108, n. 2; 132, n. 1.

Note 2. Only i is often employd for medial ij before vowels; s. 10, n. 4; for j occurring sporadically in the inflection of saian, s. 22, n. 1.

45. j is never final; in this position it always becums i; e. g., harjis, acc. hari; mawi, gen. maujs (s. 42, 2, c); taui, deed, gen. tjis.

Note 1. For the change of aj and ai, s. 21, n. 2.


2. Liquids.


46. Gothic l occurs often,—initially, medially, and finally; as, laggs, long; galaubjan, to believ; liuha, light; lahmuni, lightning; wiljan, to wil; aljis, 'alius'; blma, flower;—dubl l, as in fill, hide; fulls, ful; wulla, wool.

Note 1. l is syllabic ( 27), for exampl, in fugls, bird (fowl); tuggl, constellation, star; tagl, hair; swumfsl, pond; sigljan, to seal.

Note 2. Goth. l always corresponds to Gr. λ. It is interpolated in alabalstran, ἀλάβαστρον.


47. r is equivalent to Gr. ρ and occurs frequently in Gothic words; e. g., rahts, right; raubn, to rob; baran, to bear; fidwr, four.—Dubl r is rare: qarrus, meek; andstarran, to threten; farra, far.

Note 1. Syllabic r ( 27) occurs, for exampl, in akrs, field; brr, dat. sg. of brar ( 114), brother; figgrs, finger; tagr, tear; hltrs, pure; fagrs, suitabl; marr, murder; huggrjan, to hunger.

Note 2. Every i before r becums a, and every u in the same position a; s. 20. 24.

Note 3. Concerning r from z, s. 78, n. 4; 24, n. 2.

3. Nasals.


48. m occurs in all positions of a word; as, mizd, f., reward; mna, m., moon; ams, m., shoulder; guma, m., man; finally: nam, I took; in the terminations of the dat. pl.,—dagam, etc.; 1st pers. pl.,—nimam, nmum, etc.—Dubl (mm) in swamms (cp. 80, n. 1), spunge; wamm, n., spot; in the pronominal dat. sg.,—imma, blindamma.

Note. Syllabic m ( 27) in maims, present; bagms, tree.


49. Initial n in nahts, night; niujis, new; ni (negation), etc.; medial: kuni, n., kin; ains, one, etc.; final: laun, n., reward; niun, nine; often in inflection; as, dat. sg. hanin, inf. niman, nmun (3d pers. pl. prt.), etc.

Dubl n (nn) occurs frequently; e. g., brinnan, to burn; spinnan, to spin; rinnan, to run; kann, I know; kannjan, to make known; manna, man; brunna, wel, spring. Dubl n remains finally and before j, but is simplified before other {22}consonants (s. 80): kant, kuna (inf. kunnan), rant (2nd pers. sg. prt.; inf. rinnan), brunsts (inf. brinnan), ur-runs (< rinnan), outlet.

Note. Syllabic n ( 27) in usbeisns, f., expectation; taikns, f., token; ibns, even; laugnjan, to deny; swgnjan, to triumf, rejoice.

50. Before guttural consonants n becums a guttural nasal which (in imitation of the Gr.) is denoted by g (gg; s. 67).

Note. The (guttural) nasal disappears before h, and the preceding short vowel is lengthend. S. 5, b; 15, b (Brgm., I, 182 et seq.).


1. Labials.


51. The letter p, which does not occur very often in Gothic, corresponds to Gr. π.

(a) Initially, p may be regarded as being altogether wanting in purely Gothic words; the exampls which do occur ar either obviously foren words or at least etymologically obscure, if not loanwords too: plinsjan, to dance; plats, pach; anapraggan, to harass; paida, coat; puggs, purse; peikabagms, date-palm; pund, pound; plapja, street ('platea'); pistikeins, πιστικός, parpura, purpl.

(b) p occurs in purely Gothic words medially and finally; e. g., slpan, to sleep; greipan, to gripe; ƕpan, to boast; skapjan, to shape, make; hlaupan, to run; diups, deep; warpan, to throw; hilpan, to help; skip, ship; iup, upwards.—Initial sp in speiwan, to spit; sparwa, sparrow; spilln, to narrate; spinnn, to spin.

Note 1. pp does not occur.

Note 2. p before t becums f in gaskafts, f., creature (cp. skapjan); ƕftuli, f., glory (cp. ƕpan). Cp. 81.


52. Gothic f in foren words corresponds to Gr. φ; e. g., Filippus, Φίλιππος; Kajafa, Καϊάφας. Latin writers render Goth. f mostly by ph (Dietrich, p. 75); as, Dagalaiphus, Phaeba. Hense Goth. f was probably a bilabial, not a labiodental spirant, as is also evident from Goth. fimf, hamfs.

Note. f is regarded as labiodental by Jellinek; Zs. fda., 36, 275 et seq.


53. (a) Initial f occurs often in Gothic words; e. g., ftus, foot; fadar, father; fldus, flud; fahu (catl), muney; fls, foul; frs, wise, judicious; frius, cold; fidwr, 4.

(b) Medially and finally f occurs in but a small number of Gothic words; as, hlifan, to steal; hafjan, to heav; hiufan, to lament; lfa, m., palm of the hand; ufar, over; afar, after. Before consonants: luftus, air; hamfs, maimd; tweifls, dout; wulfs, wolf;—(final) fimf, five; hf (prt. of hafjan); arf, I need (inf. arban).

Note 1. Finally and before the s of the nom., f occurs very often for medial b; s. 56.

Note 2. Medial f before t (n) stands for b ( 56, n. 4), before t also for p ( 51, n. 2).

Note 3. ff is not found.


54. b corresponds to Gr. β, for which it stands in foren words; e. g., barbarus, βάρβαρος; Iakb, Ἰακώβ. The pronunciation of the Gr. β was that of a labial soft spirant [nearly = E. v]. In like manner Goth. b has the value of a soft (voiced) labiolabial spirant medially after vowels, while initially and medially after consonants it denotes a soft stop (= E. b).

Note 1. Gothic b between vowels in Latin foren words stands for Lt. v, but after m for b: Silbanus, Silvanus; Nabambar, November; (ana)kumbjan, cumbere.

Note 2. In Gothic names Latin writers employ Lt. b for Gothic b initially and after a consonant (as, Amala-berga, Hildi-bald, Albila), but medially between vowels Lt. v is uzed (as, Liuva, Erelieva); cp. Dietrich, p. 71; Beitr., 1, 148 et seq.; Wrede, 'Ostg.', 169; Zs. fda., 36, 275.

55. Exampls of b:

(a) initially: baran, to bear; beitan, to bite; brikan, to break; brkjan, to uze; blsan, to blow; biudan, to offer; blma, flower; brar, brother; bka, letter; bnauan, to rub.

(b) medially: liuba (w. m. adj.), dear; galaubjan, to believ; graban, to dig; sibja, relationship; arbi, inheritance; kalb, hefer;—haubi, hed; hlaibis (gen. of hlaifs), bred; sibun, seven; haban, to hav; skaban, to shave; (bi-)leiban, to remain; liban, to liv; biraubn, to rob; salbn, to salv, anoint.

Note. bb occurs in foren words only; as, sabbatus.


56. b after consonants (l, m, r) remains finally, before the s of the nom., and before the t of the 2nd pers. sg. prt.; postvocalic b becums f. This means that postvocalic b was a soft spirant ( 54) which, finally, changed into the corresponding hard spirant, while postconsonantal b, medially and finally, had the value of a stop. Hense giban, to giv, 1st and 3d pers. sg. prt.: gaf, 2nd. pers. gaft, 2nd sg. imper.: gif; hlaifs, bred, acc. hlaif, nom. pl. hlaibs;—but lamb, lam; dumbs, dum; swarban, to wipe, prt. swarb.

Note 1. Our texts contain a few exceptions to the rule of final f for medial b after vowels, but the preponderant number of exampls prove the validity of the rule which is fonetically founded and has a striking analogon in the OS. geban—gaf; liobo—liof (but lamb). The exceptional cases with final b (21 in all) occur only in definit parts of the texts (7 in Lu., 5 in the epistls to the Thess., 4 in Jo., 3 in Skeir., in all the other texts only onse each in Mk. and Eph.). Therefore the anomalous bs may be referd to the writers of the respectiv parts, who either from purely orthografic considerations put the medial bs also finally, or in order to express a later pronunciation as it existed at their time, according to which voiced sounds occurd also finally. The latter supposition is founded on the fact that in the Arezzo document (of the 6th century) the spelling Gudilub occurs.—Cp. also the remarks on the interchange of d and in 74, n. 1.

The exceptions in the verb ar rare, only grb (Lu. VI, 48) and gadb (Skeir. 42);—the forms with f occur in gaf, gaft, gif (very often); onse each: grf (inf. graban), swaif (inf. sweiban), bilaif (inf. bileiban), skauf (inf. skiuban). Accordingly, we may safely write draif (prt. of dreiban, to drive).

Of nouns only hlaifs is often found: nom. hlaifs (12 times, onse hlaibs), acc. hlaif (19 times, hlaib seven times);—twalif, twelv (12 times, twalib 3 times); accordingly, also *ainlif (dat. ainlibim).

Furthermore the following nominativs must be regarded as normal forms: *stafs, element (only stabim occurs); *laufs, leaf (only galaubamma 3 times, filugalaubis, galubaim), *gadfs, becuming (onse gadf, 4 times gadb), *liufs, dear (only forms with more than one syllabl occur: liubai, liuba, liubana, etc.). Lastly, also *iufs (= OS. thiof), thief, tho the nom. accidentally occurs (4 times) as iubs, beside iubs (twice), iub.

Note 2. Subject to the abuv rule ar also the preps. of and uf, the f of which becums medial by enclisis and is changed into b before the following vowel; ab-u, ub-uh. In composition, however, f remains: af-tja, voracious eater; uf-aieis, under oath. (Cp. us in 78, n. 4).

Note 3. An apparent exception is arf, I want (for arb), pl. arbum; but arf has real f ( 53) and must be kept apart from the pl. with b (s. ahd. gr., 101). b stands correctly in the adj. gaarbs. Cp. 79, n. 2.


Note 4. f before t in derivativ words stands for b elsewhere ( 81): gifts, f., gift (< giban, onse fragibtim; Lu. I, 27), arfts, necessity. b is common before n: ibns, stibna, daubnan, drbnan, but the ending -ubni interchanges with -ufni; as, fraistubni, temptation, but waldufni, power; aflifnan, to remain, be left; cp. laiba, remnant.

2. Gutturals.


57. Goth. k corresponds to Greek κ, Lt. c; e. g., Kfas, Κηφᾶς; akklsj, ἐκκλησία; laktj, lectio. Goth. k in Greek words represents also χ; as, karazein, Χοραζίν; arkaggilus, ἀρχάγγελος. The Gr. sign χ is but rarely retaind, always in χristus (s. 2). Cp. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 54.

Note. The labialized k (kw) has a special sign (q, 59) in Gothic.

58. Exampls of k: (a) initially: kniu, knee; karn, corn; kuni, kin; kalds, cold; kiusan, to choose; kalb, f., calf;—sk: skeinan, to shine; skaidan, to separate. (b) medially: brikan, to break; aukan, to increase; akrs, field; reiks, mighty; mikils, great; warkjan, to work; laikan, to leap; rakjan, to strech; finally: ik, I; mik, me; juk, yoke.

Note 1. kk occurs in smakka, fig; sakkus, sack.

Note 2. In derivativ words h takes the place of k before t ( 81); as, sahts, sickness (cp. siuks); wahtw, wach (cp. wakan); brhta (prt. of brkjan); hta (prt. of agkjan).—Sinse there occur no exampls of the 2nd pers. prt. of verbs in k (as, wakan, aukan, tkan), it is uncertain whether the k before t remaind k or was changed into h (wkt or wht?).


59. The Gothic sign q does not occur in the Greek alfabet, the corresponding sign being borrowd from the Latin (Q). In Lt. words it corresponds to Lt. qu (qartus; Rom. XVI, 23) to which it most likely corresponds also fonetically. The Lt. qu denoted a labialized k-sound which was a simpl consonant not forming position. Cp. Zs. fdph., 12, 481 et seq.

Note. The dubl sign kw (kv) which is uzed beside q for the Gothic character is due to the perception that in the cognate languages Gothic q is represented by a combination of consonants which appears as k with a w-sound closely attacht to it, and is therefore exprest by two signs: in OE. by cw, in ON. by kv, in OHG. MHG. NHG. by qu. Hense Goth. qian, to say, = OE. cwean, ON. kvea, OHG. quedan. But from this {26}nothing certain can be inferd about the fonetic value of Goth. q, altho it is possibl that its pronunciation was precisely the same as that of NHG. NE. qu.—Cp. also 41, n. 1.

60. Exampls of q: qin, woman; *qius, pl. qiwai, alive; qarnus, mil; qiman, to cum; qrammia, moisture; naqas, naked; aqizi, ax; riqis, darkness; sigqan, to sink, prt. sagq.


61. Gothic h in Greek words stands for the ruf breathing (as, Habraius, Ἑβραῖος; Hrds, Ἡρώδης), but the ruf breathing is often disregarded (as, sanna, ὡσαννά). Accordingly, Goth. initial h had the value of a mere breathing. Medially and finally it may stil hav had the value of a fricativ sound (HG. ch). Cp. the assimilations ( 62, n. 3) and breaking ( 62, n. 1). Also initially before consonants, (hl, hn, hr (ƕ)), the h had probably retaind a stronger sound.

Note 1. Latin writers render Gothic h by their h (as, Hildibald, Hildericus); but they also omit it; as, Ariamirus, eils = hails in the epigram (s. 21, n. 1), Zs. fda. 1, 379; cp. Dietrich, p. 77.

Note 2. Labialized h (hw) has a special sign in Gothic: ƕ ( 63. 64).

Note 3. In foren names h is sumtimes interposed medially between vowels; as, Ihanns, Ιωάννης; Abraham, Ἀβραάμ. Cp. Es. Tegnr, Tidskr. for filol. N. R. 7, 304 et seq.

62. Exampls for h: (a) initially: harn, horn; hana, cock; hart, hart; hails, hole, sound; hund, hundred; hafjan, to heav;—initial combinations: hlaifs, bred; hliuma, m., hearing; hlifan, to steal; hltrs, pure; hlahjan, to laf; hnaiws, low; hrains, clean; hrpjan, to call; hrt, n., roof.—(b) medially: fahu, muney; tahun, ten; teihan, to show; tiuhan, to pul; sahs, six; nahts, night; liuhtjan, to light; filhan, to conceal; swahra, 'socer'.—(c) finally: jah, and; -uh, and (cp. 24, n. 2); falh (prt. of filhan); tah (prt. of tiuhan), etc.

Note 1. Before h (as before r) i is broken to a, u to a; cp. 20. 24.

Note 2. Dropping of n before h, which made the preceding vowel long: fhan (< fanhan), hta (< unhta), etc.; cp. 50, n. 1; 5, b; 15, b.

Note 3. Final h in -uh (or -h; 24, n. 2), jah, nih, may be assimilated to the initial sound of a following word. But rarely in the gospels (cod. argent.) and in codex B, and only before particls or prns. beginning with ; frequently, however, also before other consonants, in codex A and Skeir; as, wasuan (= wasuh-an, but it was); Mk. I, 6; sumaian (= sumaih-an, but sum); Mt. XXVI, 67; sijaian (= sijaih-an, but it {27}shall be); Mt. V, 37; ja (= jah-, and if); nian (= nih-an, and not);—before other consonants in A: jalliban (= jah liban, and liv); II. Cor. I, 8; jaggatraua (= jah gatraua, and I trust); Rom. XIV, 14; jaddu (= jah du, and to); II. Cor. II, 16; jabbrusts (= jah brusts); II. Cor. VII, 15; nukkant (= nuh kant, knowest thou now?); I. Cor. VII, 16; exceptionally also in the codex argent., but only in Lu.: janni (= jah ni); Lu. VII, 32; nissijai (= nih sijai); Lu. XX, 16.

Note 4. Final h is sumtimes dropt (in consequence of having lost its sharp sound? But cp. Beitr., XV, 277): ƕarj (for ƕarjh); Mk. XV, 6; ƕamm (for ƕammh); Gal. V, 3; ƕarjan (for ƕarjanh); Skeir. 43; oftener inu (in A) for inuh, without; the h of consonant-combinations is dropt in hiuma; Lu. VI, 17. VIII, 4 (elsewhere hiuhma, multitude); drausns; Skeir. 50 (beside drauhsna, crum); als (for alhs); Mk. XV, 38, etc. All these cases ar probably due to the copyists, and most of them hav therefore been amended by the editors. Cp. Bernhardt, Vulfila, LIII et seq.—Also superfluous h occurs: snauh (for snau); I. Thess. II, 16; here, however, it is perhaps the enclitic -h (= -uh, 24, n. 2).

Note 5. In derivativ words h occurs in certain cases beside k (s. 58, n. 2) and g ( 66, n. 1).


63. The sound of ƕ is peculiar to the Gothic, and has no equivalent in Gr. The Gothic sign (whose alfabetic position is that of the Greek ψ) is uzually exprest by hv (hw), because all the corresponding words of the remaining Germanic languages (at least initially) hav hw (hu, hv); as, Goth. ƕeits = OHG. hwz, OS. OE. hwt, ON. hvtr, white. But there ar reasons which justify the assumption that the Goth. ƕ was a simpl consonant. Fonetically, it may be regarded as a labialized h (or a voiceless w = NE. wh? Grundr., I, 411). It is therefore recommendabl to represent the simpl Gothic sign by the unitary ligature ƕ. Cp. Zs. fdph., 12, 481 et seq.; Beitr., 12, 218 et seq.

Note. ƕ and hw ar not identical in Gothic. This is proved by the fact that in composition the final h and the following initial w ar not exprest by ƕ, but by hw: arhwakandans, keeping wach (thruout); Lu. II, 8; ubuhwpida (= uf-uh-wpida; ufwpida < uf-wpjan), and he cried out; Lu. XVIII, 38.—The simpl sound of ƕ is also evident from the fact that the verb saƕan is inflected like the verbal stems ending in a singl consonant ( 34, n. 1), and that in reduplication ƕ is treated like a singl consonant (ƕaƕp, 178). Cp. Holtzmann, altd. gr. I, 25, together with 41, n. 1, abuv.

64. Exampls of ƕ: initially: ƕas, who; ƕarnei, f., skul; ƕarban, to walk about; ƕeila, time; ƕpan, to boast; ƕeits, white; ƕaiteis, wheat;—medially: aƕa, water; {28}saƕan, to see; leiƕan, to lend; eiƕ, thunder; nƕa, near; aƕa-tundi, f., brambl-bush;—also finally: saƕ, saƕt (prt. of saƕan), , near.

Note. i and u ar broken before ƕ as wel as before h; cp. 62, n. 1.

65. g corresponds to Greek γ, also as a guttural nasal; as, synagg, συναγωγή; aggilus, ἄγγελος.—The pronunciation of the Gothic initial g was quite certainly that of a soft (voiced) stop; final and medial g was possibly a spirant.

Note 1. Latin authors render g in Gothic names by g, but also by c; as, Caina beside Gaina (Jornandes), Commundus (= Gummundus); medially, especially before i, it is often dropt; as, Eila beside Agila, Egila, Aiulf (= Aigulf), Athanaildus (= Athanagildus); cp. Dietrich, p. 73 et seq.

Note 2. For the pronunciation of medial g as a spirant the Latin representations may be adduced (cp. especially Wrede, 'Ostg.', 173 et seq.); but this is contradicted by the fact that final g does not becum h (cp. b-f, d-). Jellinek (Beitr., 15, 276 et seq.; Zs. fda., 36, 85) infers a 'media affricata' for the pronunciation of medial and final g; then the value of a stop seems more probabl (cp. Wilmanns, D. Gramm., I, 16).

66. g occurs frequently in Goth. words, both initially and medially. E. g. (a) gasts, guest; guma, man; gul, gold; gs, good; giutan, to pour; greipan, to gripe, seiz; graban, to dig. (b) agis, aw; wigs, way; gawigan, to move; steigan, to mount; ligan, to lie; ragjan, to run;—aug, ey; tagr, tear; tigus, ten; aigan, to hav; suffixal g: mahteigs, mighty; mdags, angry.

Also final g remains unchanged: g, I fear; mag, I can; wig (acc. of wigs, way), etc.

Note. g becums h before a suffixal t attacht to it ( 81); e. g., mahts, mahta (prs. mag), hta (prs. g), bahta (inf. bugjan), brhta (inf. briggan). But there seems to be no change of consonants before the t of the 2nd pers. prt. Only magt (1st mag) is found (201).—Also elsewhere in word-formation an interchange between h and g takes place in words belonging to the same root: tahun, 10; and tigus, decad; filhan, to conceal, and fulgins, adj., hidn; faginn, to rejoice, and fahs f., joy; huggrjan, to hunger, and hhrus, hunger; juggs, yung; compar. jhiza; concerning the interchange between ig and ih, s. 203, n. 1. Cp. 79, n. 2.

67. g denotes also a guttural nasal (s. 50); e. g., (n + g): laggs, long; briggan, to bring; tugg, tung; figgrs, finger; gaggan, to go;—(n + k, q): drigkan, to drink; agkjan, to think; ugkjan, to seem; igqis, (to) yu both; sigqan, to sink; stigqan, to thrust.

Note 1. Beside the singl letter g uzed to express the guttural nasal, gg is sumtimes found (so regularly in codex B): siggqan, driggkan, iggqis; {29}g is not dubld before g; the only case, atgagggand (Mt. IX, 15) is corrected by the editors. The reverse error occurs three times: faragagja (for faragaggja, steward); Lu. VIII, 3. XVI, 1; hugridai (for huggridai); I. Cor. IV, 11. Cp. Vulfila by Bernhardt, p. LI.

Note 2. The Latin sign (n) for the guttural nasal occurs but a few times in Lu.; as, ank; XVII, 9; bringi; XV, 22.

68. The combination ggw deservs special notice. (1) It is a guttural nasal + gw, as is proved by the ng of the remaining Germanic languages (also of the ON.): aggwus, narrow (OHG. engi, ON. ǫngr); siggwan, to sing (OHG. singan, ON. syngva); saggws, song. Here perhaps belongs also unmanariggws, unrestraind, wild (cognate with OHG. ringi? Dtsch. Litteraturzeitg. 1888, p. 770).

(2) Another ggw corresponds to West-Germanic uw (OHG. uu or uuu; cp. ahd. gr., 112. 113), to ON. gg(v); this gg certainly denotes a stop: triggws, faithful (OHG. triuwi, ON. tryggr); bliggwan, to beat (OHG. bliuwan); *glaggwus, exact (OHG. glauwr, ON. glǫggr); skuggwa, mirror (ON. skyggja; cp. Goth. skawjan).

Note. Concerning the ggw of the words givn under (2) and the analogous ddj ( 73, n. 1), cp. Beitr., IX, 545; Gttinger Nachrichten, 1885, No. 6; Brgm., I, 157; Scherer, 'Kleinere Schriften', I, p. XII et seq.—Concerning the East-Gothic names Triggua, Trigguilla, s. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 78 et seq.

3. Dentals.


69. Gothic t corresponds to Greek τ, and stands frequently both initially and medially. E. g. (a) initially: tunus, tooth; triu, tree; tugg, tung; tagr, tear; tahun, ten; twai, two; tamjan, to tame; trauan, to trust. st: steigan, to mount. (b) medially: wat, water; hart, hart; baitrs, bitter; itan, to eat; giutan, to pour; sitan, to sit; witan, to know.

Final t remains unchanged; as, wait, I know; at, at; wit, we two.

Note 1. t is dubld in atta, father; skatts, muney.

Note 2. t before t in derivativ and inflected words becums s ( 81); as, ushaista, very poor (cp. haitan); blstreis, wurshipper (cp. bltan, to wurship); 2nd pers. sg. prt. waist (1st wait), hahaist (inf. haitan, to be calld); weak prt. gamsta (1st pers. gamt); kaupasta (inf. kaupatjan, to cuf); wissa (< wista, 1st wait).


70. Gothic corresponds to Gr. θ (as, mas, Θωμᾶς; Naan, Ναθάν); its sound-value was that of a voiceless dental spirant = the NE. surd th in thin. Also the Greek θ denoted at that time, as it stil does in New Greek, a similar sound.

Note 1. Greek authors represent the Goth. by θ; as, Θευδέριχος. Latin writers express Goth. mostly by th; as, Theodoricus, Theodomirus, but also often by t. Cp. Wrede, 'Wand.', 104; 'Ostg.', 170 et seq.—In like manner sum later prints hav th for (s. 1, n. 3).

Note 2. Latin authors often uze d beside th for medial in proper nouns, from which a later softening may be inferd. Cp. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 171.

Note 3. Concerning the sound-value of Germanic-Goth. , cp. IF. 4, 341 et seq.; for the relation between Goth. and Gr. θ, s. Wimmer, 'Die Runenschrift', 268.

71. in Gothic words is very frequent. E. g. (a) initially: ulan, to suffer; anjan, to strech; ga-arsan, to wither; arsus, witherd; arstei, thirst; ata (prn.), that; u, thou; reis, three; liuhan, flee; ga-lihan, to cumfort, console; wahan, to wash. (b) medially: brar, brother; tunus, tooth; wirus, lam; frai, n., understanding; frajan, to understand; anar, other; ƕaar, 'uter'; waran, to becum; qian, to say. (c) Also final remains unchanged; as, iu, n., good (gen. iuis); qa, prt. of qian; ais, acc. ai, oath.

Note 1. occurs in aiau, or ( 20), and, by assimilation, for h-: nian, etc.; s. 62, n. 3.

Note 2. finally and before the s of the nom. very often stands for d, and must be kept apart from the mentiond under (c) which remain medially also; s. 74.

Note 3. becums s before t ( 81); e. g., 2nd pers. sg. prt. qast (inf. qian), warst (inf. waran), snaist (inf. sneian, to cut).

Note 4. d stands for medial in weitwdida, testimony; Jo. III, 32.


72. Goth. d corresponds to Greek δ. The New Greek pronunciation of δ is that of a soft (voiced) dental spirant ( = NE. th in thou). Gothic d, at least medially after a vowel, likewise had the sound-value of this spirant. But d initially and medially after n, r, l, z, has the value of a soft (voiced) stop.

73. Examples of d: (a) initially: dar, n., door, gate; dahtar, daughter; dal, dale, valley; dauns, odor; daddjan, to suckl; ga-darsan, to dare; driusan, to fall; {31}dwals, foolish. (b) medially: sidus, custom; wadi, n., wager; midjis, 'medius'; widuw, widow; biudan, to offer; bindan, to bind; harda, herd; waldan, to rule; mizd, reward.—fadar, father; frdei, understanding (cp. frs, frdis, intelligent); fidwr, four; ridja, 'tertius'; iuda, peple; -ida, as in auida, desert; gahugds, mind; gards, house (yard); hardus, hard; hund, hundred; and, on, in; alds, age (cp. aleis, old), kalds, cold; gazds, sting.

Note. In Gothic words dd is found only in waddjus, wall (ON. veggr); daddjan, to suckl; twaddj (gen. of twai, 2; ON. tweggja); iddja, I went; hense always in the combination ddj.—Cp. 68, n. 1; and Brgm., I, 127.

74. Finally and before the s of the nominativ d remains only after a consonant; e. g., hund, nimand (3d pers. pl. prs.), gards, alds, gazds, gahugds. But postvocalic d becuming final (and before the s of the nominativ) is changed into , because denotes the hard sound corresponding to d. Such eufonic s from medial ds constitute the greater number of the Gothic final s, the smaller number ar original (also medial) s. ( 71, n. 2). E. g.

stas, stadis, place (but *stas, stais, shore); haubi, haubidis, hed; liuha, liuhadis, light; frs, frdis, wise; gs, gdis, good; bu, prt. of biudan; bidjan, to pray, prt. ba;—all pps. of wvs.; as, nasis, nasidis; salbs, salbdis; furthermore all final s in verbal inflection (3d pers. sg., 2nd pl.); as, nimi, nmu, nmei,—but with enclitic -uh: nimiduh, nmuduh, nmeiduh;—advs. like ƕa, whither (cp. 213); prep. mi, with.

Note 1. The change of final d into does not occur in all cases in our manuscripts. This exception does not concern the original text of Wulfila, but is only a deviation from the normal state of orthografy, which is proved by the fact that final d occurs exceedingly often only in Lu., especially in the first ten chapters, not quite rarely also in Jo., more rarely in the other books. Exampls from the sixth chapter of Lu. ar: samalaud (34), gds (35. 43), gd (43), mitads (38), ptc. gamanwids (40), gasulid, and especially frequently verbal forms: taujid (2), ussuggwud (3), fagind, laikid (23), habaid (24), usbarid (45), etc.—Sinse yunger forms of speech ar a characteristic feature of the gospel of Lu. ( 221, 1), they might be regarded as representativs of a later development of the Goth. language, introduced into our text by sum writers (For similar cases in East-Gothic names, s. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 171). Others explain the forms with final d as being due to their original position before words beginning with a vowel according to which the forms nimi and nimid would be 'dublets' ('satzdubletten').—Cp. also Kock, Zs. fda., 26, 226 et seq., who shows {32}that these ds for s ar most frequent after unaccented vowels (as in mitads), but after an accented vowel only when the latter is long or a difthong, rarely after a short accented vowel (as in mid; Lu. VII, 11.)

Note 2. Sinse the final has by all means to be regarded as the regular one, it must also be employd in words of which only forms with medial d occur: bius, biudis, table; raus, red; usdaus, zelous; gamais, maimd; ms, anger; kns, stock, race. Hense also garais, redy; unls, poor, which, beside the forms with medial , hav onse each the final forms garaid and unlds, respectivly. But both forms occur in Lu.

With final d only ar repeatedly found: weitwds, witness, acc. weitwd; twice gariuds (gariud), honorabl; only one final form with d (but none with ) occurs in braids, broad; dds, deed; wds, mad, possest; grids, step, grade; skaskaid (prt. of skaidan). The normal forms would be ds, ws, etc., for the forms with d insted of ar hardly due to anything else but unfavorabl transmission.

Note 3. The occurrence of this final for thematic d must not be confounded with that of in words that hav also medial beside d in other words from the same root; as, frd- (nom. frs), prudent; frdei, prudence; but frai, understanding, frajan, to understand; sad- (nom. sas), satisfied, but ga-sjan, to satisfy; sins, a going, way, but sandjan, to send; alds, age, but aleis, old. Cp. 79, n. 2.

Note 4. is seldom found where medial d is expected; as, gua (for guda); Gal. IV, 8; unfrans; Gal. III, 3.

75. The d of the weak preterit, which stands mostly after vowels (nasida, habaida), remains intact after l and n (skulda, munda), while after s, h, f it becums t: kaupasta, msta, darsta, hta, brhta, hta, brhta, warhta, bahta, hta, mahta, ihta, arfta; it is changed into in kuna; ss is assimilated from st in wissa.

Conform to this rule ar the respectiv ptcs. nasis, habais, skulds, munds, but warhts, bahts, mahts, binahts, arfts, kuns. Cp. 187, n. 1; 197 et seq.; 208. 209.

Note. d becums s before the t of the 2nd pers. prt. ( 81): baust (1st bau, inf. biudan); so, also, before consonants in derivativ words; as, gilstr, tax, tribute (< gildan); usbeisns, expectation (< usbeidan, to abide, expect).


76. s is a hard (voiceless) dental spirant and corresponds to Gr. ς. s occurs very often in Gothic words, especially initially. E. g.

(a) initially: sunus, sun; sitan, to sit; skadus, shade; speiwan, to spit; standan, to stand; straujan, to strew; slpan, to sleep; smals, small; snutrs, wise; swahra, father-in-law.


(b) medially: kiusan, to choose; wisan, to be; wasjan, to clothe; sundi, thousand; gasts, guest; fisks, fish; asneis, hired man; hansa, host; ahsa, ox; arsus, witherd.

(c) Also final s remains unchanged; as, gras, grass; ms, table; was (prt. of wisan), was; hals, neck.

Note 1. ss occurs frequently; e. g., ƕassei, sharpness; qiss, speech; wissa (prt. of witan); suff. -assus (iudinassus, kingdom, etc.).

Note 2. Final s stands in most cases for medial z, especially the final inflectional s. Cp. 78; dropping of the s of the nominativ in 78, n. 2.

Note 3. For s from t, , d, before consonants (t), s. 69, n. 2; 71, n. 3; 75, n. 1.

Note 4. Concerning the fonetic distinction between the spirants s and , cp. IF., 342.

77. The sign z corresponds in Greek words to ζ; as, Zabadaius, Ζεβεδαῖος; azymus, ἄζυμος. Its sound, like that of the Gr. ζ both at Wulfila's time and in New Greek, was the corresponding soft sound of s, hense a voiced dental spirant (E. z).

78. (a) In Goth. words z occurs never initially.

(b) Medial z is frequent. But final z becums s, the corresponding hard sound (cp. 79). E. g.

azts, easy; hazjan, to praise; hazeins, praise; dius, gen. diuzis, animal; hatis, gen. hatizis, hatred; hatizn, to be angry; huzd, trezure; gazds, sting; mizd, reward; azg, ashes; marzjan, to offend; talzjan, to teach;—comparativs: maiza, 'major'; frdza, aliza, etc.;—pronominal forms; as, izwara, izs, iz, blindaizs; 2nd pers. sing. midl: haitaza.

(c) Most of the Gothic final ss represent z, especially the inflectional s; this reappears as z when it becums medial by an enclitic addition, for exampl, the s of the nom. ƕas, who?, but ƕazuh; is, he, but izei, who; us, out, but uzuh, uzu; dis- (as in dizuhansat; Mk. XVI, 8); s, nom. pl. f., but zuh; weis, we; weizuh; wileis, 2nd pers. sg., but wileizu; advs.: mais (compar. maiza), more; airis, erlier (compar. iriza), etc.

Note 1. z is but rarely employd for final s: minz, less; II. Cor. XII, 15 (Codex B), for mins elsewhere; riqiz (4 times), darkness, beside riqis, gen. riqizis; aiz, brass, muney (only Mk. VI, 8); mimz, flesh; I. Cor. VIII, 13.—For a different view of final s for z, s. Wilmanns, Dtsch. Gramm., I, p. 86.


Note 2. The s (z) of the nom. sg. is dropt (1) after s (ss, z): drus, m., gen. drusis, fall; sws, gen. swsis, adj., one's own; laus, lausis, loose; us-stass, f., gen. usstassais, resurrection; (2) after r immediately preceded by a short vowel: war, waris, man; bar, sun; kaisar, Caesar; anar, other; unsar, our; but s remains unchanged after a long syllabl: akrs, field; hrs, whoremonger; skeirs, clear; swrs, honord; gurs, sorrowful. An exception is the onse occurring nom. stiur, steer, calf. Cp. Brgm., I, 516; II, 531; Wrede, 'Ostg.', 177 et seq.—At a later stage of development, especially in East-Gothic, the loss of the nominativ s occurs more extensivly. So alredy in the Documents (Neap. Doc.: Gudilub, Ufitahari); cp. Wrede, loc. cit.

Note 3. z and s interchange in the prt. of slpan; saslp; Mt. VIII, 24. Lu. VIII, 23. I. Thess. IV, 14; sazlp; Jo. XI, 11. I. Cor. XV, 6;—in the neuters in -is (gen. agisis and gen. hatizis); s. 94, n. 5.

Note 4. The z (s. c, abuv) of the prep. us is in compounds assimilated to a following r (cp. 24, n. 2); e. g., urruns, a running out; urreisan, to (a)rise; urrmnan (beside usrmnan, in Codex B, II. Cor. VI, 11), to expand; onse ur for the prep. us: ur riqiza; II. Cor. IV, 6.—us remains unchanged before other sounds in cpds; as, usagjan, to frighten; usbeidan, to abide, expect (cp. 56, n. 2). z for s before a vowel appears only in uzn (prt. of *usanan, to expire); Mk. XV, 37. 39; and in uztin (dat. of *usta, manger); Lu. II, 7. 12. 16.

Note 5. When us is affixt to a word beginning with st, only one s is sumtimes writn: ustaig (prt. of us-steigan); Mk. III, 13; ust; Lu. VIII, 55. X, 25; ustandi (prt. and prs. of us-standan); Mk. X, 34; ustassai (nom. usstass); Lu. XIV, 14.—Cp. twistandans (in B = twis-standans in A); II. Cor. II, 13; diskritnan (for dis-skritnan); Mt. XXVII, 51; there is no analogon for sp.



79. The Gothic soft spirants, b, d, z, finally and before the s of the nom. (cp. 56. 74. 78) ar changed into the corresponding hard sounds, f, , s, while the fourth soft spirant, medial g, remains unchanged when final ( 66; 65, n. 2).

Note 1. Also the final b, d, z hav sumtimes remaind unchanged, i. e. z rarely ( 78, n. 1), but b and d especially often in certain parts where also other forms show a later stage of development. Cp. 56, n. 1; 74, n. 1, and Zs. fda., 25, 226 et seq.

Note 2. Interchange between f and b, and d, h and g, s and z, which had taken place in proethnic Germanic according to definit laws and is better preservd in other Germanic languages ('Grammatical Change'; s. ahd. gr., 100 et seq.), occurs in Gothic only in derivativ words; cp. g—h, 66, n. 1; d—, 74, n. 3; (z—s, 78, n. 3); and traces of it ar seen in the inflection of the verbs arf ( 56, n. 3), ih ( 203, n. 1).


80. Gemination of the Gothic liquids and nasals, l, m, n, r, is frequent; also ss and a few instances of kk ( 58, n. 1), tt ( 69, n. 1), ( 71, n. 1), dd ( 73, n. 1);—the more frequent exampls of gg ( 67. 68) ar in part of another kind.

The geminated consonants remain unchanged when final and before the s of the nominativ: skatts, full, kann, rann, wamm, gawiss; likewise before j (as in fulljan, skattja, kannjan, etc.), but ar as a rule simplified before other consonants: kant, kuna (cp. kann); rant, 2nd pers. sg. prt., ur-runs, m., a running out (cp. rinnan); swumfsl, pond (cp. *swimman);—but uzually fullnan, only a few times fulnan.

Note. Sum instances of gemination as wel as of simplified gemination in the MSS. ar merely orthografic errors; as, allh for alh; Lu. II, 46; wisdun (s for ss); inbranjada (nj for nnj); Jo. XV, 6; swam for swamm; Mk. XV, 36.—Such errors ar mostly corrected by the editors. Cp. Bernhardt, 'Vulfila', p. LVII.

81. The changes of consonants before dentals may, as far as the Gothic is concernd, be embraced in the following rule:

Before the dentals, d, , t, all labial stops and spirants ar changed into f, all gutturals into h, all dentals into s, the second dental appearing always as t. E. g.

skapjan, gaskafts ( 51, n. 2); arban (*arbda), arfta; giban, gifts ( 56, n. 4);—siuks, sahts; agkjan, hta ( 58, n. 2); magan, mahta ( 66, n. 1);—wait, waist ( 69, n. 2); waran, warst ( 71, n. 3); biudan, baust ( 75, n. 1).

Note 1. Exceptions ar magt (2nd pers. sg.; 1st mag, 201) and gahugds, mind.

Note 2. st often becums ss by assimilation; as, wissa, prt. of witan ( 76, n. 1). Cp. Beitr., 7, 171 et seq.; 9, 150 et seq.; IF., 4, 341 et seq.

Note 3. The rule givn abuv from a practical standpoint of the Gothic grammar must be formulated differently from a comparativ-historical standpoint, because the discust sound-shiftings hav not originated in the Gothic language, but ar reflections of proethnic Germanic and Indo-Germanic relations of sounds. S. Brgm., I, 381 et seq.; 403 et seq.

82. Assimilations occur only in combination with h (s. 62, n. 3) and us ( 78, n. 4).





(a) On declension in general.

83. The Gothic declension, like that of the remaining Old-Germanic dialects, comprises three genders: the masculin, neuter and feminin.

Note 1. The neuter of all declensions resembls in form very closely the masculin; a distinction occurs in the nom. and acc. sg. and pl. only.

Note 2. A distinction of gender is wanting only with the personal prn. of the 1st and 2nd persons, with the reflexiv prn. ( 150), and with the numeral adjectivs 4-19 ( 141).

84. The Goth. declension has two numbers: singular and plural.

Note. The dual which originally existed in all Indg. languages, is preservd in the Goth. decl. in the 1st and 2nd pers. of the personal prn. only ( 150).

85. The Goth. declension has four complete cases: nominativ, genitiv, dativ, accusativ. The vocativ is mostly identical with the nominativ, only in the singular of sum classes of declension the vocativ is different from the nominativ, but then it is always identical with the accusativ.

Note. The Goth. dativ represents several Indg. cases (dativ, locativ, ablativ, instrumental). Relics of the neuter instrumental ar stil present in the pronominal declension: ( 153), ƕ ( 159).

(b) On the declension of substantivs.

86. The declension of substantivs in Gothic is divided into a vocalic and a consonantal declension, according as the stems of the substantivs end in a vowel or a consonant.


Note. The original form of the stem is in part unrecognizabl in the Gothic language, because the stem has blended with the endings, final vowels hav been lost, and the like, so that the division into a vocalic and a consonantal declension appears correct only in the light of the Comparativ Indo-Germanic Grammar, and but with reference to this it must be retaind. Such a division would never hav been made from an especially Gothic-Germanic standpoint.

87. Of the consonantal stems in Gothic the n-stems (i. e. the stems in -an, -n, -ein), ar very numerous, while of other consonantal declensions but a few remains ar preservd ( 114 et seq.). Sinse the time of Jac. Grimm the n-declension has also been calld Weak Declension.

88. There ar four classes of the vocalic declension: stems in a, , i, u. Accordingly, we distinguish them as a-, -, i-, and u-declensions. The stem-characteristics ar stil clearly seen in all classes in the dat. and acc. pl.; e. g., dagam, dagans;—gibm, gibs;—gastim, gastins;—sunum, sununs. Sinse the time of Jacob Grimm the vocalic declension has also been calld Strong Declension.

Note 1. Of the four vocalic declensions the a- and -declensions ar closely connected, the a-declension containing only masculins and neuters (dags, ward), the -declension the corresponding feminins. Both classes ar therefore uzually givn as one, the a-declension.

Note 2. The Gothic a-declension corresponds to the second or o-declension in Greek and Latin (Gr. m. -ος, n. -ον; Lt. -us, -um), the Goth. -declension corresponds to the first or ā-declension in Gr. and Lt. Now sinse Comparativ Grammar teaches us that the Grco-Lt. vowels ar the more original ones, and that onse also the Germanic stems of the corresponding masculine and neuters must hav ended in o and those of the feminins in , we often meet in Germanic Grammar with the term o-declension for the masculins and neuters, and with the term -declension for the feminins.

(c) On the nominal composition.

88a. Substantivs (and adjectivs) as the first parts of compounds end as a rule in a vowel, the connecting vowel of the components (or composition-vowel), which in the case of the vocalic stems is oftenest identical with the stem-vowel. Exampls: a-decl.: figgra-gul, hunsla-stas, himina-kunds, fulla-tjis;—i-decl.: gasti-gs, naudi-bandi;—u-decl.: ftu-bard, hardu-hartei, filu-wardei.

But the connecting vowel of the o-stems is always -a; as, ara-kunds, hleira-stakeins; the -ja of ja-stems {39}persists when the stem is a short syllabl, but it becums i when the stem is long (cp. 44); as, wadja-bks, alja-kuns; arbi-numja, aglaiti-wardei; in like manner sundi-fas, < stem in -j-, nom. sundi ( 145).

The n-stems hav simpl a insted of the thematic ending -an, -n; as, guma-kunds, fruma-bar, wilja-halei, qina-kunds, auga-dar; but mari-saiws (cp. Beitr., 8, 410).

Note 1. The composition-vowel was often dropt in Gothic, especially that of the a-stems; e. g., of a-stems: wein-drugkja (but weina-triu, weina-basi, etc.), gud-hs, gu-blstreis (but guda-farhts, guda-laus, gua-skaunei), laus-qirs, laus-handus (but lausa-wards), iudan-gardi, huh-hts, ain-fals, iu-magus (for iwa-, 91, n. 3);—of ja-stems: niu-klahs (but niuja-satis), frei-hals, aglait-gastalds (but aglaiti-wardei);—of i-stems: br-fas, ut-harn (Beitr., 8, 411), twalib-wintrus ( 141).

Note 2. Sum words show evasions of the composition-vowel: iui-qiss (for iua-); I. Cor. X, 16 (in Cod. A); anda-laus (for andja-); I. Tim. I, 4 (in A, but andi-laus in B); hrainja-harts (for hraini-); Mt. V, 8; garda- in cpds. seems to be the normal form beside the stem gardi- (s. 101): garda-waldands; Mt. X, 25. Lu. XIV, 21; migarda-waddjus; Eph. II, 14 (in B, but midgardi-w. in A); Beitr., 8, 432. Cp. also brra-lub; Rom. XII, 10 (in A, but brru-lub; I. Thess. IV, 9, in B).—The evasions occur mostly in Codex A and seem to be yunger East-Gothic forms; cp. the names in the Documents (e. g., Gudi-lub, in Ar. Doc.; Sunjai-frias, in Neap. Doc.), and Wrede, 'Ostg.', 184.

Note 3. Beside the other consonantal stems there occur: brru-lub ( 114); cp. the preceding note; bargs-waddjus, a genitiv-composition ( 116); nahta-mats ( 116); beside mann- ( 117) the stem mana- is found: mana-ss, mana-marrja, unmana-riggws; and (probably according to note 1) man-leika.—sigis-laun and ruts-fill, which belong to old s-stems (s. 94, n. 5.—Leo Meyer, Got. Spr., p. 174), may (by loss of a, according to note 1) also refer to a-stems.

Note 4. For more about the cpds. in Gothic, s. Beitr., 8, 371-460; Brgm., II, 73 et seq.; Wrede, 'Ostg.', 183 et seq.


1. (a) A-Declension.

89. The Gothic a-declension contains only masculins and neuters. We distinguish between pure a-stems and ja-stems.

Note. The wa-stems in Gothic differ but very litl from the pure a-stems. Their number is very small ( 91, n. 3; 93; 94, n. 1).


90. Paradims of the masculins. (a) Pure a-stems: dags, day (< an erlier *dagaz, proethnic Germanic *dago-z, {40} 88, n. 2); hlaifs, (loaf of) bred (proethnic Germanic *hlaibo-z). (b) ja-stems: hardeis, herdsman (proethnic Germanic *herdio-z); harjis, army (proethnic Germanic *hario-z).

Sing. N. dags hlaifs hardeis harjis
G. dagis hlaibis hardeis harjis
D. daga hlaiba hardja harja
A. dag hlaif hardi hari
V. dag hlaif hardi hari
Plur. N. dags hlaibs hardjs harjs
G. dag hlaib hardj harj
D. dagam hlaibam hardjam harjam
A. dagans hlaibans hardjans harjans

91. Like dags decline many masculins; as, stains, stone; skalks, servant; tains, twig; himins, heven; fisks, fish; wigs, way; wulfs, wolf; fugls, bird (fowl); ais (gen. aiis), oath.

hlaifs shows the hardening of the medial soft spirant when becuming final (cp. 56. 79). So does laufs (nom. pl. laubs), leaf.

Note 1. The declension of these masculins is identical with that of the masculin i-stems (100) in the hole sg. and in the gen. pl. Only the nom., acc., and dat. pl. can show to which declension they belong. Consequently, a number of masculins which ar not found in those pl. cases cannot with certainty be classified. The testimony of the other Germanic languages, however, wil in many cases enable us to decide. Thus akrs, field; mgs, sun-in-law; margins, morning; snaiws, snow; maims, present, etc., belong to the a-decl.

Note 2. Words which ar not found in the nom. sg. nor in the nom. acc. pl., may be neuter. Thus the nom. to the isolated gen. akeitis (vinegar) may be both akeits and akeit, that to the dat. staa (shore) both stas and sta. Sum of such words ar undoutedly m., as is evident from the adjs. which modify them, or from the cognate dialects; e. g., slps, sleep; wkrs, uzury; ahns, oven; tweifls, dout; ms, anger (gen. mdis, 74).

Note 3. According to the rules for final w ( 42), ius and iu ar givn, respectivly, as the nom. and voc. sg. to the nom. pl. iws (servants), gen. iw—the only forms found. Cp. iu-magus, servant, 88a, n. 1.

Note 4. According to 78, n. 2, the s of the nom. sg. is dropt in *ans (dat. anza), beam; *hals (halsis), neck; freihals, liberty; *ams (acc. pl. amsans), shoulder: war, man; *gabar (n. pl. gabars), festiv meal; kaisar, emperor, Caesar; stiur, steer (Neh. 5, 18; cp. Zs. fda., 37, 319).

Note 5. wgs, wave (nom. pl. wgs, but dat. pl. wgim); aiws, time (dat. pl. aiwam, acc. pl. aiwins), show a tendency to merge into the i-decl.


92. The ja-stems ar subject to the rules concerning the contraction of the ji into ei (s. 44, c and n. 1), according to which there is a distinction between the words with long and those with short stem-syllabls. Further exampls: (a) long-stemd and trisyllabic (polysyllabic): asneis, hired man; andeis, end; ƕaiteis, wheat; sipneis, disciple; the words in -areis (Kluge, Stammbildung, 8. 9.; ahd. gr., 200): laisareis, teacher; bkareis, scribe, etc. (b) short stems: nijis, cuzin; *andastajis, adversary.

Note 1. andeis, end, has in Rom. X, 18 the acc. pl. according to the i-decl.: andins.

Note 2. Only in the pl. occurs: brusjs, parents ( 33).

Note 3. The acc. pl. hlijans (Mk. IX, 5) suggests the nom. sg. *hleis (like freis, 126, n. 2), tent. Cp. Zimmer, QF., 13, 308.

Note 4. A nom. pl. silbawiljs, adj. uzed as sb. (nom. sg. *silba-wiljis, willing of one's self; cp. gawiljis, 126), occurs in II. Cor. VIII, 3.


93. Paradims. (a) pure a-stems: ward, word; haubi, hed. (b) wa-stems: triu, tree. (c) ja-stems: kuni, kin.

Sing. N. ward haubi triu kuni
G. wardis haubidis triwis kunjis
D. warda haubida triwa kunja
A. ward haubi triu kuni
Plur. N. warda haubida triwa kunja
G. ward haubid triw kunj
D. wardam haubidam triwam kunjam
A. warda haubida triwa kunja

94. Like ward ar declined a very great number of neuter nouns; e. g., bl, blis, blud; gul, gold; juk, yoke; jr, year; harn, horn; sauil, sun; silubr, silver; agis, fear; sir, sorrow; marr, murder; gras, grasis, grass.

Exampls of words, like haubi, with a final hard sound for a medial soft spirant: dius, diuzis, animal; hatis, hatred; riqis, darkness ( 78, n. 1); liuha, liuhadis, light; wit, law.

Note 1. According to 42, the final w of wa-stems becums u after a short vowel. There occur two words of this kind: the paradim triu (weina-triu, vine) and *kniu, kniwis, knee. No change after a long vowel; as, lw, opportunity; fraiw, seed.

Note 2. According to 91, n. 2, it is doutful whether sum words ar m. or n. The reasons givn there permit us to class words like arp, field; {42}mal, market, with the neuters; doutful ar the forms dal, dale (cp. ON. dalr), lun, ransom (or lns, cp. 15, n. 1).

Note 3. The word gu, which is neuter in form, is uzed as m. when denoting the Christian God. But the n. pl. guda (heathen) gods (cp. 74, n. 4), is stil uzed. The inflection of the sg. is uncertain, because only abbreviated forms ( 1, n. 4) occur: g, gs, ga. As ful forms ar givn: nom. acc. gu, gen. gus, dat. gua, tho we should expect the gen. gudis, dat. guda. If the gen. form gus is correct, the word gu would belong to the consonantal stems ( 114 et seq.).—In composition guda- and gua-; s. 88a, n. 1.

Note 4. fadrein, 'paternity', in the sense of 'parents', may be uzed as an indeclinabl pl. with the art.: ai fadrein, ans fadrein. But also the regular neuter pl. fadreina occurs in the sense of 'parents'. The fem. fadreins, lineage, family, is a separate word ( 103).—Cp. J. Schmidt, 'Indog. Neutra', 14.

Note 5. The gen. of hatis, hatred, occurs onse (in cod. B) as hatis (a consonantal form); Eph. II, 3 (hatiz in A). For a different view, s. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 77.—Concerning the neuters in -is, s. v. Bahder, 'Verbalabstracta', 52 et seq.; Kluge, Stammbild., 84. 145; Brgm., II, 419 et seq. Cp. also 78, n. 3.

95. Like kuni ar declined both short and long ja-stems; e. g., badi, bed; nati, net; farguni, mountain; gawi, gaujis, province ( 42, n. 2); taui, tjis, deed ( 26); reiki, reikjis, kingdom; arbi, arbjis, inheritance; galigri, consummation of marriage; gawarki, business; garni, counsel; andwari, presence.

Note 1. Beside -jis a contracted gen. in -eis (cp. 44, c; 92) is found in but a few long and short stems; as, trausteis (nom. trausti, cuvenant); Eph. II, 12; andbahti, office, has the gen. andbahtjis (3 times) beside andbahteis (onse); Lu. I, 23; gawari, peace, has gawarjis (6 times), gawareis (3 times); waldufni, power, has waldufneis (Skeir., 49) beside waldufnjis (twice).

1. (b) -Declension.

96. The Gothic -declension contains only feminins which serv as a supplement to the a-decl. ( 88, n. 1). Also here we distinguish between pure -stems and j-stems.

Paradims: (a) giba, gift (stem gib-). (b) long j-stems: bandi, bond (stem bandj-); mawi, girl (stem mauj-).

Sing. N. giba bandi mawi
G. gibs bandjs maujs
D. gibai bandjai maujai
A. giba bandja mauja
Plur. N. gibs bandjs maujs
G. gib bandj mauj
D. gibm bandjm maujm
A. gibs bandjs maujs

97. Like giba ar declined a great many words; as, bida, request; iuda, peple; hansa, multitude; saiwala, soul; stibna, voice; ara, erth; ƕeila, hour; wamba, belly; mildia, mercy; aƕa, water.

Note 1. The declension of the w- and short j-stems is identical with that of giba; e. g., triggwa, cuvenant; bandwa, sign;—sunja, truth; halja, hel; sibja, relationship; wrakja, persecution; plapja, street.

Note 2. The acc. sg. of ƕeila before the enclitic -hun is found as ƕeil- in ƕeilhun; s. 163, n. 1 (as regards the form, cp. ainhun, 163, c; ƕarjh, 165).

98. Like bandi go the long and polysyllabic j-stems. Their inflection is the same as that of giba, except in the nom. and voc. sg. which hav i insted of ja.—Further exampls: iudangardi, kingdom; ƕftuli, glory; *haii, field, heath; *wasti, garment; *frijndi, f., frend; *fraistubni, temptation.

Note 1. Like mawi (for the change of w into u, s. 42), whose inflection corresponds to that of bandi, inflects also iwi, iujs, maidservant.

2. I-Declension.

99. The i-declension contains only masculins and feminins. Both genders properly ought to inflect precisely alike. But this is the case in the pl. only, while the sg. of the masculins has the gen. and dat. after the analogy of the a-declension.


100. Paradim: balgs, wine-skin (proethnic Germanic balgi-z).

Sing. N. balgs Plur. N. balgeis
G. balgis G. balg
D. balga D. balgim
A. balg A. balgins
V. balg

101. The number of masculins inflecting like balgs is not very great; e. g., gasts, guest; gards, house; muns, thought; mats, meat, food; saggws, song; saus, saudis, sacrifice; br-fas (d), bridegroom; stas (d), sted, place.

Note 1. Words not occurring in the nom., dat., acc. pl. can not with certainty be referd to this declension (cp. 91, n. 1). In many cases, however, we can infer from the remaining Germanic languages to what declension they belong. Accordingly, the word saiws, sea, lake, belongs {44}here; and, particularly, a number of verbal abstracts like qums, arrival; drus, fall; wlits, face; runs (gen. runis), a running; grts, weeping; krusts, gnashing.

Note 2. The s of the nom. is dropt according to 78, n. 2; e. g., ur-runs, ur-runsis; drus, drusis; bar, baris (< baran, to bear), sun.

Note 3. naus, a ded person, is explaind according to the rules for w ( 42); nom. pl. naweis, acc. pl. nawins; so, also, the acc. and voc. sg. nau.

Note 4. For wgs and aiws, s. 91, n. 5; for the acc. pl. andins, s. 92, n. 1.


102. Paradim: ansts, favor (proethnic Germanic ansti-z).

Sing. N. ansts Plur. N. ansteis
G. anstais G. anst
D. anstai D. anstim
A. anst A. anstins
V. anst

103. A great number of feminins belong to this class. Exampls: qns, woman, wife; dails, deal; wns, hope; naus, nauais, need; siuns, sight; skns, serch; taikns, token; fahs, fahdais, joy; magas (), maid; fadreins, generation, family; arbais (d), work; asans, harvest; ahaks, duv; those in -dus, -duais (perhaps -ds; cp. 15, n. 1): mikildus, greatness; managdus, abundance; ajukdus, eternity; gamaindus, communion.

Very numerous ar the verbal abstracts which may be formd from every strong verb by means of the dental suffix t (, d); e. g., gaskafts, creation; arfts, need; ganists, salvation; fralusts, loss; gakusts, test; gabars, birth; gatars, destruction; manass (d), world; ds, deed; gahugds, thought.

Note 1. Here belong also the abstracts in -eins, -ns, -ains, derived from the weak verbs of the I., II., and III. Weak Conjugations, respectivly; e. g., naseins (< nasjan), salvation; laiseins, doctrin; huheins, a 'heightening', hense praise; galaubeins, belief; naiteins, blasfemy; lans (< lan), invitation; salbns, salv, ointment; mitns, consideration; ulains (< ulan), suffering, patience; libains, life.—But those in -eins hav the nom. and gen. pl. according to the -declension. Thus, for exampl:

Sing. N. naiteins G. naiteinais D. naiteinai A. V. naitein
Plur. N. naiteins G. naitein D. naiteinim A. naiteinins.

So in one exampl also the dat. pl.: unkareinm; II. Cor. XI, 8.—The pl. of the abstracts in -ns, -ains is regular: mitneis, mitn, etc.

Note 2. Whether words ar f. or m. is doutful when they do not occur in a distinctiv case; as, lists, craftiness; fulleis (or fullei, n.), fulness.


Note 3. The s of the nom. is dropt according to 78, n. 2; e. g., us-stass, us-stassais, resurrection; garuns, -runsais, street.

Note 4. haims, village, forms its pl. according to the -declension: haims, etc.

3. U-Declension.

Masculins and Feminins.

104. The masculins and feminins of the u-declension ar identical in form. Paradim: sunus, sun.

Sing. N. sunus Plur. N. sunjus
G. sunus G. suniw
D. sunu D. sunum
A. sunu A. sununs
V. sunu

105. Further exampls: (a) masculins; e. g., irus, messenger; asilus, ass; dauus, deth; wulus, glory; hhrus, hunger; arnus, thorn; harus, sword; lius, lim; lustus, lust; magus, boy; farƕus, world; ftus, foot; stubjus, dust; wrus, flock ( 7, n. 3); in -assus (Kluge, Stammbildg., 137 et seq.): drahtinassus, warfare; ibnassus, evenness; iudinassus, kingdom; in -dus, -us (Kluge, Stammbildg., 134); e. g., auhjdus, tumult; gabarjus, plezure.

(b) The only feminins ar certainly only handus, hand; kinnus, cheek; waddjus, wall (cp. Beitr., 16, 3181), and perhaps asilus (if ὄνου in Lu. XIX, 30. Joh. XII, 15, means she-ass).

The gender of sum is doutful; as, qarnus, mil; fldus, flud; luftus, air.

Note 1. Foren words like aggilus, angel; sabbatus, sabbath, fluctuate in the pl. between the u- and i-decl.; s. 120, n. 1.

Note 2. There is a notewurthy fluctuation between u and au (a? cp. 24, n. 4) in the terminations of the sing. All cases of this kind hav been collected by Leo Meyer in his 'Got. Spr.', p. 574. au occurs for u: nom. sunaus; Lu. IV, 3; farƕaus; Gal. VI, 14 (in cod. B = farƕus in cod. A); Bartimaiaus; Mt. X, 46;—acc. handau; Mk. VII, 32; iudinassau; Lu. IX, 27; harau; Rom. XIII, 4 (in A = haru in Cod. Car.);—voc. sunau (often), magau; Lu. II, 48.

Reversely we find u for au: gen. dauus; Lu. I, 79; wulus; Rom. IX, 23; apaustaulus; II. Cor. XII, 12 (in A = apaustaulaus in B); dat. wulu; Lu. IX, 26; Patru; Gal. II, 7 (in A = Patrau in B).

From the great number of exampls, however, we infer that the abuv paradim is by all means the regular one; the deviations just mentiond ar merely owing to confusion on the part of later copyists. When a word {46}occurs in two manuscripts, it generally has the correct form in one. Especially in Cod. Amb. A and in the gospel of Lu. the u-decl. is confused in this way. Cp. Beitr., 18, 2801.


106. The word fahu, muney (orig. 'catl', = OHG. fihu) is the only neuter sb. of this class which occurs in several cases in the singular. No n. pl. is found.

N. fahu
G. [fahus]
D. fahu
A. fahu

Note 1. Also gairu, sting, is n. It occurs only in the nom. sg. (II. Cor. XII, 7 in A, as a gloss to hn).—The sb. leiu, fruit-wine, probably belongs here too; only the acc. sg. leiu occurs (Lu. I, 15); cp. Galle ( 223, n. 1), I, p. 38.—The acc. sg. sihu, a gloss to the neuter sigis, victory, in Cod. B I. Cor. XV, 57, is probably miswritn for sigu (because the i in sihu would hav becum a) which may also belong to a masculin (nom. sg. *sigus = OHG. sigu). But cp. J. Schmidt, 'Idg. Neutra', 153.

Note 2. The gen. fahus has been inferd from the m. (f.) and from the adv. gen. filaus ( 131, n. 3).


1. Masculins.

107. Paradim: guma, man.

Sing. N. guma Plur. N. gumans
G. gumins G. guman
D. gumin D. gumam
A. guman A. gumans

108. Like guma inflect a great many masculins; e. g., staua, judge; hana, cock; skula, detter; mna, moon; atta, father; ahma, spirit; blma, flower; milhma, cloud; hliuma, hearing; weiha, priest; swahra, father-in-law; magula, litl boy; pl. brrahans, brothers (J. Schmidt, 'Idg. Neutra', 16);—bandja, prisoner; harnja, trumpeter; fiskja, fisher; timrja, carpenter; arbja, heir; wilja, wil; manamarrja, (man-)murderer; warstwja, workman.

Note 1. aba, man, has the gen. pl. abn, dat. pl. abnam; of ahsa, ox, occurs the gen. pl. ahsn. Cp. the neuters in 110, n. 1. Onse (I. Cor. IX, 9) we meet with the acc. pl. ahsununs which either stands for ahsuns (according to 80, n. 1; cp. Anz. fda. 6, 120) or for ahsnuns (Beitr., 8, 115; 12, 543; Brgm., I, 203).

Note 2. The long stems in -ja do not contract the ji of the gen. and dat. sg. into ei (s. 44, n. 1); hense, bandja, gen. bandjins, dat. bandjin.


2. Neuters.

109. Paradim: hart, hart.

Sing. N. hart Plur. N. hartna
G. hartins G. hartan
D. hartin D. hartam
A. hart A. hartna

110. Like hart inflect but few substantivs: aug, ey; aus, ear; barnil, litl child; auga-dar, window; ark, hole, ear of a needl; karn, corn; siglj, seal. Cp. J. Schmidt, 'Indog. Neutra', 106 et seq.

Also the weak adjectivs ( 132).

Note 1. Irregular forms occur in the pl. of the neuters nam, name, and wat, water. The sg. inflects like hart. Paradim:

Sing. N. nam G. namins D. namin A. nam
Plur. N. namna G. namn D. namnam A. namna.

The pl. of wat occurs only in the dat. watnam. Cp. 108, n. 1.

Note 2. To the dat. sg. sunnin which occurs (twice) in the frase: at sunnin urrinnandin (Mk. IV, 6. XVI, 2), belongs perhaps a neuter sunn (not a m. sunna), beside the f. sunn, sun ( 112).—Cp. Mahlow, 'Die langen vocale a, e, o', p. 156, and Sievers' comments on this in the appendix to the 3d G. edition of this grammar.

Note 3. The word gajuk which was formerly regarded as n., is f., 'a female cumpanion'. Cp. Bernhardt's 'Vulfila', comment on Phil. IV, 3.

3. Feminins.

111. The feminins of the n-declension ar divided into two classes: stems in -n- and -ein-. Their inflection is the same. Paradims: tugg, tung; managei, multitude.

Sing. N. tugg managei
G. tuggns manageins
D. tuggn managein
A. tuggn managein
Plur. N. tuggns manageins
G. tuggn managein
D. tuggm manageim
A. tuggns manageins

112. Like tugg inflect many substantivs; as, qin, woman, wife; htw, dawn; swahr, mother-in-law; azg, ashes; gatw, street; starn, star; wik, week; sunn, sun (cp. 110, n. 2);—arbj, heiress; brunj, brestplate; tainj, basket; nij, female cuzin; raj, account.

Note 1. Also the feminins of the weak adjectivs inflect like tugg ( 132).


113. Nearly all substantivs inflecting like managei ar derived from adjectivs. Such an abstract in -ei may be formd from every adjectiv, hense the great number of these words; e. g., diupei, depth; laggei, length; bleiei, mercy; mikilei, greatness; braidei, bredth; frdei, wisdom; harduhartei, hard-hartedness; drugkanei, drunkenness; sum can not be referd to corresponding adjs., but they likewise denote a state; e. g., arstei, thirst; magaei, maidenhood. But very few hav a concrete meaning; as, aiei, mother; ramstei, locust; kilei, womb; marei, sea; ƕarnei, skul.

Note 1. There is a close resemblance between adjectival abstracts in -ei and the verbal abstracts in -eins (cp. 103, n. 1); e. g., huhei, height (< huhs), but huheins, a heightening, praise (< huhjan). Both hav the acc. sg. huhein.

In one case there is confusion. In Jo. X, 33 we meet with a gen. sg. wajamreins (nom. wajamreins, blasfemy) from which it is customary to infer a nom. wajamrei, tho in its meaning such a form is impossibl.

Note 2. In Cod. B. three nominativs sg. in -ein ar found: liuhadein, illumination; II. Cor. IV, 4 (liuhadeins in A; comp. this passage in Bernhardt's 'Vulfila'); wiljahalein, favor; Col. III, 25 (wanting in A); gagudein, piety; I. Tim. IV, 8 (gagudei in A).

Note 3. The comparativs, the superlativs in -ma, and the prs. participls form their feminin like managei (cp. 132, n. 4).



114. Nouns in -r denoting relationship. The words brar, brother; dahtar, daughter; swistar, sister; fadar, father, hav replaced their old consonantal inflection in the nom., acc., and dat. pl. with the forms of the u-declension ( 104). Paradim:

Sing. N. brar Plur. brrjus
G. brrs   brr
D. brr   brrum
A. brar   brruns

Note. Cp. the cpd. brru-lub, brotherly luv ( 88a, n. 3; 210, n. 1).

115. The present participls in Gothic inflect like weak adjectivs ( 133). An older (substantival) inflection, however, persists with sum participls uzed substantivly. Paradim: nasjands, savior.

Sing. N. nasjands Plur. nasjands
G. nasjandis   nasjand
D. nasjand   nasjandam
A. nasjand   nasjands
V. nasjand  

Furthermore: fijands, fiend; frijnds, frend (> frijndi, 98), daupjands, the Baptist; mrjands, preacher; bisitands, neighbor; talzjands, teacher; -waldands, ruler (all-w., the Almighty; garda-w., master of the house); fraweitands, avenger; fraujinnds, ruler; midumnds, mediator; gibands, giver. Cp. Zs. fdph., 5, 315.

116. A number of feminins following in sum cases the i-decl. (ansts, 102) appear in others as short forms which ar remains of an old consonantal inflection. Paradim: bargs, (burg), town, city.

Sing. N. bargs Plur. N. bargs
G. bargs G. barg
D. barg D. bargim
A. barg A. bargs

Like bargs inflect also alhs, templ; spards, race-course; brusts, brest; duls, feast; wahts, thing; miluks, milk; mitas (d), mezure.

The word nahts, night, inflects in the sg. like bargs, in the pl. only the dat. nahtam is found. Cp. nahta-mats, 88a, n. 3.

Note 1. wahts and duls chiefly follow the i-declension; hense, g. sg. wahtais, dulais. According to the cons. declension occur onse each the dat. sg. dul and acc. pl. wahts. Beside wahts there is a n. nom. sg. waht in the combination ni-waht, nothing.

117. Masculins with short (consonantal) cases: manna, man; mns, month; reiks, ruler; weitwds, witness (cp. 74, n. 2). But in point of inflection they ar not fully alike.

(1) manna follows in sum cases the n-decl. (guma, 107). These cases ar here put in Italics:

Sing. N. manna Plur. N. mans, mannans
G. mans G. mann
D. mann D. mannam
A. mannan A. mans, mannans

Note 1. To manna belongs the cpd. *alamans (all men), found in the dat. pl. alamannam (Skeir.) only; also the neuter gaman (cumpanion, cumpany) which inflects, however, in all the extant forms (nom. acc. sg. gaman, dat. sg. gamana, dat. pl. gamanam) precisely like ward ( 93).

Note 2. In composition the stem mana- (man-) appears; s. 88a, n. 3.


(2) mns and reiks follow in the g. sg. the a-decl.: mnis, reikis, but in the dat. sg. the short forms mn and reik (Eph. II, 2) occur. In the nom. acc. pl. the short forms mns and reiks ar uzed; gen. pl. reik. In the dat. pl. mnum, but reikam.—Beside the nom. sg. weitwds there occur the acc. sg. weitwd and the g. pl. weitwd.

Note 3. The g. sg. mnis (Neh. VI, 15) is not quite certain; Lbe red mns.

Note 4. Here belongs also the nom. bajs, dat. bajum, both (s. 140, n. 1).

118. The neuter fn, fire, has this form in the nom. acc. sg., but funins in the gen., and funin in the dat.—No plural occurs. Cp. 12, n. 3.

Note 1. Concerning the neuter genitivs gus and hatis, s. 94, n. 3 and 94, n. 5, respectivly.



119. A number of foren words from the Latin and Greek wer fully adopted into the Gothic language thru commercial and political intercourse, so that their inflection is the same as that of purely Gothic words; e. g., pund, n., pound; marikreitus, m., perl; Krks, m., Greek; karkara, f., 'carcer'; alw, n., oil; kaisar, m., Csar.

120. A second portion of foren words wer at a later period forced on the Gothic language by Christianity and especially by the version of the Bible. To these belong for the most part proper nouns which ar stil felt to be foren elements and hav but imperfectly adopted the Gothic inflection. For their treatment in Gothic no fixt rules can be givn. Sumtimes they retain their Greek inflection, sumtimes they take either similar or arbitrarily formd case-endings.—Cp. Bernhardt's 'Vulfila', p. XXVIII, and especially M. H. Jellinek, 'Beitr. zur erklrung der german. flexion' (Berlin 1891), pp. 76-84.

Note 1. Most consistent is the treatment of the Gr. masculins in -ος, Lt. -us, which inflect in Gothic according to the u-decl. ( 104. 105); e. g., Patrus, Baralamaius, Teitus, apiskapus, ἐπίσκοπος; apastalus, ἀπόστολος; aggilus, ἄγγελος; sabbatus, sabbath. But only in the sg. Pl. forms follow mostly the i-decl.; e. g., apastaleis, sabbatins, aggileis, aggil beside aggiljus.


Note 2. Greek case-endings ar retaind in the neuters alabalstran, ἀλάβαστρον; praitrian, πραιτώριον, etc.; Israleits has the nom. pl. Israleitai = Ἰσραηλῖται; Rom. IX, 4; or (with Gothic inflection) Israleiteis; II. Cor. XI, 22.

Note 3. The following exampl may illustrate arbitrary inflection. The Gr. ἐπιστολή is represented in Goth. by apistal (nom. sg.). But the dat. sg. is apistalein, the dat. pl. apistalm, and the acc. pl. apistalans.


121. In Gothic, as in all other Germanic languages, adjectivs hav two kinds of inflection, the strong and the weak. The strong inflection is the original one corresponding to that of the cognate languages, the weak originated on Germanic soil. Every normal adj. may hav both a strong and a weak inflection. The distinction is a syntactic one: the weak form is employd after the articl (rarely in other positions), the strong form in all other cases, especially when the adj. is uzed predicativly, or attributivly without the articl. Cp. Zs. fda., 18, 17-43.


122. The strong inflection of adjectivs is in part the same as the vocalic (or strong) inflection of the substantivs with which it was originally identical. In Germanic, however, sum cases of the adj. hav adopted the pronominal inflection, so that the identity between the adjectival inflection and that of the substantivs is now confined to certain cases. The nom. and acc. sg. of the neuter gender hav two forms of the same value, a substantival and a pronominal one (in -ata). The latter, however, is not uzed predicativly.

The Gothic adjectiv, like the substantiv, has three vocalic declensions: (1) Adjectivs of the a-declension which correspond to the substantival a-declension in the m. and n. ( 89 et seq.) and in the f. of the -declension ( 96 et seq.).—A subdivision is formd by the ja-stems, just as in the case of the corresponding substantivs. (2) Adjectivs of the i-declension which correspond to the substantivs in 99-103. (3) Adjectivs of the u-declension belonging to the substantivs in 104-106.


Classes (2) and (3), however, contain but very few remains in Gothic. The few adjectival ja-stems hav in most of the inflectional cases past over to the 1st class, so that the normal strong declension of the adjectivs in Gothic embraces only the a-declension and its subdivision, the ja-stems.

Note. Subject to strong inflection ar all pronouns (except sama and silba, 132, n. 3), the cardinal numbers, inasmuch as they inflect adjectivly, and anar, the second; also the adjectivs of a more general meaning: alls, all; ganhs, enuf; halbs, half; midjis, 'medius'; fulls, ful.

123. Paradim of the strong adjectival declension: blinds, blind. The pronominal forms differing from the inflection of the corresponding substantivs ar in the following paradim put in Italics:

Sing. M. N. F.
N. blinds blind, blindata blinda
G. blindis blindaizs
D. blindamma blindai
A. blindana blind, blindata blinda
N. blindai blinda blinds
G. blindaiz blindaizs
D. blindaim blindaim
A. blindans blinda blinds

124. Here belong most of the extant adjectivs; e. g., hails, hole, helthy; siuks, sik; juggs, yung; triggws, tru, faithful; swins, strong; ubils, evil; aiweins, eternal; haiiwisks, wild; mahteigs, mighty; ansteigs, gracious; manags, much, many; mdags, angry; handugs, wise.—Also adjectiv pronouns; as, meins, mine, my; eins, thine, thy; seins, his; jains, yun; the superlativs ( 137) and pps. pass; as, numans, taken; nasis, saved (cp. 134).

Note 1. According to 78, n. 2, the s of the nom. sg. is dropt, (1) after s; e. g., sws, swsis, own; gaqiss, gaqissis, consenting. (2) after r preceded by a short vowel: anar, the second, the other; unsar, our; izwar, your; ƕaar, which of the two. Accordingly, the nom. pl. warai must hav had a nom. sg. war, wary.

Note 2. The rules for the hardening of final soft spirants ( 79) must be noted; as, frs, frdis, wise; gs, gdis, good ( 74); liufs, liubis, dear; daufs, daubis, def ( 56, n. 1).

Note 3. Stems having a w before the case-endings ar subject to the rule for final w ( 42) in the nom. sg. m. and n. The three words of this kind occur only in other cases. Therefore the noms. pl. fawai, qiwai, usskawai suggest as noms. sg. m. and n. faus, fau, few; qius, qiu, alive; {53}usskaus, usskau, wakeful. According to usskawjan (to awake, 42, n. 2), also usskaws might be supposed insted of usskaus. For lasiws, s. 42, n. 1.

Note 4. The pronominal adjectivs in -ar: unsar, izwar, anar, ƕaar, hav in the n. sg. only the shorter forms: unsar, izwar, etc.

125. Adjectiv-stems with ja before the endings (ja-stems) hav most of their forms like the paradim blinds. Only in few forms a change is caused by the j. As in the case of nouns, we distinguish between short and long adjectival ja-stems.

Paradim of a short ja-stem: midjis, midl:

Sing. M. N. F.
N. midjis midi, midjata midja
G. midjis midjaizs
D. midjamma midjai
A. midjana midi, midjata midja
N. midjai midja midjs
G. midjaiz midjaiz
D. midjaim midjaim
A. midjans midja midjs

126. As regards inflection, the m. midjis is closely related to the substantiv harjis ( 90. 92), the n. midi to the substantiv kuni ( 93. 95). The fem. midja shows no deviation whatever.

Only a small number of adjectivs belong to this class: aljis, another; sunjis, tru; ga-wiljis, unanimous; unsibjis, criminal; -frajis, minded (only in grinda-, sama-fr.); ƕarjis ( 160); also those whose stems end in a vowel ( 44, c): niujis, new; -tjis, doing (as, ubiltjis, evil-doing).

Note 1. On account of the small number of these adjs. sum forms of the abuv paradim ar not extant. Thus, the short form of the neuter midi is givn in conformity with the long stems ( 127), and that of niujis would be niwi; only niujata occurs; the n. of -tjis would be -tai ( 26a).

Note 2. The adj.-stem frija-, free, which occurs in the f. sg. frija, frijaizs, frijai, frija, and in the m. forms, acc. sg. frijana, nom. pl. frijai, acc. frijans, has a contracted nom. sg. m. freis (for frijis). Also the gen. sg., if extant, would be freis.

Note 3. The nom. sg. f. of niujis is niuja (contrary to iwi, 98, n. 1).

127. The long ja-stems inflect in the pl. like midjis. Paradim wileis (stem wilja-), wild, in the sg.:

Sing. M. N. F.
N. wileis wili, wiljata wili
G. [wileis or wiljis?] [wiljaizs]
D. wiljamma wiljai
A. wiljana wili, wiljata wilja

128. The infl. of the m. is related to that of the sb. hardeis ( 90. 92), the infl. of the f. to that of bandi ( 96. 98; only wi occurs; II. Cor. II, 15). None of the few adjs. of this class occurs in the gen. sg.; wiljis (Rom. XI, 24) probably stands for wiljins; s. 132, n. 1.

Further exampls: aleis, old; farneis, old; arzeis, astray; weis, sweet.

129. According to 122, only remains of the original adjs. of the i- and u-declension ar extant in Gothic, viz.: nom. sg. of all genders, acc. sg. n., and gen. sg. m. and n. All other extant cases hav past over to the inflection of the ja-stems ( 125-127). The same rule applies to the weak forms ( 132, n. 1).

Note. The old form of the gen. sg. [m.] n. is seen in skeiris (Skeir. 45) for the i-decl., in filaus ( 131, n. 3) for the u-decl.; the latter, of course, is only a partial proof for the adj.

130. The adjectival i-stems ar connected with the substantivs balgs, ansts ( 99-103). Exampls: hrains, clean; gamains, common; brks, uzeful; analaugns, hidn; anasiuns, visibl; andanms, agreeabl; andasts, abominabl; sls, kind (unsls, wicked); suts, sweet; skeirs, clear; gafurs, sober (unfurs, talkativ); aljakuns, of different kind. The paradim hrains inflects thus:

Sing. M. N. F.
N. hrains hrain [hrainjata] hrains
G. [hrainis] [hrainjaizs]
D. hrainjamma hrainjai
A. hrainjana hrain [hrainjata] hrainja
N. hrainjai hrainja hrainjs

Note 1. A gen. sg. f. as wel as a longer n. form (like hrainjata) ar not extant.

Note 2. A word may with certainty be referd to this class, (1) if it occurs in the nom. sg. f. (hrains), (2) if besides the nom. sg. m. and n. also cases with j ar found. But if only the nominativs m. and n. (hrains, hrain) occur, the word may inflect like blinds (123); if only j-cases (as, hrainjamma) ar found, it may decline like wileis, midjis ( 127. 125).—Other adjectivs, however, ar without sufficient proof, but for other considerations, included in this class; e. g., skauns, beutiful; aus, desolate, waste; hauns, base; bleis, merciful; gadfs, fit; *mrs, famous (in {55}wailamr, nom. sg. n.).—Cp. Kluge, Stammbildg., 178. 197. 229-231; Beitr., 14, 167; 15, 489; Brgm., II, 287.

Note 3. Adjectival i-stems may be inferd from adverbs in -iba ( 210); e. g., arniba, gatmiba.

131. The adjectival u-stems ar related to the substantivs sunus (fem. handus), fahu ( 104-106). Exampls: hardus, hard; qarrus, meek; arsus, dry; tulgus, stedfast; manwus, redy; aggwus, narrow; aglus, difficult; seius, late; laqus, tender; twalibwintrus, twelv years (lit. winters) old. Paradim hardus:

Sing. M. N. F.
N. hardus hardu, hardjata hardus
G. [hardaus?] [hardjaizs]
D. [hardjamma] [hardjai]
A. hardjana hardu, hardjata hardja
N. hardjai [hardja] hardjs

Note 1. Whether adjectivs belong to this class is seen from the nom. sg. in which the abuv adduced exampls occur (the only f. forms being arsus and tulgus; Beitr., 15, 570; 16, 318). laushandus, empty-handed; hnasqus, soft; karus, hevy, ar merely inferd from their ja-cases.

Note 2. From the adv. glaggwuba ( 210) an adj. glaggwus ( 68) can be inferd.

Note 3. The original adj. *filus, much, is preservd in Goth. in the nom. acc. sg. n. uzed substantivly and adverbially: filu, the gen. filaus being uzed adverbially.


132. The weak declension of adjectivs is fully identical with the weak or n-declension of nouns ( 107-112). But it must be noticed that the f. of the weak adj. inflects like the paradim tugg (cp. 112, n. 1).—Exampl of an inflected weak adj. (blinds, 123):

Sing. M. N. F.
N. blinda blind blind
G. blindins blindns
D. blindin blindn
A. blindan blind blindn
N. blindans blindna blindns
G. blindan blindn
D. blindam blindm
A. blindans blindna blindns

Note 1. Like blinda inflect all weak adjectivs. Of ja-stems: nom. sg. niuja, niuj, niuj (cp. 126), wilja ( 127);—i-stems: hrainja, hrainj; u-stems: hardja, hardj (cp. 129 et seq.).—In the cases with i (gen. dat. sg. m. n.) of the long stems in -ja- (-i-, -u-) the forms with -ji- appear as the regular ones (as in the sb., 108, n. 2; contrary to 44, c); cp. wilji(n)s; Rom. XI, 24; unhrainjin; Mk. IX, 25. Lu. VIII, 29; unsljin; Mt. V, 39. Jo. XVII, 15. But beside unsljins; Eph. VI, 16 (in A, unsleins in B); beside farnjin; Mk. II, 21. Lu. V, 36, also farnin; II. Cor. VIII, 10. IX, 2.

Note 2. Sum adjectivs occur only in the weak forms; as, usgrudja, idle, despondent; alaarba, poor; usfarina, blameless; inkil, pregnant, and a few more of which sum ar probably to be regarded as substantivs (cp. Zs. fda., 18, 41, note).—The weak form ainaha (no strong form occurs), only, has in Lu. VIII, 42 the nom. sg. f. ainh (cp. Beitr., 12, 203) which is certainly incorrect for ainah.

Note 3. All ordinals except 1st and 2nd (cp. 146), and the prns. sama and silba ( 156) follow the weak inflection only.

Note 4. Lastly, the prs. ptcs. ( 133), comparativs ( 136), and the superlativs in -ma ( 139) inflect exclusivly like weak adjs. But all these words hav the f. according to the paradim managei ( 113, n. 3).


133. The present participl has lost its strong inflection and declines like a weak adj., but with the f. in -ei ( 132, n. 4). Only the nom. sg. m. has frequently both the strong and the weak inflection. Paradim gibands, giving:

Sing. M. N. F.
giband gibandei
G. gibandins gibandeins
D. gibandin gibandein
A. gibandan giband gibandein
N. gibandans gibandna gibandeins
G. gibandan gibandein
D. gibandam gibandeim
A. gibandans gibandna gibandeins

Note 1. Concerning the shorter inflection of sum participls uzed substantivly, s. 115.

134. The prt. ptc. pass., like an ordinary adj., follows the strong and weak inflection; e. g., the pp. of the stv. giban:

Strong: m. gibans n. giban, gibanata f. gibana
Weak:   gibana   giban   giban

The pp. of the wv. nasjan:

Strong: m. nasis n. nasi, nasidata f. nasida
Weak:   nasida   nasid   nasid

Note. Concerning the interchange between and d in the pp. of the weak verbs, s. 74.



135. The comparativ degree of adjectivs in Gothic is formd by means of two suffixes, -iz- and -z-, to which the terminations of the weak adjectivs ar added.

The formation with the suff. -iz- is more general than the other. It is found in adjs. of all kinds; e. g., managiza (< manags, a-stem), aliza (< aleis, 127. 128), hardiza (< hardus, 131).—But the suffix -z- occurs in a-stems only: frdza (< frs), swinza (< swins).

Note. The adj. juggs, yung, has the compar. jhiza (according to 50, n. 1). Its superlativ is not extant.

136. The comparativs inflect exactly like weak adjectivs, but the f. ends in -ei ( 132, n. 4):

Sing. N. m. frdza n. frdz f. frdzei
G. frdzins   frdzeins,

etc., like the prs. ptc. ( 133).


137. The superlativ degree, like the comparativ, is formd in two ways, in -ist- or in -st-; e. g., managists (< manags), armsts (< arms, poor). The inflection of the superlativs is precisely the same as that of ordinary adjectivs—strong and weak.

Note. No rule can be givn for the appearance of the or the i in the suffix, except that the -form occurs only with a-stems. We may suppose that a word which forms the compar. by means of i, has i in the superl. also, and that, in like manner, the -forms correspond to each other. This supposition, however, is only founded on a few extant exampls.


138. The lack of comparison of sum adjectivs is supplied by comparativs and superlativs with a corresponding meaning, but without a positiv:

gs (d), good Compar. batiza Superl. batists
ubils, evil " warsiza "   —
mikils, great " maiza " maists
leitils, litl " minniza " minnists
sineigs, old "   — " sinista.

139. A superlativ with an m-suffix is found in six words, which ar derived from adverbial stems and appear without a positiv. The m-suffix is either simpl: fru-ma, innu-ma, ahu-ma, or compound: af-tuma, if-tuma, hlei-duma.

Two of them hav assumed a comparativ meaning: ahuma, higher; hleiduma, left (ἀριστερός); the others hav a superlativ or an intensiv signification: aftuma, the last; iftuma, the next; innuma, the inmost; fruma, the first.

These words follow the weak inflection, but hav the f. in -ei, exactly like the comparativs.

Note. Sum superlativs in -ma ar compared anew in the uzual manner: aftumists, the last; ahumists, oftener than ahmists (cp. OE. ŷmest, Sievers-Cook, OE. Gr., 314, n. 3), the highest; frumists, the first.—The forms hindumists, hindmost, spdumists, last (< *sps, beside spdiza, spdists), suggest the missing hinduma and spduma. Also miduma, midst, midumnds, mediator, point to a form *miduma, midl (cp. OE. meodume, midmest).



140. The first three numerals ar declinabl in all cases and genders.

1. ains, n. ain and ainata, f. aina, inflects entirely like a strong adj. (blinds, 123). Plural forms mean only, alone. No weak inflection is found. ( 122, n. 1).

2.   M. N. F.
  N. twai twa tws
  G. twaddj
  D. twaim twaim
  A. twans twa tws
3. N. rija
  G. rij
  D. rim
  A. rins rija rins

The nom. of the m. and f., which is not extant, may with certainty be givn as reis.


Note. The definit dual number 'both', ἀμφότεροι, is renderd by bai, which inflects like twai. The extant forms ar nom. m. bai, dat. baim, acc. bans, nom. acc. n. ba.—There occurs also an extended form with the same meaning, its inflection being that of a consonantal substantiv ( 117, n. 4): nom. bajs, dat. bajum.

141. The numerals from 4 to 19 ar of one gender. Extant ar: fidwr, 4; fimf, 5; sahs, 6; sibun, 7; ahtau, 8; niun, 9; tahun, 10; ainlif ( 56, n. 1), 11; twalif, 12; fidwrtahun, 14; fimftahun, 15. These numerals ar uzed uninflected, but may take an inflected gen. and dat. according to the i-declension ( 99 et seq.). Thus, fidwr, dat. fidwrim; niun, gen. niun; tahun, dat. tahunim; ainlif, dat. ainlibim; twalif, gen. twalib, dat. twalibim.

Note. For fidwr appears fidur- (s. 24, n. 2) in cpds.: fidurfals, fourfold; fidurdgs, time of four days; fidurragineis, tetrarch. Cp. Beitr., 6, 394; Brgm., III, 11.

142. The tens from 20 to 60 ar formd by means of the pl. tigjus (< *tigus, a decad), preceded by the units. tigjus inflects regularly like sunus ( 104). The object counted is always givn in the gen.—twai tigjus, 20; *reis tigjus, 30 (extant in gen. rij tigiw, acc. rins tiguns), fidwr tigjus, 40; fimf tigjus, 50; sahs tigjus, 60.

143. From 70 to 100 -thund takes the place of tigjus: sibunthund, 70; ahtauthund, 80; niunthund, 90; tahunthund and tahuntahund, 100. The numerals in -thund ar substantivs which ar as a rule indeclinabl. Onse (Lu. XV, 7) we meet with an inflected gen. sg.; in niunthundis jah niun garahtaiz.—Cp. Brgm., III, 40.

144. The hundreds ar formd by means of the plural of a neuter hund (a hundred). The following ar extant: twa hunda, 200; rija hunda, 300; fimf hunda, 500; niun hunda, 900.

145. sundi, 1000, is a f. sb. (inflecting like bandi, 96), with a gen. pl.; several thousands ar exprest by sundjs.—Onse (Ezra II, 14) occurs a n. pl. twa sundja. Cp. ahd. gr., 275. OE. Gr., 327, and Mahlow, 'Die langen Vocale', p. 98.

The extant thousands ar: tws sundjs, 2000; .g. sundjs, 3000; fidwr sundjs, 4000; fimf sundjs, {60}5000; tahun ., 10000; mi twaim tigum (dat.) sundj (gen.), with 20000.

Note (to 141-145). The numerals ar very often denoted by letters (cp. 1, n. 2). Therefore so many words for numerals ar wanting.


146. The first two ordinals differ in point of stem from the corresponding cardinals. 1. m. fruma, n. frum, f. frumei (s. 139), and the superl. frumists, first ( 139, n. 1). 2. anar, second, other, inflects like a strong adj. ( 122, n. 1; 124, ns. 1. 4).—All subsequent ordinals ar derived from the cardinals and inflect like weak adjectivs ( 132, n. 3). The extant ordinals ar: ridja, 3d; *fimfta (only in 15th), fifth; sahsta, 6th; ahtuda, 8th; niunda, 9th; tahunda, tenth; fimftatahunda, 15th. Only the second component is declined: dat. sg. (in jra) fimftatahundin; Lu. III, 1.


147. A distributiv numeral is tweihnai, two apiece, two-and-two, extant in the dat. f. tweihnaim and acc. f. tweihns.

Note. All other distributivs ar exprest by means of the cardinals along with ƕazuh, ƕarjizuh ( 164. 165) or the prep. bi; as (insandida ins) twans ƕanzuh, two and two; Lu. X, 1; bi twans; I. Cor. 14, 27.

148. Multiplicativs ar formd by means of the adj. fal-: ainfals, onefold; fidurfals, fourfold; tahuntahundfals, hundredfold; managfals, manifold.

149. Numeral adverbs answering the question 'how many times', 'how often'? ar exprest by the dat. sg. sina or by the dat. pl. sinam (nom. sg. sins, time, lit. 'a going') preceded by the cardinals: ainamma sina, onse; twaim sinam, twice; rim sinam, thrice; fimf s., five times; sibun s., seven times.—With an ordinal numeral: anaramma sina, a second time.

Note. Also the n. ridj, a third time, is uzed adverbially (II. Cor. 12, 14).





  1. Person. 2. Person. Reflexiv.
Sing. N. ik u
G. meina eina seina
D. mis us sis
A. mik uk sik
Dual N. wit
G. ugkara igqara seina
D. ugkis igqis sis
A. ugkis, ugk igqis sik
Plur. N. weis jus
G. unsara izwara seina
D. uns, unsis izwis sis
A. uns, unsis izwis sik

Note 1. ugkis, igqis, etc., are also speld uggkis, iggqis; cp. 67, n. 1.

Note 2. The nom. du. 2nd pers. is not extant; it was undoutedly jut. For jus (js?), s. 15, n. 1.

151. From the stems of these pronouns adjectivs ar derived, the so-calld possessiv pronouns. 1st pers.: m. meins, n. mein, meinata; f. meina, my (mine); 2nd pers.: eins, thy (thine); refl. seins, his. Plurals: 1st pers. unsar, our; 2nd pers. izwar, your. The only extant dual poss. prn. is igqar, the 1st pers. would be ugkar.

Note 1. The inflection of these pronominal adjectivs is identical with that of the strong adj.; concerning unsar, izwar, cp. 124, ns. 1 and 4.—No weak inflection occurs.

Note 2. The reflexiv *seins occurs only in the gen., dat., acc.; insted of the nominativs of all genders and numbers the genitivs of the prn. of the 3d pers. (is, izs; iz, iz; 152) ar employd.



Sing. M. N. F.
N. is, he ita, it si, she
G. is izs
D. imma izai
A. ina ita ija
N. eis ija [ijs]
G. iz iz
D. im im
A. ins [ija] ijs

Note. The acc. and gen. pl. n. and the nom. pl. f. ar not extant, but the inferd forms ar undoutedly correct.



153. The simpl dem. prn. sa, s, ata is uzed both as dem. prn., this, that (for the Gr. οὗτος or ἀυτός), and, with a weakend force, as articl, the. The latter uze is predominant.—The neuter sing. (like the interrog., 159) has preservd the instrumental case.

Sing. M. N. F.
N. sa ata s
G. is izs
D. amma izai
A. ana ata
N. ai s
G. iz iz
D. aim aim
A. ans s

Note 1. The final as of the dissyllabic forms ar dropt in combination with enclitics beginning with a vowel; cp. 4, n. 1.—For ei from *a-ei, s. 157, n. 2.

Note 2. The instr. n. is preservd only in the combinations bi-, du- (du), ja- ( 62, n. 3), ei ( 157, n. 1), and, like ana (in anamais, anaseis), before a comparativ (= E. 'the' in 'the more').

154. A compound demonstrativ pronoun is formd by affixing the enclitic particl -uh to the simpl demonstrativ. Cp. 24, n. 2. Its meaning is always that of the simpl sa uzed demonstrativly, this, that (= Gr. οὗτος or ἀυτός).—It inflects thus:

Sing. M. N. F.
N. sah atuh sh
G. izuh [izzuh]
D. ammuh [izaih]
A. anuh atuh [h]
N. ih [h] [zuh]
G. [izh] [izh]
D. [aimuh] [aimuh]
A. [anzuh] [h] [zuh]

Note 1. The forms in square brackets ar not extant.

Note 2. The instr. n. h occurs only in the adv. bi-h.

155. A defectiv demonstrativ pronoun hi- (nom. *his = is, 152), this, occurs only in temporal frases in the {63}dativ m. and n. himma and in the acc. m. hina, n. hita; e. g., himma daga, to-day; und hina dag, to this day; und hita, til now.

156. jains (concerning the vowel ai, cp. 20, n. 4), n. jainata, f. jaina (yon), that, inflects like a strong adj. (blinds, 124).

Like weak adjectivs inflect silba, self, and sama, same, or with the articl: sa sama, the same (cp. 132, n. 3).


157. A simpl relativ pronoun is not found in the Gothic language. A relativ prn. of the 3d pers. is formd from the simpl demonstrativ pronoun by affixing the particl ei which, when uzed independently, has the force of a conjunction, that, in order that. This relativ pronoun inflects as follows:

Sing. M. N. F.
N. saei atei sei
G. izei izzei
D. ammei izaiei
A. anei atei ei
Instr. ei
N. aiei ei zei
G. izei [izei]
D. aimei aimei
A. anzei ei zei

Note 1. The instr. n. ei is uzed only as a conjunction.

Note 2. Beside atei occurs ei, which is employd, however, only in combination with ƕah ( 164, n. 1), and (like atei) as a conjunction, that. Cp. Beitr., 4, 467; 6, 402; Zs. fda., 29, 366 et seq.

Note 3. Insted of the nom. sg. saei, m., sei, f., also izei, m., sei (i. e. si-ei, 10, n. 2), f., (formd from the 3d pers. of the pers. prn., 152) ar employd. The form sei occurs even more frequently than sei. Sumtimes izei stands as nom. pl. m. (for eizei which is not found); e. g., ai izei bimaitanai sind; Gal. VI, 13.—For izei the form iz is often found; cp. 17, n. 1.

Note 4. Concerning the change of final s before ei into z, s. 78, c.

158. When a relativ clause refers to a prn. of the 1st or 2nd pers., the relativ particl is affixt to the respectiv pers. prn. Thus, ikei, who (1st pers. sg.);—uei, who; uzei, to whom (as in Mk. I, 11); ukei, whom (2nd pers. sg.);—juzei, who; izwizei, to whom (2nd pers. pl.).



159. The interrogativ pronoun ƕas, who? (= Lt. quis), is formd from the simpl interrogativ stem ƕa-. A substantiv following ƕas occurs always in the genitiv; e. g., ƕa mizdn, τίνα μισθόν; Mt. V, 46.

Sing. M. N. F.
N. ƕas ƕa ƕ
G. ƕis [ƕizs]
D. ƕamma ƕizai
A. ƕana ƕa ƕ
Instr. ƕ

Note 1. The gen. f. is not extant. The instr. occurs only in the neuter (cp. sa, 153).

Note 2. ƕas has no plural; cp. however ƕanzuh, 164, n.

Note 3. ƕas is also employd as an indefinit prn.; cp. 162, n. 2.

160. From stem ƕa- ar derived: ƕaar, which of two?, and ƕarjis, which? A substantiv following is always put in the gen. Both words inflect like strong adjectivs—ƕaar like anar (cp. 124, n. 1), ƕarjis like midjis ( 125), f. ƕarja, the n. *ƕarjata like ƕarjath ( 165).

161. Compound interrogativs: ƕileiks, what sort of?, 'qualis?' (its correlativ being swaleiks, such, 'talis'), and ƕlaus, f. ƕlauda, how great?, 'quantus?' (correlativ swalaus, so great, 'tantus'). These words inflect like a strong adjectiv.

Note. ƕeleiks (in Lu. I, 29), for ƕileiks, is probably miswritn (according to 10, n. 5).


162. The Goth. indefinit pronoun sums, f. suma, n. sum, sumata, sum (Gr. τις, τι), inflects like a strong adjectiv and is uzed adjectivly; with the meaning sum one, a certain one, it is also uzed substantivly.

Note 1. An enumerativ expression is sums ... sums (= Gr. ὁ μέν ... ὁ δε). In most cases uh ( 24, n. 2) is added to the second sums, occasionally also to the first; as, sumai ... sumih, or sumih ... sumih, sum ... others.

Note 2. Also the interrogativ ƕas ( 159) is very often uzed as an indefinit prn., anyone.

163. The enclitic particl -hun is uzed to form indefinit pronouns which occur only with the negativ particl ni. Their meaning is no one, none.


(a) The singular of manna, man ( 117), with the suffix -hun means no one.—The extant forms ar:

n. ni mannahun, g. ni manshun,
d. ni mannhun, acc. ni mannanhun.

(b) ni ƕashun (< ƕas, 159), uzed substantivly, no one. It occurs in the nom. sg. m. only.—An analogon to ƕashun is ƕanhun (< ƕan, 214, n. 1).

(c) ni ainshun, the commonest indef. prn., is uzed substantivly (no one, none) and adjectivly (no, not any). A following sb. occurs always in the (partit.) gen.; e. g., ni ainshun iw, no servant; Lu. XVI, 3.—The declension of ainshun differs in sum cases from that of the simpl form ains ( 140).

Sing. M. N. F.
N. ainshun ainhun ainhun
G. ainishun
D. ainummhun ainaihun
ainhun ainhun

Note. -hun is also affixt to the acc. sg. of the sb. ƕeila ( 97, n. 2): ƕeilhun, for an hour (ni ƕeilhun, ὀυδὲ πρὸς ὥραν; Gal. II, 5).

164. 'Every' is renderd by affixing -uh to the interrogativ pronouns.

(a) ƕazuh, every. A noun or prn. following takes the gen. Its inflection differs in part from that of the simpl form ƕas ( 159):

Sing. M. N. F.
N. ƕazuh ƕah ƕh
G. ƕizuh
D. ƕammh
A. ƕanh ƕah
A. ƕanzuh

In the pl. only the acc. ƕanzuh occurs.

Note 1. The indef. relativ 'whoever, whosoever' (Lt. quicunque) is renderd: (1) by ƕazuh saei or, with sa prefixt, saƕazuh saei. For saei also izei is found ( 157, n. 3).—These forms ar uzed in the nom. sg. only, the nom. n. ataƕah ei (ei = atei, 157, n. 2) occurs twice: Jo. XV, 7. 16.—(2) by isƕazuh followd by saei or ei in all cases; the first component, is, remains uninflected: m. n. isƕazuh saei, dat. isƕammh saei, acc. isƕanh saei;—nom. acc. n. isƕah ei (or atei), gen. isƕizuh ei, dat. isƕammh ei.


Note 2. Here may be observd the adverbs: ƕh (instr. of ƕazuh), at least, at any rate, only, and isƕaduh ei, whithersoever, isƕaruh ei, wheresoever (cp. ƕa, ƕar, 213, n. 1).

165. (b) ƕarjizuh, every, each.

Sing. M. N. F.
N. ƕarjizuh ƕarjath
G. ƕarjizuh
D. ƕarjammh
A. ƕarjanh [ƕarjath] ƕarjh

Note. ƕarjizuh is also compounded with (uninflected) ain: ainƕarjizuh, every one, every, each, n. ainƕarjath, dat. ainƕarjammh, etc.

166. Each of two is renderd by ƕaaruh; it occurs only in the dat. ƕaarammh (Skeir. 46), for the evidently incorrect ƕaaramma (cp. Bernhardt's comment on this passage);—also with ain- prefixt (cp. 165, n. 1): ainƕaaruh, each one of two (only ainƕaarammh occurs; Skeir. 41).



167. The Gothic verb has the following forms:

1. Two voices, Activ and Midl. The Activ Voice alone has preservd a great variety of forms. The Midl Voice is retaind in but a few forms of the prs. indicativ and optativ, which occur, however, very often. The midl forms hav a passiv meaning. Therefore the Midl Voice is also calld Passiv or Medio-Passiv Voice.

Note 1. The lost passiv forms ar supplied by the pp. along with the corresponding forms of waran or wisan; e. g., daupjada, he is baptized, but daupis was or war, he was baptized. Cp. Zs. fdph., 5, 409 et seq.

Note 2. The originally inchoativ verbs in -nan ( 194) frequently hav a medial meaning ( 194).

2. Two tenses, Present and Preterit (Perfect). The Preterit is the general tense for the past. The future is wanting; its place is mostly supplied by the present, seldom by means of auxiliary verbs (skulan, shal; haban, hav; duginnan, to begin).

3. Two complete moods, Indicativ and Optativ (also calld Subjunctiv). An Imperativ occurs only in the present; it has the second persons of all three numbers and a 1st pers. pl.—There ar but few instances of a 3d pers. sg. and {67}pl. imper. This is uzually exprest by the 3d pers. opt. But also the 2nd and 1st pers. imp. ar frequently exprest by the opt.

4. Three numbers: Singular, Dual, and Plural. The 3d pers. du. is wanting.

5. The Present Infinitiv, the Present Participl with an activ meaning, and the Preterit Partic. with a passiv meaning.

168. The Gothic verbs ar, from a Germanic point of view, divided according to the formation of the preterit in relation to the present into two chief classes:

I. Strong Verbs.

The strong verbs do not form the preterit with an additional suffix, but by change of the radical vowel or by reduplication. Thus, we hav two subdivisions:

1. Ablaut Verbs. The preterit of these verbs is formd without reduplication. It differs from the present only by a regular change of the radical vowel, the so-calld ablaut (cp. 29); e. g., binda, I bind, band, I bound.

2. Reduplicating Verbs. The prt. has reduplication, but no ablaut; e. g., halda, I hold, hahald, I held.

3. Reduplicating Ablaut Verbs. A smaller number of verbs hav the prt. both with ablaut and reduplication; e. g., lta, I let; lalt, I let (prt.).

II. Weak Verbs.

The weak verbs form the preterit by the addition of a suffix beginning with a dental consonant; e. g., nasja, I save, nasida, I saved. This suffixal element, -da, was formerly regarded as a form of the verb 'do' (Germanic dn), wherefore the weak prt. was also calld 'compound preterit'.

The weak verbs (except a few) ar derivativ verbs. According to their formativ suffixes, which ar best preservd in the preterit forms, they ar divided into four classes: (1) Suffix i (in the present j): nasja, nasi-da. (2) Suffix : salb, salb-da. (3) Suffix ai (in the present in part obscured): haba, habai-da. (4) Suffix n (in the present n): fullna, fulln-da.

Note. The small number of verbs which can not be referd to the two chief classes must, according to this classification, be considerd 'irregular'.




169. The inflection of the strong verbs (by means of personal endings) is the same in all three classes ( 168). Therefore we first giv the paradims of inflection and then discuss the formation of the tense-stems (which is different in each class). As paradims may serv a reduplicating verb, haitan, to be calld, and two ablaut verbs, niman, to take, and biudan, to offer.


(a) Present (Activ).

(b) Preterit.

Sing. 1. nam bau hahait
2. namt baust hahaist
3. nam bau hahait
Dual 1. nmu budu hahaitu
2. nmuts buduts hahaituts
Plur. 1. nmum budum hahaitum
2. nmu budu hahaitu
3. nmun budun hahaitun
Sing. 1. nmjau budjau hahaitjau
2. nmeis budeis hahaiteis
3. nmi budi hahaiti
Dual 1. nmeiwa budeiwa hahaiteiwa
2. nmeits budeits hahaiteits
Plur. 1. nmeima budeima hahaiteima
2. nmei budei hahaitei
3. nmeina budeina hahaiteina
(c) Preterit Participl Passiv.
numans budans haitans
(d) Medio-Passiv—Present.
Sing. 1. nimada biudada haitada
2. nimaza biudaza haitaza
3. nimada biudada haitada
Plur. 1. 2. 3. nimanda biudanda haitanda
Sing. 1. nimaidau biudaidau haitaidau
2. nimaizau biudaizau haitaizau
3. nimaidau biudaidau haitaidau
Plur. 1. 2. 3. nimaindau biudaindau haitaindau

Note 1. biudan is subject to the rules for the final soft spirants ( 79): imper. sg. biu, prt. bau (cp. 74). Likewise giban, gif, gaf (cp. 56).

Note 2. The termination of the 2nd pers. sg. prt. (-t) causes the change stated in the rule for consonants before dentals ( 81). Final b of stems becums f: gaft (inf. giban); exampls for pt ar wanting: skpt or skft? (inf. skapjan);—g remains unchanged in magt ( 66, n. 1), other exampls ar wanting; neither ar there any exampls for kt (wkt or wht? cp. 58, n. 2);—dentals becum s: warst < waran, qast < qian ( 71, n. 3), gastst < standan, baust < biudan ( 75, n. 1), bigast < gitan, {70}hahaist < haitan ( 69, n. 2).—The extant 2nd pers. prt. of sas (inf. saian) is sasst. On account of the scarcity of exampls it is uncertain whether all stems ending in a vowel had -st.—The 2nd pers. prt. of rinnan is rant ( 80).

Note 3. Only one strong verb is found (twice) in the 3d pers. sg. imper.: atsteigadan, καταβάτω; Mt. XXVII, 42. Mk. XV, 32 (cp. 186, n. 1). The 3d pers. pl. may be givn with certainty according to the weak verb ( 192, n. 1).

Note 4. The dual forms of the verb occur very seldom. The 1st pers. du. opt. prt., nmeiwa, etc., which is only givn according to the corresponding form of the prs. nimaiwa, is not found at all. Also the 2nd pers. du. opt. prt. is but an inferd form according to the anomalous wileits ( 205).

Note 5. Concerning the irregular formation of the present of sum strong verbs with j, s. 206, n.


1. Ablaut Verbs.

171. The ablaut verbs form their tense-stems by a regular change of the radical vowel, the so-calld ablaut. The several ablaut-series and the conditions of their appearance wil be found givn in 30-35. To each of these series belong ablaut verbs, and therefore six ablaut classes must be distinguisht. Each ablaut verb contains four ablaut vowels which appear in the formation of the verb in the following manner: (1) The first vowel belongs to the present and to what is connected with the present (prsp., inf., also medio-passiv). (2) The second vowel is that of the sg. prt. indic. (3) The third vowel appears in the du. and pl. prt. indic. and thruout the prt. opt. (4) The fourth vowel belongs to the pp.

In order to determin the inflection of a strong verb, it is customary to giv the following four forms (principal parts): (1) 1st pers. sg. prs. indic., or the prs. inf.; (2) 1st pers. sg. prt. indic.; (3) 1st pers. pl. prt. indic.; (4) the pp.

In the following we arrange the ablaut verbs according to their classes.

172. Class I. Verbs of the first ablaut series: eiii (a) (cp. 30); e. g., greipa, graip, gripum, gripans, to gripe, seiz; i before h (ƕ) becums a by breaking ( 20): leiƕa, liƕ, laƕum, laƕans, to lend.


Note 1. Like these inflect: deigan, to knead; steigan, to mount; gateihan, to show; eihan, to thrive; reihan, to throng; weihan, to fight;—beitan, to bite; dis-kreitan, to tear to pieces; ga-smeitan, to smear; -weitan (inweitan, to wurship, fraweitan, to punish); beidan, to wait; leian, to go; sneian, to cut;—weipan, to crown; dreiban, to drive; bi-leiban, to remain; sweiban, to cease;—reisan, to rize; skeinan, to shine; hneiwan, to decline, bow; speiwan, to spit.

Note 2. The n of keinan (OHG. knan), to germinate, occurs only in the prs. stem (cp. 206, b); the pp. is kijans (only in uskijanata; Lu. VIII, 6). The prt. *kai, *kijum, has been replaced by a weak prt. of the IV. weak conjugation (keinda, 195, n. 2). Cp. Kluge, 'Germ. Conjug.', 143.

Note 3. The verb neiwan, to hav a quarrel against, occurs only in a sumwhat doutful exampl: naiw; Mk. VI, 19. Cp. Bernhardt, 'Vulfila', p. 282, and Zs. fdph., 7, 112. 484.

173. Class II. Verbs of the second ablaut series: iuauu (a)—u (a) (cp. 31); e. g., biuda, bau, budum, budans, to offer; with breaking ( 24): tiuha, tuh, tahum, tahans, to draw, lead.

Note 1. Like tiuhan inflect: siukan, to be sick; biugan, to bend; driugan, to perform military service; liugan, to lie; liuhan, to flee;—giutan, to pour; usriutan, to trubl, vex; niutan, to enjoy; liudan, to grow;—dis-hniupan, to break to pieces; sliupan, to slip; af-skiuban, to shuv away; hiufan, to weep; driusan, to fall; kiusan, to choose; fra-liusan, to lose; kriustan, to gnash.

Note 2. The vowel of the prs. is irregular in lka, lauk, lukum, lukans, to lock.

174. Class III. Verbs of the third ablaut series: i (a)—au (a)—u (a) (cp. 32); e. g., binda, band, bundum, bundans, to bind; with breaking ( 20. 24): warpa, warp, warpum, warpans, to throw, cast.

Note 1. Like these inflect: brinnan, to burn; du-ginnan, to begin; af-linnan, to depart; rinnan, to run; spinnan, to spin; winnan, to suffer;—trimpan, to tred;—fra-slindan, to devour; windan, to wind; hinan, to cach; finan, to find; insan, to draw;—stiggan (only by conjecture in Mt. V, 29), to sting; bliggwan, to beat ( 68, 2); siggwan, to sing; sigqan, to sink; stigqan, to thrust; drigkan, to drink;—gildan, to be of value; swiltan, to die; hilpan, to help; filhan, to hide; wilwan, to rob;—bargan, to hide, keep; gardan, to gird; waran, to becum; ga-arsan, to wither; swarban, to wipe; ƕarban, to walk;—riskan, to thresh; ga-wrisqan, to bear fruit (these two only in the prs. tense, in I. Tim. V, 18. Lu. VIII, 14).

Note 2. According to its prs. tense, also briggan would belong here; s. 208.

175. Class IV. Verbs of the fourth ablaut series: i (a)—au (a) (cp. 33); e. g., nima, nam, nmum, {72}numans, to take; with breaking ( 20. 24): bara, bar, brum, barans, to bear.

Note 1. Like these inflect: qiman, to cum; ga-timan, to suit; stilan, to steal; ga-taran, to tear;—brikan, to break ( 33, n. 1).

Note 2. Here belongs also trudan, [tra], [trdum], trudans, to tred (ON. troa, tra, traum, troinn; in OHG. according to V.: trtan, trat, trtum, trtan). According to trudan, we should also write wulan, to boil (only prsp. wulandans occurs; Rom. XII, 11).

176. Class V. Verbs of the fifth ablaut series: i (a)—ai (a) (cp. 34); e. g., mita, mat, mtum, mitans, to mezure; giba, gaf, gbum, gibans, to giv.

Note 1. Here belong also wrikan, to persecute; rikan (found in the prs. only), to accumulate; ligan, to lie; ga-wigan, to move; saƕan, to see (cp. 34, n. 1);—hlifan, to steal;—bigitan, to get, obtain; sitan, to sit; fitan, to bear (children)?; widan, to bind; qian, to say; nian, to help (?);—lisan, to gather; ga-nisan, to recuver; wisan, to remain.

Note 2. sniwan, to hasten, has sniwa, snau ( 42), snwum, sniwans. Onse occurs the prt. snauh (with additional h; cp. 62, n. 4), onse sniwun for snwun ( 7, n. 3).—Like sniwan inflects probably diwan, to die, of which only the pp. (ata) diwan occurs.

Note 3. The prt. sg. of itan is, irregularly, t, not at; only the cpd. frt (< fra-itan, to eat up; 4, n. 1; 7, b) is extant. Hense itan, t, tum, itans. Cp. the OHG. prts. z frz (ahd. gr., 343, n. 5), ON. t. Mller, 'Engl. Studien', 3, 154.

Note 4. The n of frahnan, to ask, occurs only in the prs. stem: frahna, frah, frhum, frahans (cp. 206, b).

Note 5. The j in bidjan occurs in the prs. stem only: bidja, ba, bdum, bidans (cp. 206, n.). Onse the prs. is found without j: usbida; Rom. IX, 3.

177. Class VI. Verbs of the sixth ablaut series: a———a (cp. 35); e. g., slaha, slh, slhum, slahans, to strike.

Note 1. Like slahan go: sakan, to quarrel; wakan, to wake; dragan, to carry, load; wahan, to wash; hlaan, to load; ga-daban, to becum, fit; ga-draban, to hew; graban, to dig; skaban, to shave; alan, to grow; malan, to grind; swaran, to swear; faran, to fare, go; us-anan, to expire. Sum of these verbs occur only in the prs.: wakan, dragan, alan, malan, faran.

Note 2. Sum verbs of this class hav j in the present stem, which is wanting in the prt. and pp.; e. g., hafjan, to heav, forms: hafja, hf, hfum, hafans. So do: frajan, to understand; hlahjan, to laf; skapjan, to shape, make; skajan, to do scath, to injure; wahsjan, to wax, grow. Doutful is the prs. form *garajan which is uzually inferd from the pp. garaana (Mt. X, 30), to count.—Cp. 206, n.

Note 3. The n of standan occurs only in the present stem (cp. 206, b): standa, st, stum. The pp. *staans (ON. stainn) is wanting; cp. Anz. fda., 14, 286.


2. Reduplicating Verbs.

178. The preterit of the reduplicating verbs is formd by reduplication only, the radical vowel remaining unchanged. The reduplication consists of the initial consonant together with the constant reduplication vowel a (short e; s. 20); e. g., haita, I am calld, prt. hahait; ƕpa, I boast, prt. ƕaƕp. When the word begins with two consonants, only the first is repeated; e. g., fraisa, I tempt, prt. fafrais. The initial combinations st, sk [sp], however, ar repeated together; e. g., (ga-)stalda, I possess, prt. stastald; skaida, I separate, prt. skaskai. When the word begins with a vowel, only the reduplication vowel is prefixt; e. g., auka, I increase, prt. aauk.

The pp. is formd without reduplication: haitans, fraisans, etc.

179. The reduplicating verbs may be devided into five classes according to their radical vowels: (1) a (). (2) . (3) ai. (4) . (5) au. Sinse the vowel remains unchanged in the hole verb, it causes no change of inflection. Therefore the paradim haitan (givn in 170) is sufficient for all classes.

The preterits of the following reduplicating verbs ar extant:

(1) haldan, to hold; falan, to fold; staldan, to possess;—fhan, to cach (prt. fafh, pl. fafhum, pp. fhans), hhan, to hang ( 62, n. 2).

(2) slpan, to sleep (concerning the prt., cp. 78, n. 3).

(3) af-aikan, to deny; fraisan, to tempt; haitan, to be calld; laikan, to leap; maitan, to cut off; skaidan, to separate.

(4) ƕpan, to boast; flkan, to lament.—The inf. belonging to the prt. lalun (Jo. IX, 28) is probably (according to 26, n.) *lauan, to revile. Cp. 22, n. 2.

(5) aukan, to increase.

Note 1. It is tolerably certain that several verbs of which the preterit does not occur belong here too: (1) us-alan, to grow old; blandan, to blend; saltan, to salt; waldan, to wield, rule; ana-praggan, to oppress, harass. (2) blsan, to blow. (3) ga-lihan, to cumfurt, caress. (4) bltan, to wurship. (5) stautan, to thrust, smite; hlaupan, to run.


Note 2. bauan, to dwel, which formerly belongd here according to the testimony of other Germanic dialects, has the weak prt. bauaida and is referd to the third weak conjugation ( 193) also because of the f. bauains ( 103, n. 1). But the 3d pers. sg. is baui which is stil a form of the strong conjugation. The inflection of the Goth. bnauan, to rub, which occurs only onse (bnauandans; Lu. VI, 1) can not be determind; its ON. correspondence, *bna, (g)na (altisl. gr., 433; cp. Zs. fdph., 17, 250), like the OHG. nan, niuwan (ahd. gr., 334, n. 5) belongs to the strong inflection. trauan, however, follows the weak inflection thruout.—Cp. 26, b.

Note 3. gaggan, to go, pp. gaggans, has lost its prt. *gagagg, which is replaced by other forms. Cp. 207.

Note 4. Insted of flkan the form flkan was formerly uzed on account of the isolated prt. faflkun (according to 181). That this is wrong was shown by Bezzenberger, 'Ueber die a-reihe der got. spr.', p. 564. Cp. also Galle, 'Noord en Zuid', 4, 54 et seq.

Note 5. arjandan (in Lu. XVII, 7) seems to refer to a red. v. arjan (to plow), w. a j-present (206a); cp. OHG. erien, iar, giaran (ahd. gr., 350, n. 5).

3. Reduplicating Ablaut Verbs.

180. A number of verbs with the stem-vowel in the present (or final ai in the root) hav the ablaut of the -series (s. 36). The prt. has the vowel and reduplication. In the pp. appears the same vowel as in the prs. These verbs ar divided into two classes according to the vowel of the prs.:

181. I. Stems ending in a consonant hav in the prs.; e. g., ltan, to let, which has lta, lalt, laltum, ltans. Of this kind ar also grtan (gagrt), to weep; tkan (tatk), to tuch; -rdan (rar), to counsel.

182. II. Roots ending in a vowel change the into ai ( 22). Here belong: saian, to sow: saia, sas, sasum, saians (concerning other forms, cp. 22, n. 1; 170, n. 2), and waian (waw), to blow.

Note. The prt. of faian, to blame, is not extant; cp. 22, n. 2.


183. The formation and inflection of the prt. and pp. of the four classes of the weak verbs ( 168) ar alike. The pp. is formd by means of the suffix -da- (nom. m. -s) which is in all classes added to the verbal stem. The latter varies according to the formativ suffix and causes in the present {75}forms a considerabl difference of inflection in the four classes. We first giv the inflection of the prt., which is the same in all classes.


184. Paradims: nasida, salbda, habaida, fullnda. Only one exampl is necessary to show the inflection.

Indicativ. Optativ.
Sing. 1. nasi-da nasi-ddjau
2. nasi-ds nasi-ddeis
3. nasi-da nasi-ddi
Dual 1. nasi-ddu nasi-ddeiwa
2. nasi-dduts nasi-ddeits
Plur. 1. nasi-ddum nasi-ddeima
2. nasi-ddu nasi-ddei
3. nasi-ddun nasi-ddeina

What has been said in 170, n. 4 concerns also the 1st and 2nd pers. du. optativ.


185. The verbs of this class hav the formativ suffix i which appears in the present as j (inf. -jan). This j and a following i ar either contracted into ei (according to 44, c and n. 1) or remain ji. Thus we hav two subdivisions: (a) Verbs with short stem-syllabls; e. g., nasjan, to save, or verbs in a long vowel; as, stjan, to judge. (b) Verbs with long stem-syllabls ending in a consonant; e. g., skjan, to seek, and polysyllabic verbs; e. g., mikiljan, to praise.


(a) Present (Activ).
Sing. 1. nasja stja skja
2. nasjis stjis skeis
3. nasji stji skei
Dual 1. nasjs stjs skjs
2. nasjats stjats skjats
Plur. 1. nasjam stjam skjam
2. nasji stji skei
3. nasjand stjand skjand


Sing. 1. nasjau stjau skjau
2. nasjais   etc.   etc.
3. nasjai  
Dual 1. nasjaiwa  
2. nasjaits  
Plur. 1. nasjaima  
2. nasjai  
3. nasjaina  
Sing. 2. nasei [stauei] skei
3. nasjadau stjadau skjadau
Dual 2. nasjats stjats skjats
Plur. 1. nasjam stjam skjam
2. nasji stji skei
3. nasjandau stjandau skjandau
nasjan stjan skjan
nasjands stjands skjands
(b) Preterit.
nasida stauida skida
(Inflection 184.)
(c) Preterit Participl (Passiv).
nasis stauis skis
(d) Medio-Passiv: Present.
Sing. 1. 3. nasjada stjada skjada
2. nasjaza stjaza skjaza
Plur. 1. 2. 3. nasjanda stjanda skjanda
Sing. 1. 3. nasjaidau stjaidau skjaidau
2. nasjaizau stjaizau skjaizau
Plur. 1. 2. 3. nasjaindau stjaindau skjaindau

Note 1. The 3d pers. sg. imper. is preservd in lausjadau, ῥυσάσθω; Mt. XXVII, 43 (cp. 170, n. 3). The 3d pers. pl. would be lausjandau according to 192, n. 1.

Note 2. The 2nd pers. sg. imper. stauei (inf. stjan) is suggested by the prt. stauida according to 26.


187. Further exampls of this very numerous class: (a) 1. verbs with short stem-syllabls: waljan, to choose; ga-tamjan, to tame; uf-anjan, to strech; warjan, to forbid; lagjan, to lay; us-wakjan, to awake; satjan, to set; wasjan, to vest, clothe; hazjan, to praise; huljan, to cuver; 2. stems ending in a vowel: taujan (imper. sg. tawei, prt. tawida, pp. tawis), to do; *straujan, to strew (only the prt. strawida and pp. strawis ar extant); qiujan (qiwida), to quicken; ana-niujan (-niwida), to renew; siujan, to sew;—concerning *mjan (in afmjan, to weary) and *djan (in afdjan, to tire out, s. 26, a.

(b) verbs with long stems and polysyllabic verbs: mljan, to write; mrjan, to preach; sipnjan, to be a disciple; hnaiwjan, to abase; hrainjan, to clean; hausjan, to hear; iujan, to bless;—brannjan, to burn; sandjan, to send; namnjan, to name; andbahtjan, to serv; glitmunjan, to glitter; harnjan, to blow the horn.

Note 1. kaupatjan, to buffet, has the prt. kaupasta (without i; cp. 75), but the pp. kaupatis (cp. 209, n. 1). The verbs lauhatjan, to shine; swgatjan, to sigh, occur in the prs. only.

Note 2. Sum primary verbs with j in the present stem inflect in the present like the weak verbs of the first class. In the prt. they ar either strong or weak without the formativ suffix i. Cp. 206, a ( 209).

Note 3. Only two verbs assume occasionally forms of the 2nd weak conjugation: hausjan, to hear, beside hausjn (occurs several times); pp. un-beistjs, unlevend, but ga-beistjan, to leven.

Note 4. Like the 2nd pers. du. and pl. imper. of nasjan go the interjectional hirjats, hirji. The sg. hiri is irregular. Cp. 219.

188. Verbs of this class ar derived from verbs, adjectivs and substantivs. Their meaning is predominantly causativ. Causativs from strong ablaut verbs hav the vowel of the prt. sg.; e. g., wandjan, to wend, turn (< windan); dragkjan, to giv to drink (< drigkan); ur-raisjan, to raiz (< ur-reisan, to arize); ga-drausjan, to cause to fall (< driusan).—Also verbs derived from adjectivs and substantivs show, with few exceptions, a causativ meaning; e. g., huhjan, to make high (< huhs); hailjan, to heal (< hails); warmjan, to warm (< warms);—dailjan, to deal (< dails); taiknjan, to make a sign, to show (< taikns, a token), etc.—Only a few hav an intransitiv meaning, e. g., sipnjan, to be a disciple; farhtjan, to fear.



189. The formativ suffix () occurs in this class not only in the prt., but also in the hole prs., and absorbs the initial vowels appearing in the endings of the strong verb. Paradim: salbn, to anoint.

(a) Present.
Indic. Opt. Imper.
Sing. 1. salb salb
2. salbs salbs salb
3. salb salb salbdau
Dual 1. salbs salbwa
2. salbts salbts salbts
Plur. 1. salbm salbma salbm
2. salb salb salb
3. salbnd salbna salbndau
Infinitiv: salbn
Participl: salbnds
(b) Preterit.
salbda, -ds, -da, etc. (s. 184).
(c) Pret. Participl Passiv.
(d) Medio-Passiv: Present.
Indic. Opt.
Sing. 1. 3. salbda salbdau
2. salbza salbzau
Plur. 1. 2. 3. salbnda salbndau

Note. No exampls of the 3. pers. sg. and pl. imper. ar extant, but they may be safely inferd like other forms; e. g., the dual forms, or the 2nd pers. sg. midl: salbza, salbzau, which hav been merely inferd according to the other conjugations.

190. The number of verbs of the 2nd class is greater than that of the 3d, but much smaller than that of the verbs in -jan. Exampls: mitn, to think; ƕarbn, to wander; fiskn, to fish; sidn, to practis; idreign, to repent; awiliudn, to thank; iudann, to be king; faginn, to rejoice; fraujinn, to rule; reikinn, to rule; frijn, to luv; sunjn, to justify; hausjn ( 187, n. 3).



191. Verbs of this class hav the formativ suffix -ai. This, however, appears in all forms of the prt. (and in the pp.), while it occurs in but few forms of the present and what belongs to the prs., the greater number following entirely the present forms of the strong verb. The ai is found in the present only where the terminations of the strong verb begin with i which it absorbs (thus, in the 2nd and 3d pers. sg. indic., in the 2nd pers. pl. indic., and in 2nd pers. pl. imper.), and in 2nd pers. sg. imper. (which has no termination).—But the ai is entirely wanting before the endings beginning with a ().

192. Paradim haban, to hav.

(a) Present.
Indic. Opt. Imper.
Sing. 1. haba habau
2. habais habais habai
3. habai habai habadau
Dual 1. habs habaiwa
2. habats habaits habats
Plur. 1. habam habaima habam
2. habai habai habai
3. haband habaina habandau
Infinitiv: haban
Participl: habands
(b) Preterit.
habaida, -ds, -da, etc. (s. 184).
(c) Preterit Participl.
(d) Medio-Passiv: Present.
Indic. Opt.
Sing. 1. 3. habada habaidau
2. habaza habaizau
Plur.   habanda habaindau

Note. An exampl of the 3d prs. pl. imper. is extant in this conjugation only: liugandau, γαμησάτωσαν; I. Cor. VII, 9.


193. Verbs of this class ar mostly intransitiv. Their number is comparativly small. Exampls: ahan, to be silent; ulan, to suffer; liban, to liv; ana-silan, to be silent; fijan, to hate; trauan, to trust (cp. 26); sargan, to sorrow; liugan, to marry.

Note. hatan, to hate, fluctuates between this and the 1st weak conj. (hatjan);—bauan, to dwel, has the 3d pers. sg. prs. indic. strong: baui; cp. 179, n. 2.


194. By means of the suff. -no- in the prt., n (-na-) in the present, verbs ar formd in Gothic which denote an entering into a state; therefore they hav an 'inchoativ' meaning. When they hav a medial meaning, they often also render Greek medio-passiv verbs. These verbs ar always intransitiv and never hav a purely passiv meaning. Hense, for exampl, andbindada means it is loost (by sum one), but andbundni, it becums loose, it loosens. Nearly all of these verbs ar derived from adjectivs or from the stem of the pp. passiv. Exampls: (a) from strong verbs: and-bundnan (bindan), to loosen (intr.); us-bruknan (brikan), to break off (intr.); dis-kritnan, to rend (intr.); fra-lusnan (fra-liusan), to perish; ga-waknan (wakan), to awaken; ga-skaidnan (skaidan), to becum parted, to depart;—(b) from adjectivs: gahailnan (hails), to becum hole; mikilnan (mikils), to becum great; weihnan (weihs), to becum holy; gadaunan, to becum ded, to die.

Note 1. To substantivs belong gafrisahtnan (frisahts, image), to be formd; ga-gawarnan (ga-wari), to reconcile one's self to; the stem-vowel is irregular in: us-geisnan, to becum amazed; in-feinan, to be moved with compassion.

Note 2. That the fundamental meaning of these verbs is inchoativ has been shown by Egge, 'Inchoativ or n-verbs in Gothic' (American Journal of Phil., 7, p. 38 et seq.). The corresponding Norse verbs in -na ar inchoativ only.

195. The inflection of these verbs is in the present identical with that of the strong verbs. No medio-passiv nor a pp. can be formd. Paradim: fullnan (fulls, ful; fulljan, to fil), to becum ful, fil (intr.).

(a) Present.
Indic. Opt. Imper.
Sing. 1. fullna fullnau
2. fullnis fullnais fulln
3. fullni fullnai fullnadau
Dual 1. fullns fullnaiwa
2. fullnats fullnaits fullnats
Plur. 1. fullnam fullnaima fullnam
2. fullni fullnai fullni
3. fullnand fullnaina fullnandau
Infinitiv: fullnan
Participl: fullnands
(b) Preterit.
fullnda, -ds, -da (s. 184).

Note 1. Of the imper. of verbs of this class only the 2nd pers. sg. is extant.

Note 2. The prt. keinda, germinated, aroze thru the influence of the strong present keinan ( 172, n. 2) which could not belong here merely because of its meaning.



196. Preterit-Presents ar strong verbs whose preterit has assumed a present meaning. In consequence thereof the real presents hav been lost. These verbs form the preterit like weak verbs by adding -da (-ta, -a, -sa; cp. 75. 81). Their inflection is the same as that of nasida ( 184). According to the form of their presents, the preterit-presents may be distributed among the different classes of the strong verbs. The prs. inflects like a strong preterit. In the following the 13 Gothic verbs of this kind ar clast according to the corresponding ablaut-series:

197. First Ablaut-Series.

1. Prs. wait, I know, 2nd pers. waist, pl. witum, opt. witjau; prt. wissa, prt. opt. wissdjau, prs. ptc. witands, inf. [witan].

2. lais, I know (the only form extant; causativ laisjan, to teach).

Note. The complete strong verb of wait is *weitan, wait, witum, witans, retaind in fraweitan, to avenge, and in inweitan, to wurship ( 172, n. 1).—To wait belongs also a weak verb of the III. weak conj., witan, witaida, to look at, observ.


198. Second Ablaut-Series.

3. daug (impers., the only form extant), it is of use, it profits.

199. Third Ablaut-Series.

4. kann, I know, 2nd pers. kant (also kannt; cp. 80), pl. kunnum; prt. indic. kuna, prt. opt. kundjau, pp. kuns, known; inf. kunnan; prsp. kunnands.

5. arf, I need, be in want of, 2nd pers. arft, pl. arbum, opt. arbjau; prt. arfta, pp. arfts, necessary, prsp. arbands, needing, inf. [arban].—Cp. 56, n. 3.

6. ga-dars, I dare, pl. ga-darsum, opt. gadarsjau; prt. gadarsta; inf. gadarsan.

Note. Like kann inflect its cpds: frakann, I despise; gakann, I subject myself.—With this must not be confounded the derivativ weak verb -kunnan of the III. weak conjug., -kunnan, -kunnaida, to recognize, in the cpds.: anakunnan (ἀναγιγνώσκειν), to read; atkunnan, to grant, award; gakunnan, to know, consider, read (Mk. XII, 26).—uf-kunnan, to recognize, know, belongs in the prs. and pp. (ufkunnais) to the III. weak conjug., but its prt. is ufkuna, onse (I. Cor. I, 21) ufkunnaida.

200. Fourth Ablaut-Series.

7. skal, I shal, 2nd pers. skalt, pl. skulum, opt. skuljau; prt. skulda, opt. skulddjau, pp. skulds, owing; inf. [skulan], prsp. skulands.

8. man, I think, suppose, 2nd pers. [mant], pl. munum, opt. munjau; prt. munda, pp. munds (Lu. III, 23); inf. munan, prsp. munands.

Note. Like man goes gaman, I remember.—To this belongs also munan, prt. munaida, a derivativ wv. of the III. conjug.

201. Fifth Ablaut-Series.

9. mag, I may, can, 2nd pers. magt, 3d mag; dual magu, maguts, pl. magum, magu, magun, opt. magjau; prt. mahta, opt. mahtdjau, pp. mahts; inf. [magan], prsp. magands.

10. ga-nah, it suffices; binah, it is permitted, it is lawful. These impersonal forms and the pp. binahts ar the only forms extant. There may be inferd the pl. -nahum; prt. -nahta; inf. -nahan.

202. Sixth Ablaut-Series.

11. ga-mt, I hav or find room or place, 2nd pers. [mst], pl. [mtum], opt. gamtjau, prt. gamsta; inf. [gamtan].


12. g, I fear, 2nd pers. [ht], pl. [gum], opt. gjau; prt. hta; inf. [gan]. Causativ gjan, to frighten.

Note 1. To g belongs an anomalous 2nd pers. sg. imper.: gs, fear thou! The opt. gei does duty for the corresponding 2nd pers. pl.

Note 2. The only extant form of the primary strong verb is the negativ prsp. unagands, fearless.

203. The verb ih, I hav, belongs to none of the ablaut-series. Disregarding the want of reduplication, we may, according to its formation, refer it to a reduplicated prt. like hahait ( 179, 3). The extant forms ar: 1st and 3d pers. sg. aih (onse aig), pl. 1st aigum and ihum, 2nd ihu (onse), 3d aigun, opt. sg. 3d aigi, pl. 2nd aigei, 3d aigeina; prt. ihta; prsp. aigands (5 times) and ihands (onse), inf. ihan (only onse, in farihan, to partake).

Note. In most forms there is a peculiar fluctuation between g and h in such a manner that the h is predominant in the sg. (ih), the g in the other forms. Cp. 66, n. 1; 79, n. 2.

2. THE VERBS 'be' AND 'wil'.

204. The old root es-, which is preservd in all Indo-Germanic languages, occurs in the Gothic substantiv verb only in the present indic. and opt. The remaining forms ar supplied by the strong verb wisan ( 176, n. 1). The pp. is wanting (cp. Anz. fda., 14, 286).

Indic. Opt.
Sing. 1. im sijau
2. is sijais
3. ist sijai
Dual 1. siju [sijaiwa]
2. [sijuts] [sijaits]
Plur. 1. sijum sijaima
2. siju sijai
3. sind sijaina
Inf.: wisan
Prsp.: wisands
Indic.: was, wast, was, etc.
Opt.: wsjau

Note 1. For ij (in the opt. and du. pl. indic. prs.) also simpl i ( 10, n. 4) is occasionally found; e. g., pl. indic. 1st pers. sium, 2nd siu, opt. {84}siau, etc. But the ful forms occur far more frequently. The comparativly small number of the forms with i is confined to the epistls (especially in Cod. B) and to the gospel of Lu. which also in other respects shows many irregular forms (V, 10. VIII, 25. IX, 12, 41. XIV, 31). Of two extant codices (II. Cor. VII, 13. Phil. IV, 5. Col. IV, 6. I. Tim. V, 22) one (in three cases A) always has the correct form with j.

Note 2. Insted of the imper. the opt. forms, sg. sijais, sijai, pl. sijai, ar employd. The form sai (= Gr. ἔστω), which occurs onse in the manuscript, either stands erroneously for sijai, siai, or must, according to Osthoff (Beitr., 8, 311), be regarded as interj. sai, 'ecce'!

Note 3. nist = ni ist, is not ( 10, n. 2), atist = ata ist, that is, karist = kara ist, there is care, it concerns; Jo. X, 12 ( 4, n. 1).

205. The verb 'wil' has in the present only an opt. which discharges, however, the function of the indicativ. This present optativ has the uzual terminations of the prt. opt. Its preterit is weak. The extant forms ar:—

Present: Sg. 1. wiljau 2. wileis 3. wili
Du. 2. wileits
Pl. 1. wileima 2. wilei 3. wileina
Infinitiv: wiljan
Prsp.: wiljands
Pret.: wilda Opt.: wilddjau
(Inflection like that of nasida, 184.)


206. The distinction between the present stem and the preterit stem of the strong ablaut verbs consists only in the change of the vowel. The consonantal skeleton of the word remains the same. This was not always so, for in proethnic Germanic, as in other Indo-Germanic languages, there existed present formations with additional consonantal elements. Of these a few remnants stil survive in Gothic, which from a Gothic point of view must be regarded as irregularities.

(a) Present formations with j. The j of these formations which in the present inflect entirely like weak verbs of the I. conjug. (as, nasjan, skjan), is no formativ suffix and is dropt in the prt. and pp. The existing exampls ar:—bidjan ( 176, n. 5), hafjan, frajan, hlahjan, skapjan, skajan, wahsjan ( 177, n. 2), arjan ( 179, n. 5). Cp. also 209.

(b) Present stems with a final nasal: keinan ( 172, n. 2) and frahnan ( 176, n. 4);—a medial nasal is seen in standan ( 177, n. 3).


207. The verb gaggan belongs, according to its present and pp. and according to the testimony of the other Germanic languages, to the reduplicated verbs ( 179, n. 3). Its prt. is uzually represented by the defectiv iddja which is conjugated like a weak prt.: iddja, I went, iddjs, iddja, etc.; opt. iddjdjau. Onse, however (Lu. XIX, 12), a weak prt. gaggida occurs.

208. briggan, to bring, is, according to its prs., an ablaut verb (III), but the prt. (with ablaut) is formd weak: brhta (from *branhta, 5, b), pp. [brhts].

209. Sum verbs whose present follows the first weak conjug. (in part perhaps belonging to 206, a), form the prt. weak, but without the formativ suffix i: bugjan, to buy, bahta; brkjan, to uze, brhta; warkjan, to work, warhta; agkjan, to think, hta ( 5, b); ugkjan, to seem, hta ( 15, b). The extant pps. ar:—bahts < bugjan, warhts < warkjan, the remaining ones would be brhts, hts, hts ( 75); hts occurs in anda-hts, cautious, vigilant; hts in huh-hts, mikil-hts, haughty.

Note. Cp. also kaupatjan ( 187, n. 1), which has, however, the formativ i in the pp.



210. Adverbs of Manner ar formd from adjectivs. (a) The commonest adverbial suff. is -ba which is added to the stem of the adjectiv.

Thus, from a-stems ( 123. 124); e. g., ubilaba, evilly; barhtaba, brightly; from a ja-stem ( 125 et seq.): sunjaba, truly.—The original i- and u-stems ( 129-131) also show here their real stem-endings; e. g., analaugniba, secretly; anasiuniba, visibly; arniba, surely; gatmiba, fitly;—harduba, hard, severely; manwuba, redily; glaggwuba, accurately.

Note. a for u is found onse each in hardaba; II. Cor. XIII, 10 (in Cod. A, harduba in B); glaggwaba; Lu. XV, 8.—Cp. brra-lub (in A), 88a, n. 2.

211. (b) Another class of adverbs formd from adjectivs hav the suffix - which contains the final vowel of the {86}adjectival stem; e. g., galeik, similarly; hteig, seasonably; iubj, secretly; glaggw (beside glaggwuba), accurately.

Note. The same adverbial ending also in auft, perhaps; spraut, quickly; miss, reciprocally; sundr, especially; unwnigg, unexpectedly; ufar, abuv; undar, below; aftar, behind, from behind.

212. From comparativ adjectivs an adverbial form has developt which ends in the bare comparativ suffix (-iz), -is; e. g., huhis, higher; iris, erlier; mais, more; haldis, rather, more; framis, further; nƕis, nearer.

Note 1. Without the i of the suffix ar formd: mins ( 78, n. 1), less; wars, wurse; ana-seis, further, more.

Note 2. With the comparativ suffix -s appear sniumunds, more speedily; aljaleiks, otherwise.

Note 3. As superlativ adverbs occur the neuter forms frumist, first; maist, most.

213. Adverbs of Place ar formd either without a suffix or by means of the suffixes - (-d) and -dr to denote motion towards a place; by means of the suffixes -r and -a to denote rest in a place; with the suffixes -ro and -ana to denote motion from a place.

Note 1. From pronominal stems ar thus formd the correlativs:

ƕa, ƕadr, wither? ƕar, where ƕar, whense
[a] (adei, where, whither) ar, there ar, thense
jaind, jaindr, thither jainar, yonder jainr, thense
alja, elsewhere, away aljar, elsewhere aljar, by another way
hr, here

Note 2. Other exampls: (a) 'Whither'? dala, down; sama, together; iup, upwards; t, out; inn, into. (b) 'Where'? dalaa, below; iupa, abuv; ta, out; inna, in; farra, far; afta, behind. (c) 'Whense'? dalar, from below; iupar and iupana, from abuv; tar and tana, from without; innar and innana, from within; allar, from all sides; farrar, from afar; aftana, from behind; hindana, from behind, beyond.

214. Adverbs of Time ar for the most part represented by cases of substantivs; e. g., gistradagis, to-morrow; himma daga, to-day; du margina, to-morrow; ni aiw, never (acc. of aiws, time); framwigis, continually.

Note. Simpl adverbs of time are rare: nu, now; ju, alredy; ir, erly; siml, onse; ufta, often; from pronominal stems: an, then; ƕan, when?, whenever; suman, in times past.

215. Other nominal cases than those givn in 214 ar also uzed as adverbs; e. g., landis, far away, lit. 'of land'; allis, holely; sunja and bi sunjai, truly.


216. Questions and Answers ar mostly accumpanied by adverbial particls. Interrogativ particls ar: -u (niu, not?, 18, n. 2); an, nuh, then?; ibai, whether; jau (ja-u), whether; au, perhaps.—Affirmativ particls: ja, jai, yes, truly!; a negativ particl is n, no! These particls, however, ar rarely uzed 'alone' as answers, the verb of the question being uzually repeated, in negativ sentences with the adv. ni.

Note. The interrogativ particl -u is enclitically attacht to the first word of the sentence; as, skuldu; e. g., skuldu ist kaisaragild giban; Mk. XII, 14. In combinations with a prefix the u is attacht to the prefix; e. g., galaubjats atei magjau ata taujan? Mk. IX, 28.


217. (a) With the Dativ: alja, except; af, of; du, to; mi, with; us, out, out of; fara, before; fram, from; nƕa, near; farra, far off; undar, under.

(b) With the Accusativ: and, along; arh, thru, by; inuh, without; undar, under; wira, against; far, for.

(c) With Dativ and Accusativ: ana, on, upon; at, at, by; afar, after; bi, by, according to, against, about, concerning; hindar, behind, beyond; und w. dat., for; w. acc., unto, to, until; uf, under, beneath; ufar, over, abuv.

(d) With Genitiv and Dativ: ufar, over, abuv, upon.

(e) With Genitiv, Dativ, and Accusativ: in w. gen., on account of, for ... sake; w. dat., in, into, within, among, on, at; w. acc., in, into, toward, against, etc. (s. the Glossary).

Note. Also adverbs ar uzed as prepositions with the genitiv; as, utar, utana, hindana, innana ( 213, n. 2).


218. (a) Copulativ: jah, and, also; -uh, and (cp. 24, n. 2); nih, and not. (b) Disjunctiv: aau, or; andizuh ... aau, either ... or; ja ... ja, whether ... or; au (uh), or. (c) Adversativ: i, an, aan, akei, but, however; ak, but. (d) Causal: allis, auk, unt, rahtis, for, because. (e) Conclusiv: anuh, aruh, eian, nu, nuh, annu, nunu, now, therefore, hense. (f) Conditional: jabai, if, niba, nibai, if not, unless ( 10, n. 2). (g) Concessiv: uhjabai, even if, tho; swauh, yet, indeed, however. (h) Final: ei, atei, ei, ei, that, in order that; ei, swaei, {88}swasw, so that; ibai (iba), that not, lest. (i) Comparativ: ƕaiwa, how?; sw, as; swasw, so as, as; au, (uh), than. (k) Temporal: sw, as, when; an, and, when, as long as; bi, mianei, while; sunsei, as soon as; farizei, before; unt, und atei, and, til, until, as long as.

Note. Sum of these conjunctions ar uzed also as adverbs. The adverbial origin of a few is even recognizabl from their form; e. g., allis, raihtis, farizei (faris, adv., beforehand).


219. , oh! ah!; wai, woe!; sai, behold!—Interjectional in meaning ar the sg. hiri, the du. hirjats, and the pl. hirji, cum here! (cp. 20, n. 1; 187, n. 4).



Cp. Sievers 'Grundr.', I, 407-416 ('Geschichte der got. sprache'); II, 1, 65-70 ('Gotische literatur'); Kgel, Geschichte der deutsch. litteratur, I, 1, 176-195.


(a) The Gothic language is the language of the Gothic peple (Gut-iuda) which, divided into the two great tribes of the East and West Goths, figured in history in the time of the great migration. Together with the fall of the East Gothic kingdom in Italy and of the West Gothic kingdom in Spain the Gothic nation also past away. Only scatterd remains of the Goths and their language remaind until the beginning of the modern era in the Crimea. ('Crimean' or 'Tetraxitic' Goths.)

Note 1. The Goth. spelling of the name of the Goths as a peple is *Gutans and *Guts, with t, not with according to J. Grimm's suggestion which is supported by Kremer (Beitr., 8, 447). Concerning the form, inflection, and etymology of the name of the Goths, cp. Zs. fda., 9, 243 et seq.; Grundr., I, 407; Wrede, 'Ostg.', 44 et seq.; Beitr., 17, 178 et seq.; Ax. Erdmann, folknamnen 'Gtar' och 'Goter', Stockholm 1891 (cp. Litbl. 1894, 249).

Note 2. The current interpretation of the two Lt. names Austro-, Ostrogot(h)ae, -i and Wisigot(h)ae, -i, as East Goths and West Goths, which dates back to Jordanes, might hold good for the former only; the name of the Wisigoth which ar simply calld also Vesi, Visi, has nothing to do with 'west'. Ep. IF., 4, 300 et seq.

Note 3. Concerning the Crimean Goths and the remains of their language, s. Zs. fda., 1, 345-366; W. Tomaschek, 'Die Goten in Taurien', Wien 1881; Beitr., 11, 563 et seq.; F. Braun, 'Die letzten schicksale der Krimgoten'. Program St. Petersburg 1890 (cp. Anz. fda. 17, 167 f.).

(b) It was for the Gothic peple that the group of Germanic tribes to which the Goths belongd has been frequently calld the 'Gothic Group'. For this there has been recently proposed the name 'Vandilians' (according to Pliny, 'nat. hist.', IV, 99). The most important of these {90}Vandilians ar the Goths, the Gepidae, the Vandals, the Burgundi, the Heruli, and the Rugii. At the beginning of the Christian era their abodes wer between the Elbe and the Vistula. The languages of these peples wer closely related. The extant literary remains, however, except in Gothic, ar very few, and these ar almost entirely proper nouns.

Note 4. Concerning the Vandilians, cp. F. Wrede, 'Ueber die sprache der Wandalen', Strassburg, 1886 (QF., 59), p. 3 et seq.; F. Dahn, 'Urgeschichte der germ. und rom. vlker', vol. I (Berlin 1881), p. 139 et seq.; R. Much, 'Goten und Ingvaeonen' (Beitr., 17, 178-221).

(c) The Gothic or Vandilian group of tribes together with the Scandinavians constitute the 'East Germanic' division as opposed to the 'West Germanic' division which embraces the remaining Germanic tribes.

Note 5. Concerning the division of the Germanic race into East Germanic and West Germanic tribes, cp. H. Zimmer, 'Ostgermanisch und Westgermanisch', in Zs. fda., 19, 393 et seq.; Beitr. 9, 546 et seq.; Grundr., I, 362 et seq.; concerning the seperate position of the Scandinavian as compared with the Gothic, s. Noreen, 'altisl. gr.2', 2, and Grundr., I, 419 et seq.


Wie know the Gothic language from the fragments of the biblical translation which is safely ascribed to bishop Ulfilas (or, in Gothic spelling, Wulfila; cp. Bernhardt, Vulfila, p. VII; Anz. fda., 14, 285; Grundr., II, 674). Wulfila was born in 310 and died at the end of 380 or erly in 381 after Christ. During the last 33 years of his life he was bishop of that part of the West Goths which, when persecuted by their heathen kinsmen, he led across the Danube where they wer permitted by Constantius to setl in Moesia (Moeso-Goths or Goti minores).—The fragments of the biblical version hav cum down to us in the following manuscripts:—

1. 'Codex Argenteus' at Upsala. It containd on 330 leavs the four gospels in the following order: Matthew, John, Luke, Mark. Of these 330 leavs 187 ar extant. The gospel of Lu. shows yunger forms of speech which differ in many respects from the normal forms (cp. 7, n. 2; 14, n. 3; 56, n. 1; 62, n. 3; 67, n. 2; 74, n. 1; 105, n. 2; 204, {91}n. 1; probably thru the influence of the dialect of the East Gothic writers; cp. Wrede, 'Ostg.' 200 et seq.).

2. 'Codex Carolinus', a 'codex rescriptus' at Wolfenbttel, which contains portions of the 11.-15. chaps. of the epistl to the Romans.

3. 'Codices Ambrosiani', five fragments ('codices rescripti') in the Ambrosian library at Milan, which contain chiefly St. Paul's epistls. They are clast as follows:—

Codex A contains on 95 leavs fragments of the epistls to the Romans, Corinthians, Ephesians, Galatians, Philippians, Colossians, Thessalonians, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, and a fragment of a Gothic calendar.

Codex B contains on 77 leavs all of the second epistl to the Corinthians, fragments of the first epistl to the Corinthians, of the epistls to the Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Thessalonians, Timothy, Titus.—In contents Codex A and Codex B ar partly the same, which is important for the criticism of the text.

Codex C. Two leavs with fragments of Mt. XXV-XXVII.

Codex D. Three leavs with fragments of the books of Ezra and Nehemiah.

Codex E. Eight leavs three of which ar in the Vatican library at Rome, and contain the fragments of an interpretation of the gospel of St. John. They wer calld by their editor (Massmann): Skeireins awaggljns arh Jhannn, and are therefore stil cited as Skeireins (concerning which cp. Zs. fda., 37, 320; Anz. fda., 20, 148 et seq.).

4. 'Codex Taurinensis', four considerably damaged leavs with scanty fragments of the epistls to the Galatians and Colossians, which remain to be deciferd.

Note 1. Concerning Wulfila, cp. Waitz, 'Ueber das leben und die Lehre des Ulfila' (Hannover 1840); Bessell, 'Ueber das leben des Ulfilas' (Gttingen 1860); G. Kaufmann, 'Kritische untersuchung der quellen zur geschichte Ulfilas', in Zs. fda., 27, 193 et seq.; Grundr. II, 68; Kgel, 'Gesch. der dtsch. Litt.', I, 1, 182.

Note 2. For more on the Gothic manuscripts, s. Bernhardt's 'Vulfila', Introduction, p. XXXIX et seq.; for the history of the 'Codex {92}Argenteus', cp. also the recent articls by Schulte, 'Gothica minora', in Zs. fda., 23, 51. 318 and 24, 324 et seq.: lastly, J. Peters, 'Germania', 30, 314 et seq.

Note 3. Beside the translation of the Bible (and the Skeireins) there ar no Gothic literary monuments of great moment. The most important ones ar two Latin title deeds with Gothic signatures at Naples and Arezzo, and the abuv (with Codex A) mentiond fragment of a Gothic calendar. The editions of Wulfila contain these remains also. Concerning the Gothic words and alfabets in the Salzburg-Vienna manuscript ( 1, n. 5; 2, n. 2) and other remains of the Gothic language, cp. Massmann's articl 'Gotthica minora', in Zs. fda., 1, 294-393.—Concerning Gothic runic inscriptions, s. Wimmer, 'Die runenschrift' (1887), p. 62 et seq.; R. Henning, 'Die deutschen runendenkmler', Strassburg 1889 (and Zs. fdph., 23, 354 et seq.; Wimmer, 'de tyske runemindesmrker, Aarb. f. nord. oldk. og hist.' 1894, 1 et seq.). The most important inscription is that of the Bukarest ring ('gold-ring of Pietroassa', Henning, 27 et seq.): gutaniowi hailag.

Note 4. The numerous proper nouns in Gothic, which ar containd in Greek and stil more so in Latin sources, hav been utilized by Dietrich ('Ausspr.') and by Bezzenberger, 'Ueber die A-reihe der got. sprache', Gttingen 1874, p. 7 et seq. A monografic treatment of the East Gothic names has been givn us by F. Wrede, 'Ueber die sprache der Ostgoten in Italien', Strassburg 1891 (OF., 68); cp. review of this book in Litbl. 1891, p. 333; Anz. fda., 18, 43 et seq., 309 et seq.


The first printed edition of the 'Codex Argenteus' is that by Fr. Junius, Dortrecht 1665. All the erlier editions (the titles of which s. in Bernhardt's 'Vulfila', p. LXIII et seq., and in Balg's 'First Germanic Bible', p. XVII et seq.; cp. also v. Bahder, 'Die deutsche philologie', Paderborn 1883, p. 44 et seq.) hav now only historical value. For the study of the Gothic language the following editions ar of importance:—

(a) The large edition of Ulfilas by v. d. Gabelentz and Lbe, which appeard in 1843-46 in three volumes 4to. Altho the text in the first volume is antiquated in consequence of Uppstrm's editions, the glossary (vol. II, 1) and particularly the grammar (vol. II, 2) ar of great value for their abundant compilations and syntactic elaboration.

(b) For an axact establishment of the manuscripts ar exceedingly important the new readings of the learnd Swedish Professor Andreas Uppstrm who issued {93}exact reprints of the text according to these readings: Codex Argenteus, Upsala 1854,—Decem codicis argentei rediviva folia, Upsala 1857,—Fragmenta gothica selecta 1861,—Codices gotici ambrosiani 1864-68.—(For complete titles, s. v. Bahder, loc. cit.; cp. also Balg, loc. cit.).

(c) A critically amended text based on Uppstrm's readings, with critical exegetic notes and the original Greek text, is givn in E. Bernhardt's edition: 'Vulfila oder die gotische bibel'. Halle 1876. Cp. review of it in Zs. fdph., 7, 103 et seq.

(d) A good manual of Ulfilas, with a glossary and a grammar, is that by M. Heyne, 8th edition. Paderborn 1885. Its text is likewise based on Uppstrm's readings, but it is treated more conservativly than Bernhardt's. The fonological and inflectional parts of the grammar rest on antiquated views, but the glossary is a recommendabl handbook containing all the words of the Gothic language.

Note. Other later editions of the texts ar: (a) Bernhardt's, Halle 1884 (a reprint of the text of his larger edition, with a concise glossary); cp. review of it in Zs. fdph., 17, 249 et seq. (b) The first Germanic Bible translated from the Greek by the Gothic bishop Wulfila in the fourth century, and the other remains of the Gothic language, edited (according to Bernhardt's edition), with an introduction, a syntax, and a glossary, by G. H. Balg. Milwaukee, Wis. 1891.


I. Fonology and Inflection.

(a) The Gothic grammar by v. d. Gabelentz and Lbe, mentiond in 222, a.

(b) Leo Meyer, Die gotische Sprache. Berlin 1869. A comparativ treatment of the Gothic fonology, with complete material.

(c) The treatment of the Gothic fonology, in Holtzmann's 'Altdeutsche Grammatik'. Leipzig 1870.

II. Word-Formation.

(a) The 2nd and 3d volumes of J. Grimm's 'Deutsche Grammatik' (reprinted, Berlin 1878. 1890) ar stil the fundamental helps on word-formation.

(b) The section on word-formation in v. d. Gabelentz and Lbe's 'Grammatik', pp. 108-135.


(c) From a comparativ point of view: Fr. Kluge, 'Nominale stammbildungslehre der altgermanischen dialekte'. Halle 1886.—See also Brugmann, II, the sections concerning Gothic.

III. Lexicografy.

(a) The glossary in v. d. Gabelentz and Lbe's edition, II, 1 (s. 222, a). (Arranged according to the Gothic alfabet).

(b) Ernst Schulze, 'Gotisches Glossar. Mit einer vorrede von J. Grimm'. Magdeburg 1847. The most complete Gothic Glossary.—An extract (without citations, but with etymological references and based on Uppstrm's readings): 'Gotisches wrterbuch nebst flexionslehre' by E. Schulze. Zllichau 1867.

(c) Heyne's glossary, s. 222, d.

(d) Lorenz Diefenbach, 'Vergleichendes Wrterbuch der gotischen Sprache', vols. 1. and 2. Frankfurt 1851.

(e) Sigmund Feist, 'Grundriss der gotischen Etymologie'. Strassburg 1888. For reviews of it, cp. Anz. fda., 16, 61 et seq.; Litbl. 1889, 365 et seq.; 1890, 47.

Note 1. Sum grammatical facts hav been laid down in the useful articls of J. H. Galle, 'Gutiska' (I.) 'Lijst van gotische woorden, wier geslacht of buiging naar analogie van andere gotische woorden, of van het oudgermaansch wordt opgegeven'. Haarlem 1880; (cp. also the addenda to this in the 'Tijdschrift voor Nederl. taal- en letterk.', I, 220 et seq.);—II. De adjectiva in het gotisch en hunne suffixen. Utrecht 1882.

Note 2. Concise treatments of the Gothic word-formation also in the grammars of Le M. Douse and Bernhardt (s. 224, n. 1).

Note 3. Further lexical works: W. W. Skeat, 'A Moeso-Gothic glossary, with an introduction, an outline of Moeso-Gothic grammar, and a list of Anglo-Saxon and old and modern English words etymologically connected with M.-G.' London 1868.—G. H. Balg, 'A comparativ glossary of the Gothic language, with especial reference to English and German'. Milwaukee, Wis. 1887-1889. Cp. Zs. fdph., 24, 236 et seq.—O. Priese, 'Deutsch-gotisches wrterbuch', with an appendix, containing a topically arranged survey of the Gothic vocabulary and a collection of idioms and proverbs. Leipzig 1890.


(a) General works: J. Grimm, 'Deutsche grammatik', vol. 4. Gttingen 1837, (syntax of the simpl sentence).—v. d. Gabelentz and Lbe, in vol. II, 2 of their edition (an elaborate treatment of the hole syntax).


Note. Concise works on Gothic syntax, which ar useful to the beginner, and which rest in part on independent investigation, ar the respectiv parts in: T. Le Marchant Douse's 'An introduction, phonological, morphological, syntactic, to the Gothic of Ulfilas'. London 1886 (pp. 208-268); E. Bernhardt's 'Kurzgefasste got. grammatik'. Halle 1885 (cp. Zs. fdph., 17, 254 et seq.); Heyne's Ulfilas ( 222 d); Balg's 'First Germanic Bible' (pp. 222-292; cp. 222, n. 1).

(b) Monografs (cp. W. Scherer, 'Kl. schriften', I, 360 et seq.):

APELT, O., 'Ueber den accus. c. infin. im gotischen' (Germ., 19, 280-97).

BERNHARDT, E., (a) 'Die partikel ga als hilfsmittel bei der got. conjugation' (Zs. fdph. 2, 158-66).—(b) 'Ueber den genet. partit. nach transitiven verben im got.' (Zs. fdph., 2, 292-94).—(c) 'Der artikel im gotischen' (19 pp.), Progr. Erfurt 1874.—(d) 'Der gotische optativ' (Zs. fdph., 8, 1-38).—(e) 'Zur got. syntax' (Zs. fdph. 9, 383 et seq.).—(f) 'Zur got. casuslehre' ('Beitr. zur deutschen philol.' Halle 1880, 71-82.—(g) 'Zur got. casuslehre' (Zs. fdph., 13, 1-20).

BORRMANN, J., 'Ruhe und Richtung in den gotischen verbalbegriffen'. Halle diss. 1892 (39 pp.).

BURCKHARDT, F., 'Der got. conjunctiv verglichen mit den entsprechenden modis des neutestamentl. griechisch'. Zschopau 1872 (36 pp.).—reviewd by Erdmann, in Zs. fdph., 4, 455-59.

COLLIN, 'Sur les conjonctions gothiques' (40 pp., in Lunds univers. rsskrift, XII. 1875-76).

DORFELD, C., 'Ueber die function des praefixes ge- (got. ga-) in der composition mit verben. Teil 1.: Das praefix bei Ulfilas und Tatian'. Giessen diss. 1885 (47 pp.).

ECKARDT, E., 'Ueber die syntax des got. relativpronomens'. Halle diss. 1875 (54 pp.).—Reviewd by Bernhardt in Zs. fdph. 6, 484.

ERDMANN, O., 'Ueber got. ei u. ahd. thaz' (Zs. fdph., 9, 43-53).

FRIEDRICHS, E., 'Die stellung des pron. personale im gotischen'. Leipzig diss. Jena 1891 (124 pp.). Publisht in 1893.

GERING, H. (a) 'Ueber den syntactischen gebrauch der participia im got.' (Zs. fdph., 5, 294-324; 393-433).—Reviewd by Marold, in 'Wissenschaftl. monatsbltter' 1875, 26-28.—(b) 'Zwei parallelstellen aus Wulfila und Tatian' (Zs. fdph., 6, 1-3).

KLINGHARDT, H., 'Die syntax der got. partikel ei' (Zs. fdph., 8, 127-180; 289-329).

KHLER, A., (a) 'Ueber den syntakt. gebrauch des dativs im got.' Gttingen Diss. Dresden 1864 (54 pp.), and Germ. 11, 261-305. Nachtrag Germ., 12, 63 et seq.—(b) 'Der syntaktische gebrauch des infinitivs im got.' (Germ., 12, 421-462).—(c) 'Der syntakt. gebrauch des optativs im got.' (Germanist. studien, 1, 77-133.—Reviewd by Erdmann in Zs. fdph., 5, 212-16.

LICHTENHELD, A., 'Das schwache adjectiv im gotischen' (Zs. fda., 18, 17-43).


LCKE, O., 'Absolute participia im got. und ihr verhltnis zum griech. original, mit besonderer bercksichtigung der Skeireins'. Gttingen diss. Magdeburg 1876 (58 pp.).—Reviewd by Bernhardt in Zs. fdph., 8, 352-54.

MAROLD, K., (a) 'Futurum und futurische ausdrcke im gotischen' (Wissensch. monatsbltter 1875, 169-176).—(b) 'Ueber die got. conjunctionen, welche οὖν und γάρ vertreten'. Progr. Knigsberg 1881 (30 pp.).

MOERKERKEN, P. H. van, 'Over de verbinding der volzinnen in't gotisch' (Bekroond .. en uitgeg. door de k. vlaamsche acad. voor taal en letterk.). Gent 1888 (104 pp.).

MOUREK, V. E., (a) 'Syntax der got. praepositionen'. Prag 1890 (X and 234 pp.). [In the Czechic language]. Reviewd by Heinzel in Anz. fda., 17, 91-93.—(b) 'Ueber den einfluss des hauptsatzes auf den modus des nebensatzes im got.' (Sitzungsber. d. k. bhm. ges. der wissensch. 1892, 5, 263-96).—(c) 'Syntax der mehrfachen stze im gotischen'. Prag 1893 (X and 334 pp.). [In the Czechic language, pp. 285-334 an extract in the German language].

NABER, F., 'Gotische Praepositionen' I. Progr. Detmold 1879 (26 pp.).

PIPER, P., 'Ueber den gebrauch des dativs im Ulfilas, Heliand und Otfrid'. Progr. Altona 1874 (30 pp.).—Reviewd by Erdmann in Zs. fdph., 6, 120-23.

RCKERT, H., 'Die gotischen absoluten nominativ- und accusativ-constructionen' (Germ. 11, 415-43).

SALLWRK, E. v., 'Die Syntax des Wulfila' I (I. die frwrter, II. der relativsatz, III. der inhaltssatz). Progr. Pforzheim 1875 (36 pp.).

SCHIRMER, K., 'Ueber den gebrauch des optativs im got.' Marburg diss. 1874 (47 pp.).—Reviewd by Bernhardt in Zs. fdph., 6, 485.

SCHRADER, K., 'Ueber den syntakt. gebrauch des genitivs in der got. sprache'. Gttingen diss. 1875 (58 pp.).

SKLADNY, A., 'Ueber das got. passiv.' Progr. Neisse 1873 (19 pp.).—Reviewd by Bernhardt in Zs. fdph., 6, 483.

SILBER, 'Versuch ber den got. dativ.' Progr. Naumburg 1845 (16 pp.).

STREITBERG, W., 'Perfective und imperfective actionsart im germanischen'. Introduction and I. part: 'Gotisch' (Beitr. 15, 70-177).

TOBLER, L., 'Conjunctionen mit mehrfacher bedeutung; ein beitrag zur lehre vom satzgefge' (Beitr. 5, 358-88).

WEISKER, Ed., 'Ueber die bedingungsstze im gotischen'. Progr. Freiburg in Schlesien 1880 (14 pp.).





Chap. V. 17 Ni hugjai ei qemjau gatairan wito aiau praufetuns; ni qam gatairan, ak usfulljan. 18 amen auk qia izwis: und atei usleii himins jah aira, jota ains aiau ains striks ni usleii af witoda, unte allata wairi. 19 i saei nu gatairi aina anabusne izo minnistono, jah laisjai swa mans, minnista haitada in iudangardjai himine; i saei tauji jah laisjai swa, sah mikils haitada in iudangardjai himine.

20 Qia auk izwis atei nibai managizo wairi izwaraizos garaihteins au ize bokarje jah Fareisaie, ni au qimi in iudangardjai himine. 21 hausidedu atei qian ist aim airizam: ni maurrjais; i saei maurrei, skula wairi stauai. 22 aan ik qia izwis atei ƕazuh modags bror seinamma sware skula wairi stauai; i saei qii bror seinamma raka, skula wairi gaqumai; aan saei qii dwala, skula wairi in gaiainnan funins. 23 jabai nu bairais aibr ein du hunslastada, jah jainar gamuneis atei broar eins habai ƕa bi uk, 24 aflet jainar o giba eina in andwairja hunslastadis, jah gagg fauris gasibjon bror einamma, jah bie atgaggands atbair o giba eina. 25 sijais waila hugjands andastauin einamma sprauto, und atei is in wiga mi imma, ibai ƕan atgibai uk sa andastaua stauin, jah sa staua uk atgibai andbahta, jah in karkara galagjaza. 26 amen qia us: ni usgaggis jainro, unte usgibis ana minnistan kintu.

27 Hausidedu atei qian ist: ni horinos. 28 aan ik qia izwis, atei ƕazuh saei saiƕi qinon du luston izos, ju gahorinoda izai in hairtin seinamma. 29 i jabai augo ein ata taihswo marzjai uk, usstigg[2] ita jah wairp af {98}us; batizo ist auk us ei fraqistnai ains liiwe einaize, jah ni allata leik ein gadriusai in gaiainnan. 30 jah jabai taihswo eina handus marzjai uk, afmait o jah wairp af us; batizo ist auk us ei fraqistnai ains liiwe einaize, jah ni allata leik ein gadriusai in gaiainnan. 31 qianuh an ist atei ƕazuh[3] saei afletai qen, gibai izai afstassais bokos. 32 i ik qia izwis atei ƕazuh saei afleti qen seina, inuh fairina kalkinassaus, tauji o horinon; jah sa ize afsatida liugai, horino.

33 Aftra hausidedu atei qian ist aim airizam: ni ufarswarais, i usgibais fraujin aians einans. 34 aan ik qia izwis ni swaran allis, ni bi himina, unte stols ist gus; 35 nih bi airai, unte fotubaurd ist fotiwe is, nih bi Iairusaulymai, unte baurgs ist is mikilins iudanis; 36 nih bi haubida einamma swarais, unte ni magt ain tagl ƕeit aiau swart gataujan. 37 sijai-an waurd izwar: ja, ja; ne, ne; i ata managizo aim us amma ubilin ist.

38 Hausidedu atei qian ist: augo und augin, jah tunu und tunau. 39 i ik qia izwis ni andstandan allis amma unseljin; ak jabai ƕas uk stautai bi taihswon eina kinnu, wandei imma jah o anara. 40 jah amma wiljandin mi us staua jah paida eina niman, aflet imma jah wastja. 41 jah jabai ƕas uk ananaujai rasta aina, gaggais mi imma twos. 42 amma bidjandin uk gibais, jah amma wiljandin af us leiƕan sis ni uswandjais.

43 Hausidedu atei qian ist: frijos neƕundjan einana, jah fiais fiand einana. 44 aan ik qia izwis: frijo fijands izwarans, iujai ans wrikandans izwis, waila taujai aim hatjandam izwis, jah bidjai bi ans usriutandans izwis, 45 ei wairai sunjus attins izwaris is in himinam, unte sunnon seina urrannei ana ubilans jah godans, jah rignei ana garaihtans jah ana inwindans. 46 jabai auk frijo ans frijondans izwis ainans, ƕo mizdono habai? niu jah ai iudo ata samo taujand? 47 jah jabai golei ans frijonds izwarans atainei, ƕe managizo tauji? niu jah motarjos ata samo taujand? 48 sijai nu jus fullatojai, swaswe atta izwar sa in himinam fullatojis ist.

Chap. VI. 1 Atsaiƕi armaion izwara ni taujan in andwairja manne du saiƕan im; aiau laun ni habai fram attin izwaramma amma in himinam. 2 an nu taujais armaion, ni haurnjais faura us, swaswe ai liutans taujand in gaqumim jah in garunsim, ei hauhjaindau fram mannam; amen qia izwis: andnemun mizdon seina. 3 i uk taujandan armaion ni witi hleidumei eina, ƕa tauji {99}taihswo eina, 4 ei sijai so armahairtia eina in fulhsnja, jah atta eins saei saiƕi in fulhsnja[4], usgibi us in bairhtein. 5 jah an bidjai, ni sijai swaswe ai liutans, unte frijond in gaqumim jah waihstam plapjo standandans bidjan, ei gaumjaindau mannam. amen, qia izwis, atei haband mizdon seina. 6 i u an bidjais, gagg in hejon eina, jah galukands haurdai einai bidei du attin einamma amma in fulhsnja, jah atta eins saei saiƕi in fulhsnja[5], usgibi us in bairhtein.

7 Bidjandansu-an ni filuwaurdjai, swaswe ai iudo; ugkei im auk ei in filuwaurdein seinai andhausjaindau. 8 ni galeiko nu aim; wait auk atta izwar izei jus aurbu, faurizei jus bidjai ina. 9 swa nu bidjai jus: atta unsar u in himinam, weihnai namo ein. 10 qimai iudinassus eins. wairai wilja eins, swe in himina jah ana airai. 11 hlaif unsarana ana sinteinan gif uns himma daga. 12 jah aflet uns atei skulans sijaima, swaswe jah weis afletam aim skulam unsaraim. 13 jah ni briggais uns in fraistubnjai, ak lausei uns af amma ubilin; unte eina ist iudangardi jah mahts jah wulus in aiwins. amen.

14 Unte jabai afleti mannam missadedins ize, afleti jah izwis atta izwar sa ufar himinam. 15 i jabai ni afleti mannam missadedins ize, ni au atta izwar afleti missadedins izwaros.

16 Aan bie fastai, ni wairai swaswe ai liutans gaurai; frawardjand auk andwairja seina, ei gasaiƕaindau mannam fastandans. amen, qia izwis, atei andnemun mizdon seina. 17 i u fastands salbo haubi ein, jah ludja eina wah, 18 ei ni gasaiƕaizau mannam fastands, ak attin einamma amma in fulhsnja, jah atta eins, saei saiƕi in fulhsnja, usgibi us.

19 Ni huzdjai izwis huzda ana airai, arei malo jah nidwa frawardei, jah arei iubos ufgraband jah hlifand. 20 i huzdjai izwis huzda in himina, arei nih malo nih nidwa frawardei, jah arei iubos ni ufgraband nih stiland. 21 arei auk ist huzd izwar, aruh ist jah hairto izwar.

22 Lukarn leikis ist augo: jabai nu augo ein ainfal ist, allata leik ein liuhadein wairi; 23 i jabai augo ein unsel ist, allata leik ein riqizein wairi. jabai nu liuha ata in us riqiz ist, ata riqiz ƕan filu!

24 Ni manna mag twaim fraujam skalkinon; unte jabai fijai ainana, jah anarana frijo; aiau ainamma ufhausei, i anaramma frakann. ni magu gua skalkinon jah mammonin[6]. 25 due qia izwis: ni maurnai saiwalai izwarai ƕa matjai jah ƕa drigkai, nih leika izwaramma {100}ƕe wasjai; niu saiwala mais ist fodeinai jah leik wastjom? 26 insaiƕi du fuglam himinis, ei ni saiand nih sneiand, nih lisand in banstins, jah atta izwar sa ufar himinam fodei ins. niu jus mais wulrizans siju aim? 27 i ƕas izwara maurnands mag anaaukan ana wahstu seinana aleina aina? 28 jah bi wastjos ƕa saurgai? gakunnai blomans haijos, ƕaiwa wahsjand; nih arbaidjand nih spinnand. 29 qiuh an izwis atei nih Saulaumon in allamma wulau seinamma gawasida sik swe ains ize. 30 jah ande ata hawi haijos himma daga wisando jah gistradagis in auhn galagi gu swa wasji, ƕaiwa mais izwis, leitil galaubjandans? 31 ni maurnai nu qiandans: ƕa matjam aiau ƕa drigkam, aiau ƕe wasjaima? 32 all auk ata iudos sokjand; waituh an atta izwar sa ufar himinam atei aurbu — —




Chap. I. 1 Anastodeins aiwaggeljons Iesuis Xristaus sunaus gus.

2 Swe gameli ist in Esain praufetau: sai, ik insandja aggilu meinana faura us, saei gamanwei wig einana faura us. 3 stibna wopjandins in auidai: manwei wig fraujins, raihtos waurkei staigos gus unsaris. 4 was Iohannes daupjands in auidai jah merjands daupein idreigos du aflageinai frawaurhte. 5 jah usiddjedun du imma all Iudaialand jah Iairusaulymeis, jah daupidai wesun allai in Iaurdane aƕai fram imma, andhaitandans frawaurhtim seinaim. 6 wasu-an Iohannes gawasis taglam ulbandaus jah gairda filleina bi hup seinana, jah matida ramsteins jah mili haiiwisk[7], 7 jah merida qiands: qimi swinoza mis sa afar mis, izei ik ni im wairs anahneiwands andbindan skaudaraip skohe is. 8 aan ik daupja izwis in watin, i is daupei izwis in ahmin weihamma.

9 Jah war in jainaim dagam, qam Iesus fram Nazarai Galeilaias, jah daupis was fram Iohanne in Iaurdane. 10 jah suns usgaggands us amma watin gasaƕ uslukanans[8] himinans, jah ahman swe ahak atgaggandan ana ina. 11 jah stibna qam us himinam: u is sunus meins sa liuba, in uzei waila galeikaida[9]. 12 jah suns sai, ahma ina ustauh in auida. 13 jah was in izai auidai dage fidwor tiguns fraisans fram Satanin, jah was mi diuzam, jah aggileis andbahtidedun imma.


14 I afar atei atgibans war Iohannes, qam Iesus in Galeilaia merjands aiwaggeljon iudangardjos gus, 15 qiands atei usfullnoda ata mel jah atneƕida sik iudangardi gus: idreigo jah galaubei in aiwaggeljon. 16 jah ƕarbonds faur marein Galeilaias gasaƕ Seimonu jah Andraian broar is, is Seimonis, wairpandans nati in marein; wesun auk fiskjans. 17 jah qa im Iesus: hirjats afar mis, jah gatauja igqis wairan nutans manne. 18 jah suns afletandans o natja seina laistidedun afar imma. 19 jah jainro inngaggands framis leitil[10] gasaƕ Iakobu ana Zaibaidaiaus jah Iohanne broar is, jah ans in skipa manwjandans natja. 20 jah suns haihait ins. jah afletandans attan seinana Zaibaidaiu in amma skipa mi asnjam, galiun afar imma.

21 Jah galiun in Kafarnaum, jah suns sabbato daga galeiands in synagogen laisida ins. 22 jah usfilmans waurun ana izai laiseinai is; unte was laisjands ins swe waldufni habands jah ni swaswe ai bokarjos. 23 jah was in izai synagogen ize manna in unhrainjamma ahmin, jah ufhropida 24 qiands: fralet, ƕa uns jah us, Iesu Nazorenai? qamt fraqistjan uns; kann uk, ƕas u is, sa weiha gus. 25 jah andbait ina Iesus qiands: ahai jah usgagg ut us amma, ahma unhrainja. 26 jah tahida ina ahma sa unhrainja, jah hropjands stibnai mikilai usiddja us imma. 27 jah afslaunodedun allai sildaleikjandans, swaei sokidedun mi sis misso qiandans: ƕa sijai ata? ƕo so laiseino so niujo, ei mi waldufnja jah ahmam aim unhrainjam anabiudi jah ufhausjand imma? 28 usiddja an meria is suns and allans bisitands Galeilaias.

29 Jah suns us izai synagogen usgaggandans qemun in garda Seimonis jah Andraiins mi Iakobau jah Iohannen. 30 i swaihro Seimonis lag in brinnon; jah suns qeun imma bi ija. 31 jah duatgaggands urraisida o undgreipands handu izos, jah aflailot o so brinno suns, jah andbahtida im. 32 Andanahtja an wauranamma, an gasaggq sauil, berun du imma allans ans ubil habandans jah unhulons habandans. 33 jah so baurgs alla garunnana was at daura. 34 jah gahailida managans ubil habandans missaleikaim sauhtim, jah unhulons managos uswarp, jah ni fralailot rodjan os unhulons, unte kunedun ina.

35 Jah air uhtwon usstandands usiddja, jah galai ana aujana sta, jah jainar ba. 36 jah galaistans waurun imma Seimon jah ai mi imma. 37 jah bigitandans ina qeun du imma atei allai uk sokjand. 38 jah qa du im: gaggam du aim bisunjane haimom[11] jah baurgim, ei jah jainar merjau, unte due qam. 39 jah was merjands {102}in synagogim ize and alla Galeilaian jah unhulons uswairpands.

40 Jah qam at imma rutsfill habands, bidjands ina jah kniwam knussjands jah qiands du imma atei jabai wileis, magt mik gahrainjan. 41 i Iesus infeinands, ufrakjands handu seina attaitok imma jah qa imma: wiljau, wair hrains. 42 jah bie qa ata Iesus, suns ata rutsfill aflai af imma, jah hrains war. 43 jah gaƕotjands imma suns ussandida ina, 44 jah qa du imma: saiƕ ei mannhun ni qiais waiht; ak gagg uk silban ataugjan gudjin, jah atbair fram gahraineinai einai atei anabau Moses du weitwodiai im. 45 i is usgaggands dugann merjan filu jah usqian ata waurd, swaswe is juan ni mahta andaugjo in baurg galeian, ak uta ana aujaim stadim was; jah iddjedun du imma allaro.

Chap. II. 1 Jah galai aftra in Kafarnaum afar dagans, jah gafrehun atei in garda ist. 2 jah suns gaqemun managai, swaswe juan ni gamostedun nih at daura, jah rodida im waurd. 3 jah qemun at imma uslian bairandans, hafanana fram fidworim[12]. 4 jah ni magandans neƕa qiman imma faura manageim, andhulidedun hrot arei was Iesus, jah usgrabandans insailidedun ata badi, jah fralailotun ana ammei lag sa uslia. 5 Gasaiƕands an Iesus galaubein ize qa du amma usliin: barnilo, afletanda us frawaurhteis einos. 6 wesunuh an sumai ize bokarje jainar sitandans jah agkjandans sis in hairtam seinaim: 7 ƕa sa swa rodei naiteinins? ƕas mag afletan frawaurhtins, niba ains gu? 8 jah suns ufkunnands Iesus ahmin seinamma atei swa ai mitodedun sis, qa du im: duƕe mito ata in hairtam izwaraim? 9 ƕaar ist azetizo du qian amma usliin: afletanda[13] us frawaurhteis einos, au qian: urreis jah nim ata badi einata jah gagg? 10 aan ei witei atei waldufni habai sunus mans ana airai afletan frawaurhtins, qa du amma usliin: 11 us qia: urreis nimuh ata badi ein jah gagg du garda einamma. 12 jah urrais suns jah ushafjands badi usiddja faura andwairja allaize, swaswe usgeisnodedun allai jah hauhidedun mikiljandans gu, qiandans atei aiw swa ni gaseƕum[14].

13 Jah galai aftra faur marein, jah all manageins iddjedun du imma, jah laisida ins. 14 jah ƕarbonds gasaƕ Laiwwi ana Alfaiaus sitandan at motai, jah qa du imma: gagg afar mis. jah usstandands iddja afar imma. 15 jah war, bie is anakumbida in garda is, jah managai motarjos jah frawaurhtai mianakumbidedun Iesua jah siponjam is; wesun auk managai jah iddjedun afar imma. 16 jah {103}ai bokarjos jah Fareisaieis gasaiƕandans ina matjandan mi aim motarjam jah frawaurhtaim, qeun du aim siponjam is: ƕa ist atei mi motarjam jah frawaurhtaim[15] matji jah driggki? 17 jah gahausjands Iesus qa du im: ni aurbun swinai lekeis, ak ai ubilaba habandans; ni qam laon uswaurhtans ak frawaurhtans.

18 Jah wesun siponjos Iohannis jah Fareisaieis fastandans; jah atiddjedun jah qeun du imma: duƕe siponjos Iohannes jah Fareisaieis fastand, i ai einai siponjos ni fastand? 19 jah qa im Iesus: ibai magun sunjus brufadis, und atei mi im ist brufas, fastan? swa lagga ƕeila swe mi sis haband brufad, ni magun fastan. 20 aan atgaggand dagos an afnimada af im sa brufas, jah an fastand in jainamma daga. 21 ni manna plat fanins niujis siuji ana snagan fairnjana; ibai afnimai fullon af amma sa niuja amma fairnjin, jah wairsiza gataura wairi. 22 ni manna giuti wein juggata in balgins fairnjans; ibai aufto distairai wein ata niujo ans balgins, jah wein usgutni, jah ai balgeis fraqistnand; ak wein juggata in balgins niujans giutand.

23 Jah war airhgaggan imma sabbato daga airh atisk, jah dugunnun siponjos is skewjandans raupjan ahsa. 24 jah Fareisaieis qeun du imma: sai, ƕa taujand siponjos einai sabbatim atei ni skuld ist? 25 jah is qa du im: niu ussuggwu aiw ƕa gatawida Daweid, an aurfta jah gredags was, is jah ai mi imma? 26 ƕaiwa galai in gard gus uf Abiaara gudjin jah hlaibans faurlageinais matida, anzei ni skuld ist matjan niba ainaim gudjam, jah gaf jah aim mi sis wisandam? 27 jah qa im: sabbato in mans war gaskapans, ni manna in sabbato dagis; 28 swaei frauja ist sa sunus mans jah amma sabbato.

Chap. III. 1 Jah galai aftra in synagogen, jah was jainar manna gaaursana habands handu. 2 jah witaidedun imma, hailidediu sabbato daga, ei wrohidedeina ina. 3 jah qa du amma mann amma gaaursana habandin handu: urreis in midumai. 4 jah qa du im: skuldu ist in sabbatim iu taujan aiau uniu taujan, saiwala nasjan aiau usqistjan? i eis ahaidedun. 5 jah ussaiƕands ins mi moda, gaurs in daubios hairtins ize, qa du amma mann: ufrakei o handu eina! jah ufrakida, jah gasto aftra so handus is.

6 Jah gaggandans an Fareisaieis sunsaiw mi aim Herodianum garuni gatawidedun bi ina, ei imma usqemeina. 7 jah Iesus aflai mi siponjam seinaim du marein, jah filu manageins us Galeilaia[15] laistidedun afar imma, 8 jah us {104}Iudaia jah us Iairusaulymim jah us Idumaia jah hindana Iaurdanaus; jah ai bi Tyra jah Seidona, manageins filu, gahausjandans ƕan filu is tawida, qemun at imma. 9 jah qa aim siponjam seinaim ei skip habai wesi at imma in izos manageins, ei ni raiheina ina. 10 managans auk gahailida, swaswe drusun ana ina ei imma attaitokeina, 11 jah swa managai swe habaidedun wundufnjos jah ahmans unhrainjans, aih an ina gaseƕun, drusun du imma jah hropidedun qiandans atei u is sunus gus. 12 jah filu andbait ins ei ina ni gaswikunidedeina.

13 Jah ustaig in fairguni jah athaihait anzei wilda is, jah galiun du imma. 14 jah gawaurhta twalif du wisan mi sis, jah ei insandidedi ins merjan, 15 jah haban waldufni du hailjan sauhtins jah uswairpan unhulons. 16 jah gasatida Seimona namo Paitrus; 17 jah Iakobau amma Zaibaidaiaus, jah Iohanne bror Iakobaus, jah gasatida im namna Bauanairgais, atei ist: sunjus eiƕons; 18 jah Andraian, jah Filippu jah Baraulaumaiu jah Mataiu jah oman jah Iakobu ana Alfaiaus, jah addaiu jah Seimona ana Kananeiten. 19 jah Iudan Iskarioten, saei jah galewida ina.

20 Jah atiddjedun in gard, jah gaddja sik managei, swaswe ni mahtedun nih hlaif matjan. 21 jah hausjandans fram imma bokarjos jah anarai usiddjedun gahaban ina; qeun auk atei usgaisis ist. 22 jah bokarjos ai af Iairusaulymai qimandans qeun atei Baiailzaibul habai, jah atei in amma reikistin unhulono uswairpi aim unhulom. 23 jah athaitands ins in gajukom qa du im: ƕaiwa mag Satanas Satanan uswairpan? 24 jah jabai iudangardi wira sik gadailjada, ni mag standan so iudangardi jaina. 25 jah jabai gards wira sik gadailjada, ni mag standan sa gards jains. 26 jah jabai Satana ussto ana sik silban jah gadailis war, ni mag gastandan, ak andi habai. 27 ni manna mag kasa swinis galeiands in gard is wilwan, niba fauris ana swinan gabindi; jah an[16] ana gard is diswilwai. 28 amen, qia izwis, atei allata afletada ata frawaurhte sunum manne, jah naiteinos swa managos swaswe wajamerjand; 29 aan saei wajamerei ahman weihana, ni habai fralet aiw, ak skula ist aiweinaizos frawaurhtais. 30 unte qeun: ahman unhrainjana habai.

31 Jah qemun an aiei is jah brorjus is jah uta standandona insandidedun du imma, haitandona ina. 32 jah setun bi ina managei; qeun an du imma: sai, aiei eina jah brorjus einai jah swistrjus einos uta sokjand uk. 33 jah andhof im qiands: ƕo ist so aiei meina aiau {105}ai brorjus meinai? 34 jah bisaiƕands bisunjane ans bi sik sitandans qa: sai, aiei meina jah ai brorjus meinai. 35 saei allis waurkei wiljan gus, sa jah broar meins jah swistar jah aiei ist.

Chap. IV. 1 Jah aftra Iesus dugann laisjan at marein, jah galesun sik du imma manageins filu, swaswe ina galeiandan[17] in skip gasitan in marein; jah alla so managei wira marein ana staa was. 2 jah laisida ins in gajukom manag, jah qa im in laiseinai seinai: 3 hausei! sai, urrann sa saiands du saian fraiwa seinamma. 4 jah war, mianei saiso, sum raihtis gadraus faur wig, jah qemun fuglos jah fretun ata. 5 anaru-an gadraus ana stainahamma, arei ni habaida aira managa, jah suns urrann, in izei ni habaida diupaizos airos; 6 at sunnin an urrinnandin ufbrann, jah unte ni habaida waurtins, gaaursnoda. 7 jah sum gadraus in aurnuns; jah ufarstigun ai aurnjus jah afƕapidedun ata, jah akran ni gaf. 8 jah sum gadraus in aira goda, jah gaf akran urrinnando jah wahsjando, jah bar ain l jah ain j jah ain r. 9 jah qa: saei habai ausona hausjandona, gahausjai.

10 I bie war sundro, frehun ina ai bi ina mi aim twalibim izos gajukons. 11 jah qa im: izwis atgiban ist kunnan runa iudangardjos gus, i jainaim aim uta in gajukom[18] allata wairi, 12 ei saiƕandans saiƕaina jah ni gaumjaina, jah hausjandans hausjaina jah ni frajaina, nibai ƕan gawandjaina sik jah afletaindau im frawaurhteis. 13 jah qa du im: ni witu o gajukon, jah ƕaiwa allos os gajukons kunnei? 14 sa saijands waurd saiji. 15 aan ai wira wig sind, arei saiada ata waurd, jah an gahausjand unkarjans, suns qimi Satanas jah usnimi waurd ata insaiano in hairtam ize. 16 jah sind samaleiko ai ana stainahamma saianans, aiei an hausjand ata waurd, suns mi fahedai nimand ita. 17 jah ni haband waurtins in sis, ak ƕeilaƕairbai sind; aroh, bie qimi aglo aiau wrakja in is waurdis, suns gamarzjanda. 18 jah ai sind ai in aurnuns saianans, ai waurd hausjandans, 19 jah saurgos izos libainais jah afmarzeins gabeins jah ai bi ata anar lustjus innatgaggandans afƕapjand ata waurd, jah akranalaus wairi. 20 jah ai sind ai ana airai izai godon saianans, aei hausjand ata waurd jah andnimand, jah akran bairand, ain l jah ain j jah ain r.

21 Jah qa du im: ibai lukarn qimi due ei uf melan satjaidau aiau undar ligr? niu ei ana lukarnastaan satjaidau? 22 nih allis ist ƕa fulginis atei ni {106}gabairhtjaidau; nih war analaugn, ak ei swikun wairai. 23 jabai ƕas habai ausona hausjandona, gahausjai.

24 Jah qa du im: saiƕi, ƕa hausei! In izaiei mita miti, mitada izwis jah biaukada izwis aim galaubjandam. 25 unte isƕammeh saei habai gibada imma; jah saei ni habai jah atei habai afnimada imma.

26 Jah qa: swa ist iudangardi gus, swaswe jabai manna wairpi fraiwa ana aira. 27 jah slepi jah urreisi naht jah daga, jah ata fraiw keini jah liudi swe ni wait is. 28 silbo auk aira akran bairi: frumist gras, aroh ahs, aroh fullei kaurnis in amma ahsa. 29 anuh bie atgibada akran, suns insandei gila, unte atist asans.

30 Jah qa: ƕe galeikom iudangardja gus, aiau in ƕileikai gajukon gabairam o? 31 swe kaurno sinapis, atei an saiada ana aira, minnist allaize fraiwe ist ize ana airai; 32 jah an saiada, urrinni jah wairi allaize grase maist, jah gatauji astans mikilans, swaswe magun uf skadau is fuglos himinis gabauan. 33 jah swaleikaim managaim gajukom rodida du im ata waurd, swaswe mahtedun hausjon. 34 i inuh gajukon ni rodida im, i sundro siponjam seinaim andband allata.

35 Jah qa du im in jainamma daga at andanahtja an wauranamma: usleiam jainis stadis. 36 jah afletandans o managein andnemun ina swe was in skipa; jah an anara skipa wesun mi imma. 37 jah war skura windis mikila jah wegos waltidedun in skip, swaswe ita juan gafullnoda. 38 jah was is ana notin ana waggarja slepands, jah urraisidedun ina jah qeun du imma: laisari, niu kara uk izei fraqistnam? 39 jah urreisands gasok winda jah qa du marein: gaslawai, afdumbn! jah anasilaida sa winds, jah war wis mikil. 40 jah qa du im: duƕe faurhtai siju swa? ƕaiwa ni nauh habai galaubein? 41 jah ohtedun sis agis mikil, jah qeun du sis misso: ƕas annu sa sijai, unte jah winds jah marei ufhausjand imma?

Chap. V. 1 Jah qemun hindar marein in landa Gaddarene. 2 jah usgaggandin imma us skipa suns gamotida imma manna us aurahjom in ahmin unhrainjamma, 3 saei bauain habaida in aurahjom: jah ni naudibandjom eisarneinaim manna mahta ina gabindan. 4 unte is ufta eisarnam bi fotuns gabuganaim jah naudibandjom eisarneinaim gabundans was, jah galausida af sis os naudibandjos, jah o ana fotum eisarna gabrak, jah manna ni mahta ina gatamjan[19]. 5 jah sinteino nahtam jah dagam in aurahjom jah in fairgunjam was hropjands jah bliggwands sik stainam. 6 gasaiƕands[20] an Iesu fairraro rann jah inwait {107}ina, 7 jah hropjands stibnai mikilai qa: ƕa mis jah us, Iesu, sunau gus is hauhistins? biswara uk bi gua, ni balwjais mis! 8 unte qa imma: usgagg, ahma unhrainja, us amma mann! 9 jah frah ina: ƕa namo ein? jah qa du imma: namo mein Laigaion, unte managai sijum. 10 jah ba ina filu ei ni usdrebi im us landa. 11 wasuh an jainar hairda sweine haldana at amma fairgunja. 12 jah bedun ina allos os unhulons qiandeins: insandei unsis in o sweina, ei in o galeiaima. 13 jah uslaubida im Iesus suns. jah usgaggandans ahmans ai unhrainjans galiun in o sweina, jah rann so hairda and driuson in marein; wesunu-an swe twos usundjos, jah afƕapnodedun in marein. 14 jah ai haldandans o sweina galauhun jah gataihun in baurg jah in haimom, jah qemun saiƕan ƕa wesi ata waurano. 15 jah atiddjedun du Iesua, jah gasaiƕand ana wodan sitandan jah gawasidana jah frajandan, ana saei habaida laigaion, jah ohtedun. 16 jah spillodedun im aiei gaseƕun, ƕaiwa war bi ana wodan jah bi o sweina. 17 jah dugunnun bidjan ina galeian hindar markos seinos. 18 jah inngaggandan ina in skip ba ina, saei was wods, ei mi imma wesi. 19 jah ni lailot ina, ak qa du imma: gagg du garda einamma du einaim, jah gateih im, ƕan filu us frauja gatawida jah gaarmaida uk. 20 jah galai jah dugann merjan in Daikapaulein, ƕan filu gatawida imma Iesus; jah allai sildaleikidedun.

21 Jah usleiandin Iesua in skipa aftra hindar marein, gaqemun sik manageins filu du imma, jah was faura marein, 22 jah sai, qimi ains ize synagogafade namin Jaeirus; jah saiƕands ina gadraus du fotum Iesuis, 23 jah ba ina filu, qiands atei dauhtar meina aftumist habai, ei qimands lagjais ana o handuns, ei ganisai jah libai. 24 jah galai mi imma, jah iddjedun afar imma manageins filu jah raihun ina. 25 jah qinono suma wisandei in runa blois jera twalif, 26 jah manag gaulandei fram managaim lekjam jah fraqimandei allamma seinamma jah ni waihtai botida, ak mais wairs habaida, 27 gahausjandei bi Iesu, atgaggandei in managein aftana attaitok wastjai is. 28 unte qa atei jabai wastjom is atteka, ganisa. 29 jah sunsaiw gaaursnoda sa brunna blois izos, jah ufkuna ana leika atei gahailnoda af amma slaha. 30 jah sunsaiw Iesus ufkuna in sis silbin o us sis maht usgaggandein; gawandjands sik in managein qa: ƕas mis taitok wastjom? 31 jah qeun du imma siponjos is: saiƕis o managein reihandein uk, jah qiis: ƕas mis taitok? 32 jah wlaitoda saiƕan o ata taujandein. 33 i so qino ogandei jah reirandei, witandei atei war bi ija, qam jah draus du imma, jah qa imma alla o sunja. 34 i is qa {108}du izai: dauhtar, galaubeins eina ganasida uk, gagg in gawairi, jah sijais haila af amma slaha einamma.

35 Nauhanuh imma rodjandin qemun fram amma synagogafada, qiandans atei dauhtar eina gaswalt; ƕa anamais draibeis ana laisari? 36 i Iesus sunsaiw gahausjands ata waurd rodi, qa du amma synagogafada: ni faurhtei; atainei galaubei. 37 jah ni fralailot ainohun ize mi sis afargaggan, nibai Paitru jah Iakobu jah Iohannen broar Iakobis. 38 jah galai in gard is synagogafadis, jah gasaƕ auhjodu jah gretandans jah waifairƕjandans filu. 39 jah innatgaggands qa du im: ƕa auhjo jah greti? ata barn ni gadaunoda, ak slepi. 40 jah bihlohun ina. i is uswairpands allaim ganimi attan is barnis jah aiein jah ans mi sis, jah galai inn arei was ata barn ligando. 41 jah fairgraip bi handau ata barn qauh du izai: taleia kumei, atei ist gaskeiri: mawilo, du us qia: urreis. 42 jah suns urrais so mawi jah iddja; was auk jere twalibe; jah usgeisnodedun faurhtein mikilai. 43 jah anabau im filu ei manna ni funi ata, jah haihait izai giban matjan.



Chap. II. 1 War an in dagans jainans, urrann gagrefts fram kaisara Agustau, gameljan allana midjungard. 2 soh an gilstrameleins frumista war at [wisandin kindina Syriais][21] raginondin Saurim Kyreinaiau. 3 jah iddjedun allai, ei melidai weseina, ƕarjizuh in seinai baurg. 4 urrann an jah Iosef us Galeilaia, us baurg Nazarai, in Iudaian, in baurg Daweidis sei haitada Belahaim, due ei was us garda fadreinais Daweidis, 5 anameljan mi Mariin, sei in fragiftim was imma qeins, wisandein inkilon. 6 War an, mianei o wesun jainar, usfullnodedun dagos du bairan izai. 7 jah gabar sunu seinana ana frumabaur, jah biwand ina, jah galagida ina in uzetin, unte ni was im rumis in stada amma. 8 jah hairdjos wesun in amma samin landa, airhwakandans jah witandans wahtwom nahts ufaro hairdai seinai. 9 i aggilus fraujins anaqam ins jah wulus fraujins biskain ins, jah ohtedun agisa mikilamma. 10 jah qa du im sa aggilus: ni ogei; unte sai, spillo izwis faheid mikila, sei wairi allai managein, 11 atei gabaurans ist izwis himma daga nasjands, saei ist Xristus frauja, in baurg Daweidis. 12 jah ata izwis taikns: bigitid barn {109}biwundan jah galagid in uzetin. 13 jah anaks war mi amma aggilau managei harjis himinakundis hazjandane gu jah qiandane: 14 wulus in hauhistjam gua jah ana airai gawairi in mannam godis wiljins.

15 Jah war, bie galiun fairra im in himin ai aggiljus, jah ai mans ai hairdjos qeun du sis misso: airhgaggaima ju und Belahaim, jah saiƕaima waurd ata waurano, atei frauja gakannida unsis. 16 jah qemun sniumjandans, jah bigetun Marian jah Iosef jah ata barn ligando in uzetin. 17 gasaiƕandans an gakannidedun bi ata waurd atei rodi was du im bi ata barn. 18 jah allai ai gahausjandans sildaleikidedun bi o rodidona fram aim hairdjam du im. 19 i Maria alla gafastaida o waurda, agkjandei in hairtin seinamma. 20 jah gawandidedun sik ai hairdjos mikiljandans jah hazjandans gu in allaize izeei gahausidedun jah gaseƕun swaswe rodi was du im.

21 Jah bie usfullnodedun[22] dagos ahtau du bimaitan ina, jah haitan was namo is Iesus, ata qiano fram aggilau, faurizei ganumans wesi in wamba.

22 Jah bie usfullnodedun[22] dagos hraineinais ize bi witoda Mosezis, brahtedun ina in Iairusalem, atsatjan faura fraujin, 23 swaswe gamelid ist in witoda fraujins: atei ƕazuh gumakundaize uslukands qiu weihs fraujins haitada, 24 jah ei gbeina fram imma hunsl, swaswe qian ist in witoda fraujins, gajuk hraiwadubono aiau twos juggons ahake. 25 aruh was manna in Iairusalem, izei namo Symaion, jah sa manna was garaihts jah gudafaurhts, beidands laonais Israelis, jah ahma weihs was ana imma. 26 jah was imma gataihan fram ahmin amma weihin ni saiƕan dauu, faurize seƕi Xristu fraujins. 27 jah qam in ahmin in izai alh; jah mianei innattauhun berusjos ata barn Iesu, ei tawidedeina bi biuhtja witodis bi ina. 28 jah is andnam ina ana armins seinans, jah iuida gua jah qa: 29 nu fraleitais skalk einana, fraujinond frauja, bi waurda einamma in gawairja; 30 ande seƕun augona meina nasein eina, 31 oei manwides in andwairja[23] allaizo manageino, 32 liuha du andhuleinai iudom jah wulu managein einai Israela. 33 jah was Iosef jah aiei is sildaleikjandona ana aim oei rodida wesun bi ina. 34 jah iuida ina Symaion jah qa du Mariin, aiein is: sai, sa ligi du drusa jah usstassai managaize in Israela jah du taiknai andsakanai. 35 jah an eina silbons saiwala airhgaggi hairus, ei andhuljaindau us managaim hairtam mitoneis. 36 jah was Anna praufeteis, dauhtar Fanuelis, us kunja Aseris; soh framaldra dage managaize {110}libandei mi abin jera sibun fram magaein seinai, 37 soh an widuwo jere ahtautehund jah fidwor, soh ni afiddja fairra alh fastubnjam jah bidom blotande fraujan nahtam jah dagam. 38 soh izai ƕeilai atstandandei andhaihait fraujin, jah rodida bi ina in allaim aim usbeidandam laon Iairusaulymos. 39 jah bie ustauhun allata bi witoda fraujins, gawandidedun sik in Galeilaian, in baurg seina Nazarai. 40 i ata barn wohs jah swinnoda ahmins fullnands jah handugeins, jah ansts gus was ana imma.

41 Jah wratodedun ai birusjos is jera ƕammeh in Iairusalem at dul paska. 42 jah bie war twalibwintrus, usgaggandam an im in Iairusaulyma bi biuhtja dulais, 43 jah ustiuhandam ans dagans, miane gawandidedun sik aftra, gasto Iesus sa magus in Iairusalem, jah ni wissedun[24] Iosef jah aiei is. 44 hugjandona in gasinjam ina wisan qemun dagis wig jah sokidedun ina in ganijam jah in kunam. 45 jah ni bigitandona ina gawandidedun sik in Iairusalem sokjandona ina. 46 jah war afar dagans rins, bigetun ina in alh sitandan in midjaim laisarjam jah hausjandan im jah fraihnandan ins. 47 usgeisnodedun an allai ai hausjandans is ana frodein jah andawaurdjam is. 48 jah gasaiƕandans ina sildaleikidedun, jah qa du imma so aiei is: magau, ƕa gatawides uns swa? sai, sa atta eins jah ik winnandona sokidedum uk. 49 jah qa du im: ƕa atei sokidedu mik? niu wissedu atei in aim attins meinis skulda wisan? 50 jah ija ni froun amma waurda atei rodida du im. 51 jah iddja mi im jah qam in Nazarai, jah was ufhausjands im; jah aiei is gafastaida o waurda alla in hairtin seinamma. 52 jah Iesus aih frodein jah wahstau jah anstai at gua jah mannam.




Chap. I.[25] 1 Pawlus apaustaulus Iesuis Xristaus airh wiljan gus jah Teimauaius broar aikklesjon gus izai wisandein in Kaurinon mi allaim aim weiham aim wisandam in allai Akajai. 2 ansts izwis jah gawairi fram gua attin unsaramma jah fraujin Iesu Xristau.


3 iuis gu jah atta fraujins unsaris Iesuis Xristaus, atta bleieino jah gu allaizo galaihte, 4 saei garafstida uns ana allai aglon unsarai, ei mageima weis garafstjan ans in allaim aglom airh o galaiht izaiei garafstidai sijum silbans fram gua. 5 unte swaswe ufarassus ist ulaine Xristaus in uns, swa jah airh Xristu ufar filu ist jah garafsteins unsara. 6 aan jae reihanda, in izwaraizos galaihtais jah naseinais izos waurstweigons in stiwitja izo samono ulaine, ozei jah weis winnam, jah wens unsara gatulgida faur izwis; jae garafstjanda in izwaraizos galaihtais jah naseinais, 7 witandans atei swaswe gadailans ulaine siju, jah galaihtais wairi. 8 unte ni wileima izwis unweisans, brorjus, bi aglon unsara o wauranon uns in Asiai, unte ufarassau kauridai wesum ufar maht, swaswe[26] skamaidedeima uns jah liban. 9 akei silbans in uns silbam andahaft dauaus habaidedum, ei ni sijaima trauandans du uns silbam, ak du gua amma urraisjandin dauans, 10 izei us swaleikaim dauum uns galausida jah galausei, du ammei wenidedum ei galausei, 11 at hilpandam jah izwis bi uns bidai, ei in managamma andwairja so in uns giba airh managans awiliudodau faur uns. 12 unte ƕoftuli unsara so ist, weitwodei miwisseins unsaraizos, atei in ainfalein jah hlutrein gus, ni in handugein leikeinai, ak in anstai gus usmeitum[27] in amma fairƕau, i ufarassau at izwis. 13 unte ni alja meljam izwis, alja oei anakunnai aiau jah ufkunnai; aan wenja ei und andi ufkunnai, 14 swaswe gakunnaidedu uns bi sumata, unte ƕoftuli izwara sijum, swaswe jah jus unsara in daga fraujins Iesuis Xristaus[28].

15 Jah izai trauainai wilda fauris qiman at izwis, ei anara anst habaidedei, 16 jah[29] airh izwis galeian in Makidonja[30] jah aftra af Makidonjai qiman at izwis, jah fram izwis gasandjan mik in Iudaia. 17 atu-an nu mitonds, ibai aufto leihtis bruhta? aiau atei mito, bi leika agkjau, ei sijai[31] at mis ata ja ja jah ata ne ne? 18 aan triggws gu, ei ata waurd unsar ata du izwis nist ja jah[32] ne. 19 unte gus sunus Iesus Xristus, saei in izwis airh uns wailamerjada[33], airh mik jah Silbanu jah Teimauaiu, nih[34] war ja jah[35] ne, ak ja in imma war. 20 ƕaiwa managa gahaita gus, in imma ata ja, due jah[36] airh ina amen, gua du wulau airh uns. 21 aan sa gawastjands unsis[37] mi izwis in Xristau jah salbonds[38] uns gu, 22 jah sigljands uns jah gibands wadi {112}ahman in hairtona unsara. 23 aan ik weitwod gu anahaita ana meinai saiwalai, ei freidjands izwara anaseis ni qam in Kaurinon; 24 ni atei fraujinoma[39] izwarai galaubeinai, ak gawaurstwans sijum anstais izwaraizos; unte galaubeinai gastou.

Chap. II.[40] 1 Aan gastauida ata silbo at mis, ei aftra in saurgai ni qimau at izwis. 2 unte jabai ik gaurja izwis, jah ƕas ist saei gailjai mik, niba[41] sa gaurida us mis? 3 ja-[42]ata silbo gamelida izwis, ei qimands saurga ni habau fram aimei skulda faginon, gatrauands in allaim izwis atei meina fahes[43] allaize izwara ist. 4 aan us managai aglon jah aggwiai hairtins gamelida izwis airh managa tagra, ni eei saurgai, ak ei frijawa[44] kunnei oei haba ufarassau du izwis. 5 aan jabai ƕas gaurida, ni mik gaurida, ak bi sumata[45], ei ni anakaurjau allans izwis. 6 ganah amma swaleikamma andabet[46] ata fram managizam, 7 swaei ata andaneio izwis mais fragiban jag-[47]galaihan, ibai aufto managizein saurgai gasiggqai sa swaleiks. 8 inu-[48]is bidja izwis tulgjan in imma friawa. 9 due gamelida, ei ufkunnau kustu izwarana, sijaidu in allamma ufhausjandans. 10 aan ammei ƕa fragibi, jah ik; jah an ik, jabai ƕa fragaf, fragaf[49] in izwara in andwairja Xristaus, 11 ei ni gaaiginondau[50] fram Satanin; unte ni sijum unwitandans munins is.

12 Aan qimands in Trauadai in aiwaggeljons[51] Xristaus jah at haurdai mis uslukanai in fraujin, 13 ni habaida gaƕeilain ahmin meinamma, in ammei ni bigat Teitaun broar meinana; ak twisstandands im[52] galai in Makaidonja[53]. 14 aan gua awiliu[54] amma sinteino ustaiknjandin hroeigans uns in Xristau jah daun kunjis seinis gabairhtjandin airh uns in allaim stadim[55]; 15 unte Xristaus[56] dauns sijum woi gua in aim ganisandam jah in aim fraqistnandam[57]: 16 sumaim dauns us dauau[58] du dauau, sumaimu-an dauns us libainai du libainai; jad-[59]du amma ƕas wairs? 17 unte ni sium swe[60] sumai maidjandans waurd gus, ak us hlutriai, ak swaswe us gua in andwairja gus in Xristau rodjam.

Chap. III. 1 Duginnam aftra uns silbans anafilhan? aiau ibai aurbum swe sumai anafilhis boko du izwis, {113}aiau us izwis anafilhis? 2 aipistaule unsara jus siu[61], gamelida in hairtam unsaraim, kuna jah anakunnaida fram allaim mannam. 3 swikunai[62] atei siu[63] aipistaule Xristaus, andbahtida fram uns, inn[64] gamelida ni swartiza[65], ak ahmin gus libandins, ni in spildom staineinaim, ak in spildom hairtane leikeinaim.

4 Aan trauain swaleika habam airh Xristu du gua, 5 ni atei wairai sijaima agkjan ƕa af uns silbam, swaswe af uns silbam[66], ak so wairida unsara us gua ist, 6 izei jah wairans brahta uns andbahtans niujaizos triggwos, ni bokos, ak ahmins; unte boka usqimi, i ahma gaqiuji. 7 aan jabai andbahti dauaus in gameleinim gafrisahti in stainam war wulag, swaei ni mahtedeina[67] sunjus Israelis fairweitjan du wlita Mosezis in wulaus wlitis is is gataurnandins, 8 ƕaiwa nei mais andbahti ahmins wairai in wulau? 9 jabai auk andbahtja[68] wargios wulus, und filu mais ufarist andbahti garaihteins in[69] wulau. 10 unte ni was wulag ata wulago in izai halbai in ufarassaus wulaus; 11 jabai auk ata gataurnando airh wulu, und filu mais ata wisando in wulau.

12 Habandans nu swaleika wen managaizos baleins brukjaima, 13 jan-[70]ni swaswe Mosez[71] lagida hulistr ana andawleizn, due ei ni fairweitidedeina sunjus Israelis in andi is gataurnandins; 14 ak afdaubnodedun[72] fraja ize, unte und hina dag ata samo hulistr in anakunnainai izos fairnjons triggwos wisi unandhuli, unte in Xristau gatairada. 15 akei und hina dag mianei siggwada Moses, hulistr ligi ana hairtin ize. 16 aan mianei gawandei du fraujin, afnimada ata hulistr. 17 aan frauja ahma ist; aan arei ahma fraujins, aruh freihals[73] ist. 18 aan weis allai andhulidamma andwairja wulu fraujins airhsaiƕandans, o samon frisaht ingaleikonda af wulau in wulu[74], swaswe af fraujins ahmin.

Chap. IV.[75] 1 Due habandans ata andbahti[76], swaswe gaarmaidai waurum, ni wairaima[77] usgrudjans, 2 ak afstoum aim analaugnjam aiwiskjis, ni gaggandans in warein nih galiug taujandans waurd gus, ak bairhtein sunjos[78] ustaiknjandans uns silbans du allaim miwisseim manne in andwairja gus. 3 aan jabai ist gahulida aiwaggeljo unsara, in aim fralusnandam ist gahulida, 4 in aimei gu is aiwis gablindida fraja ize {114}ungalaubjandane, ei ni liuhtjai im liuhadeins[79] aiwaggeljons wulaus Xristaus, saei ist frisahts gus ungasaiƕanins[80]. 5 aan ni uns silbans merjam, ak Iesu Xristu fraujan, i uns skalkans[81] izwarans in Iesuis. 6 unte gu saei qa ur riqiza liuha skeinan, saei jah liuhtida in hairtam unsaraim du liuhadein kunjis wulaus gus in andwairja Iesuis Xristaus.

7 Aan habandans ata huzd in aireinaim kasam, ei ufarassus sijai mahtais gus jah ni us unsis. 8 in allamma raihanai, akei ni gaaggwidai; andbitanai, akei ni afslauidai; 9 wrikanai, akei ni bilianai; gadrausidai, akei ni fraqistidai, 10 sinteino dauein fraujins Iesuis ana leika unsaramma[82] bairandans, ei jah libains, Iesuis ana leika unsaramma[83] uskuna sijai. 11 sinteino weis libandans in dauu atgibanda in Iesuis, ei jah libains Iesuis swikuna wairai in riurjamma leika unsaramma. 12 swaei nu dauus in uns waurkei, i libains in izwis. 13 habandans nu ana saman ahman galaubeinais bi amma gamelidin: galaubida, in izei jah rodida, jah weis galaubjam, in izei jah rodjam, 14 witandans atei sa urraisjands fraujan Iesu jah unsis airh Iesu urraisei jah fauragasatji mi izwis. 15 atuh an allata in izwara, ei ansts managnandei airh managizans awiliud ufarassjai du wulau gua. 16 inuh is ni wairam usgrudjans, ak auhjabai sa utana unsar manna frawardjada, aiau sa innuma ananiujada daga jah daga. 17 unte ata andwairo ƕeilaƕairb jah leiht[84] aglons unsaraizos bi ufarassau aiweinis wulaus kaurei waurkjada unsis. 18 ni fairweitjandam izei gasaiƕanane, ak izei ungasaiƕanane; unte o gasaiƕanona riurja sind, i o ungasaiƕanona aiweina.

Chap. V. 1 Witum auk atei, jabai sa aireina unsar gards izos hleiros gatairada, ei gatimrjon us[85] gua habam, gard unhanduwaurhtana aiweinana in himinam. 2 unte jah in amma swogatjam, bauainai unsarai izai us himina ufarhamon gairnjandans, 3 jabai sweauh jah[86] gawasidai, ni naqadai bigitaindau. 4 jah auk wisandans in izai hleirai swogatjam kauridai, ana ammei ni wileima afhamon, ak anahamon, ei fraslindaidau ata diwano fram libainai. 5 aan saei jah[87] gamanwida uns du amma gu, saei jah gaf uns[88] wadi ahman. 6 gatrauandans nu sinteino jah witandans atei wisandans in amma leika afhaimjai sijum fram fraujin; 7 unte airh galaubein gaggam, ni {115}airh siun. 8 aan gatrauam jah waljam mais usleian us amma leika jah anahaimjaim wisan at fraujin. 9 inuh[89] is usdaudjam, jae anahaimjai jae afhaimjai, waila galeikan imma. 10 unte allai weis ataugjan skuldai sijum faura stauastola Xristaus, ei ganimai ƕarjizuh o swesona leikis, afar aimei gatawida, jae iu jae uniu.

11 Witandans nu agis fraujins mannans fullaweisjam, i gua swikunai sijum. aan wenja jah in miwisseim izwaraim swikunans wisan uns. 12 ni ei aftra uns silbans uskannjaima[90] izwis, ak lew gibandans izwis ƕoftuljos fram uns[91], ei habai wira ans in andwairja ƕopandans jah ni hairtin[92]. 13 unte jae usgeisnodedum, gua, jae fullafrajam, izwis. 14 unte friawa Xristaus dishabai uns, 15 domjandans ata atei ains faur allans gaswalt, annu allai gaswultun, jah faur allans gaswalt, ei ai libandans ni anaseis sis[93] silbam libaina[94], ak amma faur sik gaswiltandin jah urreisandin. 16 swaei weis fram amma nu ni ainnohun kunnum bi leika; i jabai ufkunedum bi leika Xristu, akei nu ni anaseis ni kunnum ina[95]. 17 swaei jabai ƕo in Xristau niuja gaskafts, o aljona usliun; sai, waurun niuja alla. 18 aan alla us gua, amma gafriondin uns sis[96] airh Xristu jah[97] gibandin uns[98] andbahti gafrionais. 19 unte sweauh gu was in Xristau manase gafrionds sis, ni rahnjands im missadedins ize, jah lagjands in uns waurd gafrionais. 20 faur Xristu nu airinom, swe at gua galaihandin airh uns; bidjam[99] faur Xristu gagawairnan gua. 21 unte ana izei[100] ni kuna frawaurht, faur uns gatawida frawaurht, ei weis waureima garaihtei gus in imma.


(LEAF VII.—ABOUT JOHN VI, 9-13.)[101]

(a 49)—ahun kunnandins fraujins maht jah andaggkjandins sik is waldufneis. nih Stains ains[102], ak jah Andraias, saei qa: ist magula ains her, saei habai e hlaibans barizeinans jah twans fiskans, analeiko swe {116}Filippus gasakada, ni waiht mikilis hugjands nih wairidos laisareis andaggkjands, airh oei usbar qiands: akei ata ƕa ist du swa managaim? i frauja andtilonds ize niuklahein (b) qa: waurkei ans mans anakumbjan. i eis, at hauja managamma wisandin in amma stada, o filusna anakumbjan gatawidedun, fimf usundjos waire inuh qinons jah barna. swe at mikilamma nahtamata anakumbjandans wesun[103] at ni wisandein[104] aljai waihtai ufar ans fimf hlaibans jah twans fiskans, anzei nimands jah awiliudonds gaiuida, jah swa managai ganohjands ins wailawiznai ni atainei ganauhan aurftais im fra-(c 50)gaf, ak filaus maizo; afar atei matida so managei, bigitan was izei hlaibe ib tainjons fullos, atei aflifnoda. samaleikoh an jah ize fiske, swa filu swe wildedun. nih an ana aim hlaibam ainaim seinaizos mahtais filusna ustaiknida, ak jah in aim fiskam; swa filu auk[105] gamanwida ins wairan, swaei ainƕarjammeh swa filu swe wilda andniman is[106], tawida; jah ni in waihtai waninassu izai filusnai wairan gatawida. akei (d) nauh us amma filu mais siponjans fullafahida jah anarans gamaudida gaumjan, atei is was sa sama, saei in auidai m jere attans ize fodida. anuh, bie sadai waurun, qa siponjam seinaim: galisi os aflifnandeins drausnos, ei waihtai ni fraqistnai. anuh galesun jah gafullidedun ib tainjons gabruko us aim e hlaibam barizeinam jah b fiskam, atei aflifnoda at aim —



[The figures in parentheses refer to paragrafs of the syntax of my 'First Germanic Bible', when preceded by S.; to paragrafs of this grammar, when preceded by Gr.]


Chap. V, 17. ni hugjai; prohibitiv optativ (S., 91, (2)).—qmjau; opt. in a final object clause (S., 93).—gataran, to tear or break completely, destroy; usfulljan, to fulfil. Both gat. and usf. ar infinitivs of purpose (S., 114), the prefixes ga and us being intensiv. 18. usleii himins jah ara; two subj. nominativs with a sg. v. (S., 5, n. 1). 19. saei; rel. prn. (Gr., 157; S., 60).—iz; dem. prn., not art. (S., 63).—gatari (prs. ind.) ... laisjai (prs. opt.); the first denoting a fact, the second a possibility (S., 99, c): whosoever breaks and 'should' teach.—minnista; an exceptional case of a weak adj. without the art.—iudangardjai himin; without the art. (in the Grk. text τῇ ... τῶν).

20. managiz (n. compar. uzed as sb.) izwaraizs garahteins, more of your righteousness than of [the righteousness of] the scribes.—au (conj.), than ... au (adv.), in any case; ni au, in no case.—qimi in iudangardjai; the dativ after qiman in and similar vs. of 'motion towards' is distinctivly Gothic (S., 55). 21. qian ist; stands for the Grk. aor. (S., 87, n., c) = imperf. in English.—marrjais; the hort. opt. for the second pers. fut. in Grk.—wari; the prs. for the Grk. fut. (S., 86, (3)).—skula w. dat., a detter or subject to (S., 35, (2)). 22. ik; the personal prn. is uzed with a v. for the sake of emfasis (S., 2, n. 1).—ƕazuh mdags; for πᾶς ὁ w. a ptc.—brr sinamma[** typo seinamma]; dat. after mdags: angry with (lit. 'to'; S., 36, (3)).—gaqumai, council, from gaqiman, to cum together.—dwala (voc.); weak adj. uzed as sb.—skula in gaannan; in denoting 'direction' 'in regard to'; the expression seems to be an imitation of the corresponding Grk. passage: ἔνοχος ἔσται εὶς τὴν γέενναν.

23. jabai nu barais ... gamuneis (Gr., 200, n. 1; and 196); a conditional sentence, the vs. of the protasis being in the opt., those of the apodosis in the imper. (S., 102, e).—aibr; s. 'Vocabulary'.—eins; {118}attributes generally follow their sb. (S., 10, n. 2).—ƕa; here indef. (Gr., 162, n. 2; S., 78, n. 2). 24. Here the apodosis begins.—; the art. is uzed, because the sacrifice (aibr) is again mentiond (as giba) (S., 67).—eina; for its strong inflection, s. Gr. 122, n. 1.—brr einamma; dat. after gasibjn (S., 43). 25. andastauin einamma; dat. after wala hugjands (S., 41).—ibai, lest, lit. perhaps, which sense is also exprest by the opt. atgibai.—stauin; from staua, m. (Gr., 108; not f.; Gr., 97).—in karkara gal.; gal. in w. acc., more frequently w. dat.; see qimi in, abuv.;[** typo, should be either just ; or just . or .— (beats me)] jah galagjaza, and [then] thou wilt be cast. 26. usgaggis ... usgibis; the first prs. expresses the first, the second the past future.—minnistan; this word does not exactly answer ἔσχατον (which Wulfila in other places renders by aftuma, aftumists, spdiza, spdists, spdumists). It is not impossibl, however, that kintus ment not one particular coin (or mezure), but any coin (or mezure) of litl value.

27. For the tenses and opt. mood, see 21, abuv. 28. saei saƕi; ind. in a rel. clause for a Grk. ptc. (S., 99).—du lustn; inf. of purpose after du (S., 144).—izs; gen. after lustn (S., 26).—gahrinda (For the Grk. aor.; S., 87, (3)) izai; instrumental dat. of association (S., 52, (1), c). 29. marzjai; opt. necessitated by the sense, not by the conj. jabai (S., 102).—usstigg ita jah warp; the order of words is Grk.; in Engl. we repeat the object 'it' after the second v. (warp).—gadriusai in gaannan; gadr. in w. acc.; onse (Lu. 8, 7) it takes the dat.; comp. qiman in, chap. V, 20, abuv. 30. tahsw eina handus; comp. the sequence of words (without the art.) with the similar expression (with the art.) in 29, abuv.—, this, that; but ἀυτήν in Grk.—batiz ist us ei, etc.; the dependent clause after batiz ist is sumtimes an acc. w. inf. (S., 113); us is dat. of advantage (S., 36, (4)).—fraqistnai ... gadriusai; both optativs imply possibility (S., 103). 31. -uh an; both particls (= an alone) ar here continuativ: but farther, also.—saei afltai qn; opt. in a rel. clause which does not contain a statement of the speaker, but of sum one else (cp. verse 32, below); qn is less definit here than in the following verse, where seina is emfatic, and qn seina means as much as 'his legitimate wife'.—gibai; hort. opt. (S., 91, (2)).—afstassais bks, a writing (lit. letters; cp. the Latin 'littera': 'litterae') of divorcement (lit. 'standing off'; cp. the G. 'abstand' in the sense of 'desistence'). 32. saei aflti ... tauji; the vs. ar in the ind. mood, because they contain the speaker's statements (as opposed to the preceding ones).—iz; for izei (Gr., 157, n. 3). 33. ufarswarais ... usgibais; hort. opt. (S., 91, (2)).—fraujin; without the articl, when signifying God (S., 68, n. 2. The Grk. text has τῷ). 34. swaran; objectiv inf. after qian, to say, with the sense of 'commanding' (S., 110).—gus; gen. in its abbreviated form (Gr., 94, n. 3). 35. bargs; without the art., as in Grk. 36. tagl, a singl hair; skuft, the hairs collectivly. 37. sijai-an (for sijaih an, for sijai-uh an; see Gr., 62, n. 3), but ... shall be.—ata (art.) managiz; n. compar. uzed as sb.: lit. 'the more', i. e. what is more.—aim; dat. as abl. (S., 54, 3), after the compar. managiz (= au w. nom.; cp. the Grk. gen. and the Lt. abl. in such cases).—ubilin; dat. of the n. sg. ubil uzed as sb. 38. und, for, in return for, w. dat.; in other senses, and more frequently, w. acc. 39. andstandan; {119}inf., as in verse 34.—allis; adverbial gen., from the adj. alls, at all, without equivalent in the Grk. text. Wulfila probably inserted it according to verse 34, where the Grk. text shows ὅλως.—amma unsljin; weak adj. n. uzed as sb.; see ubilin in 37, abuv.—ƕas; here indef., as in 23, abuv.—stautai; opt., as in 29, abuv; likewise the imper. wandei in the apodosis.—jah, also. 40. jah, and.—amma wiljandin; a participial construction, as in Grk. (τῷ θέλοντι).—niman; complimentary inf. after wiljandin (as in 42, below; S., 109). 41. ananaujai ... gaggais; the prs. opt. in protasis and apodosis (S., 102, a).—rasta aina; acc. expressing extent of space (S., 15, (2), β); rasta (for μίλιον, the Roman mile), lit. 'rest', place of resting, a stage or station, also the distance between two stages. 42. amma wiljandin; dat. as abl. after uswandjais (S., 54, (1), where us should be inserted after af).—leiƕan (complementary inf.; S., 109) sis, to borrow; leiƕan, to lend. 43. frijs ... fiais fiand ... frij fijands; these words and several others ar found both with and without j (Gr., 10, n. 4); fiand (fijand), acc. of fiands (fijands), enemy, lit. hating, prsp. of fi(j)an, to hate (Gr., 115). 44. iujai ans wrikandans; bless ye (= treat wel; for the dat. after iujan, s. S., 45, page 246, below).—bi, concerning, for.—usriutandans; acc. of the prs. ptc. (Gr., 133) of usriutan, the us- being intensiv; -riutan = '-trude' in 'obtrude'. 45. ei warai sunjus; ei, that, in order that; warai, prs. opt. in a final clause (S., 96, a).—in himinam; adv. frase uzed substantivly after the art. (is).—urrannei; ur- from us; Gr., 24, n. 2; 78, n. 4.—rignei; from rignjan, factitiv of rign, n., rain. 46. ƕ mizdn; the interr. ƕ agrees with the following gen. in gender. -[** typo for dash]niu (i. e. ni-u); interr. particl.—ai iud, the (= those) of the Gentiles, = the Gentiles; iud is gen. pl. of iuda, peple. 47. ans frijnds izwarans, the frends (of) yours, = your frends; frijnds is sb. in form (Gr., 115) and meaning, while ans frijndans stil has its verbal force; izwarans is a poss. prn. acc. pl. agreeing with frijnds, but izwis is a personal prn. acc. pl. guvernd by frijndans.—ƕ; instr. case of ƕa, n. of ƕas (Gr., 159; S., 51).—managiz; compar. after ƕ (S., 51). 48. jus; for the personal prn. with a vb., see verse 22, abuv.—swasw atta izwar sa in himinam is the subject, not sa, sa in himinam being an attribute of atta izwar, and may be renderd by a rel. clause in English.

Chap. VI. 1. taujan; complimentary inf. after atsaƕi (2nd pers. pl. imper.).—du saƕan im prop. a gerundiv construction, to be seen by them, lit. 'for them to see'. The activ inf. in Gothic often has a passiv force (S., 106, n. 3, end).—aiau, or else, otherwise. 2. an, when.—taujais; opt. in a temporal clause (S., 100).—harnjais; hort. opt. (S., 91, (2)).—ai liutans; the art. denotes a class of peple (S., 68, (6), n.).—huhjaindau; prs. opt. pass. in a final clause (S., 96, a, α).—fram, by.—qia; without ik; see V, 22, abuv.—andanmun[** typo andnmun (Disclaimer: I don't know any Gothic)]; pret. expressing completion (= our prs. perf.): they hav receivd (Cp. 5, below). 3. uk taujandan armain ni witi hleidumei eina, ƕa tauji tahsw eina; a puzling construction, indeed! (Cp. O. Luecke, 'Absolute Participia im Gotischen, etc.'; and E. Bernhardt, 'Gotische Grammatik', p. 116). Sum Latin manuscripts hav 'te facientem'. But uk taujandan probably depends on witi: Let {120}not thy left hand know thee doing alms, what thy right hand doeth (= when thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth.) 4. sijai; prs. opt. in a final clause (S., 96, a).—saƕi; ind. in a rel. clause expressing a fact (S., 99).—usgibi; prs. ind. for the Grk. fut. (S., 86, (3)). 5. ei gaumjaindau mannam; dat. after gaumjan in the pass. ('to be seen by' = 'to appear' or 'show one's self to').—atei haband, etc.; cp. andnmun, etc., in 2, abuv. 6. hardai einai; instr. dativ after galkands (S., 52, (4), note). 7. bidjandansu; s before the enclitic -uh (-u; Gr., 62, n. 3) generally becums z (Gr., 78, c).—ai iud; gen. after the art. in the nom.; see V, 46.—im; dat. (of the pers. prn. is) after the impers. ugkei (S., 42, n.).—andhausjaindau; prs. opt. pass. expressing probability (S., 91, (3)). 8. aim (dem. prn. S., 63); instr. dat. after galeik (S., 51 and 52).—izei jus arbu, of what you ar in need; izei is gen. of attraction (= ata izei; S., 70, n. 1; 72); for the inflection of arbu, s. Gr., 196.—bidjai; opt. in a temporal clause. 9. bidjai; hort. opt. (S., 91, (2)).—atta unsar u; voc. accumpanied by u (for the Greek art. S., 14, ns. 1 and 2).—(9 ... 13) weihnai ... qimai ... warai ... briggais; opts. expressing a wish, while the imperativs gif ... aflt ... lausei imply what the speaker desires to be done now (S., 91, n. 1). 11. hlaif unsarana ana sinteinan, our bred, the daily = our daily bred; sinteins, continual (= daily) is undoutedly ment to express the 'cotidianum' of the Itala, for the Grk. τὸν ἐπιούσιον means the following [ἡ ἐπιοῦσα (whense ἐπιούσιος), sc. ἡμέρα, the following day].—himma daga; loc. dat. (S., 53, (2)): today. (For the dem. himma, s. Gr., 155). 12. uns; dat. of the indir. object, as in 14, below.—atei; acc. after skulans sijaima (S., 15, n. 5). 13. in fraistubnjai; dat. after in, where we should expect the acc., as in V, 20.—eina ist; the predicate is in the sg., altho it belongs to three coordinate subjects (S., 5, n. 1), the gender of eina being that of the first subject (S., 9, n. 3).—in aiwins (acc. pl. of the i-declension; see Gr., 91, n. 5), for ages, for ever. 14. aflti (2nd pers. pl. prs. ind.) ... aflti (3d pers. sing. prs. ind., for the Grk. future); the ind. in both clauses regarded as statements implying facts (S., 102).—iz, of them = their (S., 60). 15. au; adv.; see V, 20.—missaddins; acc. pl. of -ds (-dds; s. Gr., 74, n. 2). 18. mannam; dat., as in 5, abuv.—usgibi us; cp. verse 6, end. 19. frawardei; sg., altho belonging to two subjects connected by jah (S., 5, n. 1). 21. ist; for the Grk. future.—jah, also. 22. lukarn leikis ist aug; the subject is aug; in the Grk. text the art. occurs with each noun.—wari; for ἔσται. 23. ƕan filu; supply ist from the protasis. 24. twaim fraujam; dat. of the relation of one person towards another (S., 37 and 45); so after the following vbs., ufhausei and frakunnan (S., 41).—jabai; as if for ἐι, but the Grk. text has η; hense the follg. jah means also. 25. du; for du-h- (see 'Vocabulary').—saiwalai ... leika; dats. of the thing towards which the action of the vb., marnai, is directed (S., 40): for your life.—matjai ... drigkai ... wasjai; opt. in indir. questions (S., 95).—ƕ; instr. case (Gr., 153 and 159; S., 52, (2)).—fdeinai ... wastjm; abl. dats. after mais (S., 54, (3)). 26. ei ni saiand, etc.; an object clause depending on insaƕi; ei is conj. (Gr., 218).—mais wulrizans; a pleonastic use {121}of the compar. degree (S., 57. n.).—aim; abl. dat., as fdeinai in 25. 29. qiuh; for qia-uh (Gr., 4, n. 1).—[** "—" should be " 30. "]himma daga; s. verse 11.—gistradagis, to-morrow; the corresponding word of the cognate dialects means yesterday. See 'Vocabulary'.—wisand; prs. ptc. n. (weak infl.; Gr., 133) ... galagi; pp. n. (strong infl.; Gr., 134).—gu; subject. 31. matjam ... drigkam; ind.: what shal we eat ... drink [now] ... wasjaima [sc. uns]; opt. (for the Grk. fut.): wherewith shal [= may (S., 91, (3))] we clothe ourselvs [hereafter]? 32. waituh; for wait-uh.


Chap. I. 1. awaggljns ... gus; contrary to the Greek text, the art. is omitted before these gens. (S., 68, n. 2). 2. gamli ist; for the Grk. perf.—sain praftau; in the Greek text the art. is uzed before both dats. (S., 68, n. 2); for the different forms of praftus, s. 'Vocabulary'.—sai (Gr., 204, n. 2).—ik; the pers. prn. might here be omitted, as it does not seem to be emfasized (S., 59). Probably for this reason sum MSS. do not hav it.—saei; rel. prn. (Gr., 157).—gamanwei; the prs. for the Grk. future (S., 86, (3)).—einana; after its sbs., because it is not emfatic (S., 10, n. 2). 3. wpjandins; gen. sg. of wpjanda, weak prs. ptc. (Gr., 133).—manwei; there is no perceptibl difference between this v. and the compound gamanwei in the second verse. 4. du aflageinai; du denotes purpose.—frawarht; objectiv gen. (S., 20; and 19) with the verbal noun aflageinai. 5. daupidai wsun; imperf. made up of the pp. and the prt. of wisan (S., 87, n. a).—Iardan (Grk. dat.); attribute of aƕai.—fram (w. dat.), by.—andhaitandans; w. the dat. of the dir. object (S., 45). 6. wasu-an; for was-uh-an (Gr., 62, n. 3).—taglam; instr. dat. after gawasis (S., 52, (2), b).—garda filleina; subj. of was understood.—haiiwisk, wild, lit. 'pertaining to the heath'. 7. mis; abl. dat. after swinza (S., 54, (3)).—sa afar mis; sa seems to hav been added erroneously, or afar should be ufar (?).—ik; emfatic, as opposed to swinza, or sa.—andbindan; the prefix and- expresses the contrary of an action (Cp. E. un- in 'unbind').—is, his (Gr., 152; S., 60 et seq.).—ik ... is; uzed for the sake of emfasis (S., 2). 9. war ... qam; an asyndetic construction.—Nazara; indecl. pr. n.—Galeilaias; notice the adj. force of this adnominal gen. (S., 20).—fram; by, as in 5, abuv;—Ihann and Iardan ar Grk. dativs. 10. uslukanans; the emendation is wel grounded; see Bernhardt's large edition. 11. uzei (= us-ei; Gr., 78); rel. prn. (Gr., 158; S., 73). 12. sai, ahma, not sa ahma, because ahma, 'Holy Ghost', occurs always without the art. (Bernhardt, note to this passage). 13. dag; partit. gen. with tiguns (Gr., 142; S., 21).—diuzam; dat. pl. of dius (Gr., 78, b; 94).—imma; dat. with andbahtiddun (S., 38). 14. Galeilaia; (Grk.) dat. after qam in; see V, 20. 15. usfullnda ... atnƕida; for the Grk. perfect (S., 87, (2)).—galaubei in; with the dat. (for other constructions after galaubjan, see S., 41 and note). 16. far, along, lit. before.—Galeilaias; (Grk.) gen. as in verse 9.—is, his, i. e. Simon's (S., 62). 17. hirjats; dual of hiri (Gr., 20, n. 1).—igqis; dir. obj.—nutans; predicate acc. (S., 18).—[** should be " 18. "]seina; poss. prn. referring to the subj. of the {122}sentence; cp. verse 16. 19. inn gaggands[** elsewhere without space], going on.—ana Zabadaiaus, [that of Zebedee, = the 'Zebedeean' =] the son of Zebedee. Observ the adj. force of the gen. (S., 19 and 21).—is; see verses 16 and 18, abuv.—manwjandans; weak inflection of the prs. ptc. uzed as sb., and with an obj., natja (Gr., 133. Cp. also Gr., 115; and Mt. V, 47). 20. seinana; this poss. prn. refers to the subj.; cp. the poss. is in v. 19; also v. 16. 21. sabbat; indecl. sb. for the gen. pl.—synaggn; acc. 22. usfilmans,[** typo for ;] this is one of the adjs. that follow the weak infl. only (Gr., 132, n. 2). 23. synaggn; dat.—in (the second); denotes a condition: in, with. 24. ƕa uns jah us, what hav we to do with thee, lit. what [is there] to us and to thee (S., 35, n. 1).—Nazrnai; a Grk. ending, or -ai is an error for -au.—uns; is dat. or acc. with fraqistjan (S., 46).—weiha; weak adj. uzed as sb.—gus; gen. (Gr., 94, n. 3). 25. t us amma, out of him (lit. this, for the Grk. ἀυτός. S., 63).—unhrainja; the weak infl. of adjs. in the voc. case is quite common in Gothic. 26. stibnai mikilai; instr. dat. (S., 52, (2)). 27. mi sis miss, with one another (S., 59, n.).—sijai; prs. opt. in a dir. question implying possibility (S., 91, (3)).—ƕ, of what kind; the copula is omitted, as in Grk.—laisein; gen. pl.; s. Mt. V, 46; also Gr[** .], 159.—ahmam aim unhrainjam; dat. with anabiudi (S., 37).—imma; dat. after ufhausjand (S., 38; and 45). 28. is, his.—bisitands, neighbor (lit. sitting, i. e. dwelling, near; for this kind of,[** , redundant?] nouns, see Gr., 115). 28.[** typo 29.] in garda; in with dat. after qiman; see Mt. V, 20.—Ihannn; with a Grk. ending. There is no fixt rule for the declension of proper names in Gothic (Gr., 120). 30. in brinnn; in fever, lit. 'in burning'. 31. im; dat. pl. of is, guvernd by andbahtida (S., 38); refers to Jesus and those with him. 32. andanahtja waranamma; dat. abs. (S., 119).—an; for δὲ, the second an for ὅτε.—sauil; this word occurs only twice in Gothic, and without the art. (S. 262), the uzual word for 'sun' being sunn. 34. missaleikaim sahtim; instr. dat. (or 'with-case'. S., 50) of cause: ubil habandans m.[** space?]s., (having evil =) being sick with divers diseases. 36. jah galaistans warun imma; imma is instr. dat. of accumpaniment or association, depending on the predicate noun galaistans (S., 52, (1), a). 37. atei, conj., that, before a dir. quotation. 38. bisunjan; attributiv adv. preceded by the art. (S., 68, (2)). 40. rutsfill habands, (a person) having leprosy[** typo? italics should end here], for λεπρός, a leper.—kniwam knussjands; an alliterativ expression, kniwam being a superfluous instr. dat. (S., 52, (2)). 41. imma; dat. guvernd by attatk (S., 40).—wiljau; the opt. of this vb. discharges the function of the ind. (Gr., 205).—war, be thou (for the distinction between the imper. and the hort. opt., see S., 91, n. 1). 42. ata ... ata; the former is the dem. prn., the latter the art. 43. imma; dir. obj. in the dat., guvernd by gaƕtjands (S., 40; cp. verse 41, abuv). 44. qiais; opt. in a final clause (S., 96, a).—mannhun; indef. prn. in the dat. (Gr., 163, a).—ataugjan; inf. of purpose (without du, to) after gagg (S., 114).—fram (περί), concerning, for.—atei; rel. prn., for ata-ei (Gr., 4, n. 1; 157), that which, = giba ei in Mt. VIII, 4. 45. swasw, so that.—is, he (= Iesus), while the first is refers to the heald man.

Chap. II. 1. atei; conj., that (Gr., 157, n. 2).—ist (for ἐστίν); we {123}should rather expect the prt. 2. swasw juan ni gamstdun (prt. of gamtan; Gr., 202) nih at dara, so that they found no room any more, not[** should be italic too?] even at the door.—im; dat. of the indir. obj. (S., 37).—ward; in Gr.: τὸν λόγον. 3. hafanana (acc. sg. of hafans; Gr., 134), pp. of hafjan (Gr., 177, n. 2). 4. imma; dat. guvernd by nƕa (qiman; cp. nƕjan sik, S., 39).—fara (w. dat.), because of.—usgrabands[** typo usgrabandans]; for ἐξορύξαντες, digging out; hense breaking up (sc. hrt).—insailiddun ata badi jah fralaltun (for χαλῶσιν τόν κράβαττον), lit.: they tied the bed to cords and let (it) down. 5. us; dat. after afltanda (S., 37). 6. agkjandans sis, reasoning with themselvs, the refl. dat., sis, does duty for the Grk. midl (S., 47, n. 1). 7. ƕa (acc. sg. of the interr. prn., = τί, quare), why?sa; dem. prn. (S., 63).—ains, alone. 8. ahmin seinamma; loc. dat. (S., 53, (1), c).—sis; refl. dat., as in verse 6, abuv.—duƕ, = du-ƕ, ƕ being an instr. case proper (Gr., 159, n. 1; S., 51). 9. du qian ... qian; two subj. infs., the former with, the latter without du (S., 107, a and b). 10. mans; gen. sg. (Gr., 117, (1)). 11. nimuh, and take. 12. jah huhiddun mikiljandans gu, and glorifying praised God, for δοξάζειν τὸν θεόν. Similarly in chap. I, v. 27: afslunddun sildaleikjandans, for ἐθαμβήθησαν.—aiw ... ni, ever not, = never. aiw is, properly, the acc. sg. of aiws, time, and answers in form and meaning our 'aye'.—gasƕum; notice change of person. 13. iddjdun; pl. vb., agreeing with the subj., all, in sense (S., 5 and 82, c). 14. ana Alfius[** typo Alfaius (or Alfaiaus)]; cp. 1[** should be I], 19. III, 18. 15. war ... jah managai, etc. (for a different construction with war, s. Mk. II, 23. S., 108, n.; 113), it came to pass [that] ... also many, etc.—Isua sipnjam; instr. dat. of accumpaniment (S., 52, 1, c). 16. ƕa, how, as in 7. 17. lkeis; gen. (as abl.) with arbun (S., 27).—ubilaba (adv.) habandans; for κακῶς ἔχοντες, being sick; cp. Mk. V, 26. 18. Jhannis ... Jo[** typo ]hanns[** elsewhere I-]; these genitivs in the same verse ar a striking exampl of arbitrary inflection of proper names in Gothic (Gr., 120). 19. ibai; an interr. particl, perhaps, or its sense is exprest by our may, a negativ answer being expected. 20. atgaggand ... fastand; for the Grk. future (S., 86, (3)).—an ... an, when, then. 21. ibai afnimai fulln af amma sa niuja amma farnjin (ἐι δὲ μή, αἴρει τό πλήρωμα ἀπ' ἀυτοῦ τὸ καινὸν τοῦ παλαιοῦ). Wulfila took πλήρωμα to be the obj. of ἄιρει. The subj. of the Goth. construction is either the preceding plat fanins niujis; with sa niuja as apposition, or sa niuja (sc. plat). In both cases amma farnjin is in apposition with af amma (dem. pron. S., 63). 23. jah war arhgaggan imma, and it came to pass that he went (Lit.: and it came to pass to him to go. S., 108, n.). Cp. 14, abuv.—sabbat (indecl., for gen. pl.; sabbat daga in Mk. XVI, I[** should be 1].) daga; loc. dat. of time (S., 53, (2)). 24. sabbatim; dat. as in verse 23. 25. niuh[** niu elsewhere] (= ni-uh) aiw, never. 26. uf, under, i. e. in the time of.—anzei (i. e. ans-ei; Gr., 157, n. 4).—matjan; subj. inf. (S., 108).—ainaim gudjam, for the priests alone (S., 108, n.).—sis; refers to the subj. (S., 60). 27. in (for διά with the acc.) mans (gen.; Gr., 117), for man; in sabbat dagis, for sabbath day.—war gaskapans; for the Gr. aor. (S., 87, (4), c). 28. frauja; predicate noun.—jah, also.—amma sabbat; dat. depending on frauja (S., 35, (2)).


Chap. III. 1. synaggn; Grk. acc., as in Mk. I, 21. 2. imma; dat. guvernd by witaiddun (S., 40).—hailiddiu; the suffix -u introduces the indir. question: whether he would heal, the prt. opt. being uzed after the prt. in the leading clause (S., 95, b).—prt. wrhiddeina; opt. in a final clause (S., 96, b, β). 3. in midumai (for ἐις τὸ μέσον); dat. with in after a vb. of motion within limited space.[** . redundant] (S., 55). 4. skuldu; the suffix -u introduces the question (cp. verse 2, abuv).—sabbatim; for its decl., s. Gr., 120, n. 1. 5. gast (figurativ), was restored, lit. stood. 6. imma; instr. dat. (S., 52, p. 250) of the dir. obj., guvernd by usqmeina, prt. opt. of purpose (S., 96, b). 7. manageins; partitiv gen. with filu (S., 21).—laistiddun; its subj., filu manageins, is pl. in sense (S., 5). 9. ei skip habai (n. sg. of the prt. ptc. in the predicate) wsi (prt. opt. of purpose. S., 96, b), that a ship be redy (lit. had or held).—in, because of.—raheina; prt. opt. of purpose, like wsi. 10. drusun, they prest upon, lit. fel upon.—imma; dir. obj. (S., 40) guvernd by attatkeina (prt. opt. of tkan). 11. aih (i. e. ai-h, for ai-uh; Gr., 154) an, when they. atei, conj., that, before a direct quotation, as in Mk. I, 37. 13. ustaig; for usstaig (Gr. 78, n. 5), prt. of us-steigan.—anzei; see II, 26. 14. sis; refers to the subj. of gawarhta (S., 60). 16. Patrus; predicate nom.; we should rather hav expected the acc. (S., 13, n. 2). 17. amma Z.; s. I, 19. 18. Seimna; (Grk.) acc., while the same form in 16 is a regular Goth. dat. 20. gaddja sik; for συνέρχεται (S., 16, n.). 22. aim unhulm; instr. dat. guvernd by uswarpi (S., 52, (4), and p. 253, n. 2). 23. Satanan; acc. after uswarpan (cp. v. 22). 27. mag kasa swinis galeiands in gard is wilwan, (can rob a strong one's goods, entering into his house =) can enter into a strong man's house and rob his goods. 28. allata ata frawarht, all that of sins; frawarht is partitiv gen. after ata (S., 21; and 68, (3)). 29. aiweinaizs frawarhtais, gen. depending on skula (S., 22, p. 235, where dauus is an error for dauaus). 31. standandna ... haitandna, the n. (pl.) is uzed in the predicate (cp. the following verse), because the persons in the subj. ar of different gender (S., 9, n. 3). 32. stun; refers to managei, which is pl. in meaning (S., 5).—eina ... einai ... eins; the attribute (cp. the preceding verse) occurs with each of the sbs. of different gender (S., 10, n. 1). 34[** should be 35]. allis; here conj.: for.—warkei, for the Grk. future (S., 86, (3)).—sa; dem. prn.—meins; agrees with the nearest sb., and (meina) is understood with the others, swistar, aiei.—The first jah was added by Wulfila.

Chap. IV. 1. The gen. manageins depends on filu (S., 21), the predicate, galsun, being in the pl. because of the pl. meaning of the subj. (S., 5).—swasw; with the acc. (ina galeiandan, ptc. agreeing with ina) and inf. (gasitan), for ὥστε w. the acc. and inf. (S., 115).—was; here managei takes a sg. v. (S., 5). 2. manag; acc. sg. n. uzed as sb. 3. saiands; prsp. uzed substantivly. For its declension, s. Gr., 133.—du saian; inf. of purpose after urrann, a vb. of motion (S., 114).—fraiwa seinamma; instr. dat. guvernd by saian (S., 52, 4[** parenthesised in most such refs.]).—[** dash should be " 4. "]ata; for ἀυτό. 5. anaru-an, i. e. an [** thin space—typo, should be no space?]ar-uh-an (Gr., 62, n. 3).—steinahamma[** typo stainahamma]; uzed substantivly: stony ground.—in izei, because (s. 'Vocabulary', in, (1)). {125}*—diupaizs ars[**i/?]; gen. guvernd by habaida (S., 25). 6. at sunnin an urrinnandin; dat. abs. introduced by at (S., 119); an for δέ.—wartins; for the sg. in Grk. 8. For the numeral signs in this verse, see Gr., 1. 9. hausjandna; for the inf. in Grk., for which we find du hausjan (S., 114) in Lu. VIII, 8.—gahausjai; hort. opt. (S., 91, (2)). 10. war, was, lit. became (ἐγένετο).—ina ... izs gajukns; acc. of the pers. addrest and the gen. of the th. askt about (S., 26), for a dubl acc. in Grk. 11. atgiban (pp.) ist; for δέδοται.—jainaim aim (art. S., 68, (2).[** . redundant?]) ta, to them (the =) that ar without. 12. nibai ƕan (for μήποτε; we should expect ibai ƕan; cp. Mt. V, 25) gawandjaina sik, lest at any time they should be converted (lit.: should convert themselvs).—afltaindau (prs. opt. pass.) im frawarhteis, their sins should be forgivn (lit.: sins should be forgivn to them. S., 37). 13. ; dem. prn. [** space?]... s; art.—kunnei; for the Grk. fut. 14. saijands ... saiji; without the j in verses 3 and 15 (Gr., 22 and n. 1). 15. aan ai wira wig sind; the Greek text is: οὗτοι δέ ἐισιν ὁι παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν, but Lu. VIII, 12: ὁι δὲ παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν ἐισιν.—an, when.—unkarjans; added by Wulfila from a Lt. MS., for 'negligenter'. 16. jah; sc. ai, dem. prn. 18. ai, dem. prn. ... ai, art. ... ai, art. 19. ai bi ata anar lustjus, the lusts of (lit.: concerning) other things (lit.: that other, for τὰ λοιπά). 21. ibai; here it introduces a dir. question, a negativ answer being expected.—qimi, is brought (lit. does cum).—du ei, to that that, i. e. for the purpose that.—satjaidau; opt. in a final clause (S., 96, a).—niu (= ni-u = ni-uh), and not? i. e. and (is it) not (brought)? 22. nih (= ni-uh), for not.—allis, at all.—ist ƕa fulginis, is (there) anything hidn (lit.: of anything hidn, the gen. fulginis depending on the indef. prn., ƕa; Gr., 162, n. 2; and S., 21).—gabarhtjaidau; opt. in a consecutiv rel. clause (S., 99, a).—nih, and not, neither. 23. hausjandna; prsp. for the inf. in Grk., as in IV, 9.—hausjai[** gahausjai, correctly (http://app.ub.uu.se/arv/codex/faksimiledition/jpg_files/297mc4u.html), on 116.png; glossary refs. also in error]; hort. opt. (S., 91, (2)). 24. in izaiei mita; the noun (mita; dat., Gr., 116) is attracted into the rel. clause, and agrees with the rel. prn. (izaiei; Gr., 157, and S., 72, n.).—izwis aim galaubjandam (Gr., 133); . g. is in apposition (S., 11) with the dat. izwis (Gr., 150). 25. gibada; for the Grk. fut. (S., 86, (3)).—imma; abl. dat. guvernd by afnimada (S., 54, (1)). 26. fraiwa; instr. dat. guvernd by wari[**i/?][** typo warpi] (S., 52, (4)). 27. slpi ... urreisi; the ind. for the Grk. subj. (S., 90; and 100, n.).—naht (Gr., 116) jah daga; loc. dat. (S., 53, (2)): night and day.—is; i. e. manna. 28. silb; weak form (Gr., 156), agreeing with ara; it stands for ἀυτομάτη, spontaneous, of herself. 29. insandei; its subj. is is, i. e. manna.—atist; the prs. for the Grk. perf. (ἕστηκα; S., 86, (4)). 30. ƕ; instr. of ƕa (Gr., 159; S., 51), guvernd by galeikm (S., 52, (1))[**one parenth too many?], c).—gabaram, shal we compare, lit. bear or bring together; here ga- has an associativ force. 31. atei; subj. of ist.—an, when. 33. swaleikaim managaim gajukm; instr. dat. of manner (S., 52, (6); in Mk. III, 23 we hav in gajukm).—im; dat. pl. guvernd by du, while in the following verse im is guvernd by rdida. 35. andanahtja an (then) waranamma; dat. abs. introduced by at (S., 120).—jainis stadis (S., 30), 'yun' shore, = that shore (towards which the speaker pointed), i. e. to the other side [of the lake]. 36. jah an; emfatic: and also, besides.[** typo ,] moreover. {126}37. war, arose.—waltiddun; orig. trans., but here intr. (S., 16, 3). 38. niu (= ni-u, the enclitic -u introducing the question) kara uk izei?, is there not care to thee of that (is) that (ei; Gr., 157), i. e. does it not concern thee that? kara (or kara ist) takes the acc. of the person and the gen. of the obj. (S., [** "15, (1)," missing] n. 4). 39. winda; the dat. is guvernd by gask (S., 45).—afdumbn; imper. sing. (Gr., 195, n. 1). 41. sis; refl. dat. for the Grk. midl (S., 47, [** "n. " missing]1).—agis mikil; cognate acc. (with a vb. of kindred signification, htdun; S., 15, (2), b).—du sis miss, to one another (S., 60, n.).—sa (dem. prn.) sijai; opt. in a dir. question (S., 91, (3), p. 276): may he be.—imma; dat. guvernd by ufhausjand, listen with submission, obey (S., 38).

Chap. V. 1. landa; dat. guvernd by qiman in (S., 55, n.). 2. usgaggandin imma; dat. abs. (S., 119).—imma; dat. guvernd by gamtida (S., 39). 3. naudibandjm eisarneinaim; instr. dat. (S., 52, (2)), as in the following verse. 4. eisarnam bi ftuns gabuganaim; the hole frase translates the Greek πέδαις, its literal meaning being: with bent irons for (bi, about, for, = περί) the feet.—naudibandjm eisarneinaim (for ἁλύσεσιν), with chains, but literally: with iron 'need-bands', i. e. fetters.—naudibandjs; for ἁλύσεις.— ana ftum eisarna (for τὰς πέδας), the irons on the feet. 5. nahtam jah dagam; adv. frase (S., 53, (2)): night and day (The Greek has the gen. Cp. S., 30).—stainam; instr. dat. (S., 52, (2)). 7. stibnai mikilai; instr. dat. of manner (S., 52, (6)).—ƕa mis jah us (the copula ist being understood); dativs denoting relationship (S., 35, n. 1): what is there to me and to thee?, i. e. what hav I to do with thee?sunau; this is the voc. (Gr., 105, n. 2), in apposition with Isu.—balwjais; hort. opt. (S., 91, (2)).—mis; dat. guvernd by balwjais (S., 44). 8. mann; dat. sg. (Gr., 117, (1)). 10. im; instr. dat. pl. (Gr., 152), referring to the subj. of sijum, and guvernd by usdrbi, for usdribi (Gr., 10, (2), n. 5), (S., 52, (4)). 12. qiandeins; nom. pl. of the prsp. (Gr., 133). 14. barg; dat. (Gr., 116).—haimm; dat. (Gr., 103, n. 4).—qmun; its subj. is they, i. e. the peple.—saƕan; inf. of purpose (without du, to; S., 114).—wsi, might be; prt. opt. in an indir. question.—ata (art.) waran (pp. uzed as sb.), 'the being done', i. e. that which was done. 15. atiddjdun (the prt.) ... gasaƕand (the prs.); both for the Grk. historical prs. (S., 86, (2)).—ana saei habaida lagan; for τὸν ἐσχηκότα λεγεωνα; ana is dem. prn. 17. seins, their; refers to the subj. of dugunnun (S., 62; and 60; cp. Mk. III, 14). 18. inngaggandan ina in skip (for ἐμβαίνοντος ἀυτοῦ ἐις τὸ πλοῖον), him going into the ship; ba ina saei was wds, him prayd he that had been (lit. was) possest. 21. usleiandin Isua; dat. abs. (S., 119).—hindar marein; depends on usleiandin.—gaqmun sik; for the Grk. midl (S., 16, n. 1).—manageins; gen. with filu, the predicate being here in the pl. (S., 5). 22. qimi ... gadraus; change of tense, as in V, 15.—namin; dat. of specification (S., 15, (2), n. 2, α). 23. atei; conj. (Gr., 157, n. 2) before a dir. quotation.—aftumist habai, 'has the last', i. e. lies (or is) at the point of deth.—ei; conj., that, which here introduces an exhortation.—qimands lagjais, cuming thou mayst lay, i. e. cum and lay.—ganisai ... libai; opts. of purpose (S., 96, a). 25. suma; indef. prn. uzed substantivly, and with a part. gen. (Gr., 162; {127}S., 78, (1)). 26. allamma seinamma (uzed as sb. S., 82, (2), c); instr. dat. guvernd by fraqimandei (S., 52, (1), c), lit.: 'cuming away with all hers', i. e. having spent (lit. spending. S., 117) all that she had.—ni wahtai (instr. dat. denoting mezure of difference. S., 52, (7)), not in anything, in nothing; btida (fem. of the pp. Gr., 134), betterd.—mais wars; mais is pleonastic, as in Mt. VI, 26.—habaida (3d pers. sg. prt. ind., not pp.); cp. Mk. II, 17. 27. wastjai; dat. guvernd by attatk (prt. of attkan. Gr., 181), (S., 40). 28. atei; conj., as in 23. 29. izs (Gr., 151, n. 2). 30. mis; so-calld poss. dat. (for the gen. in Grk. S., 48).—wastjm; dat. as in 27. 32. ata taujandein, her that had done this (lit.: the this doing), the prsp. having a prt. meaning, as in 26. 34. ganasida; for the Grk. perf. (S., 87, (2)).—sijais; the opt. for the Grk. imper., the imper. of wisan being wanting (Gr., 204, n. 2). 35. imma rdjandin; dat. abs. (S., 119).—qmun; the prt. for the historical prs. in Grk. (S., 87, 3).—atei; introduces a dir. quotation; cp. verse 23.—ƕa; why? It is uzed like τί (S., 74, n. 2), as in verse 39. 36. rdi; pp. of rdjan, agreeing with ward. 40. allaim; instr. dat. guvernd by uswarpands (S., 52, 4; and n. 2, p. 253). 41. qauh (= qa-uh), and said. The first part of the compound sentence stands for a participial frase in Greek.—izai; refers to the natural gender of barn; cp. Lu. II, 27. 28. 42. jr twalib; gen. of quality (S., 24), of twelv years, i. e. twelv years old.—fahrtein mikilai; instr. dat. of manner (S., 52, (6)) which is here (and in Lu. II, 9) uzed with a vb. of kindred signification; hense it resembls the cognate acc. (S., 15, (2), n. 2). 43. ei manna ni funi (prt. opt. in a final clause, after a prt., anabau, in the leading clause. S., 96, b), that a man should not find out, i. e. that no man should find out.—izai ... matjan; the former is the indir., the latter the dir. obj. of giban (for the pass. inf. in Grk. S., 84, n. 3), this being the obj. of hahait (S., 110).


Chap. II. 1. war ... urrann; assyndetic[**typo? asyndetic ] constructions with war ar quite common in Gothic.—in dagans jainans; for the acc. we should rather hav expected the dat. of the Grk. text. 2. at raginndin Kyreinaiau; abl. abs. introduced by at (S., 120).—Sarim; dat. (pl.) guvernd by raginndin (S., 38; 52, 3, n.). 3. ei mlidai (pp. Gr., 134) wseina; a final clause for the inf. in Grk.—ƕarjizuh in seinai barg (dat. Gr., 116); belongs to mlidai: every one (of all that went) in his own city. 4. Galeilaia ... Nazara (indecl.); both stand for the dat. (Gr., 120 and notes).—sei; for si-ei (Gr., 157, n. 3). 5. anamljan (for the inf. pass. in Grk.) to enrol (himself).—sei was imma qeins (for qns.[**grammatically should be a comma F1] Gr., 7, n. 2), who was to him a wife, i. e. who was his wife (S., 35, (1)); the rel. clause stands for the Grk. art. with a ptc.—wisandein inkiln (w. adj. uzed as sb. in the predicate); in apposition with Mariin. 6. war ... usfullnddun; see verse 1.—; nom. pl. n. of sa, referring to two persons of different gender (Joseph and Mary. S., 8).—du baran (for τοῦ τεκεῖν. Cp. the Latin: tempus est abire, for the gen. of the gerund).—izai; dat. of advantage after usfullnddun (S. 47). 7. uztin; dat. {128}after galagida in; see Mt. V, 20.—im; dat. of possession after was (S., 35).—rmis; gen. as subj.: of room, i. e. room (S., 25, n. 2). 8. wahtwm; dir. obj. after witandans (S., 40).—nahts (Gr., 116), adv. gen. (S., 30), by night. 9. agisa mikilamma; see Mk. V, 42. 10. wari; for ἔσται.—allai managein; poss. dat., as in verse 7. 11. himma daga; adv. frase (S., 53, (2)), this day. 12. ata; subj. prns. are not subject to agreement with pred. sbs. (S., 7).—bigitid (d for is very common in this gospel. Gr., 74, 1); for the Grk. fut. (S., 86, (3)).—biwundan ... galagid (d for , as abuv); acc. sg. n. of the pp. (Gr., 134). 13. war, was, lit. became, appeard: it is the pred. (in the sing.) of the collectiv noun managei (S., 5. Cp. Mk. V, 32).—harjis h.; gen. after managei.—hazjandan ... qiandan (Gr., 133); attributiv ptcs. agreeing w. harjis in gender and number (in sense. S., 5 and 9, n. 1). 14. in huhistjam, in the highest, for ἐν ὑψίστοις.—gua (sc. sijai); dat. of possession (S., 35). 15. himin; dat. guvernd by galiun in; see Mk. V, 20.—ai hardjs; in apposition (S., 11) with mans (Gr., 117).—arhgaggaima ... saƕaima; 1st pers. pl. of the hort. opt., for the more common 1st pers. pl. imper. (S., 91, n. 1). 18. im; refers to allai (S., 61). 19. agkjandei; prsp. fem. (in -ei. Gr., 133): pondering (sc. them). 20. in allaiz izei, because of all that which, the rel. prn. (Gr., 157) being assimilated to the case of its antecedent (S., 71). [** text from here to "verse 6." misplaced]du bimaitan ina; cp. verse 6. 21. jah bi ... and when ...[** here should be "—du bimaitan ina; cp. verse 6.—"] jah; introduces the principal clause, and remains untranslated. We might rather expect an which is uzually found after temporal clauses introduced by bi.—nam is; subj. ... Isus; pred. nom. with haitan was (S., 13, b, β).—ata qian; refers to nam.—wsi; opt. in a temporal clause (S., 100); so always with farizei (S., 100, n.). 22. atsatjan; sc. ina. 23. ƕazuh (Gr., 164); uzed substantivly, and followd by the partitiv gen.—weihs; predicate adj. with haitada (cp. 21, abuv).—fraujins; guvernd by weihs (S., 22). 24. ei gbeina; prt. opt. in a final clause (S., 96, b), while the coordinate atsatjan (in verse 22) is an 'inf.' of purpose (S., 114).—fram imma, on his behalf (cp. Mk. 1[** should be I], 44; II Cor. V, 12).—juggns; adj. uzed as sb., followd by a partitiv gen. (S., 21). 25. aruh; for καὶ ἰδοῦ, and behold.—sa; dem. prn. lanais; obj. gen. after beidands (S., 26). 27. alh; dat. (Gr., 116) guvernd by qam in; see Mt. V, 20.—ina; refers to the natural gender of barn, as in verse 28, and elsewhere. 28. gua; dat. guvernd by iuida (S., 45). 29. fraleitais (ei for . Gr., 7, n. 2); opt. proper (S., 91, (1)). 32. iudm (for ἐθνῶν); dat. of advantage after andhuleinai, like managein (for λαοῦ) einai after wulu (S., 34).—Israla; in apposition with managein (S., 11). 33. sildaleikjandna; nom. pl. n., referring to two living beings of different gender (S., 9, n. 3). 34. ina; the Grk. text has ἀυτούς.—sa; dem. prn. 35. eina saiwala; the obj. of arhgaggi.—silbns (always weak. Gr., 156); intensiv (like the Lt. 'ipsius' preceded by a poss. prn. and followd by the sb.), its gender being that of the noun or prn. to which it refers (here Mariin). 36. sh (for s-uh); a compd. dem. (Gr., 154), for αὓτη.—dag managaiz; emfatic gen. w. framaldra (S., 22).—jra sibun; acc. of extent of time (S., 15, n. 2, β). 37. sh an, and this, and she (sc. was).—ahtuthund jah {129}fidwr; uninflected (Gr., 143) attribute to jr.—sh; here for .—fastubnjam ... bidm; instr. dat. of manner (S., 52, (6)).—bltand ( for ei, fem. ending of the prsp. Gr., 17, n. 1, and 133).—nahtam jah dagam; loc. dat. of time (S., 53, (2)), like izai ƕeilai in the next verse. 38. andhahait with the dat. (fraujin), to giv thanks to (S., 45).—in allaim (in being added by Wulfila), among all (without in, allaim would be the indir. obj. after rdida); allaim is attribute to the ptc. usbeidandam, which is uzed substantivly, but with a dir. obj. (S., 15, n. 2), lan, redemption. 40. ahmins ... handugeins; instr. genitivs guvernd by fullnands, becuming fild with spirit and wisdom (S., 27). 41. jra ƕammh (Gr., 164, a); loc. dat. of time (S., 53, (2)): every year.—at dul (acc. Gr., 116) paska (indecl. attribute), at the feast of the passover; at with the acc. always denotes time. 42. 43. usgaggandam an im ... jah ustiuhandam; dat. abs. (S., 119), when they then (an referring to the preceding clause) went up ... and when they had fulfild.—mian ( for ei, as in 37) gawandiddun sik aftra, as they returnd, lit.: as they turnd themselvs back.[**missing dash?] wissdun; here the pl. occurs in an abridged compound sentence (S. 1, n.), sumtimes the sing. (S., 5, n. 1). 44. hugjandna; n. pl., as in verse 33.—ina wisan; acc. and inf. guvernd by hugjandna (S., 112).—dagis (adnominal gen. S., 20) wig (acc. of extent of space. S., 15, n. 2, β), a day's way, a day's jurney.—kunam; weak dat. of kuns (uzed as sb. Gr., 132). 46. war; see verse 1.—in midjaim laisarjaim, in the midst of the teachers (cp. the Lt. 'in media urbe').—im; dat. guvernd by hausjandan, hearing, i. e. listening to (S,,[**typo .,] 45). 47. is, him, lit. of him; obj. gen. guvernd by hausjandans (S., 26).—ana frdein; depends on usgeisnddun. 48. magau; voc. for magu (Gr., 105, n. 2).—ƕa; acc. of specification (S., 15, 2, b, n. 2, α): why?uns; dat. of the indir. obj. (S., 37).—skiddum; here and in verse 49 we should rather hav expected the dual (S., 5, n. 4). The subj. being of different persons, the first person is preferd (S., 5, n. 2). 49. in aim attins meinis; so-calld elliptic expressions like this ar also common in Grk., a noun signifying 'things' or the like being understood with the art.: in, or about, the things of my father. As a matter of fact, however, attins meinis shows the orig. adj. force of the gen. which is here uzed substantivly (S., 19, and 68, (3)). 50. ija; nom. pl. n. (Gr., 152), referring to Joseph and Mary; see verse 6.—amma warda; loc. dat. guvernd by frun (S., 53, (1), p. 254; and cp. n. 2, p. 255), prt. of frajan (Gr., 177, n. 2). 51. im; dat. after ufhausjands (S., 38). 52. frdein ... wahstau ... anstai; loc. dats. of specification (S., 53, 1, c).


Chap. I. 1. akklsjn; dat., the guverning vb. being omitted.—izai wisandein; agrees with akklsjn. 2. Isu; for Isua which, together with Xristau, is in apposition with fraujin. 3. iuis; sc. sijai: blessed be.—jah (καί); here emfatic: (who is) even. 4. garafstida ... garafstidai sijum; we should have expected the prs., because the statement does not {130}refer to any particular consolations, but is a statement of 'general truth'.—weis; emfatic (S., 2, n. 1).—in allaim agln; a prepositional frase, with the art., uzed as sb. (S., 68, (2)).—izaiei; instr. dat. guvernd by garafstidai. 5.—[** should be space not dash]swasw ... swa jah, as ... so also; the second jah may remain untranslated, or the first jah may be rendered by 'the same' (jah arh Xristu, by the same Christ), and the second by also.—ufar filu ist, is beyond much, i. e. abounds.—[** should be " 6. "]aan, but.—ja r., in ...; jae gar., in ..., whether we ar afflicted, (it is) because of ..., or whether we ar cumforted, (it is) because of.—[** should be " 7. "]swasw ... jah, as[** should be italic too?] (so) also.—wari; added by the translator: ye shal be (lit. becum, sc. gadailans, partakers, with the gen. S., 20; and cp. 26). 8. izwis unweisans (sc. wisan); acc. and inf. depending on wileima (S., 112).—brrjus (before which we should put a comma); voc.—uns; dat. of interest (S., 47).—ufarassau; instr. dat. of manner (S., 52, (6)).—ufar maht (acc. Gr., 102), abuv strength; cp. verse 5.—swasw skamaiddeima uns (refl. acc. S., 16, n. 1); opt. in a consecutiv clause (S., 97, b): so that we wer ashamed. [Foot-note: afswaggwidai wseima; evidently a better rendering of ἐξαπορεῖσθαι, to be utterly embarrast.—jal; for jah. Gr., 62, n. 3].—jah, even. 9. akei silbans in uns silbam andahaft dauaus habaiddum, but we ourselvs had the answer of deth in ourselvs, i. e. (according to de Wette.—Bernhardt's large edidion[** Typo for 'edition'?], p. 415) the question, whether I should escape deth, I answerd negativly.—sijaima; final opt. (S., 96, a, β). 10. izei; rel. prn. (= saei. Gr., 157, n. 3).—dauum, deths, i. e. dangers of deth.—galausei (not for ῥύεται. Bernhardt, p. 415) ... galausei; both for the Grk. fut. (S., 86, (3)). 11. at hilpandam jah izwis; dat. abs. introduced by at (S., 119): as ye also ar helping.—bidai; instr. dat. (S., 52, (2)).—bi; w. acc., for (= ὕπερ w. gen., as in Mt.[** something missing, probably " V"], 44).—in managamma andwarja, in (= before) a great presence, i. e. before many persons.—ei s in uns giba awiliudau[** typo awiliudodau] (3d pers. sg. prs. opt. pass. Gr., 189, d), that for the gift (bestowd) on us thanks be givn, lit.: that the gift (bestowd) on us be praizd.—arh managans, by many.—far uns, on our behalf. 12. atei; conj., that.—usmeitum; ei for (Gr., 7, n. 2).—i ufarassau (instr. dat. of manner. S., 52, (6)), and more abundantly (περισσοτέρως δὲ), and beyond mezure. 13. alja; acc. pl. n. of aljis (Gr., 125), here uzed substantivly.—alja (the second); conj., except. 14. unsara; sc. siju ƕftuli. 15. izai (dem. prn.) trauainai; instr. dat. of manner (S., 52, (6)).—habaiddei; prt. opt. (Gr., 192) in a final clause (S., 96, b). 16. gasandjan mik (an activ vb. with a refl. acc., for a pass. vb. in Grk. (S., 16): to return. 17. atu-an; for ata-uh-an, and this.—ibai auft, perhaps (a negativ answer being expected).—leihtis; gen. guvernd by brhta (S., 25).—aau atei (rel. prn.) mit bi leika agkjau, or do I purpose that which I think according to the flesh? There is a notewurthy change of mood in this and other dubl questions (S., 91).—ata ja ja jah ata n n (advs. w. the art. uzed substantivly. S., 68, (2)), the yea, yea and the nay, nay? i. e. now yea, now nay? 18. aan triggws gu, an ellipsis: but (as) God (is) tru, [so tru it is]. 19. nih; for ni-h, the -h (= uh) being intensiv.—war; here the same as was. 20. ƕaiwa,[** should be no comma?] managa gahaita gus, in imma, as many promises of God, {131}[they ar] in him, i. e. all promises of God ar in him (= Christ).—du[** thin space?] (for du-uh-. Gr., 62, n. 3), to that, for that, therefore. 21. gu; sc. ist.—[** should be " 22. "]wadi; predicate acc. (S., 18), as a pledge. 23. weitwd; like wadi, pred. acc.—izwara; gen. guvernd by freidjands (S., 26). 24. izwarai galaubeinai; dat. guvernd by fraujinma (S., 38; cp. also 52, (3), n.)—anstais, joy, but probably for χάριτος (not χαρᾶς), which is found in sum manuscripts.—galaubeinai; loc. dat. (S., 53, 1, b), after gastu, for which we might expect the pres. (S., 86, 4).

Chap. II. 1. gastauida; prt. of gastjan (Gr., 186).—at, with.—qimau; opt. in an obj. clause expressing possibility (S., 92).—at, to. 2. gailjai; opt. in a rel. clause expressing result (S., 99, a).—sa; art.—gurida; nom. sg. m. of the weak pp. (Gr., 134).—us, by. 3. ja; for jah (Gr., 62, n. 3).—izwis; dat. of the indir. obj. after gamlida (S., 37).—habau; prs. opt. in a final clause after a prt. in the leading proposition (S., 96, a, β).—fram aimei (its antecedent being omitted. S., 70, n. 1; and 72); loc. dat. guvernd by faginn (S., 53, 1, b).—allaiz (uzed substantivly) izwara (pers. prn. in the gen. pl. Gr., 150); sc. fahs, the joy of all of you (S., 82). 4. aan (γάρ; so in the epistls only), for.—arh, with; expresses the situation of the subj.—ni ei (prop. instr. of the rel. prn. Gr., 157, n. 1); conj. not that.—ufarassau; see I, 8. 5. ƕas; indef. prn. (Gr., 162, n. 2).—bi sumata, ei ni anakarjau, allans izwis, in sum mezure, that I may not overcharge (him) you all. 6. amma swaleikamma (the dat. being guvernd by ganah, which uzually takes the acc. S., 42, n.); uzed substantivly (S., 68, (1), a, α).—andabt ( for ei. Gr., 17, n. 1).—managizam; compar. (Gr., 132, n. 4; 135; 136), where we uze the positiv: many. 7. swaei ... izwis ... fragiban jag (g for h. Gr., 62, n. 3) galihan; acc. with the inf. introduced by swaei to express result (S., 115; cp. Mk. IV, 1).—ata andanei; adverbial acc. (S., 15, (2), n. 2): contrariwise.—managizein (weak compar. adj. fem. Gr., 132, n. 4) sargai; instr. dat. of cause (S., 52, 5; cp. also 53, n. 1).—sa swaleiks (for its strong inflection, see Gr., 161), such a one. 8. inu (for in-uh, i. e. -uh attacht to the prep. in, which is here uzed with the gen.: because of. The prep. inuh or inu means without[** without?]) is, on this account, therefore.—in imma; for ἐις ἀυτόν. 9. sijaidu (for sijai-u. Gr., 74, n. 1); opt. in an indir. question depending on ufkunnau, and introduced by the interr. particl -u (S., 95, a, β). 10. aan; here for δέ; cp. 4.—ƕa; here indef. prn.; see Mt. V, 23.—jah ik, [to him] I [forgiv] also.—jah an ik ... fragaf (in both cases for the Grk. perf.), for I hav alredy forgivn.—jabai ƕa (indef.) fragaf, if I hav forgivn anything. 11. gaiginndau; 1st pers. pl. prs. opt. (in a final clause. S., 96, a, α) pass. (Gr., 189, d).—munis[** but the text (this and other edd.) has acc. pl. munins]; gen. after unwitandans (S., 23).—is; pers. prn. for the poss. prn. (S., 62). 12. aan; for δέ.—qimands in Trauadai; see Mt. V, 20.—at hardai uslukanai; dat. abs. with at (S., 120).—mis; dat. of interest (S., 47). 13. ahmin meinamma; loc. dat. (S., 53, (1), c).—in ammei (for amma ei. Gr., 4, n.), in that (Gr., 157), because.—im; abl. dat., guvernd by twisstandands (S., 54). 15. dauns wi; for ἐυωδία. 16. us, of.—jad; for jah (Gr., 62, n. 3). 17. sium; for sijum (Gr., 10, n. 4; 204, n. 1).


Chap. III. 1. anafilhis; adnominal gen. after bk (S., 20).—bk; abl. gen. guvernd by arbum. 2. siu; = siju; see II, 17.—gamlida ... kuna ... anakunaida[** typo anakunnaida]; pps. agreeing with apistal (Gr., 134). 3. swikunai atei, siu, etc., forasmuch as ye ar known [to be], etc. B has swikun: It is manifest that ye ar.—swartiza ... ahmin; instr. dats. (S., 52, (2)). 5. ƕa; indef. prn. 6. izei; rel. prn. (Gr., 157, n. 3).—brhta, with two accs. (S., 18): made. 7. swaei mahtdeina (Gr., 201); consecutiv clause (S., 97, b).—is gatarnandins; belongs to wulaus, not to the adnominal gen. wlitis. 8. warai; potential opt. in a dir. question (S., 91, (3)). 9. andbahtja; dat. of possession, the vb. being understood: For if there be glory to the ministration of, etc. 11. arh; denotes here, as in II, 4, a state or condition. 12. managaizs baleins; gen. guvernd by brkjaima (S., 25), hort. opt. (S., 91, (2)). 13. jan; for jah (Gr., 62, n. 3).—du (i. e. du + the instr. case of ata. Gr., 153. S., 51) ei (Gr., 157), 'to that that', for the purpose that, in order that, with a final opt. (S., 96, b).—gatarnandins; gen. sg. of the weak pp. (Gr., 134) uzed substantivly (S., 68, (4)): of the vanishing (glory). 14. wisi, remains. 16. gawandei (intr. S., 16, n. 2); its subj. is hart iz, to be supplied from the preceding verse. 18. samn frisaht; this acc., with a pass. vb., is an imitation of the corresponding Greek passage: τήν ἀυτὴν ἐικόνα μεταμορφούμεθα, we ar changed into the same image (S., 17 and 18, n. 4, where this passage ought to hav been explaind).

Chap. IV. 1. gaarmaida[** typo gaarmaidai] warum (for the Grk. aor. pass. S., 87, (4), c), wer pitied, receivd mercy.—ni waraima; hort. opt. (for the ind. in A).—usgrudjans; only weak (Gr., 132, n. 2). 2. aim analaugnjam (adj. uzed as sb. S., 68, (1)); abl. dat. guvernd by afstum (S., 54,(1)).—galiug (pred. acc. S., 18) taujandans ward gus, falsifying the word of God, lit.: making the word of God a lie.—barhtein; instr. dat. (S., 52, (2)). 4. ei ni liuhtjai im liuhadeins. Like Bernhardt, I am in favor of liuhadeins (gen. as subj. S., 25, n. 2); cp. ni was im rmis in Lu. II, 7. Sum editors (cp. Gr., 113, n. 2) prefer liuhadein (in B). Bernhardt remarks that liuhadein may 'allenfalls' be explaind as an acc.: 'damit er ihnen nicht leuchten lasse das licht'. But it may also pass as instrumental dat.: 'damit er ihnen nicht leuchte vermge des lichtes', lest ther be any light to them thru the light'[** unmatched '], etc. Cp. similar instr. dativs in Mk. V, 42; Lu. II, 8. 9. 5. aan, for; see II, 4. 6.—uns; external obj. after mrjam.—skalkans izwarans; pred. acc. (S., 18). 6. unt gu; sc. ist: for it is God who, etc.—ur-; for us (Gr., 78, n. 4).—liuha skeinan; acc. and inf. depending on qa (S., 112).—saei jah, and who. 7. aan, but. 11. in dauu; depends on atgibanda. 12. swaei nu (for ὥστε), therefore.—[** should be " 13. "]gamlidin; dat. of the pp. n. (Gr., 134) uzed substantivly (S., 68, (4)). 14. jah, also.—urraisei ... faragasatji; for the Grk. fut. (S., 86, (3)). 15. atuh (for the art. ata and the intensiv particl -uh), immediately followd by an, allata being uzed substantivly (S., 82, (1), a): for all (the) things.—managizans, more; we uze the positiv: several, many (see II, 6).—ufarassjai; trans., its obj. being awiliud.—gua; dat. after a sb. (for the Grk. gen. S., 34; and 35, n. 2): for God, i. e. of God. 16. inuh (for in-uh; see II, 8) is, because of this, for this reason.—ak uhjabai (for {133}ἀλλ' ἐι καί), but even if, but tho.—aau, yet (cp. S., 102, b).—daga jah daga; loc. dat. of time (S., 53, (2)). 17. ata andwar (adv.) ƕeilaƕarb jah leiht (for τὸ παραυτίκα πρόσκαιρον καὶ ἐλαφρόν), that (which is) at present, etc., the two uninflected adjs. being uzed substantivly, with an adnominal gen., aglns unsaraizs.—warkjada; the pass. for the Grk. midl, with the pred. nom. (S., 18, n. 4) karei. 18. farweitjandam, sc. unsis; dat. abs. (S., 119), or the ptc. is simply in apposition with the preceding dat. unsis.—izei (ei for . Gr., 7, n. 2); gen. pl. of the art. before the following two ptcs. (Gr., 134) uzed substantivly (S., 68, n. 4).

Chap. V. 1. atei; repeated after the protasis in the form of ei.—jabai; with the ind., for ἐάν with the subj. (S., 102; cp. also 100, n.). 2. ufarhamn; uzed reflexivly (for the Grk. midl. S., 16, n. 3), and with the instr., bauainai unsarai izai (S., 52, (2), b). 3. jabai swuh jah, if even tho.—gawasidai; the pass. for the Grk. midl; cp. the preceding verse. 4. ana ammei (for amma ei), over that that, for the reason that. [** dash missing?]afhamn ... anahamn; for the Grk. midl; cp. verse 2. 5. jah; a strange addition in the Gothic text. Perhaps it is ment to connect gamanwida, etc., with what it is said in the preceding verses to cum from God (or heven), then the second jah means also; or jah ... jah = both ... and.—gu; sc. ist.—wadi ahman; the latter is the external obj. of gaf, the former predicate acc. (S., 18; cp. also n. 1). 8. mais, rather.—anahaimjaim wisan (for ἐνδημῆσαι). Gabelentz and Loebe and Uppstrm explain the dat. anahaimjaim as being due to unsis understood with waljam. 9. inuh; see IV, 16.—imma; dat. guvernd by galeikan (S., 42), the obj. of usdaudjam (S., 109). 10. skuldai sijum, we ar owing, we must.— swsna leikis, the body's own, the bodily things, i. e. the things which the body deservs.—afar aimei; for afar aim ei (by attraction. S., 71. Cp. the reverse attraction in Grk. πρὸς ἅ). 11. swikunans (pred. adj.) wisan uns (subj.); acc. with the inf. (in Grk. the inf. alone) after wnja (S., 112). 12. ni ei, not that, not as if.—uskannjaima; final opt. (S., 96, a).—ƕftuljs; adnominal gen. after lw (S., 20).—fram, concerning, for, on behalf of (cp. Mk. I, 44; Lu. II, 24). 13. gua ... izwis; dats. of interest (S., 47): (it is) for God ... (it is) for you. 15. ata; dem. prn.—atei; conj., that.—sis silbam ... sik; refers to the subj. of the dependent clause, ai libandans (S., 60).—amma gaswiltandin jah urreisandin; like the preceding sis, dats. of advantage (S., 36, (4)), the prsp. rendering the Grk. aor. ptc. (S., 117). 16. swaei kunnum; a consecutiv clause, the vb. being in the ind. (cp. S., 97 and 89).—fram amma nu, lit. from the now (nu with the art. being uzed substantivly. S., 68, 2), i. e. henseforth.—ni ainnhun; indef. prn. (Gr., 163, c).—ni ... ai[** typo ni; surely refers to "ni anaseis ni kunnum"]; the two negativs strengthen the negation (never make an affirmativ in Goth.)[** . missing?] 17. ƕ (indef. prn. f. Gr., 159, n. 3); agrees with gaskafts, and is uzed adjectivly (we might hav expected ƕas: if any man (be) in Christ, he (is) a new creature).— aljna (the n. adj. uzed as sb. S., 68, (1)) usliun (apodosis), the old things past away.—niuja (nom. pl. n. Gr., 126); pred. adj. agreeing with alla uzed substantivly (S., 82, (1)). 18. uns (the first), dir. obj. of gafrindin.—sis; indir. obj. (S., 43).—uns (the second); dat. 19. unt swauh[** sometimes swuh] (seems to stand for 'quoniam quidem' of the Lt. {134}manuscripts.—Bernhardt), because indeed.—im ... iz, to them ... their, referring to mankind, world. 20. at gua galahandin; dat. abs. introduced by at (S., 120).—gua; dat. after gagawarnan (cp. sis in verse 18). 21. ana (dem. prn.) izei (rel. prn. Gr., 157, n. 3) kuna (prt. of kunnan. Gr., 199, (4)); for τὸν γνόντα.—gatawida; with an external obj., ana, and a pred. acc., frawarht (S., 18).—ei weis wareima (final opt. S., 96, b), that we might becum.


a 49. ...[** no space? in middle of word]ahun; the remaining part of an unknown word, probably ainahun.—kunnandins; weak inflection of the prsp. (Gr., 133), uzed as sb.—is; refers to fraujins (S., 60).—waldufneis; gen. guvernd by andaggkjandins.—Stains; i. e. Πέτρος, Peter.—ains (the first), alone.—ains (the second), one.—e, five (Gr., 1 and n. 2).—mikilis; gen. depending on waht (S., 21).—warids (dignity, greatness); gen. guvernd by andaggkjands (sik being omitted. S., 26 and 16, n. 2).—arh ei (acc. pl. n. Gr., 157), thru which, i. e. wherefore.—usbar, brought forth, i. e. exclaimd.—niuklahein; dat. guvernd by andtilnds (S., 38). b. ans mans (Gr., 117, (1)) anakumbjan; acc. with the inf., guvernd by warkei (S., 112).—at hauja managamma wisandin; dat. abs. introduced by at (S., 120).— filusna anakumbjan; acc. with the inf., guvernd by gatawiddun.—inuh (prep., not in-uh), without.—at ni wisandein (Gr., 133) aljai wahtai; dat. abs. with at (S., 120).—swa managai; belongs to walawiznai, instr. dat. (S., 52, 2, a).—ganahan; acc. sing. m. of ganaha (for the inf. ganahan, s. Gr., 201), guvernd by fragaf, im being the indir. obj. c. filaus; adv. gen. w. the (acc. sg. n. of the) compar. maiz (S., 30, c).—afar atei; temporal conj.: after that, when;[**.]—managei; here w. a sg. v. (S., 5).—matida (prt. here = our past perfect = Lt. 'postquam' w. the perfect).—bigitan was, there was found; we should expect the pl., but the sense is: there was found a quantity of twelv (b[** typo ib?] Gr., 1, n. 2) baskets, etc.—atei, which (i. e. which quantity).—izei (ei for . Gr., 7, n. 2) hlaib ... iz fisk; partit. gens. (S., 21).—nih an, for not.—ana ... in; change of prep. without change of sense.—ainaim, alone ([** "Gr., " missing?]140, 1).—swaei; consecutiv conj., that.—ainƕarjammh; dat. (Gr., 165, n. 1) guvernd by tawida.—is; I prefer Bernhardt's emendation, iz, of them (i. e. of the fishes). d. nah us amma, besides (lit. 'stil from that.')—jr; partit. gen. after m (Gr., 1, n. 2)[**.]—aflifnandeins; prsp. f. (Gr., 133).—wahtai; dat. guvernd by fraqistnai (impers.; cp. the Lt. 'mihi invidetur'. S., 49); opt. in a final clause.



Remarks.—The signs ƕ, q, follow h, k, t, respectivly.—The figures in () refer to the paragrafs of the Grammar.

Aba, m. (108, n. 1), husband, man; Lu. II, 36.

Abiaar, pr. n., Abiathar; dat. -a; Mk. II, 26. [< Ἀβιάθαρ.]

Abraham (61, n. 3), pr. n., Abraham. [< Ἀβραάμ.]

af (56, n. 1), prep. w. dat. (217), of, from, out of, away from, off; Mt. V, 18. 42. Mk. III, 22. II. Cor. III, 5. [OE. of, ME. of, off, a, o, NE. of, off, a- (as in 'adown').]

af-aikan, rv. (179), to deny, curse.

afar, prep. (217), (1) w. dat.: after, according to; Mk. I, 7. 17. 20. II. Cor. V, 10. (2) w. acc.: after (only of time); afar dagans, after sum days; Mk. II, 1; afar atei, after that, when; Mk. I, 14. Skeir. VII, c. [< af + compar. suff. -ar. OHG. avar, abur, MHG. aver, aber, NHG. aber- (in compos.), further, again, aber, conj., but. Cf. OE. eafora, m., posterity, child.]

afar-gaggan, anv. (179, n. 3; 207), to go after, follow; w. mi w. dat.; Mk. V, 37.

af-daubnan, wv. (194), to becum def, grow dul; II. Cor. III, 14.

af-djan (26, a), wv. (187), to tire out, vex, harass.

af-dumbnan, wv. (194), to becum dum, hold one's peace; Mk. IV, 39.

af-tja (56, n. 2), m. (108), voracious eater, glutton. [-tja < √ of itan + suff. -jan-.]

af-gaggan, stv. (179, n. 3; 207), to go away, depart; w. farra w. dat.; Lu. II, 37.

*af-haimeis, adj. (127), away from home, absent; II. Cor. V, 6. 9. [-haimeis < haims. Cf. anahaimeis.]

af-hamn, wv. (190), to take off clothes, to unclothe; II. Cor. V, 4.

af-hlaan, stv. (177, n. 1), to lade, load.

af-ƕapjan, wv. (188), w. acc., to choke; Mk. IV, 7. 19.

af-ƕapnan, wv. (194), to choke (intr.), be choked; Mk. V, 13.

af-iddja, prt. of afgaggan.

af-lageins, f. (124), a laying aside, remission; Mk. I, 4. [< af-lagjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

af-lalt, prt. of afltan.

af-leian, stv. (172, n. 1), to go away, depart; w. af w. dat.; Mk. I, 42; du w. dat.; Mk. III, 7.

af-ltan (-leitan; 7, n. 2), rv. (181), w. acc. of pers. or th., to leav, forsake, put away (a wife); Mt. V, 24. 31. 32; w. dat. of pers. and acc. of th., to let off, forgiv; Mt. VI, 12. 14. 15; to let one hav; Mt. V, 40.


af-lifnan (56, ns. 1. 4), wv. (194), to remain, remain over and abuv; Skeir. VII, c.

af-linnan, stv. (174, n. 1), to depart.

af-maitan, stv. (179), to cut off; w. acc. of th.; Mt. V, 30.

af-marzeins, f. (103, n. 1), offense, deceitfulness; Mk. IV, 19. [< af-marzjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

af-mjan (26), wv. (187), to weary, fatigue.

af-niman, stv. (170; 175), w. acc., to take away, remove; II. Cor. III, 16; and dat.; Mk. IV, 25; or af w. dat.; Mk. II, 20. 21.

af-satjan, wv. (187), w. acc., to put away (a wife), divorce; Mt. V, 32.

af-skiuban (56, n. 1), stv. (173, n. 1), to shuv away, put away, reject.

af-slaujan, wv. (188), to amaze; in pass.: to be in despair; II. Cor. IV, 8.

af-slaunan, wv. (194), to becum beside one's self, be amazed.

af-standan, stv. (177, n. 3), to fall away, renounce; w. dat.; II. Cor. IV, 2.

af-stass, f. (103, n. 3), a standing off, falling away; afstassais bks, a writing of divorcement; Mt. V, 31. [< stem -stassi- < stat-ti- < stat (< √ of standan + -t) + suff. -ti-.]

af-stum, prt. of afstandan.

af-swaggwjan, wv. (188), to make despondent; afswaggwis wisan, to despair; II. Cor. I, 8 (note).

afta, adv. (213, n. 2), behind. [< af + suff. -ta. OE. ft, again, behind.]

aftana, adv. (213, n. 2), from behind; Mk. V, 27. [< afta + suff. -na. OE. ftan, ME. fte, NE. aft; cf. abaft < a, on, + bi, by, + aft.]

aftar, adv. (211, n. 1), from behind, behind. [< af + adv. compar. suff. -tar.]

aftra, adv., back, backwards, behind; Lu. II, 43; again; Mt. V, 33. [< af + adv. compar. suff. -tra. OE. fter, ME. fter, after, NE. after.]

aftuma, superl. adj. (139), the last. [< af + superl. suff. -tu-ma-n-.]

aftumists, superl. adj. (139, n. 1), the last; aftumist haban, to lie, or be, at the point of deth; Mk. 5, 23. [< aftuma + superl. suff. -ist-a-. OE. ME. ftemest, NE. aftermost (by influence of after and most.[** . redundant?]; s. aftra and maists).]

aggilus, m. (120, n. 1), angel, messenger; Lu. II, 9. 10; dat. -au; Lu. II, 13. 21; acc. -u; Mk. I, 2; pl. nom. -jus; Lu. II, 15; or -eis; Mk[** . missing] I, 13. [< ἄγγελος, messenger, angel.]

aggwia, f. (97), anguish; II. Cor. II, 4. [< aggwus + suff. -i-.]

*aggwjan, wv. (188), in ga-aggwjan. [< aggwus.]

aggwus, adj. (68; 131), narrow. [OE. ange, ME. ang, OHG. engi (ja-stem), MHG. enge, NHG. enge, eng, adj. narrow.]

agis, gen. agisis, n. (35; 94), aw, fear; Mk. IV, 41. Lu. II, 9. II. Cor. V, 11. [< agan (s. un-agands) + suff. -is-a-. OE. ege (or i-stem; see Brgm., II, p. 421, 132, Rem. 2), ME. eȝe, ON. agi > ME. aghe, awe, NE. aw.]

*agjan, wv. (35), in us-agjan. [< *ags, awful, fearful, < -agan; s. agis.]

aglait-gastalds (88a, n. 1), adj. (124), greedy of filthy lucre, greedy. [-ga-stalds < ga- + -stalds < √ of staldan.]

aglaiti, n. (95), lasciviousness, unchastity. [< *aglaits, adj., lascivious; cp. agls, adj., indecent.]

aglaiti-wardei (88a), f. (113), indecent language, filthy talk. [< aglaiti-wards, adj.; -wards < ward.]

-agljan (14, n. 1), wv. (188), to trubl, in us-a. [< aglus[** should be bold?]. OE. eglan, ME. eile, NE. ail.]

agl, f. (112), tribulation, anguish, distress; Mk. IV, 17. II. Cor. I, 4. 8. II, 4. IV, 17. [< aglus.]

aglus, adj. (131), difficult, hard. {137}[< √ of agis + suff. -lu-. OE. egle (j-stem), ME. egle, trublsum, < eglan, ME. eile, NE. ail.]

Agustus, pr. n., Augustus; dat. -au; Lu. II, 1. [Αὔγουστος.]

ahaks, f. (103, n. 2), duv; Mk. I, 10. Lu. 2[** should be II], 24.

ahma, m. (108), the Spirit, the Holy Ghost; Mk. I, 8. 10. 12. 23. 25. 26. 27. II, 8. 11. 29. 30. V, 2. 8. 13. Lu. II, 26. 27. 40. II. Cor. I, 22. II, 13. III, 3. 6. 8. 17. 18. IV, 13. V, 5. [< √ of ahjan, to think, + suff. -man-.]

ahs, n. (94), ear (of grain); Mk. II, 23. IV, 28. [OE. ar (< *eaur, *eahur, *ahur), ME. ear, er, NE. ear (of grain; for ear, the organ of hearing, s. aus.)[** . should be outside parens?]]

ahtau, indecl. num. (141), eight; Lu. II, 21. [OE. eahta, ME. eighte, NE. eight.]

ahtau-thund, indecl. num. (143), eighty; Lu. II, 37.

ahtuda, ord. num. (146), the eighth. [< aht-au + suff. -u-da-n-. OE. eahtoa, ME. eighte, NE. eighth.]

aƕa, f. (97), river, stream, water; Mk. I, 5. [OE. a (< *au, *ahu, *ahwu), f., ME. , river, water, > OE. g, iland, lit. 'belonging to the water', and in composition: gland, ME. iland, NE. iland.]

aibr, n. (94), an offering; Mt. V, 23. [No doubt a corrupt form for *tibr = OE. tifer, n., OHG. zebar, victim, sacrifice; cf. MHG. un-ge-zibere, un-zifer, NHG. ungeziefer, n., vermin, prop. 'an animal unfit for a sacrifice'.]

igan (ihan), prt.-prs. (203), to own, hav, possess.—Cmpd. far-ihan (203). [OE. gan, ME. aghe, owe, NE. ow.—Prt.: Gothic ihta, OE. hte, ME. hte, ouhte, NE. ought.]

iginn, wv., in ga-aiginn. [< aigin (< √ of aigan + suff. -ina-), n., property.]

ihts (20, n. 2), f. (103), property, possession; in pl. goods, things. [< √ of aigan + suff. -ti-. OHG. ht, f., property, goods, in compos. frht (= Goth. *fra-aihts), gain, wages; cf. LG. fracht, Du. vracht > ME. fraht, fraught, cargo, freight, > frahte, fraughte, to load, pp. fraught, NE. fraught. Of G. or Du. origin is the ML. frecta, fretta, > OF. *freit, fret > ME. freit, freight (the gh being due to 'fraught'), NE. freight.]

aƕa-tundi (64), f. (98), brambl-bush, bush. [< aƕa = OE. eoh (< *eohu), m., horse; -tundi < *tindan > the caus. tandjan, to kindl, OE. tendan, ME. tende, NE. tind.]

*aikan, rv. (179), in af-aikan.

akklsj, f. (111), church. [< ἐκκλησία.]

Aleisaba (23), pr. n., Elisabeth. [< Ἐλισάβεθ.]

al (6, n. 1), my God! [< Ἐλωί < the Hebrew.]

ainaha, weak adj. (132, n. 2), only. [< ains + suff. -(a)ha-n-.]

ain-falei, f. (113), simplicity; II. Cor. I, 12. [< ainfals.]

ain-fals, adj. (148), 'one-fold', singl; Mt. VI, 22.

ain-ƕarjizuh, prn. (165, n. 1), every one, each one; Luc.[** usually Lu.] II, 3. II. Cor. V, 10.[** but both passages have ƕarjizuh without ain-]

ain-ƕaaruh, prn. (166), each of two.

*ainlif (56, n. 1), num. (141), eleven. [< ains + -lif, left, over. OE. and-, end-leofan, -leofen, (for n-leofan, etc., -leofan being the dat. of -lif)[** ,] ME. end-, en-, el-leven, NE. eleven.]

ain(n)hun, acc. sg. of ainshun.

ains, num. (140), (I) one, a singl one, (1) alone; II. Cor. V, 15; (2) w. a sb., (a) follg.; Mt. V, 18. 36; (b) preceding; Mt. V, 18. 41; (c) {138}understood; Mk. IV, 8; (3) w. a partit. gen. follg.; Mt. V, 19. 29. 30. VI, 29; (4) ains—anar, the one, the other; Mt. VI, 24. (II) indef., one, sum one, an, a, w. a partit. gen. follg.; Mk. V, 22. (III) only, alone, (I[** typo 1?]) w. a sb., (a) prec.; Skeir. VII, c; (b) follg.[** ; missing?] Mk. II, 7. 26; (2) w. a prn. prec.; Mt. V, 46. [OE. n, one, ME. on, an, ane, a, one, o, (shortend when uzed as a proclitic), one, alone; an, NE. one; an, a.]

ains-hun, indef. prn. (163, c), only in negativ sentences, not any one, none, (1) alone; II. Cor. V, 16; (2) w. a partit. gen. follg.; Mk. V, 37.

apiskapus, m. (120, n. 1), bishop. [< ἐπίσκοπος, bishop.]

apistal, f. (120, n. 3), epistl, letter; II. Cor. III, 2. 3. [< επιστολη, message, letter.]

ir, adv. (214, n. 1), erly; Mk. 1[**typo I?], 35. [OE. *r > the compar. ̂r; see iris.]

irinn, wv. (190), to be a messenger, an ambassador; w. far w. acc.; II. Cor. V, 20. [< airus[** typo irus?].]

iris, comp. adv. (212), erlier. [< ir + suff. -is. OE. ̂r, ME. er, sooner, erlier, before, NE. ere.]

iriza, comp. adj. (136), of old time, living formerly; in pl. uzed substantivly; Mt. 5[**typo V?], 21. 33. [< ir + suff. -iz-an-. OE. ̂ror, ME. erer, former.]

ara, f. (97), erth, ground, land; Mt. V, 18. 35. VI, 10. 19. Mk. II, 10. IV, 5. 8. 20. 28. 31. Lu. II, 14. [OE. eore, ME. erthe, NE. erth.]

ara-kunds (88a), adj. (124), erthy, born of the erth.

areins, adj. (124), of erth, erthen; II. Cor. IV, 7. erthly; II. Cor. V, 1. |[**should | be here?][< ara + suff. -eina-. ME. eorthen, erthen, NE. erthen.]

arus[** typo for irus?] (20, n. 2), m. (105), messenger, embassador[** typo ambassador?]. [OE. r (of the o-declension), m., messenger. Cf. OE. ̂rende, n., ME. erand, NE. errand.]

arzeis, adj. (128), astray, led astray. [OE. yrre[** , missing?] eorre, ME. eorre, irre, angry, OHG. irri, MHG. NHG. irre, adj., astray, confused.]

*ais (for which aiz, 78, n. 1; occurs only onse; Mk. VI, 8), n. (94), brass, bronz, muney. [OE. r, f., brass, bronz, copper, ME. r, NE. ore.]

aiei, f. (113), mother; Mk. III, 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. V, 40. Lu. II, 33. 34. 43. 48. 51. [OHG. eidi, eide, mother.]

ais, gen. aiis, m. (91), oath; Mt. V, 33. [OE. , m., ME. oth, NE. oath.]

aau (20, 3; 71, n. 1), conj. (218), or; Mt. V, 17. 18. 36. VI, 31. Mk. III, 4. 33. IV, 17. 21. 30. Lu. II, 24. II. Cor. I, 13. 17. III, 1; jabai ... aau, either ... or; Mt. VI, 24; else, otherwise; Mt. VI, 1. [Cf. OE. oe, North ththa, or.]

Aiulf, prn. n. (65, n. 1).

aiw, adv. (prop. acc. sing. of aiws, q. v.), ever, always with ni: never; Mk. II, 12. 25. III, 29. [OE. (for *w), ME. , , ON. ei > NE. aye.]

awagglj, f. (112), gospel; Mk. I, 1. 14. 15. [< ἐυαγγέλιον.]

aiweins, adj. (124), eternal; Mk. III, 29. II. Cor. IV, 17. 18. V, 1. [< aiws + suff. -ein-a-.]

aiwiski, n. (95), shame, dishonesty; II. Cor. IV, 2. [< *aiwisks (in un-aiwisks, that need not be ashamed). OE. ̂wisc, ashamed.]

aiws, m. (91, n. 5), time, life-time, age, world, eternity; II. Cor. IV, 4; in aiwins, forever; Mt. VI, 13.—S. also aiw.

aiz; see ais.

ajukdus (21, n. 2), f. (103), time, eternity. [< ajuk- (perhaps < aiws) + suff. -du--i-.]


ak, conj. (218), but, for; Mt. V, 17. 39. VI, 13. 18. Mk. I, 45. II, 17,[**.] 22. III, 26. 29. IV, 17. 22. V, 19. 26. 39. II. Cor. I, 9. 12. 19. 24. II, 4. 5. 13. 17. III, 3. 5. 6. 14. IV, 2. 5. 18. V, 4. 12. 15. Skeir. VII, a. c. [OE. ME. ac, but.]

Akaja, pr. n., Achaja; dat. -ai; II. Cor. I, 1. [< Ἀχαΐα.]

akei, conj. (218), but; II. Cor. I, 9. III, 15. IV, 8. 9. Skeir. VII, a; yet; II. Cor. V, 16. [< ak + ei.]

akeits, m. (? 91, n. 2), vinegar. [< Lt. actum, vinegar.]

akran, n. (94), fruit; Mk. IV, 7. 8. 20. 28. 29. [OE. cern, n., ME. akern, acorn, NE. acorn.]

akrana-laus, adj. (124), fruitless, unfruitful; Mk. IV, 19.

akrs, m. (91, n. 1), field. [OE. cer, m., field, ME. aker, NE. acre.]

aqizi, f. (98), ax. [OE. x, eax, f., ME. x, NE. ax.]

alabalstran (24, n. 5; 46, n. 2), indecl. sb. n. (120, n. 2), alabaster box. [< ἀλάβαστρον.]

ala-mans, m. (117, n. 1), all men, the hole human race. [For ala-, s. alaarba; mans is nom. pl. of manna.]

alan, stv. (177), to grow. [OE. alan, to nurish.]

ala-arba, adj. (132, n. 2), very poor, very needy. [ala- stands for alla- (< alna-[**F1: should it be bolded? F2: no, only Gothic is bolded; this is proto-Germanic or something] < √ of alan + ptc. suff. -na-), stem of alls, all; arba, needy, < √ of arban.]

Albila (54), pr. n., Albila.

alds (73; 74, n. 3), f. (103), age, generation, life, world. [< √ of alan + suff. -di-. OE. ieldu (orig. i-stem), ME. elde, NE. eld (poet.), age. Cf. aleis.]

aleina, f. (97), el, cubit; Mt. VI, 27. [OE. eln, f., ME. (< the inflected cases) elne, elle, NE. el.]

alw, n. (119), oliv, oil; Mk. VI, 13. [< Lt. oleum, oil.]

Alfaius, pr. n., Alpheus; gen. -aus; Mk. II, 14. III, 18. [< Ἀλφαῖος.]

alhs, f. (116), templ; Lu. II, 27. 37. 46. [OE. alh, ealh, m., templ.]

alja, (1) conj., than, except, unless; II. Cor. I, 13. (2) prep. w. dat. (217), except. [< stem of aljis.]

alja-kuns, adj. (130), foren, strange. [alja < aljis; kuns < kuni.]

alja-leiks, adv. (212, n. 2), otherwise. [From stems of aljis and -leiks + adv. compar. suff. -s.]

aljar, adv. (213, n. 1), elsewhere. [< stem of aljis + suff. -r.]

alja, adv. (213, n. 1), in another direction. [< stem of aljis + suff. -.]

aljar, adv. (213, n. 1), from elsewhere. [< stem of aljis + suff. -r.]

aljis, adj. (126), other, another; II. Cor. I, 13. Skeir. VII, b. [OE. elles (gen. sg. n.), ME. elles, NE. else.]

allar, adv. (213, n. 2), from all directions, from every quarter; Mk. I, 45. [< stem of alls + suff. -r.]

allis, (1) adv. (215), in general, holely, at all; ni—allis, not at all. (2) conj. (218), never at the beginning, for; Mk. III, 35; for neither, for not; Mk. IV, 22. [Prop. gen. sg. n. of alls. OE. ealles, ME. alles, adv., holely.]

alls, adj. (122, n. 1), all, every, hole, (1) alone, w. or without the prec. or follg. art. or dem. prn.; Mt. V, 18. VI, 32. Mk. I, 5. 27. 37. II, 12. IV, 11. 34. V, 20. 40. Lu. II, 3. 19. II. Cor. II, 9. IV, 8. 15. V, 15. 17. 18. (2) w. a pers. prn. prec. or follg.; II. Cor. II, 3. III, 18. V, 10. (3) w. a poss. prn. follg.; Mk. V, 26. (4) w. attraction of a rel. prn. (see 'Explanatory Notes'); Lu. II, 20. (5) w. a ptc.; Mk. I, 32. Lu. II, 18. 38. 47. (6) w. a follg. adj. prec. by the art.; II. Cor. I, 1. (7) w. an adv. frase; Lu. II, 39. (8) w. a sb., w. or without the art.; Mt. VI, 29. Mk. I, 5. 28. 33. 39. {140}IV, 1. 13. V, 12. 33. Lu. II, 1. 10. 31. 51. II. Cor. I, 1. 3. 4. II, 14. III, 2. IV, 2; and a poss[** . missing?] prn.; Mt. V, 29. 30. VI, 22. 23. (9) in gen. pl. w. a superl.; Mk. IV, 31. 32. (10) all (sing. n.) w. gen. sg.; Mk. II, 13; allata ata w. gen. pl.; Mk. III, 28. [< √ of alan + suff. -la < -no-[**bold? F1]; cp. fulls. OE. eall, ME. all, NE. all.]

all-waldands, m. (115), all-ruling, almighty. [< all-s[**bold? F1] + prsp. of waldan.]

-alan, rv. (179, n. 1), in us-alan. [Cp. aleis.]

aleis, adj. (128), old; n. pl. aljna, (the) old things; II. Cor. V, 17. [Cp. alds; also OE. eald (w. suff. -do-), ME. ald, old, NE. old.]

Amalaberga, pr,[** typo pr.] n. (54, n. 2).

Amalafrigda, pr. n. (3, n. 2).

amn, amen, verily; Mt. V, 18. 26. VI, 2. 5. 13. 16. Mk. III, 28. II. Cor. I, 20. [< ἀμήν < the Hebrew.]

ams, m. (91, n. 4), shoulder.

an, interr. particl (216), then.

ana, prep. (217), (1) w. dat., (a) local, in, to, on, upon, over; Mk. I, 45. IV, 5. 16. 20. 38. V, 4. II. Cor. III[** , missing] 15; (b) of cause, especially w. vs. of 'affection', in, for, at, over; Mk. I, 22. Lu. II, 33. 47. II. Cor. I, 4; ana ammei, for that; [** II. Cor. presumably to be understood from previous ref.]V, 4; (c) w. vs. of 'knowing, showing', and the like, on, by, from, in; Mk. V, 29. Skeir. VII, c; (d) in other relations, denoting 'inclination, reference', and the like; Lu. II, 25. 40. II. Cor. I, 23. IV, 10. (2) w. acc., local, on, upon, at, into; Mt. V, 45. VI, 27. Mk. I, 10. 35. II, 21. III.[** typo ,] 10. IV, 21. 26. 31. V, 23. Lu. II, 28. II. Cor. III, 13. [OE. an, ǫn, ME[** . missing] on, o, NE. on.]

ana-aukan, rv. (179), to ad, w. ana w. acc.; Mt. VI, 27.

ana-biudan, stv. (170; 173), to command, instruct, bid, (1) w. dat. of pers.; Mk. I, 27. (2) w. acc. of th.; Mk. I, 44. (3) w. dat. of pers. and an obj. clause w. ei; Mk. V, 43.

ana-busns (15, n. 1), f. (103); command, commandment; Mt. V, 19. [< ana-biudan + suff. -sni- (the radical d being dropt). OE. bysen, bisen, ME. bisne, f., NE. (dial.) byzen, exampl.]

ana-filh, n. (94), commendation; anafilhis bks, epistls of commendation; II. Cor. III, 1. [< ana-filhan.]

ana-filhan, stv. (174, n. 1), to hand down as tradition, commit to, commend, w. acc. (dir. obj.); II. Cor. III, 1; and dat. (indir. obj.); II. Cor. V, 12.

*ana-haimeis, adj. (127), at home, present; II. Cor. V, 8. 9. [-haimeis < haims.]

ana-haitan, rv. (170; 179), w. two accs.; II. Cor. 1[** typo I], 23.

ana-hamn, w. v.[** usually wv.] (190), to put on clothes, to clothe:[** typo ;] II. Cor. V, 4.

ana-hneiwan, stv. (172, n. 1), to bend down, stoop down; Mk. 1, 7.

ana-karjan, w. v. (193) w. acc., to press upon, overload; II. Cor. II, 5.

anaks, adv., suddenly, at onse; Lu. II, 13.

ana-kumbjan (54, n. 1), wv. (187), to lie down, recline, sit at meat; Mk. II, 15. Skeir. VII, b.

ana-kunnains, f. (103, n. 1), a reading; II. Cor. III, 14. [< ana-kunnan + suff. -ai-ni-.]

ana-kunnan, wv. (193) w. acc., to read; II. Cor. I, 13. III, 2.

ana-qiman, stv. (175, n. 1) w. acc., to cum near, approach; Lu. II, 9.

ana-laugniba, adv. (210), secretly, in secret. [< analaugns + suff. -ba.]

ana-laugns, adj. (130), hidn, secret; Mk. IV, 22. II. Cor. IV, 2. [< ana + -laugns < liugan + suff. -ni-.]

ana-leik, adv., in like manner; Skeir. VII, a. [< *analeiks (< ana + -leiks; s. also galeik) + suff. -; = OHG. {141}*analih (anagilh), MHG. anelch, NHG. hnlich, adj., like, similar.]

ana-mljan, w. v. (187), to write down, enrol for taxation; Lu. II, 5.

-anan (78, n. 4), stv. (177, n. 1), in us-anan, to breath out, giv up the ghost. [< √ an, in OE. andian, to be angry, OHG. andn, MHG. anden, NHG. ahnden, to punish.]

ana-naujan, wv. (188), w. acc., to constrain, force, compel; Mt. V, 41.

ana-niujan, wv. (188), to renew; II. Cor. IV, 16.

ana-praggan (51), rv. (178), to harass, trubl.

ana-silan, wv. (193), to be silent, be stil; Mk. IV, 39.

ana-siuns, adj. (130), visibl.

ana-stdeins, f. (103, n. 1), beginning; Mk. I, 1. [< ana-stdjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

ana-stdjan, wv. (188), intr., to begin; Mk. superscr.

ana-trimpan, stv. (174, n. 1), to tred upon, press upon.

and, prep. w. acc. (217), local, denoting 'motion over', along (orig. opposit), to, into, on, in; Mk. I, 28. 39. and driusn, down a slope; Mk. V, 13. [Orig. *anda = anda-, uzed w. sbs. and adjs. only; and- also w. vs. and advs. OE. ME. and-, ǫnd-, NE. an- (in answer).]

anda-; s. and.

anda-beit (in B, -bt in A), n. (94), reproach; II. Cor. II, 6. [< and-beitan.]

anda-hafts, f. (103), answer, reply; sentence; II. Cor. I, 9. [-hafts < hafjan + suff. -ti-.]

anda-nahti, n. (95), the time toward night, evening; Mk. I, 32. IV, 35. [nahti < nahts.]

anda-neis, adj. (124), contrary; ata andanei, contrariwise; II. Cor. II, 7. [-neis < nei, n., envy, OE. n, m., ME. ni, OHG. nd, MHG. nt (nd-), NHG. neid, m., envy.]

anda-nm (33), n. (94), a receiving. [< and- (= anda-) niman.]

anda-nms (33), adj. (130), plezant, acceptabl. [< and-niman; cp. prec. w.]

anda-numts (33), f. (103), a receiving, acceptation. [< and-niman + suff. -ti-; cp. prec. w.]

anda-sts (34), adj. (130), abominabl. [< and- (s. and) sitan, to fear, regard. Cf. G. entsetzlich, terribl, < (sich) entsetzen, to be amazed, < ent- + setzen, factit. of sitzen, to sit, + -lich.]

anda-stajis, m. (92), adversary. [-stajis < stas.]

anda-staua, m. (107), adversary; Mt. 5[** should be V], 25.

anda-hts, (209), adj. (124), vigilant, cautious. [Prop. an old ptc. in -to-, < and-agkjan.]

and-augj, adv., openly, publicly; Mk. I, 45. [< and-augi (+ adv. suff. -), n., face; -augi < aug- (in aug + suff. -ja-.]

anda-wardi, n. (95), answer; Luc. II, 47. [wardi < -wards (in lausa-wards, etc.) < ward. OHG. ant-wurti, n. f., MHG. ant-wrte, -wurt, NHG. antwort, f., answer.]

anda-wleizn, n. (94) or -wleizns, f. (103), countenance, face; II. Cor. III, 13. [-wleizn < *wleitan (= OE. wltan, ME. wlite, to look) + (if f.) suff. -sni-.]

and-bahti, n. (95, n. 1), service, office, ministry, ministration; II. Cor. III, 7. 8. 9. IV, 1. V, 18. [< andbahts.]

and-bahtjan, wv. (187) w. dat. of pers., to serv, minister; Mk. I, 13. 31; w. acc. of th., to perform, administer; II. Cor. III, 3. [< andbahts, andbahti.]

and-bahts, m. (91), servant, minister; II. Cor. III, 6. officer; Mt. V, 25. {142}[Perhaps < L. ambactus, servant, of Celtic origin.]

and-beitan, stv. (172, n. 1), w. acc., to rebuke, charge; Mk. I, 25. III, 12; in pass., to be perplext; II. Cor. IV, 8.

and-bindan, stv. (174) w. acc., to unbind, loose; Mk. I, 7; to explain; Mk. IV, 34.

and-bundnan, wv. (194), to becum loose, loosen.

andeis, m. (92, n. 1), end; Mk. III, 26; und, or in, andi, to the end; II. Cor. I, 13. III, 13. [OE. ende, m., ME. ende, end, NE. end.]

and-hafjan, stv. (177, n. 2), w. dat. of pers., to answer; Mk. III, 33.

and-haitan, rv. (170; 179), to confess, w. dat. of pers., to confess (one's self) to, to thank; Lu. II, 38; w. dat. of th., to confess sumthing; Mk. I, 5.

and-hausjan, wv. (187), to listen to (and answer favorably), to hear; pers. pass.; Mt. VI, 7.

and-hf, prt. of andhafjan.

and-huleins, f. (103, n. 1), uncuvering, revelation; illumination; Lu. II, 32. [< and-huljan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

and-huljan, wv. (187), w. acc., to uncuver; Mk. II, 4.[** . unwanted]; to reveal; Lu. II, 35; pp. andhulis, uncuverd, open; II. Cor. III, 18.

andi-laus (88a, n. 2), adj. (124), endless.

andizuh, conj. (218), otherwise, else. [< andiz-, perhaps a compar. form of and, anda-, orig. opposit.]

and-niman, stv. (170; 175), w. acc., to take, receiv, partake, accept; Mk. IV, 20. 36. Skeir. VII, c; in the prt. to hav receivd, to hav; Mt. VI, 2, 16; and ana w. acc., to take, take up in; Lu. II, 28.

Andraas, pr. n. Andrew; Skeir. VII, a; gen. -ins.[** . unwanted]; Mk. I, 29; acc. -an; Mk. I, 16. III, 18. [< Ἀνδρέας.]

and-sakan, stv. (177, n. 1), to argue against, speak against; Lu. 2[** II?], 34.

and-standan, stv. (177, n. 3), w. dat., to stand against, resist; Mt. V, 39.

and-starran, wv. (193), to murmur against.

and-tiln, wv. (189), to serv, accomodate one's self to; Skeir. VII, a.

and-agkjan (gg; 67, n. 1), wv. (209), prt. -hta (5, b), to consider, devise; w. sik and gen. of th., to recollect, remember; Skeir. VII, a; so without sik; Skeir. VII, a.

and-wari, n. (95), presence, sight, face; Mt. VI, 16. II. Cor. II, 17. III, 18. IV, 2; person; II. Cor. II, 10; in managamma andwarja, before many persons; II. Cor. I, 11. in andwarja w. gen., in the presence of, before; Mt. V, 24. VI, 1. Lu. II, 31; fara a. w. gen., before; Mk. II, 12. [< and-wars.]

and-wars, adj. (124), present; II. Cor. IV, 17. [-wars < waran. OE. ǫnd-, and-weard, ME. NE. -ward.]

Anna, pr. n., Anna; Lu. II, 36. [< Ἀννα.]

Annas, pr. n., Annas. [< Ἀννας.]

*ans, m. (91, n. 4), beam. [ON. ǫss, ss (from *ans), beam, pole, > vindss, windlass, > ME. windas, NE. windlass (the l by influence of windlass, a circuit, < the vb. wind + -lass, for lace).]

ansteigs, adj. (124), gracious, favorabl. [< ansts + suff. -eig-a-.]

ansts, f. (102), favor; Lu. II, 52; grace; Lu. II, 40. II. Cor. I, 2. 12; joy; II. Cor. I, 24. benefit; II. Cor. I, 15. [OE. st ( is i-uml. of < ǫn for an), m., ME. este, favor, grace.]

anar, adj. (122, n. 1; 124, ns. 1. 4; 146), another, second, (1) alone, with or without the art.; Mt. V, 39. Mk. III, 21. V, 19; ains ... anar, the one ... the other; Mt. VI, 24; sum ... anaru an, sum ... sum; Mk. IV, 5; (2) w. a sb.; {143}Mk. IV, 36. II. Cor. I, 15. [OE. ǫ̂er (ǫ̂ < ǫn for an), ME. other, NE. other.]

apastalus, m. (120, n. 1; apastulus, 13, n. 1), apostl, messenger; II. Cor. I, 1. [< ἀπόστολος.]

arbaidjan, wv. (187), to work, labor, toil; Mt. VI, 28. [< arbais.]

arbais, f. (103), work, labor, toil. [< *arban, to work (vB., 78) + suff. -di-. OE. earfo, earfee, n., ME. earfe-, labor, pains, trubl, OHG. arabeit, MHG. arebeit, arbeit, f., labor, trubl, need, NHG. arbeit, f., work, labor.]

arbi, n. (95), heritage, inheritance. [OE. yrfe, ierfe (ie is i- [** variously with and without space]uml. of ea), n., ME. erfe, OHG. erbi, MHG. NHG. erbe, n., heritage, inheritance.]

arbi-numja (88a), m. (108), one who takes an inheritance, an heir. [-numja < niman + -suff. -jan-.]

arbja, m. (108), heir. [< arb-i + suff. -jan-.]

arbj, f. (112), heiress. [< arbi + suff. -jn-. OHG. arbeo (-eo < -jo), erbo, MHG. NHG. erbe, m., heir.]

Ariamirus (61, n. 1), pr. n.

Ariaricus (3, n. 2), pr. n.

arjan, rv. (179, n. 5), to til, plow, cultivate. [OE. erian, ME. ere, NE. ear, to plow.]

ark-aggilus (57), m. (105), archangel. [< ἀρχάγγελος.]

arma-hartia, f. (97), pity, mercy; Mt. VI, 4. [< armaharts (+ suff. -i-), merciful, < arms = OE. earm, ME. arm, OHG. aram, arm, MHG. NHG. arm, adj. poor, miserabl; + -harts < hart-. Formd after the Lt. misericors.]

armai (22, n. 3), f. (112), mercy, pity; alms; Mt. VI, 1. 2. 3. [< arman.]

arman, wv. (192), to show mercy.—Cpd. ga-a. [< arms, adj.; s. arma-hartia.]

arms, m. (101), arm; Lu. II, 28. [OE. earm, m., ME. arm, NE. arm.]

arniba, adv. (130, n. 3; 210), surely. [< *arni- (+ suff. -ba) = OE. *rne- > eorn-ost, ME. ernest, NE. ernest.]

arwj, adv., without cause, freely, for nought.

asans, f. (103), harvest, harvest time, summer; Mk. IV, 29. [< √ as = OE. r in earnian, ME. arne, erne, NE. ern.]

Asr, pr. n., Aser; gen. -is; Lu. II, 36. [< Ἀσήρ.]

Asia, pr. n., f., Asia; dat. -ai; II. Cor. I, 8.

asilus, m. f. (105), yung ass, ass. [Lt. asinus (with change of suff.), OE. esol, m., ass, OHG. esil, MHG. esel, NHG. esel, m., ass.]

asneis, m. (92), servant, hired man, hireling; Mk. I, 20. [< asans. OE. esne, m., servant.]

asts, m. (91), branch, twig; Mk. IV, 32. [OE. *st (> stel, m., litl branch, book-mark), OHG. MHG. NHG. ast, m., branch, bough.]

at, prep. (217), (I) w. dat., (1) local, (a) denoting nearness, at, by, with, about; Mk. II, 2. 14. IV, 1. V, 11. for (s. haban); Mk. III, 9; in an abstract sense; Luc. II, 52. II. Cor. I, 12. 17. II, 1 (the first). 17. V, 8; (b) the point or goal at which anything arrives, after vs. of 'cuming, bringing', and the like, to; Mk. I, 33. 40. II, 3. III, 8. II. Cor. I, 15. 16. II, 1 (the second). Skeir. VII[** , missing] b (the second); (2) temporal, i. e. 'the time within which'; emfatic w. the dat. abs.; Mk. IV, 6. 35. Lu. II, 2. II. Cor. I, 11. II, 12. V, 20. Skeir. VII, b (the first and third). (II) w. acc., only temporal, at, in; at dul, at the feast; Lu. II, 41. [OE. t, ME. NE. at.]


at-augjan, wv. (187), (1) w. refl. acc. (sik) and dat. of pers., to bring before the eys, show (one's self to); Mk. I, 44; (2) w. fara w. dat., to show one's self, appear; II. Cor. V, 10.

at-baran, stv. (175), w. acc. of th., to bring; Mt. V, 24; to offer; Mk. I, 44.

at-gaggan, anv. (179, n. 3; 207), to go to, cum; Mt. V, 24. Mk. II, 18. 20; w. ana w. acc.; Mk. I, 10; du w. dat.; Mk. V, 15; in w. acc.; Mk. III, 20; aftana; Mk. V, 27.

at-giban (56, n. 1), stv. (176), (1) w. acc. (in pass. the nom.), to giv over, deliver up, deliver, put in prison; Mk. I, 14; to bring forth; Mk. IV, 29; and in w. acc., to deliver unto; II. Cor. IV, 11; (2) w. dat. (indir. obj.) and acc. (dir. obj.), to deliver; Mt. V, 25; in pass. w. dat. of pers. (indir. obj.) and an inf. clause (subj.); Mk. IV, 11.

at-haitan (69, n. 2), rv. (170; 179), w. acc., to call to one; Mk. III, 13. 23.

Athanaildus (65, n. 1), pr. n.

Athanaricus (3, n. 2), pr. n.

at-iddja, prt. of at-gaggan.

atisk, n. (94) or m. (91; only acc. sg., atisk, occurs), seed, cornfield:[** typo for ; ?] Mk. II, 23.

at-kunnan, wv. (193), w. dat. of pers. and acc. of th., to afford, grant, award, giv.

at-nƕjan, wv. (188), w. sik, to draw near, (in prt.) to be at hand; Mk. I, 15.

at-saƕan (34, n. 1), stv. (176, n. 1), w. inf., to take heed; Mt. VI, 1.

at-satjan, wv. (186), w. acc. (understood) and fara w. dat. (fraujin), to present to the Lord; Lu. II, 22.

at-standan, stv. (177, n. 3), to stand near, cum near; Lu. II, 38.

atta (69, n. 1), m. (108), father; Mk. I, 20. V, 40. Lu. II, 48. (= God) Mt. V, 45. 48. VI, 4. 6. 8. 9. 14. 15. 18. 26. 32. Lu. II, 49. II. Cor. I, 2. 3; forefather, ancestor; Skeir. VII, d. [OHG. atto.—<[**spacing?] the language of children.]

attatk, prt. of attkan.

attahun, prt. of attiuhan.

at-tkan (ei for ; 7, n. 2), rv. (181), w. dat.; to tuch; Mk. I, 41. III, 10. V, 27. 28.

Attila, pr. n. (108), prop. 'litl father'.

at-tiuhan, stv. (173), to pul or draw towards, to bring; s. inn-at-tiuhan.

at-insan, stv. (174, n. 1), w. acc., to draw towards.

at-wisan, to be present, be at hand; Mk. IV, 29.

aan, conj. (218), always at the beginning of the sentence, but, moreover; Mt. V, 22. 28. 34. 44. VI, 16. Mk. II, 10. 20. III, 29. IV, 15. II. Cor. I, 6. 13. 18. 21. 23. II, 1. 5. 10. 14. III, 4. 7. 16. 17. 18. IV, 3. 7. V, 5. 8. 11. 18; for; II. Cor. II, 4. IV, 5; aan ik ... i is, I (indeed) ... but he; Mk. I, 8.

Audericus (25, n. 2), pr. n.

auft (24, n. 1; 211, n. 1), adv., perhaps, likely, surely; ibai auft, lest perhaps; Mk. II, 22. II. Cor. I, 17. II, 7.

auga-dar (88a), n. (110), window, lit. 'ey-door'. [The pl. f. darns means door; s. also dar.]

augjan, wv. (187), to show.—Cpd. at-au. [< stem auga- (s. prec. w.). OE. t-awan, t-ŷwan, ME. (at-)ewe, to show.]

aug, n. (110), ey; Mt. V, 29. 38. VI, 22. 23. Lu. II, 30. [OE. age, n., ME. eȝe, eye, NE. ey.]

auhjdus (ahjdus?), m. (105), noiz, tumult; Mk. V, 38. [< ahjn + suff. --dus.]

auhjn (ahjn?), wv. (190), to make a noiz, cry aloud; Mk. V, 39.

*ahns, m. (91, n. 2), oven; Mt. VI, 30. [OE. ofen (for the common {145}orig. of h and f, s. Brgm., I, p. 305 et seq.), m., ME. oven, furnace, oven, NE. oven.]

ahsa, m. (108, n. 1), ox. [OE. oxa, m., ME. oxe, NE. ox.]

ahuma, superl. adj. (139), w. a compar. meaning, higher, > ahumists, ahmists (a new superl.; 124; 139, n. 1), highest, chief. [OE. ŷmest, highest.]

auk, conj. (in our 'Selections' after the first, or two first closely connected words of the sentence), for; Mt. V, 18. 20. 29. 30. 46. VI, 7. 8. 16. 21. 32. Mk. I, 16. II, 15. III, 10. 21. IV, 28. V, 42. II. Cor. III, 9. 11. V, 1. Skeir. VII, c; jah auk, for; II. Cor. V, 4; auk ... -u (= uh) -an, for ... but; II. Cor. II, 16 (in B). [OE. ac, ME. k, ke, also, likewise, NE. eke.]

aukan, rv. (179), to increase.—Cmpds. ana-, bi-au. [OE. *acan (pp. acen), to increase, > the caus. ŷcan, *can, ME. eke, eche, to increase, NE. eke (dial.), ech(e) (Shak.).]

Anisimus (9, n. 1), pr. n.

aurahi (98, or aurahj, 111? a[** bold? F1]? Only dat. pl., aurahjm, occurs), f., tomb; Mk. V, 2. 3. 5.

aurli (5, a), n. (98), napkin. [< Lt. orale, napkin.]

Ausila (25, n. 2), pr. n.

aus, n. (110), ear; Mk. IV, 9. 23. [OE. are, ME. re, n., NE. ear.]

Austrovaldus (25, n. 2), pr. n.

aueis, adj. (127; or aus, 130, n. 2), desert, waste; Mk. I, 35. 45. [ON. aur, OHG. di, MHG. œde, NHG. de, desert, waste.]

auida, f. (97), desert; Mk. I, 3. 4. 12. 13. Skeir. VII, d. [< aueis or aus + suff. -id-.]

awi (17, n. 1), n. (95), flock of sheep. [Perhaps for *aweii (7, n. 4), < *awi; s. awistr. OE. eowde, n., ME. eowd, flock of sheep.]

awiliu (-d), n. (94), thank[** typo thanks?]; II. Cor. II, 14. giving of thanks, thanksgiving; II. Cor. IV, 15.

awiliudn, wv. (190), to thank, giv thanks; Skeir. VII, b; w. far w. acc.; II. Cor. I, 11.

awistr (4), n. (94), sheepfold. [< *awi (OE. eowu, a-stem, f., ME. ewe, NE. ewe, yu) + suff. -stra. OE. eowestre, n., sheepfold.]

azts, adj. (124), easy; compar. aztiz, n.; Mk. II, 9.

azg, f. (112), ashes. [Cf. OE. asce, f., ME. asche, pl. -en (reg.) and es, NE. -ash[** unwanted hyphen], pl. ashes.]

azymus (77), occurs only onse, in gen. pl. azym, unlevend bred. [< ἄζυμος, adj., unlevend, unmixt, azym being formd in accordance w. τῶν ἀζύμων, gen. pl. of the n. adj. uzed substantivly.]

Badi, n. (95), bed; Mk. II, 4. 9. 11. 12. [OE. bed(d), n., ME. NE. bed.]

bagms (48, n. 1), m. (91), tree. [Cf. OE. bam, m., tree, ME. beom, bm, NE. beam.]

-bahtjan, wv., in and-bahtjan.

bai, num. adj. (140, n. 1), both. [OE. *b (for which beᵹen; cp. my Compar. Gloss., p. 583), m., b, f., ME. b, b, f. n., NE. bo-, in both.]

Baalzabul, pr. n. in acc., Beelzebub; Mk. III, 22. [< Βεελζεβούλ.]

baran, stv. (175), (1) to carry, bring (a person); w. at w. dat.; Mk. II, 3; du w. dat.; Mk. I, 32. (a th.) Mt. V, 23. (2) to bear; bring, bring forth (a child); Lu. II, 6; w. akran, fruit; Mk. IV, 8. 28.—Cpds. at-, ga-, us-b. [OE. beran, ME. bere, NE. bear.]

bargan, stv. (174, n. 1), w. dat., to hide, keep. [OE. beorgan, ME. berȝe, to keep, preserv, protect.]

barhtaba, adv. (210), clearly, brightly. [< barhts + suff. -ba.]

barhtei, f. (113), brightness, {146}clearness; barhtein sunjs, by manifestation of the truth; II. Cor. IV, 2; in barhtein, openly; Mt. VI, 4. 6. [< barhts.]

barhtjan, wv. (187), to make clear, show.—Cpd. ga-b. [< barhts.]

barhts, adj. (124), bright, manifest. OE. beorht, byrht, ME. briȝt, briht, NE. bright.]

baitrs (20, n. 4), adj. (124), bitter. [< bait (the √-form of the prt. sg. of beitan) + suff. -ra-. OE. ME. NE. bitter < bit-, the √-form of the prt. pl. and pp.]

bajs, adj. (117, n. 4; 140, n. 1), both. [Cf. bai.]

balgs, m. (100), lether bag, wine-skin, botl; Mk. II, 22. [Orig. skin of an animal. OE. blg, m., a lethern bag, pouch, belly, ME. bely, NE. belly.]

balei, f. (113), boldness; II. Cor. III, 12. [< *bals, bold, daring, = OE. beald, ME. bald, bold, NE. bold.]

balwjan, wv. (187), w. dat., to torment, plague; Mk. V, 7. [< *balws, pernicious, baleful, = OE. bealu, adj., evil, pernicious, and n. sb., evil, sorrow, ME. bale, sb., bali, adj., NE. bale, misery.]

bandi, f. (96), band, bond. [< bindan. OE. bend, m. f. n., ME. NE. bend.]

bandja (32), m. (108), one being bound, prisoner. [< band-i + suff. -jan-.]

bandwa, f. (97, n. 1), sign, token.

bansts, m. (101), barn. Mt. VI, 26. [Cf. OE. bs (< *bǫns < *bans), n., stable, ME. bs, NE. boose.]

barizeins, adj. (124), of barley; Skeir. VII, a. d. [< *baris[**bold? F1] (+ suff. -eina-), barley, = OE. bere, m. (?), ME. bere, barley, NE. bar- in barley.]

barn (33), n. (93), child; Mk. V, 39. 40. 41. Lu. II, 12. 16. 17. 27. 40. Skeir. VII, b. [OE. bearn, barn, ME. barn, n., child[**ital? F1], NE. barn (Shak.).]

barnil, n. (110), litl child, sun; Mk. II, 5. [< barn + suff. -i-ln-.]

Baralamaius (24, n. 5), pr. n., Bartholomew; acc. -u; Mk. III, 18. [< Βαρθολομαῖος.]

batiza, compar. adj. (138), better, w. dat. of pers. and a subj. clause; Mt. V, 29. 30. [< *bat-, good, + compar. suff. -iz-a-n-. OE. bet(e)ra, ME. betere, bettre, NE. better.]

ba, prt. of bidjan.

bauains, f. (103, n. 1), dwelling; Mk. V, 3. II. Cor. V, 2. [< bauan + suff. -ai-ni-.]

bauan (26), wv. (179, n. 2; 193, n. 1), to dwel, inhabit.—Cpd. ga-b. [OE. ban, ME. bue, OHG. ban, MHG. bwen, to dwel, til, plant, cultivate, NHG. bauen, to build, cultivate, etc. Its √ is containd also in NE. bower and -bor, in neighbor.]

Baanargas (a by-name of James and John), Boanerges; Mk. III, 17. [< Βοανεργές.]

-bauljan (24, n. 1), wv. (187), to cause to swel, in uf-b. [Cf. OE. bŷle, f., ME. bile, bule, NE. bile, boil, tumor.]

bar (33), m. (101, n. 2), son. [< baran. OE. byre (< *buri-), m., son.]

bargs, f. (116), town, city; Mt. V, 35. Mk. I, 33. 38. 45. V.[**,] 14. Lu. II, 3. 4. 11. 39. [OE. burh, burg, f., ME. burgh, borugh, NE. borough.]

bargs-waddjus (88a, n. 3), f. (105), town-wall.

beidan, stv. (172, n. 1), w. gen., to abide, expect; Lu. II, 25.—Cpd. us-b. [OE. bdan, ME. bide, NE. (a)bide.]

-beistjan, wv. (187, n. 3), to leven, in ga-b. [< beist, n., leven. < √ of beitan.]


beitan, stv. (172, n. 1), to bite.—Cpd. and-b. [OE. btan, ME. bite, NE. bite.]

brusjs (bi-; 7, n. 3), pl. (sing. *bruseis; 33), m. (92, n. 2), parents; Lu. II, 27. 41. [Orig. perfect ptc. activ, < √ of baran.]

Blahaim (a for a in Jo. VII, 42; concerning the h, s. 61, n. 3), indecl. pr. n., Bethlehem; Lu. II, 4. 15. [< Βηθλεέμ.]

bi, prep. (217), (I) w. dat., (1) local, by. Mk. V, 41; (2) in abstr. relations, by, on; Mt. V, 34. 35. 36. Mk. V, 7; after, according to, in; Lu. II, 22. 27. 29. 39. 42. II. Cor. I, 17. IV, 13. V, 16; bi ufarassau, exceedingly; II. Cor. IV, 17. (II) w. acc., (1) local, against, on; Mt. V, 39; about; Mk. I, 6. III, 8. 32. 34. IV, 10. V, 4; (2) in abstr. relations, about, over, for, of, concerning; Mt. V, 44. Mk. I, 30. IV, 19. V, 16. 27. 33. Lu. II, 17. 27. 33. 38. II. Cor. I, 8. 11; against; Mt. V, 23. Mk. III, 6; because of, at, about; Mt. VI, 28. Lu. II, 18.—bi sumata, in part.[** . redundant]; II. Cor. I, 14. II, 5. [OE. b, prep., bĭ-, be-, pref. ME. bi, by, bi-, be-, NE. by, be-.]

bi-aukan, rv. (179), to increase; in pass. w. dat. of pers., to ad to, giv more; Mk. IV, 24.

bida, f. (97), request, prayer; Lu. II, 37; the pers. for whom the prayer is made, is exprest by bi w. acc.; II. Cor. I, 11. [< bidjan. OE. bedu, f. (ge-bed, n.), ME. bede, OHG. beta, bita, MHG. bete, bite, NHG. bitte, f., prayer, request.]

bidjan, stv. (176, n. 5), to pray, ask, desire, beseech, call on, beg, (1) abs.; Mt. VI, 5. 6. 7. 9. Mk. I, 35; (2) w. acc. of the pers. addrest; Mt. V, 42. VI, 8. Mk. I, 40. V, 12. 23; (3) w. du w. dat. of the pers. addrest; Mt. VI, 6; (4) the pers. for whom the prayer is made, is exprest by bi w. acc.; Mt. V, 44; (5) w. acc. of pers. and a dependent clause introduced by ei (w. opt.); Mk. V, 10. 18; or an inf. clause; Mk. V, 17. II. Cor. II, 8. V, 20. [OE. biddan, ME. bidde, NE. bid, to pray, which represents also OE. bodan; s. biudan.]

bi-gardan, stv. (174, n. 1), to begird, gird one's self.

bi-gat, bi-gtun, prt. of bigitan.

bi-gitan, stv. (176, n. 1), to find, meet with, w. acc.; Mk. V, 37. Luc. II, 16. 45; w. two accs., the second being a ptc. in agreement w. the first; Lu. II, 12. 16 (barn). 46; in pass. w. nom.; Skeir. VII, c; or two noms. (one being implied); II. Cor. V, 3.

bi-hlahjan, stv. (177, n. 2), to laf at, laf to scorn; Mk. V, 40.

bi-leiban (56, n. 1), stv. (172, n. 1), to remain.

bi-leian, stv. (172, n. 1), to leav, forsake, in pp.; II. Cor. IV, 9.

bi-maitan, rv. (179), w. acc., to circumcise; Lu. II, 21.

bi-nahan, prt.-prs. (201); impers.: bi-nah, it is lawful.

bindan, stv. (174), to bind.—Cpds. and-, ga-b. [OE. bindan, ME. binde, NE. bind.]

bi-raubn, wv. (190), to rob, strip, despoil.

birusjs; s. brusjs.

bi-saƕan (34, n. 1), stv. (176, n. 1), w. acc., to look round about on; Mk. III, 34.

bi-sauljan (24, n. 1), wv. (188), to sully, defile.

bi-saulnan (24, n. 1), wv., to becum soild,[**sp?—P3:stet.] sullied, defiled.

bi-sitan, stv. (176, n. 1), to sit about or near; only in prsp. uzed substantivly (115): and allans bisitands (acc. pl.) G., to 'all dwellers' {148}of G., i. e. round about G.; Mk. I, 28.

bi-skeinan, stv. (172, n. 1), w. acc., to shine upon, shine round about; Lu. II, 9.

bi-sunjan, adv., about, round about, near; Mk. I, 38. III, 34. [-sunjan, for *sundjan, gen. pl. of the prsp. of √ es-[**bold? F1] + suff. -jon-[**bold? F1] (Feist p. 19); s. im.]

bi-swarban, stv. (174, n. 1), to wipe.

bi-swaran, stv. (177, n. 1), to swear to, to adjure, w. acc. of pers. and bi w. dat.; Mk. V, 7.

Biania (9, n. 1), pr. n., Bethany.

bi- and bi-h (153, n. 2; 154, n. 2; for -h, s. -uh), (1) adv., after that, then, afterward; Mt. V, 24. (2) conj. (218), while, when, as, as soon as; Mt. VI, 16. Mk. I, 42. II, 15. IV, 10. 17. 29. Lu. II, 15. 21. 22. 39. 42. Skeir. VII, d.

-biudan, stv. (170; 173), to offer.—Cpd. ana-b. [OE. bodan, ME. bede, to offer, command, announce. NE. bid represents both OE. biddan and bodan; s. bidjan.]

biugan, stv. (173, n. 1), to bow, bend.—Cpd. ga-b. [OE. bgan ( for o in the prs. forms), ME. buge, bouwe, NE. bow.]

bi-hti, n. (95), custom; Lu. II, 27. 42. [< bihts.]

bi-hts (15), adj. (124), accustomd, wont.

bius (74, n. 2), m. (91, n. 2), table. [Apparently < √ of biudan. OE. bod, m., table.]

bi-windan, stv. (174, n. 1), to wind round, enwrap, swathe, w. acc.; Lu. II, 7. (biwundans, wrapt) 12.

blandan, rv. (179, n. 1), to blend, mix. [OE. blandan, blǫndan, to mix, confused with blendan, to make blind, to mix, ME. blende, NE. blend.]

bleiei, f. (113), mercy; II. Cor. I, 3. [< bleis.]

bleis, adj. (130, n. 2), merciful, kind. [OE. ble, happy, glad, frendly, ME. blie, NE. blithe.]

-blsan, rv. (179, n. 1), to blow, in uf-b-[** typo uf-b.] [OHG. blsan, MHG. NHG. blasen, to blow.]

bliggwan (68), stv. (174, n. 1), to beat, cut, w. acc. and instr. dat.; Mk. V, 5. [OE. *blowan (Kluge, W., bluen) (> ME. blowe, NE. blow, a stroke, hit), OHG. bliuwan, MHG. bliuwe, NHG. bluen (now connected with blau, blu), to beat.]

-blindjan, wv. (187), to make blind, in ga-b. [< blinds.]

-blindnan, wv. (194), to becum blind, in ga-blindnan. [< blinds.]

blinds, adj. (123), blind. [OE. blind, ME. blind, NE. blind.]

blma, m. (108), flower; Mt. VI, 28. [< √ bl[**bold? F1], to bloom, + suff. -man-. OE. blma, m., ME. blome, NE. bloom.]

-blstreis (69, n. 2), m. (92), wurshipper, only in gu-b. [< *blstra-, a sacrifice, < bltan + suff. -stra-.]

bltan, rv. (179, n. 1), to reverence, wurship, w. acc. of pers. and instr. dat.; Lu. II, 37. [OE. bltan, to sacrifice.]

bl (gen. blis; 94), n., blud; Mk. V, 25. 29. [OE. bld (w. -d), n., ME. blod, n., NE. blud.]

bla-rinnands, adj. (prop. prsp.; 133), blud-running. [< stem of bl + prsp. of rinnan.]

bnauan (26), stv. (? 179, n. 2), to rub. [For.[** . redundant?] bi-n. ON. *bna < b- + na = -na in gna (later na), to scrape.]

bka, f. (97), letter; II. Cor. III, 6; in pl. letters; epistl; anafilhis bks, letters of commendation; II. Cor. III, 1. afstassais bks, writing of divorcement; Mt. V, 31. [Probably nom. pl. of bk, n., which, at a later period, was mistaken for a nom. sg. f. OE. bc, n., uzually {149}f. (pl. bc, w. i-uml.), ME. bok, NE. book.]

bkareis, m. (92), scribe; Mt. V, 20. Mk. I, 22,[**.] II, 6. 16. III, 21. 22. [OE. ME. bcere, m., scribe, lit. 'booker'.]

btjan, wv. (187), w. acc., to boot, profit, advantage. ni wahtai btida, nothing betterd; Mk. V, 26. [< bta (= OE. bt, f., ME. bte, advantage, NE. boot, reparation). OE. btan, ME. bte, NE. beet, bete, to mend, make better.]

brhta, prt. of briggan.

braidei, f. (113), bredth. [< brais. OE. br̂du (the u for orig. = Goth. ei), ME. brde, NE. bredth (the th being due to sbs. w. orig. th = Goth. -- of the ful suff. [**-]i-.]

*brais, braids (74, n. 2), adj. (124), broad. [OE. brd, ME. brd, brd, NE. broad.]

brakja (33, n. 1), f. (97, n. 1), strugl. [Orig. 'breach' (Brgm., II, 63), < brikan + suff. -jan-.]

-brannjan (80, n. 1)[**, ?] wv. (187), to burn (tr.), in in-br. [Caus. of brinnan (prt. brann). OE. brennan, brnan, ME. brenne, NE. burn (tr.)].[** . shd be inside bracket]

briggan (67, n. 2), anv. (174, n. 2; 208), to bring, lead, w. acc. and in w. dat.; Mt. VI, 13; wairana[** typo warana] b., to make or count wurthy; II. Cor. III, 6. [OE. bringan (prt. brǫ̂hte[**] < *branhte = Goth. brhta < *branhta), ME. bringe, NE. bring.]

brikan (33, n. 1), stv. (175, n. 1), to break.—Cpd. ga-b. [OE. brecan, ME. breke, NE. break.]

brinnan, stv. (174, n. 1), to burn (intr.).—Cpd. uf-b. [OE. brinnan, beornan (< birnan for brinnan), ME. berne, birne, NE. burn.]

brinn, f. (112), fever; Mk. I, 31; in brinnn ligan, to lie sick of fever; Mk. I, 30. [< brinnan.]

brar, m. (114), brother; Mt. V, 22. 23. 24. Mk. I, 16. 19. III, 17. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. V, 37. II. Cor. I, 1. 8. [OE. bror, ME. broer, NE. brother.]

brru-lub (88a, ns. 2. 3; 210, n. 1), f. (112), brotherly luv.

brkjan (15), anv. (209), to uze, partake of, w. gen.; II. Cor. I, 17. III, 12. [< brks.]

-bruknan, wv. (194), to break off (intr.), in us-b. [< pp. stem of brikan.]

brks (15), adj. (130), useful, profitabl. [OE. brŷce, ME. briche, useful, < √ of Goth. *brkan, OE. brcan, ME. brke, brouke, to uze, enjoy, NE. brook (v.).]

brunj, f. (112), brest-plate. [OE. byrne (-yr- for -ry-), f., ME. brynie, G. brnne, coat of mail.]

brunna, m. (108), wel, spring, issue; Mk. V, 29. [OE. burna (-ur- for -ru-), m., ME. burne, bourne, NE. bourn(e).]

-brunsts (49), f. (103), in ala-brunsts, holocaust, burnd offering. [< brinnan + suff. -sti-.]

brusts, f. (116), brest. [OHG. MHG. NHG. brust, f., brest. Cf. OE. brost, n., ME. brest, NE. brest.]

br-fas (88a, n. 1; gen. -fadis), m., (101), bridegroom; Mk. II, 19. 20.

brs (15), f. (116), bride, daughter-in-law. [OE. brŷd, ME. bryde, brid, NE. bride.]

bugjan, anv. (209), to buy, sel. [OE. bycᵹan, ME. bugge, bigge, biȝe, beye, NE. buy.]

-bundnan, wv. (194), in and-b. [< pp. stem of bindan.]

-Daban, stv. (177, n. 1), in ga-d. [OE. *dafan > the verbal adj. dft, mild, gentl, ME. deft, daft, NE. deft, fit, dexterous, neat.]

daddjan (73, n. 1), wv. (187), to giv suck, suckl. [See Brgm., IV, 707.]

Dagalaiphus (21, n. 1; 52), pr. n.


dags, m. (90), day; Mk. I, 9. 13. II, 20. IV, 35. Lu. II, 1. 6. 21. 22. 36. 44. II. Cor. I, 14; daga jah daga, day by day, daily; II. Cor. IV, 16; afar dagans, after (sum) days; Mk. II, 1; himma daga, to-day; Mt. VI, 11. 30. Lu. II, 11; und hina dag, until (unto) this day; II. Cor. III, 14. 15; naht jah daga, night and day; Mk. IV, 27; nahtam jah dagam, th. s.; Mk. V, 5. Lu. II, 37. [OE. dg, m., ME. di, dai, day, NE. day.]

Dakapalis, pr. n., Decapolis; dat. -ein; Mk. V, 20.

dailjan, wv. (188), to deal,[** .] Cpd. ga-d. [< dails. OE. d̂lan, ME. dle, NE. deal, v.]

dails, f. (103), deal, part, portion, share. [OE. d̂l, m., ME. deal, dl, NE. deal, sb.]

dal, n. (? 94, n. 2), dale, valley. [OE. dl, n., ME. dale, NE. dale.]

dala, adv. (213, n. 2), downward, down. [< stem of dal + suff. -.]

dalaa, adv. (213, n. 2), below. [< dala + suff. -a.]

dalar, adv. (213, n. 2), from beneath. [< stem of dal + suff. -r.]

daubia, f. (97), defness; d. hartins, hardness of hart; Mk. III, 5. [< daufs, gen. daub-is, + suff. -i-.]

-daubnan, wv. (194, b), to becum def.,[**typo for just ,] in af-d. [< *daufs, gen. daubis.]

-daudjan, wv. (188), in us-d. [< -daus, zelous, in us-daus.]

*daufs (56, n. 1), adj. (124, n. 2), def, hardend. [OE. daf, ME. df, NE. def.]

daug, prt.-prs. in 3d pers. sg. prs. ind. (198), it is fit, it is of use, it profits. [OE. dah, inf. dugan, ME. duȝe, dowe, NE. do (in the frase 'that wil do'), prov. E. dow.]

dahtar, f. (114), daughter; Mk. V, 23. 34. 35. Lu. II, 36. [OE. dohtor, f., ME. douȝter, NE. daughter.]

dauns, f. (103, n. 1), odor, savor; II. Cor. II, 14. 15. 16. [ON. daunn, m., odor.]

daupeins, f. (103, n. 1), baptism; Mk. I, 4. [< daupjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

daupjan, wv. (187), to baptize, (1) abs.; Mk. I, 4. (2) w. acc. and in w. dat.; Mk. I, 8. (pass.) Mk. I, 5. 9. [OE. dŷpan (ŷ for ie < a + -j = Goth. au + -j), to immerge, baptize.]

daupjands, m.[** , missing?] prop. prsp. of daupjan (115); sa d., the Baptist.

dar, n. (94), door, gate; Mk. I, 33. II, 2. [OE. dor, n., OHG. MHG. tor, NHG. thor, n., door, gate; s. also auga-dar.]

-darsan, prt.-prs. (199), to dare, in ga-d. [OE. *durran, prs. ind. sg. dear (= Goth. -dars), ME. dar, der, NE. dare.]

daueins, f. (103, n. 1), the dying; II. Cor. IV, 10. [< daujan + suff. -ei-ni), to kil, < daus.]

-daunan, wv. (194), to die, in ga-d. [< daus.]

daus, gen. dauis, adj. (124), ded; II. Cor. I, 9. [Prop. an old ptc. < √ dau (containd in ON. d, prt. of deyja (Noreen, 413), stv., to die[**ital? F1], > ME. deye, NE. die) + suff. -o-. OE. dad, ME. dd, ded, NE. ded.]

dauus, m. (105), deth; II. Cor. I, 9. II.[**,] 16. in pl. deths, i. e. dangers of deth; II. Cor. I, 6. III, 7. IV, 11. 12. [< √ dau (s. daus) + suff. -u-. OE. da (orig. u-stem), m., ME. dea, de, NE. deth.

Daweid, pr. n., David; Mk. II, 25. gen. -is: Lu. II, 4. 11. [< Δαυΐδ.]

-dds; s. -ds.

deigan, stv. (172, n. 1), to knead. [< √ dg, in prt. daig = OE. dg, seen in dg (Goth. daigs), dh, m., ME. dah.[**, ?] dogh, NE. dough.]

-ds, -dds (74, n. 2), f. (103), deed, only in cpds.; cf. missa-ds. [< √ d (: d > OE. dn, ME. d, {151}NE. do) + suff. -i-. OE. d̂d, f., ME. dede, NE. deed.]

diabalus, diabulus (13, n. 1), m. (105), devil. [< διάβολος, slanderer, devil.]

dis-, inseparabl particl prefixt to vs. (and verbal sbs.), (1) asunder, apart; (2) uzed intensivly (cf. dis-haban.)[** . shd follow )?] [In meaning = Lt. dis- (> NE. dis- and OF. des- > NE. de- (different from de- < Lt. de).]

dis-haban, wv. (192), w. acc., to constrain (s. dis-); II. Cor. V, 14.

dis-hniupan, stv. (173, n. 1), to break to pieces.

dis-kreitan, stv. (172, n. 1), to tear asunder, rend (tr.).

dis-skritnan, wv. (194), to rend (intr.).

dis-taran, stv. (175, n. 1), w. acc., to tear asunder, burst; Mk. II, 22.

dis-wilwan, stv. (174, n. 1), to plunder (completely), spoil; Mk. III, 27.

diupei, f. (113), depth, deep. [< diups.]

diups, adj. (124), deep; Mk[** .] IV, 5. [OE. dop, ME. dp, NE. deep.]

dius, gen. diuzis, n. (94), beast; Mk. I, 13. [OE. dor, n., ME. dr, der, (wild) animal, NE. deer.]

diwan, stv. (176, n. 2), to die; ata diwan, that which is mortal, mortality; II. Cor. V, 4. [Cp. daus.]

-djan (26), wv. (187), in af-d.

dmjan, wv. (187), w. acc., to deem, judge; II. Cor. V, 14. [< dms, m., judgment (= OE. dm, m., ME. dm, NE. doom). OE. dman, ME. dme, deme, NE. deem.]

-draban, stv. (177, n. 1), in ga-d.

dragan, stv. (177, n. 1), to carry, load. [OE. dragan, ME. drawe, draȝe, NE. draw.]

dragk (32; -ggk; 67, n. 1), n. (94), drink. [< drigkan, prt. dragk.]

dragkjan, wv. (188), to giv to drink. [Caus. of drigkan. OE. drencan, ME. drenche, NE. drench.]

draibjan, wv. (188), w. acc., to trubl; Mk. V, 35. [Caus. of dreiban. OE. -dr̂fan, OHG. MHG. treiben, wv., to drive.]

drahsna (drausna; 62, n. 4), f. (97), crum, fragment. Skeir. VII, d. [OE. drosn, ME. drosne, dregs.—?]

drahtinassus, m. (105), warfare. [< drahtinn + suff. -assu-, to war, < stem of -drahts (ga-drahts, m., soldier), < √ of driugan + suff. -ti-.]

-drausjan, wv. (188), to cause to fall, in ga-dr. [Caus. of driusan.]

dreiban (-drbi; 10, n. 5), stv. (172, n. 1), to drive, in us-dr. [OE. drfan, ME. drive, NE. drive.]

drigkan (gg for g; 67, n. 1), stv. 174, n. 1), to drink, (1) abs.; Mk. II, 16. (2) w. acc.; Mt. VI, 25. 31. [OE. drincan, ME. drinke, NE. drink.]

driugan, stv. (173, n. 1).[** ,] to perform military service, to war. [OE. drogan, ME. drege, dreȝe, NE. dree, to endure, suffer.]

driusan, stv. (173, n. 1), to fall, fall down, w. ana w. acc.; Mk. III, 10; du w. dat.; Mk. III, 11. V, 33.—Cpd. ga-d. [OE. drosan (> dror n., gore, blud, > drorig, gory, sad, ME. drery, NE. dreary), ME. drese, to fall, > the NE. frequ. drizl.]

drius (31), f. (112), slope; Mk. V, 13. [< driusan.]

drbnan (56, n. 4), wv. (194), to becum trubld. [< *drfs = OE. drf, trubld, > OE. drfan, ME. dreve, to trubl, afflict, = Goth. drbjan, to stir up, trubl, OHG. truoben, MHG. treben, NHG. trben, to make turbid, to afflict.]

drugkanei (32), f. (113), drunkenness. [< pp. stem of drigkan.]

-drugkja (32), m., in weindrugkja. [< drugk- (s. drugkanei) + suff. -jan.-[** . shd follow -]]

drus, m. (101, ns. 1. 2), fall; Lu. II, {152}34. [< driusan, pp. drusans. OE. dryre, m., fall.]

drusun, prt. of driusan.

du, prep. w. dat., (1) local (especially after vs. of 'saying, speaking', and the like, denoting the pers. or th. addrest), to, into, at, on, towards; Mt. V, 23. VI, 6. 26. Mk. I, 5. 32. 37. 38. 40. 44. 45. II, 5. 8. 10. 11. 13. 14. 16. 17. 18. 24. 25. III, 3. 5. 7. 11. 13. 23. 31. 32. IV, 1. 13. 21. 24. 33. 35. 38. 39. 40. 41. V, 9. 15. 19. 21. 22. 31. 33. 34. 36. 39. 41. Lu. II, 10. 15. 17. 18. 20. 34. 48. 49. 50. II. Cor. I, 18. III, 7. 16. (2) abstr., to, unto, toward, for; Mt. VI, 6. Mk. I, 4. 44. Lu. II, 32. 34. II. Cor. I, 18. 20. II, 4. III, 1. IV, 2. 6. 15. V, 5. Skeir. VII, a; in; II. Cor. I, 9. 10. III, 4. (3) w. inf., to; Mt. V, 28. VI, 1. Mk. II, 9. III, 14. 15. IV, 3. Lu. II, 6. 21. [In meaning (not in form) identical w. OE. t, ME. to, NE. to, prep. (too, adv.).]

-db (15), in hraiwa-db. [OE. dfe, f., ME. douve, NE. duv.]

du-ginnan, stv. (174, n. 1), to begin, w. inf.; Mk. I, 45. II, 23. IV, 1. V, 17. 20. II. Cor. III, 1.

du-ƕ, adv., wherefore; Mk. II, 8. 18. IV, 40.

duls, f. (116 and n. 1), feast; Lu. II, 41. 42. [OHG. tuld, MHG. tuld, dult, f., NHG. (Bavarian) dult, a fair.]

-dumbnan, wv. (194), in af-d. [< dumbs.]

dumbs, adj. (124), dum. [OE. dumb, ME. domb, dum, NE. dum.]

du-stdjan, wv. (188), to begin; II. Cor. superscr.

du- (du, for duh, i. e. du-h-, for du-uh ; s. 62, n. 3), adv. and conj. (153, n. 2), therefore; Mt. VI, 25. Mk. I, 38. II. Cor. I, 20. II, 9. IV, 1; du ei w. indic., for, because; Lu. II, 4; w. opt., that, in order that; Mk. IV, 21. II. Cor. III, 13.

dwals, adj. (124), foolish; dwala, m. (107; cp. also 132, n. 2), fool. [OE. dwal, dwol, dol, ME. dwal, dul, adj., foolish, NE. dul.]

Ei, (1) conj. (218), (a) before[** should be non-italic?] subj. clauses, that; Mt. V, 29. 30. VI, 7. II. Cor. I, 18; (b) before obj. clauses, after vs. of 'perceiving, knowing, believing, hoping, saying, commanding', and the like, that; Mt. V, 17. Mk. I, 44. III, 9 (first). 12. V.[** should be ,] 43. II. Cor. I, 10. 13. 23. II, 1. (appositional)[** (appositional) shd precede . ? It's 2 Cor 2:1 that has appositional ei] V, 1; (d) before final clauses, after vs. of 'willing, praying', and the like, that, in order that; Mt. V, 45. VI, 2. 4. 5. 16. 18. Mk. I, 38. II, 10. III, 2. 6. 9 (second). 10. 14. IV, 12. 21. 22. V, 10. 12. 18. 23. Luc. II, 3. 20. 24. 27. 35. II. Cor. I, 4. 9. 11. 15. 17. II, 3. 4. 5. 9. 11. III, 13. IV, 4. 7. 10. 11. 15. V, 4. 10. 12. 15. 21; (e) causal, sinse, for; Mk. I, 27. (2) enclitic, forming, (a) rel. prns. (157, 158; S., 69): saei, ikei,[** bold?] etc.; (b) rel. advs.: arei, adei, etc.; (c) conjs.: akei, farizei, etc.; (d) adv. particls: waitei, wainei, etc. [Cp. sai.]

Eila (65, n. 1), pr. n.

eils = hails (21, n. 1; 61, n. 1).

eisarn, n. (94), iron. See note to Mk. V, 4. [OE. sern, ren, n., ME. iren, NE. iron. Of Keltic orig.]

eisarneins, adj. (124), of iron, iron; Mk. V, 3. 4. [< eisarn + suff. -eina-.]

ei-an, conj. (218), therefore.

Erelieva (54, n. 2), pr. n.

Ermanaricus (20, n. 3), pr. n.

Ermenberga (20, n. 3), pr. n.

Esaeias, pr. n. m., Esaias; dat. Esain; Mk. I, 2. [< Ἠσαΐας.]


Fadar, m. (114), father. [OE. fder, m., ME. fader, NE. father (th for d may be due to the influence of ON. fa[**]ir and to 'brother', which hav orig. th).]

fadrein, n. (94, n. 4), paternity, family. [Prop. adj. uzed as sb., < fadar + suff. -eina-.]

fadreins, f. (103), lineage, family; Lu. II, 4. [< fadar + suff. -eini-.]

faginn (66, n. 1), wv. (190), to rejoice, w. fram w. dat.; II. Cor. II, 3. [< a lost adj. (cp. aiginn). OE. fᵹnian (< fᵹen, adj., glad), ME. faine, to rejoice, NE. fain (obs.), to wish, desire.]

fagrs, adj. (124), suitabl, fair. [OE. fᵹer, adj., fair, beutiful, ME. fiȝer, fayr, NE. fair.]

fhan (5 b), rv. (179), to cach, seiz. [OE. fn (< fan < fhan < fǫnhan < fanhan; prt. fng), ME. fon, fong (by influence of the prt. forms w. ng), to cach, > OE. ME. fang, NE. fang (sb.).]

fahs (fahds; acc. faheid; 7, n. 2), f. (103), joy, gladness; Mk. IV, 16. Lu. II, 10. II. Cor. II, 3. [< fah- (cp. fag-inn) + suff. -di-.]

-fahjan, wv. (188), in fulla-f. [< fah-; s. fahs.]

faian (22, n. 2), rv. (? 182, n. 1), to find fault with. [Cp. fijan.]

fih (20, n. 2), n., fraud, deception.

-fihn, wv. (190), in ga-f. [< fih. Cp. OE. fh, adj., hostil, ge-fh, m., foe, ME. f, f, adj., hostil, (i-) f, (i-) f, m. (sb.), NE. foe. See also ga-fihn.]

fahu (53), n. (106), catl, property, muney. [OE. feoh, n., ME. f, NE. fee.]

*fahu-ra[**i?]hns, m. (91, or -ra[**i?]hn, n.; 94[**spacing?]?), plenty of catl, riches. [-ra[**i?]hns < reihan + suff. -na-.]

far-, inseparabl particl, w. vs. and verbal derivativs which it intensifies. [OE. for-, intensiv prefix, ME. NE. for- (except in forfeit, where it is < Lt. foris, out of doors.]

far-ihan, prt.-prs. (203), to partake.

far-greipan, stv. (172), w. acc., to take hold of, take; Mk. V, 41.

farguni, n. (95), mountain; Mk. III, 13. V, 5. 11. [OE. firgen-, n., mountain, in f.-bam, m., mountain-tree; f.-holt, n., mountain-wood, etc.]

-farƕjan, wv. (188), in wai-f. [< fa[**/i?]rƕus.]

farƕus, m. (105), the world; II. Cor. I, 12. [OE. feorh, m. n., ME. vor, life.]

farina, f. (97), charge, cause; Mt. V, 32. [< far- + suff. -in-[**spacing?](?). OE. firen (< *firenu), f., crime, sin.]

farneis, adj. (128), old; Mk. II, 21.[**,?] 22. [< *farna- (< *far-; cp. farra) + suff. -na. OE. fyrn (cp. Siev., 302), ME. furn, former, OHG. firni, MHG. virne, NHG. firn, old.]

farra, adv. (213, n. 2; 217), far, far off; uzed as prep. w. dat.; Lu. II, 15. 37. [< far- + suff. -ra. OE. feor(r), ME. feor, fer, adv. and adj., NE. far.]

farrar, adv. (213, n. 2), far from, afar off; Mk. V, 6. [< farra + -r.]

far-weitjan, wv. (187), to look at, behold stedfastly, fix the eys upon, w. gen.; II. Cor. IV, 18; w. du w. dat.; II. Cor. III, 7; in w. acc.; II. Cor. III, 13.

falan, rv. (179), to fold. [OE. fealdan, ME. falde, folde, NE. fold.]

-fals, adj. (148), -fold, in ain-f., fidur-f. [< falan. OE. -feald, ME. -fald, -fold, NE. -fold.]

fana, m. (108), a small piece of cloth, a pach; Mk. II, 21. [OE. fana, a piece of cloth, banner, ME. fane, vane, NE. vane, flag.]

Fanul, pr. n., Phanuel; gen. -is; Lu. II, 36. [< Φανουήλ.]


faran, stv. (177, n. 1), to fare, go. [OE. faran, to go, travel, ME. fare, NE. fare.]

Fareisaius, m., Farisee; nom. pl. -eis; Mk. II, 16. 18. 24. III, 6.;[** probably shd be ; not . but certainly not both] gen. pl. -; Mt. V, 20. [< Φαρισαῖος.]

fastan, wv. (193), to hold fast, observ, keep; to fast; Mt. VI, 16. 17. 18. Mk. II, 18. 19. 20.—Cpd. ga-f. [< *fasts (= OE. fst, adj., firm, strong, ME. NE. fast). OE. fstan, ME. faste, to fasten, fast, NE. fast (also fasten, ME. fstne, OE. fstnian < OE. fst).]

fastubni, n. (95), (1) a keeping, observance. (2) fasting; Lu. II, 37. [< fastan[**bold? F1] + suff. -ubnja-. OE. fsten, n., ME. fasten, festen, fasting.]

-fas, m. (101), master; s. br-, synagga-, sundi-fas.

far, prep. w. acc. (217), (1) of space, before, along, by; Mk. I, 16. II, 13. IV, 4. (2) in abstr. relations, for, for ... sake, concerning; II. Cor. I, 6. 11. V, 15. 20.—Occurs also in composition w. other words. [OE. for, prep., before, for, ME. NE. for.]

fara[** , missing?] far-, (1) adv. of space and time, before. (2) prep. w. dat. (217), (a) of space, before; Mt. VI, 2. Mk. I, 2. V, 21. Lu. II, 22. II. Cor. V, 10; (b) in abstr. relations, for, because of; Mk. II, 4. f. andwarja w. gen., before; Mk. II, 12.—Occurs also in composition w. other words. [OE. ME. fore, prep., for, before; cp. far.]

fara-gaggja (67, n. 1), m. (108), 'fore-goer', guvernor, steward. [< -gaggja < *gaggi < gaggan + suff. -ja.]

fara-ga-satjan, wv. (187), w. acc., to set before, to present; II. Cor. IV, 14.

far-hh (5 b), n. (94), curtain. [< -hh < hhan.]

farhtei, f. (113), fright, fear; Mk. V, 42. [< farhts. OE. fyrhtu (u for orig. ), f., ME. frigt, friȝt, NE. fright.]

farhtjan, wv. (188), to fear, be afraid; Mk. V, 36. [< farhts. OE. fyrhtan, ME. friȝte, a-friȝt, pp., NE. fright (poet.), affright.]

farhts, adj. (124), fearful; Mk. IV, 40. [OE. forht, timid.]

far-lageins, f. (103, n. 1), a laying before; hlaibs farlageinais, show-bred; Mk. II, 26. [< far-lagjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

far-mljan (15), wv. (188), to bind up one's mouth, to muzl.

faris, adv., first, beforehand, before; Mt. V, 24. Mk. III, 27. II. Cor. I, 15. [< far + adverbial compar. suff. -is (< -iza-). OE. furor, ME. furer, NE. further.]

fariz-ei, conj. (218), before; Mt. VI, 8. Lu. II, 21. fariz (6, n. 4); Lu. II, 26.

*faus, adj. (124, n. 3), few. [OE. fa(w-), ME. fwe (the -we is due to the inflected forms), NE. few.]

-feinan, wv. (193), in in-f-[** typo in-f. ?], to be moved with compassion, to pity; Mk. I, 41.

fra (8), f. (97), region, side, part. [OHG. feara, fiara, side, part.]

fidur- (15, n. 1; 24, n. 2; 141, n. 1), num. (only in cpds.), four. [< *fiur. OE. fyer-, ME. feer-, four; cp. fidwr.]

fidur-fals, adj. (148), four-fold.

fidwr, num. (141), four; Lu. II, 37; dat. -im; Mk. II, 3. [For *fidwr-(i)z. OE. fyer-, ME. feer-. Cp. OE. fower (< *fewur, for *fehwur = O. Icel. fjogor, fjugur, n., < an erlier *kwekur- < *kwetur-; cp. Brugm., III, p. 11), ME. foure, NE. four. Cp. fidur.]

fidwr-tahun[** /i?], num. (141). [OE. fower-tene, ME. fourtene, NE. fourteen.]

fidwr tigjus (cp. tigus), num. (142), {155}forty; Mk. I, 13. Skeir. VII, d (= m). [OE. fowertiᵹ, ME. fowwerrtiȝ, vourti, NE. forty.]

figgra-gul (88a), n. (94), 'finger-gold', finger-ring.

figgrs, m. (91), finger. [OE. finger, m., ME. finger, NE. finger.]

fijan (fian; 10, n. 4), wv. (193), to hate, w. acc.; Mt. V, 43. VI, 24. [OE. fon (< *fi(j)ǫn). Cp. fijands.]

fijands (fiands), m. (115), enemy; Mt. V, 43. 44. [Prop. prsp. of fijan, uzed as sb. OE. fond (< fi(j)ǫnd), m., ME. fnd, NE. fiend.]

filhan, stv. (174, n. 1), to hide, conceal.—Cpd. ana-f. [OE. feolan (< *feolhan), to hide, be-feolan, to commit, ME. fele, to hide, be-fele, to commit, OHG. bifel(h)an, to commit, trust, recommend, also to hide, bury, MHG. bevel(he)n, to trust, commit, command, NHG. be-fehlen, to command, commend, commit.]

Filippus, pr. n., Philip; Skeir. VII, a; acc. -u; Mk. III, 18. [< Φίλιππος.]

-fill, n. (94), skin, hide, in rts-fill[** elsewhere also ruts-]. [< Germanic fella- (i. e. fel-la-; -la- < orig. -no-; cp. Brgm., I, 67). OE. fel(l), n., skin, hide, ME. NE. fel.]

filleins, adj. (124), made of skin, lethern; Mk. I, 6. [< fill + suff. -eina-.]

filu, adj. (131, n. 3), much, very; II. Cor. I, 5; w. a sb. in the gen.; Mk. III, 7. 8. IV, I[** typo for 1?]. V, 21. 24; as adv., much, greatly; Mk. I, 45. III, 12. V, 10. 23. 38. 43; w. a compar.: filu mais, much more; Skeir[** . missing] VII, d; filaus (gen.) maiz, (sumthing) much greater; Skeir. VII, c; und filu mais, much more, stil more; II. Cor. III, 9. 11; ƕan filu, how much, how great; Mt. VI, 23. Mk. III, 8. V, 19. 20. w. advs.: swa filu, so much; Skeir. VII, c. swa filu sw, as much as; Skeir. VII, c[** or e? P3 no]. [OE. feolu, feola, ME. fela, fele, OHG. filu, MHG. vil(e), NHG. viel, much.]

filusna, f. (97), abundance; Skeir. VII, c[** e? P3 no] (the first); multitude; Skeir. VII, b. c[** e? P3 no] (the second). [< filu[**bold? F1] + suff. -s-n-[**bold? F1]; cp. Brgm. II, p. 141.]

filu-wardei, f. (113), much talking; Mt. VI, 7. [< *filu-wards, adj.; -wards < ward.]

filu-wardjan, wv. (188), to uze many words, to speak much; Mt. VI, 7. [< *filuwards; s. prec. word.]

fimf, num. (141), five; Skeir. VII, b; fimf-tahun (141), fifteen. fimf tigjus (142), fifty. fimf sundjs wa[**]r, five thousand (of) men; Skeir. VII, b. [OE. ff (< *fimf), ME. fif, vive, NE. five.—OE. fftene, -tyne, ME. fiftene, NE. fifteen.—OE. fftiᵹ, ME. fifti, NE. fifty.]

fimfta-tahunda, ord. num. (146), the fifteenth. [OE. ffto[**]a (< ffta-to[**]a, -toge[**]a), the fifteenth.]

finan, stv. (174, n. 1), to find, find out, know, w. acc.; Mk. V, 43. [OE. findan, ME. finde, NE. find.]

fiskja, m. (107), fisher; Mk. I, 16. [< fisks + suff. -jan-.]

fiskn, wv. (190), to fish. [< fisks.]

fisks, m. (91), fish; Skeir. [** "VII, " missing]a. b. c. d. [OE. fisc, m., ME. fiss, fish, NE. fish.]

fitan, stv. (? 176, n. 1), to travail (in birth), to bear (children).

fldus, f. (? 105, b), flud. [< √ fl[**bold? F1] (also seen in OE. flwan, ME. flowe, NE. flow) + suff. -du-. OE. fld, m., ME. fld, flod, NE. flud.]

flkan, rv. (179 and n. 4), to lament, bewail. [OS. -flkan (stv.) in far-flkan, to curse, OHG. (far-)fluohhn (wv., but pp. farfluahhan), MHG. (ver-)fluochen, NHG. (ver-)fluchen (wv.), to curse.]

fdeins, f. (103, n. 1), food; Mt. VI, 25. [< fdjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]


fdjan, wv. (188), to feed, nurish, bring up, w. acc.; Mt. VI, 26. Skeir. VII, d. [OE. fdan (< *fdian), ME. fede, NE. feed.]

fn (12, n. 3), n. (118), gen. funins, dat. funin, fire; Mt. V, 22. [< √ f (Goth. for ) + suff. -na, -n-an-. In West-Germanic the suff. -r- is added. OE. fŷr (< f-ir), ME. fir, NE. fire.]

ftu-bard (88a), n. (94), foot-board, foot-stool; Mt. V. 35. [< ftus + bard = OE. bord, n., board, shield, table, ME. bord, NE. board.]

ftus, m. (105), foot; Mt. V, 35. Mk. V, 4. 22. [Stem ftu-, orig. ft- (consonantal stem). OE. ft, pl., ft, m., ME. ft, fot, pl. ft, NE. foot.]

fra-, an inseparabl particl uzed w. vbs. and verbal nouns. It chiefly signifies 'separation, destruction, loss, change', and the like. [A variant of far-.]

fra-gaf, prt. of fra-giban.

fra-giban (56, n. 1), stv. (176), w. acc. of th. (dir. obj.) and dat. of pers. (indir. obj.), to forgiv; II. Cor. II, 7. 10; to giv, grant; Skeir. VII, b. [OE. for-giefan, ME. for-[**?]give, NE. forgiv.]

fra-gifts (56, n. 4), f. (103), a giving away; espousal; Lu. II, 5. [< fra-giban; s. -gifts.]

frahnan, stv. (176, n. 4), to ask, w. acc. of the pers. askt and gen. of the th. askt for; Mk. IV, 10; for the gen. a dir. question; Mk. V, 9; to ask questions; Lu. II, 46. [OE. frignan, ON. fregna > ME. freine, to ask; cp. OHG. frgn, MHG. vrgen, NHG. fragen, to ask.]

fraisan, rv. (179), to tempt; Mk. I, 13. [Cp. OE. frsian, wv., to tempt.]

fraistubni, f. (98), temptation; Mt. VI, 13. [< fraisti- (< fraisan + suff. -ti-) = ON. freisti, f., temptation; + suff. -ubnj-.]

fra-itan, stv. (176, n. 3), to eat up, devour, w. acc.; Mk. IV, 4. [OE. fretan (< *for-etan), to eat up, devour, ME. frete, to devour, consume, corrode, NE. fret, to eat away.]

fraiw, n. (94, n. 1), seed; Mk. IV, 3. 26. 27. 31. [ON. fr̂ (dat. fr̂wi), n., seed.]

fra-kunnan, prt.-prs. (199, n. 1), to despise, w. dat.; Mt. VI, 24.

fra-qiman, stv. (175, n. 1), to expend, spend, consume, w. dat.; Mk. V, 26.

fra-qistjan, wv. (188), to destroy; Mk. I, 24. II. Cor. IV, 9.

fra-qistnan, wv. (194), to perish; Mt. V, 29. 30. Mk. II, 22. IV, 38. II. Cor. II, 15. Skeir. VII, d.

fra-la[**]lt, prt. of fraltan.

fra-ltan (-leitan; 7, n. 2), rv. (181), w. acc., to let free, dismiss, send away; Lu. II, 29; to let down; Mk. II, 4; w. dat. of pers. and an inf., to permit, suffer; Mk. I, 34. V, 37; fralt (imper.), let be, let alone; Mk. I, 24.

fra-lts, m. (91; or -lt; n.; 94?), forgivness; Mk. III, 29. [< fra-ltan.]

fra-liusan, stv. (173, n. 1), to lose. [OE. for-lo[**]san, ME. forlse, NE. *forleese (s. -liusan), pp. forlorn.]

fra-lusnan, wv. (194), to perish; II. Cor. II, 15 (gloss.[** . unwanted]). IV, 3.

fra-lusts, f. (103), loss, destruction. [< fraliusan + suff. -ti-. [OHG. vir-lust, MHG. verlust, f., NHG. verlust, m., loss.]

fram, prep. w. dat. (217), (1) local, denoting, (a) 'separation', from, away from; II. Cor. V, 6; (b) 'motion, direction', from; Mk. I, 9. V, 35. (2) temporal, from, sinse; Lu. II, 36. II. Cor. V, 16. (3) in other relations, (a) after vs. of {157}'hearing, knowing, receiving, lerning', of, from, about; Mk. III, 21; (b) of 'cause or motiv', from; II. Cor. II, 3; (c) denoting the 'source' whense anything cums, from; Lu. II, 1. II. Cor. I, 2. on the part of, of; Mt. VI, 1; (d) concerning, on behalf, for; Mk. I, 44. Lu. II, 24. II. Cor. V, 12; (e) w. a pass. v., of, by; Mt. VI, 2. Mk. I, 5. 9. 13. II, 3. Lu. II, 18. 21. 26. II. Cor. I, 4. II, 6 (where a pp. may be added). 11. III, 2. 3. V, 4; or an act. v. w. a pass. meaning; Mk. V, 26. II. Cor. I, 16.—Occurs also in composition w. other words. [OE. frǫ[**]m, fram, ME. from, vram, NE. from.]

fram-aldrs, adj. (124), advanced in age, very old; Lu. II, 36. [-aldrs < *aldr, n. (= OE. ealdor, n., OHG. altar, MHG. NHG. alter, n., age), age, < alan + suff. -dra-.]

framis, compar. adv. (212), further, onward; Mk. I, 19. [< fram + -is, the adv. ending of the compar.]

fram-wigis, adv. (214), continually, ever more, [-wigis is gen. sg. of wigs.]

fra-slindan, stv. (174, n. 1), to swallow up; II. Cor. V, 4.

frai (74, n. 3), n. (95), mind; II. Cor. III, 14. IV, 4. [< fra- (in frajan).]

frajan, stv. (177, n. 2), to understand, know; Mk. IV, 12; be in right mind; Mk. V, 15; w. dat., to understand; Lu. II, 50. [Cp. frs (w. ablaut).]

-frajan, wv. (185), in fulla-f. [< -frajis.]

-frajis, adj. (126), thinking, minded. [< fra- (in frajan, stv.) + suff. -ja-.]

frauja (1, n. 4), m. (108), lord, master; Mt. V, 33. Mk. I, 3. II, 28. V, 19. Lu. II, 29. II. Cor. I, 2. 3. III, 17. IV, 5. [OE. fra (for *fra(j)a), m., lord (especially Christ, God), OHG. fr, MHG. vr, lord, king, God, NHG. frohn- (< OHG. frno, gen. pl.) in cpds.]

fraujinn, wv. (190), to be lord, be king, rule over; Lu. II, 29; w. dat.; II. Cor. I, 24. [< frauja.]

fraujinnds, m. (115), ruler. [Prop. prsp. of fraujinn.]

fra-waran, stv. (174, n. 1), to go to ruin, to corrupt (intr.).

fra-wardjan, wv. (188), to ruin, corrupt, w. acc. (exprest or understood); Mt. VI, 19. 20; to disfigure; Mt. VI, 16; in pass. to perish; II. Cor. IV, 16.

fra-warhts, adj. (124), evil-working, sinful; (in our 'Selections') uzed as m. sb., sinner; Mk. II, 15. 16. 17. [Prop. pp. of fra-warkjan.]

fra-warhts, f. (103), sin; Mk. I, 4. 5. II, 5. 7. 9. III, 28. 29. IV, 12. II. Cor. V, 21. [< fra-warkjan, to work il, do evil, sin, + suff. -ti-. OE. -wyrht (< *wurhti-), f., ME. -wurht, deed, work.]

fra-weitan, stv. (172. n. 1; 197, n. 1), to avenge, revenge.

fra-weitands, m. (115), revenger. [Prop. prsp. of fra-weitan.]

frhun, prt. of frahnan.

freidjan, wv. (188), to spare, w. gen.; II. Cor. I, 23. [OHG. frten, to luv, foster, protect, > frt- in frthof, MHG. vrthof, churchyard, cognate with vride, enclosure, > NHG. friedhof, m., churchyard, graveyard. Cp. friawa, -frin.]

frei-hals (88a[**superscript?]), m. (91, n. 4), liberty, freedom; II. Cor. III, 17. [< freis + hals. OE. frols (< *froheals < *froheals, for *frijo-hals), liberty, freedom, lit. the state of having a free neck.]

freis, adj. (126, n. 2), free. [OE. fro (< fro, *frijo), ME. fr, NE. free.—See also friawa.]

frtun, prt. of fra-itan.

frijawa, friawa (10, n. 4), f. (97), {158}luv; II. Cor. II, 4. 8. V, 14. [< frija-, stem of freis, free, orig. dear, (cp. Brugm., II, 61) + suff. -w.]

frijn (10, n. 4), wv. (190), to luv, w. acc.; Mt. V, 43. 44. 46. VI, 24; w. inf.; Mt. VI, 5. [< stem of freis; s. also frijawa. Cp. OE. frogan, to luv and to make free, ME. freoie, to 'free', MHG. (prop. LG., Kl. W.) vren, NHG. freien, to woo, marry.]

frijndi, f. (98), a femal[** female elsewhere] frend. [< frijnds.]

frijnds, m. (115), frend; Mt. V, 47. [Prop. prsp. of frijn. OE. frond (< fri(j)ǫnd), ME. frend, NE. frend.]

-fri-sahtjan, wv. (188), to make an image, in ga-f. [< fri-sahts.]

-fri-sahtnan, wv. (194, n. 1), to be formd, in ga-f. [< frisahts.]

fri-sahts, f. (103), image, exampl, ridl; II. Cor. III, 18. IV, 4. [< fri- (allied to far-?) + -sahts (= OE. saht, sht, f., ME. sahte, shte, reconciliation, peace) < sakan + suff. -ti-.]

-frin, wv. (190), in ga-f. [< *frius (= OE. friou- < friu-, m., later fri, n., ME. fri, peace, luv, protection, = G. friede, m., peace), < √ fri (cp. friawa) + suff. --. OE. friian, to make peace, treat kindly, protect, ME. friie, to keep in peace, preserv. Cp. freidjan.]

frius, n. (94; or m., 91?), frost, cold. [< *friusan = OE. frosan, ME. frse, NE. freez.]

frdei (74, n. 3), f. (113), wisdom, understanding; Lu. II, 47. 52. [< frs.]

frun, prt. of frajan, stv.

frs (35), adj. (124, n. 2), wise, prudent, skilful. [< frajan (prt. fr). OE. frd, wise.]

fruma, superl. adj. (139 and n. 1), the first (146). [< the adv. stem fru- (cp. OHG. fru-o, MHG. vruo, NHG. fruh, frh (by influence of the adj. frh), erly), + suff. -ma-n-. Cp. frum, n. (or frums, m.?), and OE. fruma, m., ME. frume, frome, beginning.]

fruma-bar (88a), m. (101, n. 2), a first-born; Lu. II, 7.

frumists, superl. adj. (139 and n. 1), foremost, first (146); frumist, adv. (212, n. 3), first. [< fruma + suff. -ista-.]

fugls, m. (91), fowl, bird; Mk. IV, 4. 32. [OE. fugol, m., ME. foȝel, fowel, NE. fowl.]

fulgins (66, n. 1), adj. (124), hidn; Mk. IV, 22. [< the stem of the pp. of filhan.]

fulhsni, n. (95), that which is hidn, a secret; Mt. VI, 4. 6. 18. [< filhan + suff. -snja- < -sni- + -ja-)[**no opening parenth]. ON. fylsne, fylgsne, a hiding-place.]

fulla-fahjan, wv. (188), to please fully, to satisfy, w. acc.; Skeir. VII, d.

fulla-frajan, wv. (185), to be fully in right mind, be sober; II. Cor. V, 13.

fulla-tjis (88a), adj. (126), perfect; Mt. V, 48.

fulla-weisjan, wv. (188), to inform fully, to persuade, w. acc.; II. Cor. V, 11. [< fullaweis < stem of fulls + -weis (s. un-weis).]

fullei(s), f. (? 103, n. 2), fulness; Mk. IV, 28.—Cpds. ga-, us-f. [< fulljan + suff. -i (for -ei-, cp. vB., 79). OE. fylle, f. (?), fulness.]

fulljan, wv. (188), to fil, fulfil.—Cpds. ga-, us-f. [< fulls.]

fullnan, fulnan (80), wv. (195), to becum ful, to fil (intr.), w. gen.; Lu. II, 40.—Cpds. ga-, us-f. [< fulls.]

full, f. (112), fulnes; Mk. II, 21. [< fulls.]

fulls, adj. (122, n. 1), ful. [< an old pp. in -no-, fulla- < ful-no-. OE. ME. full, NE. ful.]

fls (15), adj. (124), foul. [OE. fl, ME. foul, NE. foul.]

funins; s. fn.


Ga-, inseparabl particl prefixt to vs., sbs., adjs., and advs. For its various meanings, s. my 'Comparativ Glossary', p. 113, or 'First Germanic Bible', p. 343. [OE. ge-, ME. ȝe-, i- (in handiwork), e- (in enuf).]

ga-aggwjan, wv. (188), to constrain, distress; II. Cor. IV, 8.

ga-aiginn, wv. (190), to take possession of, get an advantage of; II. Cor. II, 11.

ga-arman, wv. (192), to hav pity on, to pity, w. acc.; Mk. V, 19; in pass., to be pitied, receiv mercy; II. Cor. IV, 1.

ga-baran, stv. (175), w. acc., to bring together, compare; Mk. IV, 30; to bear (a child); Lu. II, 7; in pass. the nom.; Lu. II, 11.

ga-barhtjan, wv. (188), to make bright or clear, to manifest, show, w. acc.; II. Cor. II, 14; in pass. the nom.; Mk. IV, 22.

ga-bar, prt. of gabaran.

ga-bauan (26), wv. (179, n. 2; 193, n. 1), to dwel; Mk. IV, 32.

ga-bar, m. (91, n. 4), a festiv meal. [Lit. that which is brought together, < ga-baran, to bring together.]

ga-bars, f. (103), birth. [< ga-baran, to bear, + suff. -i-. OE. ge-byrd, f., ON. burr > ME. burth, birth, bur, NE. birth.]

gabei (34), f. (113), riches; Mk. IV, 19. [< giban.]

ga-beistjan, wv. (187, n. 3), to levn.

gabigs, gabeigs (17, n. 3), adj. (124), rich. [< giban + suff. -i-ga-, -ei-ga-.]

ga-binda (32), f. (97), band, bond. [< ga-bindan.]

ga-bindan, stv. (174), to bind, w. acc.; Mk. III, 27. V, 4 (gloss); and instr. dat.; Mk. V, 3; in pass. w. a subj. nom.; Mk. V, 4.

ga-biugan, stv. (173, n. 1), to bow, bend; Mk. V, 4 (s. note).

ga-blindjan, wv. (187), w. acc.; to make blind, to blind, w. acc.; II. Cor. IV, 4.

ga-blindnan, wv. (194), to becum blind; II. Cor. III, 14 (gloss in A).

ga-brak, prt. of gabrikan.

Gabril (6), pr. n., Gabriel. [< Γαβριήλ.]

ga-brikan (33, n. 1), stv. (175, n. 1), w. acc., to break; Mk. V, 4.

ga-bruka (33, n. 1), f. (97), a broken bit, fragment; Skeir. VII, d. [< ga-brikan.]

ga-bundi (32), f. (98), bond. [< ga-bindan.]

ga-daban, stv. (177, n. 1), to becum, fit, befall, happen.

ga-daila, m. (108), partaker; II. Cor. I, 7. [< *ga-dails, adj., partaking; -dails < sb. dails.]

ga-dailjan, wv. (188), to divide, separate, w. acc. (in pass. the nom.); Mk. III, 26; w. wira w. acc.; Mk. III, 24. 25.

ga-darsan, prt.-prs. (199), to dare.

ga-daunan, wv. (194), to die; Mk. V, 39.

Gaddarnus, pr. n. [< Γαδαρηνός.]

*ga-dfs (56, n. 1), adj. (130, n. 2), becuming, fit. [< ga-daban (prt. gadf). OE. ge-dfe, adj.; suitabl, fit. See also -daban.]

ga-draban, stv. (177, n. 1), to hew out.

ga-draus, prt. of gadriusan.

ga-drausjan, wv. (188), w. acc., to thrust down, cast down; pp. gadrausis; II. Cor. IV, 9.

gadriusan, stv. (173, n. 1), to fall, w. ana (upon) w. dat.; Mk. IV, 5; du (at) w. dat.; Mk. V, 22; far wig, by the way side; Mk. IV, 4; in w. acc., into, among, on; Mk. IV, 7. 8; so in a pass. sense, to be cast; Mt. V, 29. 30.

gaf, prt. of giban.


ga-fhs (5 b), m. (91), a cach, haul. [< ga-fhan.]

ga-fihn, wv. (190), to defraud; II. Cor. II, 11. [< *gafihs adj., deceitful, hostil, < ga + -fihs (= OE. fh, adj., hostil; ge-fh, m.) < fih; s. also -fihn.]

ga-fastan, wv. (193), to hold fast, keep; Lu. II, 19. 51.

ga-furs, adj. (130), sober, wel behaved.

ga-frahnan, stv. (176, n. 4), to find out by inquiry, w. an obj. clause; Mk. II, 1.

ga-frhun, prt. of gafrahnan.

ga-frisahtjan, wv. (188), to make an image, engrave; II. Cor. III, 7.

ga-frisahtnan, wv. (194, n. 1), to be formd.

ga-frin, wv. (190), to make peace, reconcile, w. dat. of the pers. to whom one is reconciled, and acc. of the pers. reconciled; II. Cor. V, 18. 19.

ga-frins, f. (103, n. 1), reconciliation; II. Cor. V, 18. 19. [< ga-frin.]

ga-fulljan, wv. (188), to fil, w. acc., the th. w. which anything is fild, occurs in the gen., Skeir. VII, d.

ga-fullnan, wv. (194), to becum ful, to fil (intr.), fil up (intr.); hense to be fild; Mk. IV, 37.

ga-gaggan, anv. (179, n. 3; 207), to cum together, gather together; so w. the refl. sik; Mk. III, 20.

ga-ga-warnan, wv. (194, n. 1), w. dat., to reconcile one's self to, be reconciled to; II. Cor. V, 20. [< *ga-wars; s. gawari.]

gaggan, anv. (179, n. 3; 207), to go, go one's way, walk, cum; Mk. II, 9. III, 6. V, 42; w. inf.; Mt. V, 24. Mk. I, 44; w. afar w. dat. (to go after, follow); Mk. II, 14. 15. V, 24; du w. dat.; Mk. I, 38. 45. II, 11. 13. V, 19; in w. dat.; II. Cor. IV, 2; or acc.; Mt. VI, 6. Mk. V, 34; mi w. dat.; Mt. V, 41. VI, 6. Lu. II, 51; arh w. acc.; II. Cor. V, 7; a final clause; Lu. II, 3.—Cpds. af-, afar-, at-, du-at-, inn-at-, ga-, arh-, us-g. [OE. gǫngan, gangan, ME. gange, NE. (Sc.) gang.]

ga-grfts, f. (103), decree; Lu. II, 1. [-grfts < √ grf[** grf? P3 I think so, not grf] (+ suff. -ti-) seen in OHG. grvo, MHG. grve, NHG. graf, m., erl, count.]

ga-gudei, f. (113, n. 2), piety, godliness. [< gagus, adj., godly, pious, < ga- + -gus < gu.]

ga-haban, wv. (192), to hav, possess, hold; to lay hold on; w. acc.; Mk. III, 21.

ga-hhj (5 b), adv., in order, connectedly. [< *gahhs, adj., connected, lit. hanging together, < ga- + *-hhs < hhan.]

ga-hailjan, wv. (188), to heal, w. acc. of pers.; Mk. I, 34. III, 10.

ga-hailnan, wv. (194), to becum hole, be heald; Mk. V, 29.

ga-hait, n. (94), promise; II. Cor. I, 20. [< ga-haitan. OE. ge-ht, n., promise.[**,?] ME. hat, ht, promise, OHG. gaheiʒ, m., MHG. geheiʒ, m., geheiʒe, n., NHG. geheiss, n., command.]

ga-hardjan (14, n. 1), wv. (187), to harden.

ga-hausjan, wv. (187), to hear; Mk. II, 17. IV, 9. 15. Lu. II, 18; w. acc.; Mk. V, 36. Lu. II, 20 (s. note); bi w. acc.; Mk. V, 27.

ga-hrinn, wv. (190), to whore, commit adultery with, w. dat.; Mt. V, 28.

ga-hraineins, f. (103, n. 1), a clenzing; Mk. I, 44. [< ga-hrainjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

ga-hrainjan, wv. (188), to clenz; Mk. I, 40.

-ghts (5 b), f. (103), a going, in cpds. [Stem -ghti- (for -ganhti-[**bold? F1]) < gangan + suff. -ti-.]


ga-hugds (81, n. 1), f. (103), thought, mind,[**;? P3 , clear in IA image] conscience. [< (*ga-)hugjan + suff. -di- (cp. Brgm., I, p. 405). OE. gehygd, f. n., thought, mind.]

ga-huljan, wv. (187), to cuver, hide, conceal, w. acc. (in pass. the nom.), II. Cor. IV, 3.

ga-ƕeilains, f. (103, n. 1), a staying for a while, rest; II. Cor. II, 13. [< ga-ƕeilan + suff. -ai-ni-.]

ga-ƕtjan, wv. (188), to threten, rebuke, charge, w. dat.; Mk. I, 43.

ga-iddja, prt. of ga-gaggan.

Gaanna, m. (108), Gehenna; Mt. V, 22. 29. 30. [< γέεννα.]

gailjan, wv. (187), to make glad, w. acc.; II. Cor. II, 2. [< *gails, adj., = OE. gl, ME. gal, gol, adj., proud, wanton, OHG. MHG. geil, wanton, merry, gay, NHG. geil, adj., lascivious, lewd, fat.]

Gaina (21, n. 1; 65, n. 1), pr. n.

Gannsara (23), pr. n., Gennesaret. [< Γεννησαρέθ.]

garda, f. (97), girdl; Mk. I, 6. [< √ of -gardan. ON. gjǫr, f., girdl, girth, > ME. gerth, NE. girth.]

-gardan, stv. (174, n. 1), to gird, in bi-g. [Cp. OE. gyrdan, wv., ME. girde, NE. gird.]

garnjan, wv. (188), to yern for, cuvet, desire, wish; II. Cor. V, 2. [< -garns (= OE. georn, adj. (georne, adv.), ME. ȝern, adj., zelous, eager (ȝerne, adv.), OHG. MHG. gern, adj., desirous, eager, > OHG. gern, MHG. gerne, NHG. gerne, gern, adv., gladly, willingly, eagerly.).[** one . too many] OE. geornian, ME. ȝerne, NE. yern.]

gairu (cp. 20, n. 2), n. (106, n. 1), sting.

-gaisjan, wv. (188), in us-g. [ME. (< Scand.) gse, NE. gaze. Cp. aghast for agast for agasted, pp. of ME. agasten [Sk.] < OE. - (= Goth. us-) + ĝstan, to terrify, < a lost sb. ĝst < *gs- (= Goth. gais-) + suff. -ti-[**missing.?]]

ga-juk, n. (94), that which is joind in a yoke, a pair; Lu. II, 24.

ga-juk, f. (112), that which is put together for the sake of comparison, hense a comparison, parabl; Mk. III, 23. IV, 2. 10. 11. 13. 30. 33. 34. [< gajuk.]

ga-juk, f. (110, n. 3), a female cumpanion. [< gajuk.]

ga-kannjan, wv. (188), to make known, w. acc. of pers. and dat. of th.; Lu. II, 15; to make known abroad, w. bi w. acc.; Lu. II, 17.

ga-krtn (12, n. 1), wv. (190), to crush, grind.

ga-kunnan, prt.-prs. (199, n. 1), to acknowledge one's inferiority or subjection, to subject one's self.

ga-kunnan, wv. (193; 199, 1), to recognize, know, consider, w. acc., Mt. VI, 28. II. Cor. I, 14.

ga-kusts, f. (103), proof, test. [< ga-kiusan, to prove, test, + suff. -ti-. -kusts = OE. cyst, f., ME. cust, choice, quality.]

ga-qmun, prt. of gaqiman.

ga-qiman, stv. (175, n. 1), to cum together; Mk. II, 2; w. sik and du w. dat.; Mk. V, 21.

ga-qiss, adj. (124, n. 1), consenting. [< ga-qian + suff. -ta- (qissa- < *qi-to-).]

ga-qiujan (42), wv. (187), to quicken, giv life; II. Cor. III, 6.

ga-qiunan (42, n. 3), wv. (194), to becum alive.

ga-qums, f. (103), a cuming together, assembly, council; Mt. V, 22; synagog; Mt. VI, 2. 5. [< ga-qiman + suff. -i-. -qums = OHG. MHG. kumft, kunft (w. eufonic f before which m changed to n), a cuming, arrival, NHG. -kunft (in cpds.).]

ga-lagjan, wv. (188), to lay, lay [** presumably intends "lie"; P3 no: "she laid him in a manger"] down, w. acc. and in w. dat.; Lu. {162}II, 7. 12; or acc., to cast into; Mt. V, 25. VI, 30.

ga-laista, m. (108), follower, cumpanion; g. waran w. dat., to follow; Mk. I, 36. [< *ga-laists, adj., following; -laists < the sb. laists; s. laistjan.]

ga-lai, prt. of ga-leian.

ga-laubeins (31), f. (103, n. 1), belief, faith; Mk. II, 5. IV, 40. V, 34. II, Cor. I, 24. IV, 13. V, 7. [< ga-laubjan + suff. -eini-[** usually -ei-ni-].]

ga-laubjan (31), wv. (188), to believ, (1) abs.; Mk. IV, 24. V, 36. II. Cor. IV, 13. (2) w. in w. dat.; Mk. I, 15.—leitil galaubjands, litl-believing, of litl faith; Mt. VI, 30.

*ga-laufs (56, n. 1), adj. (124), precious, valuabl. [Cp. liufs.]

ga-lausjan, wv. (188), to loose, loosen, w. acc. of th. and af w. dat.; Mk. V, 4; to deliver, w. acc. of pers. and us w. dat.; II. Cor. I, 10.

ga-leikan, wv. (193), to please; wala g., w. dat., to please, be acceptabl to; II. Cor. V, 9; or in w. dat., to take great plezure in, be wel pleased in; Mk. I, 11.

ga-leik, adv. (211), like, alike. [< ga-leiks (= OE. ge-lc, ME. i-lik, lik, NE. like, similar) < ga + -leiks (= OE. -lc, ME. -lich, -li, NE. -ly) < leik. OE. ge-lce, ME. iliche, ylyke, NE. like.]

ga-leikn, wv. (190), (1) tr., w. acc. of th. and ƕ (whereunto), to liken; Mk. IV, 30. (2) intr., w. dat., to be like unto, be conformd to; Mt. VI, 8.

Galeilaia, pr. n., f., Galilee; gen. -as; Mk. I, 9. 16. 28; dat. -a; Mk. I, 14. III, 7. Lu. II, 4; acc. -an; Mk. I, 39. Lu. II, 39. [< Γαλιλαία.]

ga-leian, stv. (172, n. 1), to go, cum; Mk. V, 20; w. afar w. dat.; Mk. I, 20; ana w. acc.; Mk. I, 35; du w. dat.; Mk. III, 13; farra w. dat.; Lu. II, 15; far w. acc.; Mk. II, 13; hindar w. acc.; Mk. V, 17; in w. acc.; Mk. I, 21. 45. II, 1. 26. III, 1. 27. IV, 1. V, 12. 13. 38. Lu. II, 15. II. Cor. I, 16. II, 13; mi w. dat.; Mk. V, 24; inn; Mk. V, 40.

ga-lsun, prt. of galisan.

ga-lwjan, wv. (188), w. acc., to betray; Mk. III, 19.

ga-ligri, n. (95), consummation of marriage, lit. a lying-together. [< *ga-ligrs, having the same bed with, < ga + the sb. ligrs. OE. geligere, adultery.]

ga-lisan, stv. (176, n. 1), to gather, gather up; Skeir. VII, d; w. sik and du w. dat., to gather, congregate unto; Mk. IV, I[** should be 1].

ga-liun, prt. of galeian.

ga-liug, n. (94), a lie; g. taujan, to falsify; II. Cor. IV, 2.

ga-lkan (15), stv. (173, n. 2), to shut, close, w. (instr.) dat.; Mt. VI, 6.

ga-maindus, f. (103), communion, fellowship. [< ga-mains + suff. -du-i-.]

ga-mains, adj. (130), common. [OE. ge-m̂ne, ME. (i-)mene[** elsewhere usually a space after (i-)], NE. mean.]

*ga-mais (74, n. 2), adj. (124), (bodily) weak, bruised.

ga-man, n. (94; 117, n. 1), fellow-man, cumpanion, partner, communion.

ga-manwjan, wv. (188), to prepare, make redy, w. acc.; Mk. I, 2. Skeir. VII, c; and du[** typo du] w. dat.; II. Cor. V, 5.

ga-marzjan, wv. (188), to offend; Mk. IV, 17.

ga-maudjan, wv. (188), to remind, w. acc. of pers. and an inf.; Skeir. VII, d.

ga-mleins, f. (103, n. 1), a writing, the scripture; II. Cor. III, 7. [< ga-mljan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

ga-mljan, wv. (187), to write, (1), w. dat. of the pers. addrest; II. Cor. II, 4. (2) the th. writn is {163}indicated by the acc., to enrol for taxation, to tax; Lu. II, 1. (3) w. dat. of pers. and acc. of th.; II. Cor. II, 3. (4) w. in w. dat.; II. Cor. III, 2; and sw; Mk. I, 2; or swasw; Lu. II, 23. (5) w. a final clause w. du ... ei; II. Cor. II, 9; or ei; II. Cor. II, 3. (6) inn g., to inscribe; II. Cor. III, 3.—[** En-dash? P3 ordinary em-dash]ata gamlid (pp. uzed as sb.), that which is writn; II. Cor. IV, 13.

ga-mstdun, prt. of gamtan.

ga-mtan, prt.-prs. (202), to hav or find room, hav place; Mk. II, 2.

ga-mtjan, wv. (188), to meet, w. dat.; Mk. V, 2.

ga-munan, prt.-prs. (200, n. 1), to mind, remember, w. atei; Mt. V, 23.

ga-nasjan, wv. (185), to make hole, to heal, save; Mk. V, 34.

ga-naha, m. (108), sufficiency, contentment; Skeir. VII, b. [< ga-nahan.]

ga-nahan, prt.-prs. (201), to suffice; ganah; it is enuf, it is sufficient, w. dat. of pers.; II. Cor. II, 6.

ga-niman, stv. (170; 175), w. acc., to take, take with one; Mk. V, 40; to receiv; II. Cor. V, 10; to conceiv; Lu. II, 21 (pass.).

ga-nisan, stv. (176, n. 1), to becum hole, be heald; Mk. V, 23. 28; to be saved; II. Cor. II, 15.

ga-nists (34), f. (103), a becuming hole, recuvery, salvation. [< ga-nisan + suff. -ti-.]

ga-nijis, m. (92), kinsman; Lu. II, 44.

ga-nhjan, wv. (188), to satisfy, w. acc. of pers. and (instr.) dat.; Skeir. VII, b. [< ga-nhs.]

ga-nhs, adj. (122, n. 1), enuf. [Cf. ga-nahan. OE. ge-nh, ME. inh, inough, inow, NE. enuf.]

ga-rahtei, f. (113), righteousness; Mt. V, 20. II. Cor. III, 9. V, 21. [< garahts.]

ga-rahts, adj. (124), right, righteous, just; Mt. V, 45. Lu. II, 25. [OHG. gi-reht, right (not righteous), MHG. gereht, NHG. gerecht, adj., right, righteous.]

*ga-rais (-raids; 74, n. 2), adj. (124), commanded, appointed. [OE. (ge-)r̂de (w. umlaut), ME. rede, adj., redy, > (or < the Scand.) ME. (i-) rdi, rdiȝ, redy, w. suff. -iȝ, -i, OE. ig), NE. redy.]

*ga-rajan?, stv. (177, n. 2), to reckon, number.

garda-waldands (88a, n. 2), m. (115), master of the house. [-waldands is prsp. of waldan.]

gards, m. (101), house, yard, household, family; Mk. I, 29. II, 1. 11. 15. 26. III, 20. 25. 27. V, 19. 38. Lu. II, 4. II. Cor. V, 1. [Properly an enclosure, with or without a building; < √ of -gardan. OE. geard, m., enclosure, yard, dwelling, ME. ȝerd, ȝard, yard, garden, NE. yard (for yard, a mezure)[** parenthesis should end not here ...] s. gazds[** ... but here].]

ga-rinnan, stv. (174, n. 1), to run together, cum together, gather together, w. at w. dat.; Mk. I, 33.

*ga-rius (-riuds; 74, n. 2), adj. (124), honest, honorabl, wel behaved. [Prop. shamefully blushing: [** ;?] < √ of raus.]

ga-rni, n. (95), counsel, consultation; Mk. III, 6. [< ga + rna extended by suff. -ja-.]

ga-runs, f. (103, n. 3), a place where peple run together, street; Mt. VI, 2. [< ga-rinnan + suff. -si-.]

ga-saƕ, prt. of ga-saƕan.

ga-saƕan (34, n. 1), stv. (176, n. 1), to see, behold, w. acc. (sumtimes understood); Mk. I, 10. 16. 19. II, 5. 12. 14. 16. III, 11. V, 6. 15. 16. 38. Lu. II, 17. 20 (s. note). 48; in pass., to appear, w. pred. nom.; Mt. VI, 16. 18;— gasaƕanna, the things seen; II. Cor, IV, 18.

ga-sakan, stv. (177, n. 1), to reprove, {164}rebuke, w. dat.; Mk. IV, 39; in pass. w. nom.; Skeir. VII, a.

ga-sandjan (74, n. 3), wv. (187), to unite in sending; hense to accumpany, w. acc. of pers. and in w. acc. of place; II. Cor. I, 16.

ga-satjan, wv. (187), to set, place, w. acc.; nam g. w. dat. (indir. obj.), to giv a name or surname; Mk. III, 16 (s. note). 17.

ga-sƕum, prt. of gasaƕan.

ga-sibjn, wv. (190), w. dat., to reconcile one's self to, be reconciled to; Mt. V, 24.

ga-siggqan, stv. (174, n. 1), to sink (said of the sun); Mk. I, 32; w. (instr.) dat., to sink under, be swallowd up; II. Cor. II, 7.

ga-sinja (gasina), m. (108), (traveling) cumpanion, in pl. cumpany (for the Grk. συνοδία); Lu. II, 44. [< *ga-sins, adj.; -sins < the sb. sins. OHG. gi-sindo (for gasindjo), MHG. gesinde, m., traveling cumpanion, servant, while OHG. gi-sind, MHG. gesint(d), OE. ge-sd (s. sins), m., cumpanion, attendant, are strong sbs.]

ga-sitan, stv. (176, n. 1), to set one's self down, sit down, sit, w. in w. dat.; Mk. IV, 1.

ga-skafts (51, n. 2), f. (103), creation, creature; II. Cor. V, 17.

ga-skaidnan, wv. (194), to becum parted, to depart.

ga-skapjan, stv. (177, n. 2), w. acc., to shape, make, create; in pass. w. nom.; Mk. II, 27.

ga-skeirjan, wv. (188), to make clear, explain, interprete[** interpret elsewhere]; Mk. V, 41.

ga-slawan, wv. (193), to be silent; Mk. IV, 39.

ga-smeitan, stv. (172, n. 1), to besmear, annoint.

ga-sk, prt. of gasakan.

ga-staldan, rv. (179), to win, gain, possess.

ga-standan, stv. (177, n. 3), (1) lit., to stand, stand stil, stop; w. in w. dat., to tarry, stay behind; Lu. II, 43. (2) trop., (a) to take position, rize up, w. ana w. acc.; Mk. III, 26 (the first); to stand; Mk. III, 26 (the second); w. (loc.) dat.; II. Cor. I, 24; (b) to be restored; Mk. III, 5.

gasti-gs (88a), adj. (124), good to a stranger, hospitabl.

ga-stjan (26), wv. (186), to judge, determin, w. acc. and at w. dat.; II. Cor. II, 1.

ga-st, prt. of gastandan.

gasts, m. (101), stranger. [OE. gst, ME. gest, stranger, gest, enemy, NE. gest.]

ga-suljan, wv. (188), to found, ground.

ga-swalt, prt. of ga-swiltan.

ga-swikunjan, wv. (188), to make known, manifest, w. acc.; Mk. III, 12.

ga-swiltan, stv. (174, n. 1).[** should be ,] to die; Mk. V, 35. II. Cor. V, 15 (the second); w. far w. acc.; II. Cor. V, 15 (three times).

ga-tahun, prt. of ga-teihan.

ga-taran, stv. (175, n. 1), to tear, tear to pieces, break, destroy; Mt. V, 17. 19; in pass., to be dissolvd; II. Cor. V, 1; to be destroyd, be done away; II. Cor. III, 14.

ga-tamjan (33), wv. (187), w. acc., to tame; Mk. V, 4.

ga-taujan (26), wv. (187), to do, make, commit, (1) w. acc.; Mk. II, 25. II. Cor. V, 10 (s. note); astans g., to shoot forth branches; Mk. IV, 32; garni g., to take counsel, w. bi w. acc.; Mk. III, 6; w. two accs., to make; Mt. V, 36; and far w. acc.; II. Cor. V, 21; to do. (2) w. dat. of pers. and ƕan filu; Mk. V, 19. 20. (3) w. acc. and inf., to make; Mk. I, 17. Skeir. VII, b. c.

ga-tara, m. (108), tear, rent; Mk. II, 21. [< ga-taran.]

ga-tarnan, wv. (194), to rend (intr.), {165}becum void, be done away, be abolisht; ata gatarnand, that which is transitory or void; II. Cor. III, 7. 11. 13.

ga-tars, f. (103), destruction. [< ga-taran + suff. -i-.]

ga-teihan, stv. (172, n. 1), to tel, report, announce; w. in w. dat. of place; Mk. V, 14; w. dat. of pers. and a clause introduced by ƕan filu; Mk. V, 19; or, in the pass., an inf. frase as subj.; Lu. II, 26.

ga-tmiba (33), adv. (130, n. 3; 210), fitly. [< *ga-tms (= OHG. gi-zmi, MHG. geẑme, adj., fit, suitabl) + -ba; < √ of ga-timan.[** closing bracket missing]

ga-timan, stv. (175, n. 1), to suit.

ga-timrj, f. (112), building; II. Cor. V, 1. [-timrj < -timra (w. suff. -ra-) = OE. timber (w. inorganic b), n., ME. NE. timber, wood for building; + -suff. -jn-.]

ga-trauan (26), wv. (179, n. 2; 193), to hav confidence, be confident, to trust; II. Cor. V, 6. 8; w. in w. dat.; II. Cor. II, 3.

ga-tulgjan, wv. (188), to confirm, establish; pp. gatulgis, firm, stedfast; II. Cor. I, 6.

gatw, f. (112), street. [ON. gata (acc. gǫtu), f., street, > ME. gate, NE. (Sc.) gate, way, path.]

ga-arsan, stv. (174, n. 1), to wither; Mk. III, 1. 3.

ga-arbs (56, n. 3), adj. (124), temperate. [< √ of (*ga-)arban.]

ga-arsnan (32), wv. (194), to dry up, wither away; Mk. IV, 6. V, 29.

ga-iujan, wv. (187), w. acc., to bless; Skeir. VII, b.

ga-lihan, rv. (179, n. 1), to cumfort, console; II. Cor. II, 7; to exhort; II. Cor. V, 20.

ga-lihts, f. (103), a pleasing with kind words, cumfort; consolation; II. Cor. I, 3. 4. 6. 7. [< ga-lihan + suff. -ti-.]

ga-lahun, prt. pl. of ga-liuhan.

ga-liuhan, stv. (173, n. 1), to flee; Mk. V, 14.

ga-rafsteins, f. (103, n. 1), cumfort, consolation; II. Cor. I, 5. [< ga-rafstjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

ga-rafstjan, wv. (188), to cumfort, console, w. acc. of pers. and ana w. dat.; II. Cor. 1[** typo I], 4; or arh w. acc.; II. Cor. I, 4; in pass. the nom. (exprest or implied), w. (instr.) dat.; II. Cor. I, 4; or in w. gen.; II. Cor. I, 6.

ga-rask (32), n. (94), threshing floor. [< √ of (*ga-)riskan.]

ga-ulan, wv. (193), to suffer, endure, w. acc. and fram w. dat.; Mk. V, 26.

ga-wastjan, wv. (188), to confirm, restore, stablish, w. acc. and in w. acc.; II. Cor. I, 21.

gaumjan, wv. (188), to see, perceiv, observ, behold, (1) abs.; Mk. IV, 12. (2) w. a clause w. atei; Skeir. VII, d.—in pass., to appear, be seen, w. dat.; Mt. VI, 5. [OHG. goumen and goumn, MHG. goumen, to pay attention to, observ.]

gaunn, wv. (189), to lament.

gurjan, to make sorry, to griev, w. acc.; II. Cor. II, 5 (the second); also abs., to cause grief; II. Cor. II, 5 (the first).—sa gurida (pp.; 134), he who is made sorry, w. us w. dat.; II. Cor. II, 2. [< gurs.]

gurs (24, n. 3), adj. (124), sorry, sorrowful, sad, grievd; w. in w. gen.; Mk. III, 5; of a sad countenance; Mt. VI.[** should be ,] 16. [< √ gau, in gau-n-n, to mourn, lament. Cp. OHG. grag (w. suff. -a-ga-), adj., wreched.]

ga-wari, n. (95, n. 1), peace; Mk. V, 34. Lu. II, 29. II. Cor. I, 2. [< *ga-wars, adj., taking the same turn; hense agreeing, < (*ga)-waran (waran, orig., to turn) = OE. geweoran, to please, agree, OHG. giwerdan, MHG. gewerden, NHG. {166}(dial.) gewede, w. 'lassen', to let alone.]

ga-waknan (35), wv. (194), to awake, awaken.

ga-wandjan, wv. (188), to turn, cause to cum back, (1) intr., w. du w. dat.; II. Cor. III, 16. (2) tr., w. sik, to turn, turn back; Mk. V, 30; to be converted; Mk. IV, 12; to return; Lu. II, 20; w. in w. acc.; Lu. II, 39. 45; w. aftra; Lu. II, 43.

ga-wasjan, wv. (187), to clothe, w. sik, to clothe one's self; Mt. VI, 29; gawasis (pp.), clothed; Mk. V, 15. II. Cor. V, 3. gawasis wisan, to be clothed, w. (instr.) dat.; Mk. I, 6.

ga-warki, n. (95), work, business. [< ga- + wark extended by suff. -ja-.]

ga-warkjan, anv. (209), to work, make to do; w. acc. of pers. and du w. inf., to appoint, ordain; Mk. III, 14.

ga-warstwa, m. (108), fellow-worker; II. Cor. I, 24. [< ga- + warstw extended by suff. -an-.]

gawi, n. (95), region, district, province, cuntry. [OHG. gewi, gouwi, MHG. gu, gou, n., NHG. gau, m., district.]

ga-widan, stv. (176, n. 1), to join together.

ga-wigan, stv. (176, n. 2), to shake, shake together.

ga-wiljis, adj. (126), willing, unanimous. [-wiljis < wiljan.]

ga-wiss, f. (103), connection, joint. [< ga-widan, to join together, (s. -widan) + suff. -ti- (ss < dt).]

ga-wrisqan, stv. (174, n. 1), to produce fruit.

gazds, m. (91), sting. [OE. gierd (stem geardj- < gardj-, while gazds is an a-stem), gird, f., ME. yerde, twig, rod, NE. yard.]

-geisnan, wv. (194), in us-g., to becum amazed. [Cp. -gaisjan.]

Gelimr, pr. n. (6, n. 2).

giba, f. (96), gift; Mt. V, 24. II. Cor. I, 11. [< giban. OE. giefu, gifu, f., ME. gife, gift; cp. -gifts.]

giban (56, n. 1), stv. (176), to giv, w. acc. of th.; Mk. IV, 7. 8. Lu. II, 24; two accs.; II. Cor. I, 22; w. dat. of pers. and acc. of th.; Mt. V, 31. VI, 11. II. Cor. V, 12. 18; or two accs.; II. Cor. V, 5.[** should be ; ?] for the acc. an inf.; Mk. V, 43; w. dat. of pers.; Mt. V, 42. Mk. II, 26; so in pass.; Mk. IV, 25.—Cpds. at-, fra-, us-g. [OE. giefan, gifan, ME. gyve, NE. giv.]

gibands, m. (115), giver. [Prop. prsp. of giban.]

gif, imper. of giban.

-gifts (56, n. 4), f., a giving, in fra-g. [< giban and suff. -ti-. OE. gift, f. n., ME. NE. gift[** missing period]]

-gildan, stv. (174, n. 1), to pay, in cpds. only. [OE. gyldan, geldan, to pay, requite, ME. ȝelde, NE. yield.]

gilstr (75, n. 1), n. (94), tribute. [< -gildan + suff. -tra (st < dt.)]

gilstra-mleins, f. (103, n. 1), enrolment for taxation; Lu. II, 2. [< stem of gilstr + -mleins < mljan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

gila, f. (97), sickl; Mk. IV, 29. [Cf. ON. gelda > ME. gelde, NE. geld.]

-ginnan, stv. (174, n. 1), in du-g., to begin. [OE. -ginnan, ME. ginne, NE. gin (obs.), cpd. begin (be- = Goth. bi-.]

Gisaleicus (21, n. 1), pr. n.

gistra-dagis, adv. (214), to-morrow; Mt. VI, 30. [Either an error, for afar-daga, or it means both yesterday and to-morrow; cp. ON. gr, to-morrow, yesterday; OHG. gestern, day after to-morrow, day before yesterday; gistra < gis- (cp. Lt. hes-ternus, yesterday) + -tra; dagis is gen. of dags.]

-gitan, stv. (176, n. 1), to get, in {167}bi-g. [OE. gietan, getan, ME. gete, NE. get (also in cpds.).]

giutan, stv. (173, n. 1), to pour, w. acc. and in w. acc.; Mk. II, 22. [OE. gotan, ME. ȝete, to pour, OHG. gioʒan, MHG. gieʒen, NHG. giessen, to pour, cast.]

glaggw, adv., (211), diligently, perfectly, accurately, wel. [< *glaggwus + adv. suff. -.]

glaggwuba (4, b), adv. (131, n. 2; 210 and n. 1), diligently, accurately. [< glaggwus + -ba.]

*glaggwus (68), adj. (131, n. 2). [OE. glaw, ME. gleu, adj., sagacious, skild.]

glitmunjan, wv. (187), to glitter, shine. [< *glitmuni, shine, splendor, < *glitmun- (+ suff. -ja), splendor, < *glit- (= glit- in E. glit-ter) + suff. -mun-.]

gljan, wv. (188), to greet, salute, welcum, w. acc.; Mt. V, 47.

gs (gen. gdis), adj. (124, n. 2; 138), good, meet, suitabl; Mt. V, 45. Mk. IV, 20. Lu. II, 14. [OE. gd, ME. gd, god, NE. good.]

graba (35), f. (97), dich, trench. [< √ of graban.]

graban (56, n. 1), stv. (177, n. 1), to dig.—Cpds. uf-, us-g. [OE. grafan, ME. grave, to dig, NE. grave, to entomb (obs.), to cut, engrave.]

gras (gen. grasis), n. (94), grass, blade of grass, herb; Mk. IV, 28. 32. [OE. grs, n., ME. gras, gress, NE. grass.]

grdags, adj. (124), greedy, hungry; Mk. II, 25. [< grdus (= OE. gr̂d, orig. u-stem, m., greed), m., greed, hunger, + suff. -a-ga-. OE. gr̂dig (w. suff. -ig-), ME. gredi, NE. greedy.]

greipan, stv. (172), to seiz, take.—Cpds. far-, und-g. [OE. grpan, ME. gripe, NE. gripe.]

grtan, rv. (181), to weep, lament; Mk. V, 38. 39. [OE. gr̂tan, ME. grte, NE. greet, to weep, lament.]

grts, m. (101, n. 1), weeping. [< grtan.]

grinda-frajis, adj. (126), feebl-minded, pusillanimous.

*gris (grids; 74, n. 2), f. (103), step, grade, degree.

grba (35), f. (97), hole. [< √ of graban. OHG. gruoba, MHG. gruobe, NHG. grube, f., pit, hole, dich.]

guda-farhts (88a, n. 1), adj. (124), God-fearing, devout; Lu. II, 25.

guda-laus (88a, n. 1), adj. (124), godless, without God.

gud-hs (88a, n. 1), n. (94), house of God, templ,[** sic]

Gudi-lub (56, n. 1; 88a, n. 2), pr. n.

gudja, m. (108), priest; Mk. I, 44. II, 26. [< gu + suff. -jan-.]

gul, n. (94), gold. [OE. gold, n., ME. gold, NE. gold.]

guma, m. (107), man. [OE. guma, ME. gome, NHG. -gam (in brutigam, bride-groom) < MHG. gome, OHG. gomo, m., man.]

guma-kunds (88a), adj. (124), of the male kind, male; Lu. II, 23.

Gumundus (65, n. 1), pr. n.

-gutnan, wv. (194), to pour (intr.), in us-g. [< pp. stem of giutan.]

gu (1, n. 4), m. (94, n. 3; 118, n. 1), God (in pl. guda, gods); Mt. V, 34. Mk. II, 7. IV, 11. 26. 30. Lu. II, 13. 20. 28. 40. 52. II. Cor. I, 1. 2. 3. 9. 12. 19. II, 15. 17. III, 4. IV, 2. 4. 6. 7. 15. V, 1. 5. 11. 18. 19. 20. 21. [OE. god, m., God; n., god, ME. god, NE. God, god.]

gua-skaunei (88a, n. 1), f. (113), the form of God. [-skaunei < skauns.]

gu-blstreis (88a, n. 1; cp. 69, n. 2), m. (92), wurshipper of God.


Haban, wv. (192), (1) to hav, possess, (a) abs.; Mk. IV, 25; (b) w. acc.; Mt. V, 46. VI, 5. Mk. I, 22. 32[** missing period; P3: no, there's one after the parentheses] (s. unhul). 40. III, 1. 3. 11. 15. 22. 26. 29. 30. IV, 5 (the first). 6. 9. 23. 40. V, 15. II. Cor. I, 15. II, 13. III, 4. 12. IV, 1. 7. 13. Skeir. VII, a; and bi w. acc.; Mt. V, 23; fram w. dat.; Mt. VI, 1. II. Cor. II, 3; in w. dat.; Mk. IV, 17. Mk.[** repeated "Mk." redundant] V, 3. II. Cor. I, 9; mi w. dat.; Mk. II, 19; us w. dat.; II. Cor. V, 1; wira w. acc.; II. Cor. V, 12. (2) to hold, take, take hold of, keep; habai wisan, to be held, be redy for; Mk. III, 9. (3) to 'hav evil', be sick; Mk. I, 32 (the first). 34. II, 17; wars h., rather to be wurse; Mk. V, 26; aftumist h., to lie at the point of deth; Mk. V, 23; ufarassau h., to hav in abundance; II. Cor. II, 4.—Cpds. dis-, ga-h. [OE. habban, ME. habbe, have, NE. hav.]

hafjan, stv. (177, n. 2), to heav, lift up, bear; Mk. II, 3.—Cpds. and-, us-h. [OE. hebban, ME. hebbe, heve, NE. heav.]

-hafnan (35), wv. (194), to heav (intr.), in ufar-h. [< pp. stem haf-ans < hafjan.]

hhan (5, b), rv. (179), to hang. [OE. hn (< *han < *hhan < *hanhan; prt. hng, pp. hangen; cf. hangian, wv.), ME. *hn (prt. heng[** , missing] pp. hange), and hange, NE. hang (by infl. of the forms w. ng and ang).]

Habrius (23; 61), pr. n., Hebrew. [< Ἑβραῖος.]

hahait, prt. of haitan.

hihs (20, n. 2), adj. (124), with one ey.

hailags (21, n. 1), adj. (124), holy. [< hails + suff. -ga-. OE. hliᵹ (w. suff. iᵹ for eᵹ), ME. hali, holi, NE. holy.]

hailiddi-u, prt. of hailjan + -u.

hailjan, wv. (188), to heal, (1) abs.; Mk. III, 2. (2) w. acc. of disease; Mk. III, 15.—Cpd. ga-h. [< hails. OE. ĥlan, ME. hele, NE. heal.]

-hailnan, wv. (194), to heal (intr.), in ga-h. [< hails.]

hails, adj. (124), hale, hole, sound, w. af w. dat.; Mk. V, 34. [OE. hl, ME. hol, NE. hole.]

haims, f. (103, n. 4), village, town, cuntry; Mk. I, 38. V, 14. [OE. hm, m., ME. hm, home, dwelling, in acc. uzed as adv., NE. home, -ham, Ham-, in names of places.]

hirasis (23), heresy, in nom. pl. -eis. [< αἵρεσις, pl. -εις.]

harda, f. (97), herd, flock; Mk. V, 11. 13. Lu. II, 8. [OE. heord, f., ME. herde, NE. herd.]

hardeis, m. (90), herd, shepherd; Lu. II, 8. 15. 18. 20. [< harda. OE. hierde, hyrde, and heorde (without uml., ME. herde, NE. herd, -herd (in shepherd = 'sheep-herd').[** unmatched left paren. Perhaps ) missing after "uml."?]]

hart, n. (109), hart; Mt. V, 28. VI, 21. Mk. II, 6. 8. III, 5. IV, 15. Lu. II, 35. II. Cor. I, 22. II, 4. III, 2. 3. 15. IV, 6. V, 12. [OE. heorte, f., ME. herte, hert, NE. hart.]

harus, m. (105), sword; Lu. II, 35. [OE. heoru, m., ME. here, sword.]

haitan, rv. (170; 179), to name, call; to call, bid, invite; Mk. I, 20. III, 31; to command, w. inf.; Mk. V, 43; in pass., to be calld, w. pred. nom.; Mt. V, 19. Lu. II, 21. 23.—Cpds. ana-, and-, at-h. [OE. htan (in pass. ht-te = Goth. haitada), prt. heht (= Goth. hahait), ME. hate, hote, prt. ht, (for)heht, hight (< OE. *hiht; i for ie < eo by influence of the palatal, orig. guttural, h; eo < e before ht) > NE. hight (poet.); hense, prop., a prt. form.]


haii, f. (98), heath, field; Mt. VI, 28. 30. [OE. ĥ, f., ME. hth, NE. heath.]

haiiwisks, adj. (124), wild; Mk. I, 6. [< haii + suff. -i-ska- (= E. -ish), the w between the two vowels being intrusiv.]

halba, f. (97), the half, a part; in izai halbai, in this respect, in this behalf; II. Cor. III, 10. [Prop., f. of halbs uzed as sb. OE. healf (< *half), ME. half (behalfe, for be[** meant to be joined with next?—P3: No] halfe, NE. behalf), NE. half, side.]

halbs, adj. (122, n. 1), half. [OE. healf, ME. half, NE. half.]

haldan, rv. (179), to hold, keep, feed; Mk. V, 11. 14. [OE. healdan, ME. halde, holde, NE. hold (notice its various meanings).]

haldis, adv. (212), rather, more. [Prop. compar. adv. Cp. OE. ge-healdre, ME. helder, G. halt (w. loss of suff.), rather, more.]

halja, f., (97, n. 1), hel. [Apparently < √ of *hilan (s. huljan) + suff. -j-. OE. hell (< *halja), f., ME. helle, NE. hel.]

hals, m. (91, n. 4), neck. [OE. heals, hals, m., ME. hals, NE. halse (obs.), OHG. MHG. NHG. hals, m., neck.]

hamfs (53), adj. (124), maimd. [OHG. hampf, adj., maimd.]

-hamn, wv. (190), to clothe, in af-, ana-, ufar-h. [< a sb. = OE. hǫma, hama, m., ME. hame, coat, cuvering (lic-hame, OE. lc-hama, body), NHG. -am, for ham, in leichnam, m., corpse, MHG. lchname, OHG. lhhinamo (lhhin is gen. of *lhho, prop. weak adj. = Goth. -leika, in man-leika, m., OE. manlica, m., ME. manliche, human form; Goth. -leika < -leiks; s. ga-leikan), m., corpse.]

hana, m. (108), cock. [OE. hǫna, hana, m., cock[** should be italic], ME. *hane, han- (in cpds.), OHG. hano, MHG. han, NHG. hahn, m., cock[** should be italic].]

handugei, f. (113), wisdom; Lu. II, 40. II. Cor. I, 12. [< handugs.]

handugs, adj. (124), wise. [< hand- (not allied to handus; s. Kluge, Stammbildungslehre, 203) + suff. -u-ga (the u by influence of handus). OE. hendig (w. suff. -ig), ME. hendi, NE. handy (a for e by influence of hand), adj. skilful.]

handus, f. (105), hand; Mt. V, 30. Mk. I, 31. 41. III, 1. 3. 5. V, 23. 41. [OE. hǫnd, hand, f., ME. hand, NE. hand.]

hansa, f. (97), multitude, cumpany, band of men. [OE. hs ( < ǫn < an), f., band of men, OHG. hansa, f., multitude, MHG. hanse, a commercial leag, NHG. hanse, f., Hanseatic leag.]

hardjan (14, n. 1), wv. (187), to harden, in ga-h. [< hardus.]

harduba, adv. (210 and n. 1), hard, severely, grievously. [< hardus + -ba.]

hardu-hartei, f. (113), hard-hartedness. [< stem of hardus + hartei < -harts, adj.; s. armahartia.]

hardus, adj. (131), hard, severe. [OE. heard, ME. hard, NE. hard, -ard (as in drunkard).]

harjis, m. (90), army, multitude, legion; Lu. II, 13. [OE. here (< *heri < *hri < *hari), m., army, multitude, ME. here, host, army, NE. her- (in heriot), har- (in harbor).]

hatis, n. (gen. hatizis; 94 and n. 5), hate, hatred, wrath, anger. [< hatan + suff. -iz-a. OE. hete (i-stem, orig. iz-stem; s. however Brugm., II, 421), m. (orig. n.), hate, persecution, ME. hete, hate, NE. hate.]

hatizn (78), wv. (190), to be angry. [< hatis.]

hatjan (and hatan; 193, n. 1), wv. to hate, w. acc.; Mt. V, 44. [< hat-, consonantal stem of hatis. OE. hatian, ME. hate, NE. hate.]


haubi, n. (93), hed; Mt. V, 36. VI, 17. [OE. heafod, n., ME. heaved, heved, NE. hed.]

huhei, f. (113, n. 1), height. [< huhs. OHG. hhi, MHG. hœhe, NHG. hhe, f., height.]

huheins, f. (103, n. 1), lit. a heightening, a raizing on high; hense honor, glory, praise. [< huhjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

huhis, compar. adv. (212), higher. [< huhs.]

huhisti, n. (95), the highest height, the highest; Lu. II, 14. [< huhista-, superl. stem of huhs.]

huhjan, wv. (188), to raiz on high, exalt, glorify, w. acc.; Mt. VI, 2. Mk. II, 12. [< huhs. OE. han, hgan, ME. heie, OHG. hhjan, hhen, MHG. hœhen, NHG. (er)-hhen, to make high, raiz.]

huhs, adj. (124), high; superl. huhista, the highest; Mk. V, 7. [OE. hah, ME. heigh, NE. high.]

huns, adj. (130, n. 2), humbl, base. [OE. han, ME. hne, adj., base, vile, poor; cp. G. hohn, m., scorn, disgrace.]

hards, f. (103), door; Mt. VI, 6. II. Cor. II, 12. [OHG. hurt, pl. hurdi, f., hurdl, MHG. hurt, pl. hrte, hrde, f., hurdl, door, > NHG. hrde, f., hurdl, pen, fold; cp. also OE. hyrdel (w. l-suff.), m., ME. hurdel, NE. hurdl.]

harn, n. (94), horn. [OE. ME. NE. horn, n.]

harnja, m. (108), horn-blower, trumpeter. [< harn + suff. -jan-.]

harnjan, wv. (187), to blow a horn; Mt. VI, 2. [< harn.]

hausjan, wv. (187), to hear, listen, harken, (1) abs.; Mk. IV, 3. 9. 12. 23. (2) w. gen. of pers.; Lu. II, 47. (3) w. dat. of pers. (to listen to, hear); Lu. II, 46. (4) w. acc. of th.; Mk. IV, 16. 18. 20. 24. (5) w. fram w. dat.; Mk. III, 21. (6) w. atei; Mt. V, 21. 27. 33. 38. 43.—Cpds. and-, ga-, uf-h. [OE. heran, hŷran, hra(n) (ie, etc., < a (= Goth. au) before orig. j), ME. here, NE. hear.]

hausjn, wv. (187, n. 3; 190), to hear; Mk. IV, 33. [= hausjan having gone over to the second weak conjugation.]

hawi, n. (dat. hauja; 95), grass; Mt. VI, 30. Skeir. VII, b. [Prop., a thing to be cut (< √ hau, seen in OE. hawan, rv., ME. hewe, NE. hew). OE. hg, n., ME. hei, hai, NE. hay.]

hazeins, f. (103, n. 1), praise. [< hazjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

hazjan, wv. (187).[** typo for , ?] to praise, w. acc.; Lu. II, 13; and in w. gen.; Lu. II, 20. [OE. herian, ME. herie, NE. herry (obs.), to praise.]

hr (8), adv. (213, n. 1), here, hither. [OE. hr, ME. hr, NE. here.]

Hrds (61), pr. n., Herod. [< Ἡρώδης.]

Hrdianus, pr. n. m., Herodian; dat. pl. -um; Mk. III, 6. [< Ἡρωδιανός.]

hj, f. (112), chamber; Mt. VI, 6.

hidr, adv. (213, n. 1), hither. [< pronominal stem hi-, in himma, + suff. -dr. Cp. OE. hider, ME. hider, ON. hera (to which seems due the th of) NE. hither.]

Hildericus (61, n. 1), pr. n.

Hildibald (54, n. 2; 61, n. 1). [** presumably "pr. n." intended]

hilpan, stv. (174, n. 1), to help; w. (instr.) dat. and bi w. acc.; II. Cor. I, 11. [OE. helpan, ME. helpe, NE. help.]

himina-kunds (88a), adj. (124), hevenly; Lu. II, 13.

himins, m. (91), heven; Mt. V, 18. 19. 20. 34. 45. 48. VI, 1. 9. 10. 14. 20. 26. 32. Mk. I, 10. IV, 32. Lu. II, 15. II. Cor. V, 1. 2. [ON. himinn, m., heven. Cp. OHG. himil (w. suff. -l-), MHG. himel, NHG. himmel, m., heven.]

himma, hina, hita (155), forms of a {171}defectiv prn., this; himma daga, to-day; Mt. VI, 11. 30. Lu. II, 11; und hina dag, until this day; II. Cor. III, 14. 15. [< a pronominal stem hi-, this, as in OE. him, dat.; hine, acc. m.; hit, n., ME. hin and him (by confusion with the dat.), hit, it, NE. him, it.]

hindana, adv., uzed as a prep. w. gen., behind, on the further side of, beyond; Mk. III, 8. [< hin- (= OE. hin-, in cpds., = G. hin, away) + -dana; hin- < a pronominal stem hi-, as in himma. OE. hindan, adv. (be-hindan, adv., behind, and prep., behind, after), ME. hinde- (in cpds..[**sic] behinde, adv. and prep.), NE. hind, hind- (in cpds.; behind, adv. and prep.).]

hindar, prep. (217), behind, on the further side of, on that side of, beyond, (1) w. dat.; so after qiman; Mk. V, 1. (2) w. acc.; Mk. V, 17. 21. [< hin- (s. hindana) + compar. suff. -dar. OE. hinder, adv. and prep., behind, ME. hinder- (in cpds.), hind, OHG. hintar, MHG. NHG. hinter, prep., behind.]

hindumists, superl. adj. (149, n. 1), hindmost, uttermost. [A dubl superl. form, < hinduma (+ suff. -ist-a-) < hin- (s. hindana) + suff. -dum-a(n)-. OE. hin-dema, superl. adj., hindmost, last. NE. hindmost < hind (s. hindana) + -most, for *-mest; s. aftumists.]

-hinan, stv. (174, n. 1), to cach, in cpds. only. [Cf. OE. hendan (wv.), ME. hende, NE. hend (obs.), to seiz.]

hiri (20, n. 1), interjectional imper. (187, n. 4; 219), cum here! dual hirjats, cum here (you two); Mk. I, 17. [< *hirjan (cp. Brgm., 'Morph. Unters[**.?]', p. 414 et seq.) < *hir, adv., < hi- (+ suff. -r); s. himma.]

hiufan, stv. (173, n. 1), to mourn, lament. [OE. hofan (str. and wv.), to lament.]

hiuhma (hiuma; 62, n. 4), m. (108), crowd, multitude. [< √ of huhs + suff. -man-.]

hlahjan, stv. (177, n. 2), to laf.—Cpd. bi-h. [OE. hliehhan (ie < ea, by i- uml., < a before h, which was dubld before the orig. j), hlhhan, ME. laghe, laughe, lauȝwe, NE. laf.]

hlaifs (gen. hlaibis; 56, n. 1), m. (90), bred[** bread], loaf of bread[**P3 bred is usual]; Mt. VI, 11. Mk. II, 26. III, 20. Skeir. VII, a. b. c. d. [OE. hlf, m., ME. lf, NE. loaf.]

hlaiw (42), n. (94), tomb, grave. [Stem hlaiwa-, orig. *hlaiwaz, -iz. OE. hlw and (w. i- uml.[** elsewhere also i-uml.]) hl̂w, ME. lawe, lowe, mound, hil, cave, NE. low, hil. Its √ appears (w. abl.) in OE. hli-n-ian, intr., hleonian, to lean, hl̂nan, tr., to make to lean, ME. leonie; lne, lene, NE. lean, to incline.]

-hlaan, stv. (177, n. 1), in af-h. [OE. hladan, ME. lade (stv.), NE. lade (wv., but str. is the pp. laden).]

-hlaupan, rv. (179, n. 1), in us-h. [OE. hlapan, ME. lpe, lepe,[** , redundant] (stv.), NE. leap (wv.).]

hleiduma, superl. adj. (139), left; uzed as sb., left hand; Mt. VI, 3. [Lit. hanging down most, < √ hlei (cp. hlaiw). For the suff., s. hindumists.]

hleis, m., (only in acc. pl., hlijans), tent, tabernacl. [< √ hlei; cp. hlaiw. Cp. OE. hlo, hlow, m., protection, roof, ME. lwe, lew, shelter, NE. lee, lew (prov.), a shelterd place, a place defended from the wind, (a nautical term, probably due to) ON,[** should be .] hl, lee (of a ship).]

hleira, f. (97), hut, tent; II. Cor. V, 1. 4. [< √ hlei (cp. hlaiw) + suff. -r-. ON. hleira[**non-gothic, shouldn't be bold], tent.]

hleira-stakeins (88a), f. (103, n. 1), feast of tabernacls, lit. {172}'tent-sticking' [-stakeins < a lost v. *stakjan (= OHG. MHG. NHG. stecken, wv., to stick, put, set), to stick, put, put up.]

hlifan, stv. (176, n. 1), to steal; Mt. VI, 19.

hlijans; s. hleis.

hliuma, m. (108), hearing, ear. [< hliu- (+ suff. -man-) = OE. hlo-, in hloor, n., that which is herd, a sound, voice. Its √ is containd also in OE. hld (orig. pp., herd), ME. lud, loud, NE. loud; and in OHG. Hludwg (-wg < √ of Goth. weihan), NHG. Ludwig, Louis.]

hltrei, f. (113), purity, sincerity; II. Cor. I, 12. [< hltrs. OHG. hlt(t)r, lt(t)ri, MHG. liuter, f., purity.]

hltria, f. (97), purity, sincerity; II. Cor. II, 17. [< hltrs + suff. -i--.]

hltrs (15), adj. (124), pure. [< √ hlt + suff. -ra-. OE. hlt(t)or, ME. lutter, OHG. (h)lt(t)ar, MHG. lter, NHG. lauter, adj., pure, clean, etc.]

hnaiwjan, wv. (187), to abase. [Caus. of hneiwan (prt. hnaiw). OE. hn̂gan (< hng, prt. of hngan), OHG. MHG. NHG. neigen, wv., to bend, press down.]

hnaiws, adj. (124), low, humbl. [< √ of hneiwan (prt. hnaiw).]

hnasqus, adj. (131, n. 1), soft, tender. [OE. hnsce, hnesce, ME. NE. nesh (obs.), soft, tender.]

hneiwan, stv. (172, n. 1), to bend downwards, decline, bow.—Cpd. ana-h. [OE. hngan (For Goth. w and OE. g, s. Brgm., I, 443 and 444). OHG. ngan (for hngan), MHG. ngen, stv., to bow, incline, NHG. neigen, wv. (due to neigen = Goth. hnaiwjan.)]

-hniupan, stv. (173, n. 1), in dis-hn., to tear or break to pieces, to break.

hn (15; hnt in B), f. (112), thorn, sting. [ON. hna.]

hrinn, wv. (190), to whore, commit adultery; Mt. V, 27. 32.—Cpd. ga-h. [< hrs.]

hrs, m. (91), whoremonger, adulterer. [ON. hrr, m., adulterer, hra, f., adulteress, > ME. hre, NE. whore (w. inorganic w).]

hraineins, f. (103, n. 1), purification; Lu. II, 22. [< hrainjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

hrainja-harts (88a, n. 2), adj. (124), pure in hart, pure-harted. [-harts < hart- in hart; s. armahartia.]

hrainjan, wv. (187), to purify, clenz.—Cpd. ga-h. [< hrains. OHG. hreinnan (for hreinjan), reinen, MHG. reinen, to make clean. NHG. MHG. reinigen, to clean, < reinic(g), adj., < reine + suff. -ic, -g; s. hrains.]

hrains, adj. (130), pure, clean; h. waran, to becum clean, be clean; Mk. I, 41. to be clenzd; Mk. I, 42. [OHG. reini (r for hr), MHG. reine, NHG. rein, adj., clean.]

hraiwa-db, f. (112), turtl-duv; Lu. II, 24. [Stem hraiwa- is in form = OE. hr(w), beside hr̂(w), OHG. hro ( before w = Goth. ai; o < w final), r(o), MHG. r, corpse.]

hrpjan, wv. (188), to call, cry, cry out; Mk. III, 11. V, 5; w. (instr.) dat.; Mk. I, 26. V, 7.—Cpd. uf.-h. [< hrps, m., outcry, clamor. (< √ of OE. hrpan, rv., ME. rpe, NE. (Sc.) roup, to cry, shout, OHG. ruofan, MHG. ruofen, NHG. rufen, to call, cry). OHG. ruofen, MHG. refen, wv., to call, cry out.]

hrt, n., (94), roof; Mk. II, 4. [Cf. OE. hrst (st < t-t), m., ME. rst, NE. roost, a perch (for fowls).]

hreigs, adj. (124), victorious, triumfant; II. Cor. II, 14. [< *hri- (< √ hr, seen in OHG. (h)ruom, MHG. ruom, NHG. ruhm, {173}m., fame, glory, + suff. -i-) = OE. hr, f., fame, + suff. -ei-ga-. OE. hrig, adj., triumfant.]

hrkjan (15), wv. (188), to crow. [Cf. OE. hrk, m., ME. rk, NE. rook, a kind of crow.]

huggrjan (66, n. 1; 67, n. 1), wv. (188), to hunger. [< stem hungru-; s. hhrus. OE. hyngran, ME. hungre, NE. hunger.]

hugjan, wv. (188), to think, be minded, believ, w. acc.; Skeir. VII, a; w. acc. and inf.; Lu. II, 44; w. ei; Mt. V, 17; wala h., to think wel towards, agree with, w. dat.; Mt. V, 25. [< hugs, m. (= OE. hyge, m., ME. hyȝe, hiȝe, mind, thought). OE. hycgean (< *huggjan), ME. huȝie, to think.]

hhrus (15; 66, n. 1), m. (105), hunger. [< stem *hunhru- (*hungru-; s. huggrjan). OE. hungor (transferd to the a-declension), m., ME. hunger, NE. hunger.]

hulistr, n. (94), a cuvering, veil; II. Cor. III, 13-16.—Cpds. and-, ga-h. [< huljan + suff. -s-tra-. ON. hulstr, m., case, cuvering, Du. holster, case for a pistol, > NE. holster.—OE. heolstor, cuvering, cave, is a primary formation < √ of helan; s. huljan.]

huljan, wv. (187), to cuver, veil. [< *hulja (= OHG. hulla, MHG. hlle, f., cuvering, raiment, NHG. hlle, f., cuvering, veil, < *hilan, OE. helan, ME. hele, OHG. helan, MHG. heln, stv., NHG. hehlen, wv., to conceal, but verhohlen, adj., orig. pp., conceald, unverhohlen, unconceald, frank). OHG. hullan, MHG. NHG. hllen, to envelop, cuver, veil.]

-hun, enclitic particl (163), any. [Cp. -gin = OE. -gen in hwergen, hwrgen (ƕr, where), anywhere. OHG. *hwargin, wergin, io (= aiw) wergin > iergen, MHG. (MG.) iergen, NHG. irgend (w. inorganic d), anywhere. Cp. Kl. W., irgend.]

hund, n. (144), a hundred; occurs in the pl. only, hunda; cp. also hunda-fas, chief of hundred men, centurion. [OE. ME. hund, NE. hund-, in hundred, < ME. OE. hundred (-red = Goth. *ra in raj).]

hunsl, n. (94), sacrifice; Lu. II, 24. [OE. hsl (< *hunsl), n., offering, eucharist, ME. hsel, NE. housel.]

hunsla-stas (88a), m. (101), a place where sacrifices ar offerd, an altar; Mt. V, 23. 24. [< stem of hunsl + stas.]

hups, m. (101), hip, loin; Mk. I, 6. [OE. hype, m. f., ME. hupe, hipe, NE. hip.]

-hs (15), n. (94), house, in gud-hs, house of God. [OE. hs, n., ME. hus, hous, NE. house.]

huzd, n. (94), trezure; Mt. VI, 19. 20. 21. II. Cor. IV, 7. [OE. hord, n. m., ME. hord, NE. hoard, store, trezure.]

huzdjan, wv. (188), to lay up trezure, w. acc.; Mt. VI, 19. 20. [< huzd.]

ƕa, n. of ƕas.

ƕarban, stv. (174, n. 1), to walk. [OE. hweorfan (eo < e = Goth. a), ME. hwerfe, to walk about, OHG. werban, MHG. werben, to walk about, pursue, NHG. werben, to sue for, woo, etc.]

ƕarnei, f. (113), skul. [Cf. the meaning of OHG. hirni (< *hirzni), MHG. hirne, NHG. hirn, n., brain.]

ƕaiteis, m. (92), wheat. [OE. hŵte, m., ME. whete, NE. wheat.]

ƕaiwa, adv. (and conj.; 218), how; Mt. VI, 28. Mk. II, 26. III, 23. IV, 13. 40. V, 16; ƕaiwa mais, how much more; Mt. VI, 30; rel.: ƕaiwa managai (-s, -a), how many, as many as; II. Cor. I, 20. [< stem of ƕas. OHG. (h)wo (< hwwu), later (h)weo, wio, MHG. NHG. wie, adv. and conj., how, as.]


ƕammh, dat. sg. m. n. of ƕazuh.

ƕan, adv. (214, n. 1), (1) in negativ sentences: ibai, or nibai, ƕan, lest at any time; Mt. V, 25. Mk. IV, 12. (2) w. adjs. and advs., how, (a) in dir. questions or exclamations: ƕan filu, how great; Mt. VI, 23; (b) in indir. questions: ƕan filu, how much, what great things; Mk. III, 8. V, 19. 20. [< stem of ƕas. Cf. OE. hwanne, hwnne, ME. hwanne, whan, hwen, NE. when.]

ƕan-hun, adv. (163), ever, at any time.

-ƕapjan, wv. (188), in af-ƕ.

-ƕapnan, wv. (194), in af-ƕ.

ƕar, adv. (213, n. 1), where. [< stem of ƕas + loc. suff. -r. OE. hwr-, hwer- (s. -hun), beside hŵr, hwr, ME. hwer, wher, NE. where.]

ƕarbn, wv. (190), to go about, walk; Mk. II, 14; w. far w. acc.; Mk. I, 16. [OE. hwearfian, ME. wharfen, to turn, wander about. Cp. ƕarban.]

ƕarjis, interr. prn. (160), who? which? (of several). [< ƕar + suff. -ja-.]

ƕarjiz-uh, indef. prn. (147, n. 1; 165), every one, every; Lu. II, 3. II. Cor. V, 10.

ƕas (ƕaz-), prn. (159), (I) interrogativ, who?, what?, which?, what sort of? ƕ (instr.), wherewith, in what degree, by what, whereunto, (1) in dir. questions; Mt. VI, 31. Mk. I, 24. 27. II, 7. III, 33. IV, 30. 41. V, 7. 9. 30. 31. II. Cor. II, 16. Skeir. VII, a; w. a prn. in the gen. pl.; Mt. VI, 27;—ƕ manigiz[** typo managiz], what greater (or more)? Mt. V, 47.—Sumtimes = Gr. τί, Lt. quare, quomodo, why?; Mt. VI, 28. Mk. II, 16. 24. V, 35. 39. Lu. II, 48. 49; (2) in indir. questions; Mt. VI, 3. 25. Mk. II, 25. IV, 24. V, 14. (II) indef. (116, n. 2), any one, any thing; Mt. V, 23. 39. 41. Mk. IV, 23. II. Cor. II, 5. 10. III, 5. V, 17; w. an adj. (uzed as sb.) in the gen. sing.; Mk. IV, 22. [OE. hw, m. f., wht, n., ME. hwa, hwo, who, m. f., hwt, hwat, what, n., NE. who, what.]

ƕas-hun, indef. prn. (163), any one.

ƕassei (76, n. 1), f. (113), sharpness, severity. [< stem *ƕassa (in ƕassaba, adv., sharply) = stem of OE. hws, OHG. (h)was, MHG. was, adj., sharp. Stem ƕassa- < *ƕat-ta- < *ƕat (= OE. hwt, ME. hwat, hwt, sharp) + suff. -ta-.]

ƕa, adv. (213, n. 1), whither. [< stem of ƕas + suff. -.]

ƕaar, interr. prn. (124, n. 1. 4; 160), whether, which of two?; Mk. II, 9. [< stem of ƕas + suff. -ar. OE. hwer, which of two, ME. hweer, wheer, NE. whether.]

ƕaar-uh, indef. prn. (166), each of two, each.

ƕar, adv. (213, n. 1), whense, from whense. [< stem of ƕas- + -r.]

ƕaz-uh, indef. prn. (147, n. 1; 164), f. ƕh, n. ƕah, each, every, (1) as sb.; Mt. V, 22. Lu. II, 23. (2) as attrib.; Lu. II, 41; = ƕ. saei, whoever, whosoever; Mt. V, 28. 31. 32.—See also sa-ƕ. and is-ƕ. For ƕaz-: ƕas, s. 78, c.]

ƕ, instr. of ƕas.

ƕh, instr. of ƕazuh (164, n. 2), uzed as adv., at least, only.

ƕeila, f. (97), while, hour, time, season; Mk. II, 19.

ƕeilaƕarbs, adj. (124), enduring but for a while, transitory. [-ƕarbs < √ of ƕarban.]

ƕeil-hun, adv. (97, n. 2; 163, n. 1), for a while. [ƕeil- is the stem of [hv]eila.]

ƕeits, adj. (124), white; Mt. V, 36. [OE. hwt, ME. whyte, hwit, NE. white.]

ƕlaus, interr. prn. (161), how {175}great, what? [< ƕ + -laus, adj., grown up, < √ of liudan.]

ƕileiks, interr. adj. and prn. (161), what, what sort of?, in dir. questions; Mk. IV, 30. [< ƕi- (161, n. 1) + -leiks. OE. hwilc (< *hwi-lc), ME. hwilc, hwilch, which, NE. which.]

ƕ, f. of ƕas.

ƕftuli (51, n. 2), f. (98), rejoicing, boasting, glory; II. Cor. I, 12. 14. V, 12. [< ƕpan + the composit suff. -tul-j-.]

ƕpan, rv. (179), to boast, glory; II. Cor. V, 12.

ƕtjan, wv. (188), to threten, rebuke, charge.—Cpd. ga-ƕ. [< ƕta, f., thret, thretening. Cp. -ƕatjan, to sharpen, incite, < *ƕat; s. ƕassei.]

Iarusalm, pr. n. f., Jerusalem; dat. -m; Lu. II, 22. 25. 43; acc. -m; Lu. II, 41. 45. [< Ἱερουσαλήμ.]

Iarusalyma, pr. n. f., Jerusalem; gen. -s; Lu. II, 38; dat. -ai; Mt. V, 35. Mk. III, 22; acc. -a; Lu. II, 42. [< Ἱεροσόλυμα.]

Iarusalymeis, pr. n. in pl., Jerusalem; also the peple of Jerusalem; Mk. I, 5. [< Ἱεροσολυμίτης, inhabitant of Jerusalem (cp. Iarusalymeits in Jo. VII, 25).]

Iakb (54), pr. n., Jacob. [< Ἰακώβ.]

Iakbus, pr. n., James; gen. -aus; Mk. III, 17; or -is; Mk. V, 37; dat. -au; Mk. I, 29. III, 17; acc. -u; Mk. I, 19. III, 18. V, 37. [< Ἰάκωβος.]

Iard (6), pr. n., Jared. [< Ιαρέδ.]

Iardans, pr. n., the river Jordan; dat. -; Mk. I, 5. 9; also nom. -us; gen. -aus; Mk. III, 8. [< Ἰορδάνης, Ἰόρδανος.]

ibai (iba), (1) interr. particl (216), in dir. questions, a negativ answer being expected, perhaps, but uzually remains untranslated in English; Mk. II, 19. IV, 21. II. Cor. III, 1; so w. auft; II. Cor. I, 17. (2) conj. (218), lest, lest by any means; Mk. II, 21; ibai auft, lest perhaps; Mk. II, 22. II. Cor. II, 7; iba ƕan, lest at any time; Mt. V, 25. [OE. *if (in gif; s. jabai), OHG. ibu, conj. (prop. instr. of iba, f., dout; cp. Kl. W., ob), beside oba, MHG. obe, ob, NHG. ob, if, whether.]

ibnassus, m. (105), evenness, equality. [< ibns + suff. -assus.]

ibns, adj. (124), even, flat. [< ib- (apparently = ib in ib-dalja, descent, ibuks, backwards) + suff. na-. OE. efn, ME. even, NE. even.]

iddja (73, n.), weak prt. (207), I went; Mk. I, 45. II, 13. 15. V, 24. 42. Lu. II, 3. 51.—Cpds. af-, at-, ga-, us-i. For citations, s. the respectiv cpds. of gaggan. [OE. ode, ME. eode, ȝede, ȝeode, NE. yede, yode, (obs.).]

idreiga, f. (97), repentence; Mk. I, 4.

idreign, wv. (190), to repent, do penance; Mk. I, 15. [< idreiga.]

Idumaia, pr. n. f. in dat., Idumea; Mk. III.[**P2 ,] 8.

Isus (1, n. 4), pr. n., Jesus (Christ); Mk. I, 9. 14. 17. 25. 41. 42. II, 5. 8. 17. 19. III, 7. IV, 1. V, 13. 20. 30. 36. Lu. II, 21. 43; gen. Isuis; Mk. I, 1. V, 22. II. Cor. I, 1. IV, 5; dat. Isua; Mk. II, 15. V, 15. 21; or Isu; II. Cor. I, 2; acc. Isu; Mk. V, 6. 27. Lu. II, 27. II. Cor. IV, 14; voc. Isu; Mk. I, 24. V, 7. [< Ἰησοῦς.]

iftuma, superl. adj. (139), the next. [< if + superl. suff. -tu-ma-n-.]

igqara (iggqara; 67, n. 1), pers. prn. 2nd pers. du. gen.; dat. acc. ig(g)qis.;[** . redundant] s. u. [OE. gen. incer, dat. inc, acc. inc(it); ME. gen. incer, dat. acc. inc(k).]

igqis, acc. du. of u.

ija, acc. sg. of si.

ik, pers. prn. 1st pers. nom. sing. (150), I, (1) emfatic, w. vs.; Mt. {176}V, 22. 28. 32. 34. 39. 44. Mk. I, 2. 7. 8. II. Cor. I, 23. II, 2; jah ik, and I, I also; Lu. II, 48. II. Cor. II, 10; gen. meina; dat. mis; Mk. I, 7. 17. II, 14. V, 7. 30. 31. II. Cor. I, 17. II, 1. 2. 12; acc. mik; Mk. I, 40. Lu. II, 49. II. Cor. I, 16. 19. II, 2. 5; dual nom. wit, we two; dat. ug(g)kis; acc. ug(g)kis, ugk; pl. nom. weis, we, (1) w. vs. (emfatic); Mt. VI, 12. II. Cor. I, 4. 6. IV, 11. 13. V, 16. 21; (2) jah weis, and we, we also; II. Cor. I, 6; weis allai; II. Cor. III, 18; or allai weis; II. Cor. V, 10; gen. unsara; dat. uns; Mt. VI, 11. 12. Mk. I, 24. Lu. II, 48. II. Cor. I, 8. 9. 11. 19. III, 2. 3. 5. IV, 12, V, 5. 12 (in B). 18. 19.;[**P2 should omit full stop before semicolon] or unsis; Lu. II, 15. II. Cor. IV, 7. 17. V, 5 and 12 (in A); acc. uns; Mt. VI, 13. Mk. I, 24. V, 12. II. Cor. I, 4. 5. 8. 10. 11. 14. 19. 20. 21. 22. II, 14. III, 1. 6. IV, 2. 5. V, 5. 11. 12. 14. 18. 20. 21; or unsis; Mk. V, 12. II. Cor. I, 21. IV, 14. V, 14.[** no unsis at V, 14. Accidental duplication of preceding ref?] 18 (in A B). [OE. ic, ME. ic, ich, i, y, NE. I. See also meina, weis, unsara.]

im, anv. (204), 1st pers. sing,[** typo . or ., ?] pres. indic.; s. wisan. [OE. eom, eam, am, ME. eom, m, am, NE. am. The remaining forms of the prs. indic. and opt. (Goth. is, is-t; sijau,[**sijau? F1: yes, not -n] etc., OE. ear-t, is; se[** probably defectively printed se], etc.) ar from the same √.]

im, prn.; s. is.

imma, prn.; s. is.

in, prep. (217), (1) w. gen., on account of, for ... sake, about, thru, by; Mk. II, 27. III, 5. 9. IV, 17. Lu. II, 20. II. Cor. I, 6. II, 10. 12. III, 7. IV, 5. 11. 15; in is, in-uh is, on this account, for this cause; II. Cor. II, 8. IV, 16. V, 9; in iz-ei, because, for the reason that; Mk. IV, 5. II. Cor. IV, 13. (2) w. dat., both concrete and abstr., and after vs. of motion and rest, (a) local, in, into, within, among, on, at, towards, to, before; Mt. V, 19. 20. 25. 28. 45. 48. VI, 1. 2. 5. 9. 10. 13. 18. 23. Mk. I, 2. 4. 9. 11. 13. 14. 15. 19. 20. 23. 29. 39. II, 1. 6. 8. 15. III, 3. IV, 1. 17. 28. 36. V, 1. 3. 5. 13. 14. 20. 27. 30. Lu. II, 3. 7. 8. 11. 12. 14. 16. 19. 21. 22. 24. 25. 27. 34. 38. 43. 44. 46. 49. 51. II. Cor. I, 8. 9. 11. 19. 20. 23. II, 3. 8. 14. 15. III, 2. 3. 7. 10. 14. IV, 3. 4. 11. 12. V, 1. 4. 6. 11. 19. Skeir. VII, b. d; (b) temporal, in, at, during, within, by, for; Mk. I, 9. II, 20. III, 4. IV, 35. II. Cor. I, 14; (c) in other relations of which sum may be regarded as belonging under (2), (a), chiefly in an abstr. sense, indicating a 'state' or 'condition', in, of, with; Mt. VI, 6. 13. 18. 29. Mk. I, 23. 30. V, 25. II. Cor. I, 4. 12. II, 1. III, 8. V, 17; or 'manner', in, with; Mt. VI, 4. 6. 29; or 'instr.', 'means'; Mk. I, 5. 8. IV, 2. 24. V, 13. 21. Lu. II, 27. II. Cor. I, 21. II, 12. 17. III, 7. 14. V, 19. Skeir. VII, c (the first); or 'reason', 'cause', because of, for; Mt. VI, 7. II. Cor. V, 2. in ammei (= amma ei), because; II. Cor. II, 13; with regard to, according to, in, after; Mk. I, 11. 15. II. Cor. II, 3. 9. IV, 8. Skeir. VII, c. [** or e?] (the second). (3) w. acc., (a) of place, in, into, on, among, to, toward, down to, up to; Mt. V, 25. 29. 30. VI, 6. 26. 30. Mk. I, 12. 21. 45. II, 1. 22. 26. III, 1. 13. 20. 27. IV, 1. 7. 8. 18. V, 12. 13. 18. 38. Lu. II, 4. 15. 39. 41. 42. II. Cor. I, 16. II, 13. III, 13. 18; (b) of time, in, for; Mt. VI, 13. Lu. II, 1; (c) in other relations, expressing 'disposition', 'feeling', 'direction', or 'action towards', toward, against, to, unto, in; Mt. V, 22. Mk. V, 34. II. Cor. I, 5. 11. IV, 11.—Occurs {177}often in composition w. vs., sbs., and adjs. [OE. in, ME. in, inn, NE. in.]

ina, prn., s. is.

in-brannjan, wv. (187), to set on fire, set fire to, burn.

in-feinan, wv. (193), to be moved with compassion, to pity, w. du w. dat.; Mk. I, 41.

in-ga-leikn, wv. (190), to change into the likeness of; II. Cor. III, 18.

in-kil, f. adj. (132, n. 2), with child; Lu. II, 5. [-kiln- < a sb. = OE. cild, n. (m.), ME. child, NE. child.]

inn, adv. (213, n. 2), in; Mk. V, 40.—Occurs in many cpds. [< in. OE. in(n), ME. NE. in, adv.]

inna, adv. (213, n. 2), within, in; II. Cor. III, 3. [< inn + -a. OE. ME. inne, NE. in, adv., coinciding with in = Goth. inn.]

innana, adv. (213, n. 2), within, inside. [< inna + -na. OE. innan, ME. innen, NE. in (coinciding with in = Goth. inn, inna.]

inn-at-gaggan, anv. (179, n. 3; 207), to enter, enter into, go or cum into; Mk. IV, 19. V, 39.

inn-at-tiuhan, stv. (173), w. acc., to bring in; Lu. II, 27.

innar, adv. (213, n. 2), from within, within, inwardly. [< inna + suff. -r.]

inn-gaggan, anv. (179, n. 3; 207), to go in, enter, w. in w. acc.; Mk. V, 18; inng. framis, to go on; Mk. I, 19.

innuma, superl. adj. (139), inner, innermost, inward; II. Cor. IV, 16. [< inn + suff. -u-ma-n. Cf. OE. ME. innem-est (= Goth. *innumist-s, a dubl superl.; cp. hindumists), NE. inmost (-ost for -est by influence of most; s. maists).]

ins, prn.; s. is.

in-saian (-saijan; 22, n. 1), rv. (182), to sow into, w. acc. and in w. dat.; Mk. IV, 15.

in-saƕan (34, n. 1), stv. (176, n. 1), to look upon, behold, w. du w. dat.; Mt. VI, 26.

in-sailjan, wv. (188), to let down by means of a rope, let down with cords; Mk. II, 4.

in-sandjan, wv. (188), to send into, send off or forth, send, (1) w. acc.; Mk. IV, 29; and fara w. dat.; Mk. I, 2; or in w. acc. and a clause w. ei; Mk. V, 12; or inf. of purpose; Mk. III, 14. (2) without obj., w. du w. dat.; Mk. I, 2.

inuh, prep. w. acc. (217), without; Mt. V, 32. Mk. IV, 34. Skeir. VII, b. [Also inu. Cf. OHG. no, MHG. n, ne, NHG. ohne, prep., without.]

in-wait, prt. of inweitan.

in-weitan, stv. (172, n. 1; 197, n. 1), to wurship; Mk. V, 6.

in-winds, adj. (124), turnd aside; hense distorted from the right; perverse, unjust, unrighteous; Mt. V, 45. [-winds < √ of -windan.]

Idas (11, n. 2), pr. n., Juda. [< Ἰούδας.]

Ihanns (61, n. 3), John; Mk. I, 4. 6. 14; gen. -is; Mk. II, 18; dat. -; Mk. I, 9. III, 17; or -n; Mk. I, 29; acc. -n; Mk. V, 37; or -; Mk. I, 19. [< Ἰωάννης.]

Isf, pr. n., Josef; Lu. II, 4. 33. 43; acc. Isf, pr. n., Josef; Lu. II, 16. [< Ἰωσήφ.]

is, pers. prn. 3d pers. sg. m. (152), nom., uzed alone and w. vs., for emfasis, he; Mk. I, 8. 45. II, 15. 25. III, 8. 13. IV, 27. 38. V, 4. 34. 40. Lu. II, 28. Skeir. VII, d; gen. is; Mt. V, 35. Mk. I, 7. 16. 19. 22. 28. II, 15. 16. 23. III, 5. 27. IV, 32. V, 27. 28. 31. Lu. II, 21. 33. 34. 41. 43. 47. 48. 51. II. Cor. II, 11. III, 7. Skeir. VII, a. c; dat. imma; Mt. V, 25. 39. 40. 41. Mk. I, 5. 13. 18. 26. 27. 30. 36. 37. 40-45.[** en-dash] Lu. II, 24; acc. ina; {178}Mt. VI, 8. Mk. I, 12. 25. 26. 34. 37. 40. 43. Lu. II, 7. 45. II. Cor. V, 16; pl. nom. eis; Mk. III.[**P2 ,] 4. Skeir. VII, b; gen. iz; Mt. VI, 14. 15. Mk. I, 23. 39. II, 5. III, 5. IV, 15. V, 37. Skeir. VII, d; dat. im; Mt. VI, 1. 7. Mk. I, 31. 38. 44. III, 4. II. Cor. IV, 4. Skeir. VII, b; acc. ins; Mt. VI, 26. Mk. I, 20. 21. 22. Skeir. VII, b. c; f. sg. nom. si; gen. izs; Mt. V, 28. Mk. I, 31. V, 29; dat. izai; Mt. V, 28. 31. Mk. V, 34. 41. 43. Lu. II, 6. 7; acc. ija; Mk. I, 30. V, 33; neut. sing. nom. ita; Mk. IV, 37; acc. ita; Mt. V, 29. Mk. IV, 16; pl. nom. ija; Lu. II, 50; dat. im; Lu. II, 42 (?). 49. 50. 51. [All but si < a pronominal stem of the 3d pers., i-.]

is, ist, anv. (204), 2nd and 3d pers. sing. prs. indic. of wisan.

Iskarits, pr. n., Iscariot; acc. -n; Mk. III, 19. [< Ἰσκαριώτης.]

Isral, pr. n., Israel; gen. -is; Lu. II, 25. II. Cor. III, 7. 13; dat. -a; Lu. II, 32. [< Ἰσραήλ.]

Israleits, pr. n. (120, n. 2), Israelite. [< Ἰσραηλίτης.]

ist, 3d pers. prs. ind. of wisan.

ita, prn.; s. is.

itan, stv. (176, n. 3), to eat.—Cpd. fra-i. [OE. etan, ME. te, te, NE. eat.]

i, conj. (218), continuativ and more or less adversativ; so always at the beginning of the sentence, (1) but; Mt. V, 19. 21. 22. 29. 32. 33. 37. 39. VI, 3. 6. 15. 17. 20. 23. 27. Mk. I, 8. 14. 30. 41. 45. II, 18. III, 4. IV, 10. 11. 34. V, 33. 34. 36. 40. Lu. II, 19. 40. II. Cor. I, 12. III, 6. IV, 5. 18. V, 11. 16. Skeir. VII, a. b. (2) and; Mt. VI, 24. (3) i ... nu, then, therefore; Mt. V, 19.

Idaia, pr. n., Judea; dat. -a; Mk. III, 7.[** ; ?] acc. -an; Lu. II, 4; or -a; II. Cor. I, 16. [< Ἰουδαία.]

Idaia-land, pr. n., the cuntry of Judea; Mk. I, 5.

Idas or Jdas, pr. n., Judas; acc. -an; Mk. III, 19. [< Ἰούδας.]

iup, adv. (213, n. 2), upwards, up. [Cf. OE. p, upp, ME. up, NE. up.]

iupa, adv. (213, n. 2), abuv, on high. [< iup + suff. -a.]

iupana, adv. (213, n. 2), from abuv, again. [< iup + suff. -a-na.]

iupar, adv. (213, n. 2), from abuv. [< iupa + suff. -r.]

izai, iz, iz, izs, prn.; s. is.

iz-ei (78, c; iz), rel. prn. (157, n. 3), he who, he that; II. Cor. I, 10. III, 6; f. sei (< si ei); Lu. II, 4. 5. 10; ana izei, him who; II. Cor. V, 21. sa iz, he who; Mt. V, 32.

iz, izs; s. izai.

izwar, poss. prn. (124, n. 1. 4; 151), m.; izwara, f.; izwar, n., your, in our 'Selections' always w. a sb., (1) preceding and, (a) without the art.; Mt. V, 37. 44. 45. 48. Mt.[**P2 redundant] VI, 1. 8. 14. 15. 21. 25. 26. 32. Mk. II, 8. II. Cor. I, 14. 24. II, 9. IV, 5. V, 11. (b) w. the art.; Mt. V, 47. (2) following; so always without the art.; Mt. V, 20. II. Cor. I, 6. 24. [< stem of izwara. OE. ower, ME. NE. your.]

izwara, izwis, pers. prn.; s. u. [2nd pers. gen. and dat. acc., respectivly. OE. gen. ower, dat. ow, acc. (owic), ow, ME. gen. ȝure, dat. acc. ȝou, ȝow, > NE. you.]

izwizei (i. e. izwiz-ei), rel. prn.; s. u-ei.

Ja, adv. (216), yes; Mt. V, 37. II. Cor. I, 17. 18. 19. 20. [OE. i, ge, ME. ȝea, ȝe, NE. yea.]

jabai, conj. (218), if, whether, even if, altho, (1) w. prs. indic.; Mt. V, 46. 47. VI, 14. 15. 22. 23. Mk. III, 24. 25. IV, 26. V, 28. II. Cor. {179}II, 2. 10. III, 9. 11. IV, 3. V, 1. 17; unt jabai ... aau, for either ... or; Mt. VI, 24. (2) w. prs. opt.; Mt. V, 29. 30. 39. 41. Mk. IV, 23.—jabai swauh jah, if only, even tho; II. Cor. V, 3. (3) w. pret. indic.; Mk. III, 26. II. Cor. II, 5. III, 7. V, 16. [< pron. stem ja-[** should be bold?] (cp. Brgm., I, 123) + -bai (for ibai?); cp. OE. gif (for ge-if), gief, ME. yif, yf, NE. if. S. also ibai.]

Jaeirus, pr. n., Jairus; Mk. V, 22. [< Ἰάειρος.]

jah (the h being often assimilated to a follg. sound; 62, n. 3), conj. (217), (1) and (καί); Mt. V, 18. 19. 20. 23. 24. 25. 29. 30. 32. 38. 41-45. 47 (the 1st). VI, 2. 4. 5. 6. 12.[**P2 omit full stop] (the 1st). 13. 17-20. 25. 26. 28. Mk. I, 4-7. 9-13. 15-26. 27 (the 1st). 29 (the 1st)-38 (the 1st and 2nd). 39-45. II, 1-4. 6. 8. 9. 11-14. 15 (all but the 2nd)-25. 26 (the 1st and 2nd). 27. III, 1-8. 9. 11-19 (the 1st). 20-28. 31-34. IV, 1. 2. 4-9. 11. 12. 13. 15-21. 24. 25 (the 1st). 26. 27. 30. 32. 33. 35-41 (all but the 3d). V, 1-7. 9. 10. 12-26. 29-34. 37-43. Lu. II, 3. 7-10. 12. 13. 14. 15 (1st and 3d). 16. 18. 20. 21. 22. 24-28. 30. 33-40. 42-52. II. Cor. I, 1. 2. 3. 6. 10. 12. 15-22. II, 2. 3. 4. 7. 12. 14. 15. 16. III, 2. 13. IV, 7. 14 (the 2nd). 16. 17. V, 2. 6. 8. 12. 15. 18. 19. Skeir. VII, a (the 1st and 3d). b. c (the 3d). d. (2) also (καί); sumtimes it is merely emfatic: even, indeed, or may remain untranslated in E..;[**P2 E.;] Mt. V, 39. 40. 46. 47 (the 2nd). VI, 10. 12 (the 2nd). 14. 21. 24. Mk. I, 27 (the 2nd). 38 (the 3d). II, 15 (the 2nd). 26 (the 3d). 28. III, 19 (the 2nd). IV, 25 (the 2nd). 41 (the 3d). Lu. II, 15 (the 2nd). II. Cor. I, 5. 7. 8. 11. 13. 14. II, 10. III, 6. IV, 6. 11. 13 (the 2nd). 14 (the 1st). V, 3. 4. 5. 11. Skeir. VII, a (the 2nd). c (the 1st and 2nd). (3) and, but (δέ); Mt. VI, 30.—in izei jah, and therefore; II. Cor. IV, 13.—jah ... jah, both ... and; II. Cor. V, 5 (But s. note). Cp. also Mk. III, 35. [OHG. joh (ahd gr., 25, n. 1), MHG. joch, and, also.]

jainar, adv. (213, n. 1), there; Mt. V, 23. 24. Mk. I, 35. 38. II, 6. III, 1. V, 11. Lu. II, 6. [< jains + loc. suff. -r.]

jaind, adv. (213, n. 1), there, thither. [< jains + loc. suff. -d. Cf. OE. geond, ME. yond, NE. yond (obs.), adv., yonder.]

jaindr, adv. (213, n. 1), there, thither. [< jains + suff. -dr. ME. NE. yonder.]

jains (20, n. 4), dem. prn. (156), that, w. a sb., (1) without the art.; Mk. I, 9. II, 20. IV, 35. Lu. II, 1; jainis stadis, to the other side; Mk. IV, 35. (2) w. the art.; Mk. III, 24. 25; jainaim aim ta, to them (that ar) without; Mk. IV, 11. [OE. geon, ME. ȝon, NE. yon.]

jainr, adv. (213, n. 1), thense; Mt. V, 26. Mk. I, 19. [< jains + suff. -r.]

ja (62, n. 3), conj. (153, n. 2; 218), and if, ja ... ja, either ... or, whether ... or; II. Cor. I, 6. V, 9. 10. 13. [< jah ( for h; s. jah) + , instr. of ata; s. sa.]

jau, interr. adv. (216), whether, if.

jr, n. (94), year; Mk. V, 25. 42. Lu. II, 36. 37. 41. Skeir. VII, d. [OE. ger, gr, ME. yr, NE. year.]

jta, m. (108), iota, jot; Mt. V, 18. [< ἰῶτα, iota.]

ju, adv. (214, n. 1), now, alredy; Mt. V, 28. Lu. II, 15. [OE. i, gi, adv., alredy, onse, formerly.]

juggs (124), adj. (124), new, fresh; Mk. II, 22. yung; Lu. II, {180}24.—sa jhiza (15; 66, n. 1), compar. (135, n. 1), the yunger. [OE. geong, giung, ME. ȝong, ȝung, NE. yung.]

juk, n. (94), yoke, pair. [OE. geoc, gioc, n., ME. ȝok, NE. yoke.]

jus, pers. prn. 2nd pers. pl.; s. u. [Cf. OE. nom. g, gen. ower, dat. ow, acc. owic; ME. nom. y, gen. your, dat. you, acc. you (prop. dat.), NE. nom. ye, you (prop. dat.), (gen. your, poss., s. izwara), dat. you, acc. you (prop. dat.).]

ju-an, adv., alredy; Mk. IV, 37; juan ni, no longer, no more; Mk. I, 4. 5. II, 2.

Kafarnaum, indecl. pr. n., Capernaum, in acc.; Mk. I, 21. II, 1. [< Καπερναούμ.]

kaisar, m. (91, n. 4; 119), Cesar; dat. -a; Lu. II, 1. [< καῖσαρ.]

Kajafa (52), pr. n.[** , missing] Cajaphas. [< Καϊαφάς.]

kalb, f. (112), female calf, hefer. [OHG. chalba, kalba, MHG. kalbe, f. Its orig. stem appears in OE. cealf-ru, pl., but cealf, sing. (without the orig. s: z: r-suff.), ME. clf, kalf, NE. calf.]

kalds, adj. (124), cold. [Orig. a ptc. (da- being suff.), < √ kal, in OE. ME. cle, w. abl., NE. cool, OE. ceald, ME. cald, cold, NE. cold.]

kalkinassus, m. (105), adultery, fornication; Mt. V, 32. [< kalk- (seen in kalk-j, or kalk-i, harlot, whore) + suff. -in-assu-.]

Kananeits, pr. n. m., Canaanite; Mk. III, 18. [< Κανανίτης.]

kann, kan(n)t; s. kunnan, prt.-prs.

kannjan, wv. (188), to make known.—Cpds. ga-, us-k. [Factit. of kunnan. OE. (ge-)cennan, ME. (i-) kenne,[**P2 re-join with (i-) on previous line? some cases of (i-) have a space after, some don't; (ga/ge/gi-) never do] to make known, and (by influence of ON. kenna, to know) to know, NE. ken, to know, recognize.]

kara, f. (97; karist; 204, n. 3), care; kara wisan, to concern, w. acc.;[**P2 ; unclear] Mk. IV, 38 (without ist). [OE. cearu, f., ME. care, care, grief, NE. care.]

karkara, f. (97; 119), prison; Mt. V, 25. [< Lt. carcer, m., prison.]

kas, gen. kasis, n. (94), vessel, picher, pot; II. Cor. IV, 7; in pl. also goods (so in the E. version; gert in G.). Mk. III, 27. [OHG. char, MHG. kar, n., vessel, dish.]

kaupatjan, wv. (187, n. 1), to strike with the palm of the hand, to cuf, buffet.

Karazein (57), pr. n., Chorazin. [< Χοραζείν.]

karei, f.[**P2 f. ? P3: fixed] (113), weight, burden; II. Cor. IV, 17. [< karus.]

Karinaus, pr. n., a Corinthian; dat. pl. -aium[** typo -aum? I think the rule is Goth. -aius < Gr. -aios, -aus < -ios]; II. Cor. superscr. (in B); or -ium (in A). [< Κόρινθιος.]

Karin, pr. n., Corinth; dat. -n; II. Cor. I, 1. 23. [< Κόρινθος.]

karjan, wv. (188), to press, burden, trubl, w. acc., in pass. the nom. (implied); II. Cor. I, 8. V, 4.—Cpd. ana-k. [< karus.]

karn, n. (94), corn, grain; Mk. IV, 28. [OE. corn, n., a grain, corn, ME. NE. corn.]

karn, n. (110), corn, grain of corn; Mk. IV.[**P2+P3: typo for ,] 31. [< karn.]

karus, adj. (131, n. 1), hevy, weighty, burdensum.

kawtsj (39, n. 1), f. (112), security. [< Lt. cautio, security.]

Kfas (6), pr. n., Cephas.

keinan, stv. (172, n. 2; 195, n. 2), to germinate, spring up, grow; Mk. IV, 27. [OE. cnan, ME. chine, to split, crack, burst, > NE. chink (w. k-suff.).]

kilei, f. (113), womb. [S. inkil.]

kindins, m. (91), guvernor; k. wisan, to be guvernor, to guvern; Lu. II, 2.

kinnus, f. (105), cheek; Mt. V, 39. [OE. cin- (in composition), chin (but cheek in cin-bn, n., cheek-bone, {181}cin-t, m., cheek-tooth), ME. chin, NE. chin.]

kintus, m. (105), farthing; Mt. V, 26. [Perhaps < a vulgar form of Lt. quintus, one fifth (of an 'as'); cp. MHG. quentn (quintn) one fourth (perhaps orig. one fifth of a 'lot' = about ounce), < Vulgar Lt. quintnus < Lt. quintus, fifth.]

kiusan, stv. (173, n. 1), to test, prove, choose. [OE. cosan, ME. chese, chose > NE. choose.]

kniu, n. (94, n. 1), knee; Mk. I, 40. [OE. cno, ME. kne, NE. knee.]

kns (74, n. 2), f. (103), race, stock. [OHG. chnt, chnuat, f., race. Its stem, kn, = OE. cn-, in cnsl (w. suff. -sla-), race, kin.]

knussjan, wv., to kneel down; Mk. I, 40. [< *knussus, a kneeling, < stem knu-: [** no space in text]kniw-, extended kniwa- > kniu.]

Krks (8), m. (119), a Greek. [< Lt. Grcus.]

Krta (6), pr. n., Crete. [< Κρήτη.]

kriustan, stv. (173, n. 1), to gnash.

-krtn (12, n. 1), wv. (190), in ga-k.

krusts, m. (101, n. 1), gnashing. [< kriustan.]

-kumbjan (54, n. 1), wv., in ana-, mi-ana-k. [< Lt. -cumbere, in ac-c., to lie down, recline.]

kmei, arise!; Mk. V, 41 [< κούμει[** typo for "koumi" or perhaps "koumi!"?], arise!, < the Syrian.]

-kunds, adj. (124), denoting origin or kind, in ara-, guma-, himina-, qina-kunds. [Prop. an old ptc. < √ of kuni. OE. -cund (as in god-*cund, divine), extended cynde, ME. kynde, kinde, natural, suitabl, kind, NE. kind.]

kuni, n. (93), kin, race, tribe; Lu. II, 36. [OE. cyn(n), n., ME. kin, kun, NE. kin.]

kunnan, prt.-prs. (199), to know, w. acc.; Mk. I, 34. IV, 11. 13. II. Cor. II, 4. (in pass. the nom.) III, 2. V, 16. 21. Skeir. VII, a; and an indir. question; Mk. I, 24; or bi w. dat.; II. Cor. V, 16.—Cpds. fra-, ga-k. [OE. cunnan; prs. sing. can, cǫn,[** reverse cedilla P2] ME. cunne, kunne, conne; prs. con, kan, can > NE. can.]

-kunnan, wv. (199, n. 1), in ana-, at-, ga-, uf-k. [< kunnan, abuv. OE. cunnian, ME. cunne, to try to find out, to try, test, NE. con (obs.), to consider, cun (Sc.).]

kuna, prt. of kunnan, prt.-prs.

kuni, n. (95), knowledge; II. Cor. II, 14. IV, 6. [< kuns. OE. cŷ(), f. (?), ME. kith, MHG. knde, n., knowledge.]

-kunjan; s. -swi-kunjan.

kuns, adj. (123; prop. pp.), known; II. Cor. III, 2; kuna, sb. m. (107), acquaintance; Lu. II, 44. [< kunnan. OE. c ( < un), ME. cuth, adj., known, NE. -couth, in uncouth.]

kustus, m. (105), proof, trial, test; II. Cor. II, 9. [< kiusan + suff. -tu-. OE. cost (For[** should be l.c. f?] cyst, s. ga-kusts), m., manner, ME. cost, cust, choice, quality, manner, OHG. chost, m., judgment, decision, > chostn, MHG, NHG. kosten, to taste, try.]

Kyreinaus, pr. n., Cyrenius; dat. -au; Lu. II, 2. [< Κυρήνιος.]

-Qarnus (105), in asilu-qarnus, mil-stone (lit. 'ass-mil', i. e. a mil turnd by an ass), mil. [OE. cweorn, cwyrn, f., mil, ME. cwern, quern, NE. quern, hand-mil.]

qarrus, adj. (131), meek, gentl. [ON. kvr (stem *kverru-) beside kvirr (stem *kvirria-), stil, quiet, OHG. *churri, *cwirri, MHG. krre, MG. kurre, kirre, NHG. kirre, adj., tame, familiar, submissiv.]

qam, prt. of qiman.

Qartus (59), pr. n., Quartus.

qa(-uh), prt. of qian (+ -uh).


qmjau, qmun, prt. of qiman.

qns (qeins; 7, n. 2), f. (103), woman, wife; Mt. V, 31. 32. Lu. II, 5. [OE. cwn, f., ME. quene, wife, woman, queen, NE. queen. Cp. qin.]

qun, prt. of qian.

qiman, stv. (175, n. 1), to cum, arrive, both lit. and trop.;[**P2 should be a semicolon, and perhaps is a faint one. P3: fixed from :] Mt. VI, 10. Mk. I, 7. 9. III, 31. IV, 4. 15. 17. V, 22. 23. 33. II. Cor. II, 3; w. af w. dat.; Mk. III, 22. II. Cor. I, 16; at w. dat.; Mk. I, 40. II, 3. III, 8. II. Cor. I, 15. 16. II, 1; fram w. dat.; Mk. V, 35; hindar w. dat.; Mk. V, 1; in w. dat.; Mt. V, 20. Mk. I, 14. 29. V, 1. Lu. II.[**P2 II,] 27. 51. II. Cor. I, 23. II, 12; nƕa w. dat.; Mk. II, 4; us w. dat.; Mk. I, 11; du (therefore); Mk. I, 38; a final clause w. du ei; Mk. IV, 21; inf. of purpose; Mt. V, 17. Mk. I, 24. II, 17. V, 14; a ptc.; Mk. I, 14. 40. II, 3. V, 35. Lu. II, 16; an acc. of time; Lu. II, 44.—Cpds. ana-, fra-, ga-, us-q. [OE. cuman (< *cwuman < *queman), ME. cume, come, NE. cum.]

qina-kunds (88a), adj. (124), female.

qin, f. (112), woman; Mt. V, 28. Mk. V, 25. 33. Skeir. VII, a. [OE. cwene, f., woman, lady, ME. quene, wife, woman, quean, NE. quean.[**P2 typo , ?] OHG. quena, chone, MHG. kone, f., woman,[**P2 typo . ?] Cp. qns.]

-qiss (76, n. 1), f., in cpds. [< qian + suff. -ti (ss < t). OE. -cwiss, in gecwiss, f., harmony.]

qistjan, wv. (188), to destroy, in fra-, us-q. [< stem *qis-ti, destruction, = OHG. quist, f., destruction.]

-qistnan, wv. (194), in fra-q. [Cp. qistjan.]

qian, stv. (176, n. 1), to say, speak, tel, name, call, (1) w. acc. of the th. said; Mk. I, 42 (in pass. the nom.). Lu. II, 21; (2) w. a dependent sentence or frase, (a) dir.; Mt. V, 27. 38. 43. VI, 31. Mk. I, 7. 24. 25. 27. III, 30,[**P2 30.] 33. 34. IV, 9. 26. 30. V, 7. 30. Lu. II, 13. 28. Skeir. VII, a; (b) w. atei; Mt. V, 31. Mk. I, 11. 15. II, 12. III, 11. 21. 22,[**typo 22. ?] V, 23. 28. 35. (3) w. acc. and inf.; II. Cor. IV, 6. (4) w. dat. of the pers. addrest and, (a) an acc. of th.; Mk. V, 33; or a voc.; Mt. V, 22 (raka, indecl.); (b) a dir. obj. sentence; Mt. V, 18. 21. 26. 33. 44. VI, 2. 25. Mk. I, 17. 41. II, 9. 11. 19. 27. IV, 2 (and in w. dat.). 11. V, 8. Skeir. VII, d; (c) an obj. clause w. atei; Mt. V, 20. 22. 28. 32. 33. VI, 5. 16. 29. Mk. III, 28; (d) a final clause w. ei; Mk. III, 9; (e) an inf.; Mt. V, 34. 39; (f) bi w. acc.; Mk. I, 30. (5) w. du w. dat. of the pers. addrest, and, (a) a dir. sentence; Mk. I, 38. 44. II, 5. 8. 10. 14. 16. 17. 18. 24. 25. III, 3. 4. 5. 23. 32. IV, 13. 21. 24. 35. 38. 39. 40. 41. V, 9. 19. 31. 34. 36. 39. 41. Lu. II, 10. 15. 34. 48. 49; (b) an obj. clause w. atei; Mk. I, 37. 40. (6) w. swasw and in w. dat.; Lu. II, 24.—Cpd. us-q. [OE. cwean (prt. cw), ME. quee (prt. qua[** ,] quo), NE. (be-)queath[** re-joined] (prt. quoth).]

qius, m. (105), womb; Lu. II, 23. [ON. kvir, m., stomach.]

-qiujan (42), wv. (187), to quicken, in ga-q. [< qius. OE. cwicjan, ME. quike, to make alive, OHG. quicchan in ir-qu., MHG. erquicken, to cause to revive, to refresh, NHG. erquicken, to refresh.]

-qiunan (42, n. 3), wv. (194), in ga-q., to becum alive. [< qius.]

*qius, adj. (124, n. 3), quick, living, alive. [< stem qiwa-. Cf. OE. cwic (o-stem); cwicu and cucu (< stem in -u), NE. quick.]

qrammia, f. (97), moisture.

qums, m. (101, n. 1), a cuming, arrival. [< qiman. OE. cyme, m., ME. cume, kime, a cuming.]


Lag, prt. of ligan.

laggei, f. (113), length. [< laggs. OE. lengu (str., for *leng, weak, by change of declension), f., ME. lenge, OHG. leng (likewise str.), MHG. lenge, NHG. lnge, f., length.]

laggs, adj. (124), long (said of time only); Mk. II, 19. [OE. lǫng, lang, ME. NE. long.]

lagjan, wv. (187), to lay, lay down, put, place, giv, w. acc. and ana w. acc.; Mk. V, 23. II. Cor. III, 13; to communicate, commit, w. acc. and in w. dat. (or acc.?); II. Cor. V, 19.—Cpd. ga-l. [Caus. of ligan. OE. lecᵹan, ME. legge, leie, NE. lay.]

lagan, legion; Mk. V, 9. 15. [< λεγεών, legion.]

laikan, rv. (179), to leap, leap for joy. [OE. lcan, to leap, play, ME. lake, to play.]

laktj (57), f. (always in the margin, in B, opposit the passage to be red in church); II. Cor. III, 4. V, 11.[**P2 ./, ?] [< L. lectio, a reading.]

lalt, prt. of ltan.

lalun, prt. of lauan.

lais (30), prt.-prs. (197), I know. [Cp. laisareis, laisjan.]

laisareis, m. (92), teacher, master; Mk. IV, 38. V, 35. Lu. II, 46. Skeir. VII, a. [< *laisa (= OE. lr, f., a teaching, ME. lare, lore, NE. lore) < lais. OHG. lrari, MHG. lrre, lrer, NHG. lehrer, teacher.]

laiseins, f. (103, n. 1), a teaching, doctrin; Mk. I, 22. 27. IV, 2. [< laisjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

laisjan (30), wv. (188; 197), to teach, (1) abs.; Mk. IV, 1. (2) w. acc. of pers.; Mt. V, 19. Mk. I, 21. 22. II, 13; and acc. of th.; Mk. IV, 2. [Caus. of lais. OE. l̂ran, to teach, ME. lere, to teach, lern, NE. lear (obs.). OHG. MHG. lren, to teach, lern (rare), NHG. lehren, to teach.]

laistjan, wv. (188), to follow, follow after, w. afar w. dat.; Mk. I, 18. III, 7. [< laists (< lais + suff. -ti- = OE. lst, m. o-stem, ME. last, lest, NE. last), m., foot-print, track. OE. l̂stan, to perform (by following a track), stand by, ME. laste, leste, NE. last.]

Lawweis, pr. n., Levi; acc. -i; Mk. II, 14. [< Λευεις[** or rather Leuis/Leus].]

lamb, n. (94), lamb, sheep. [OE. ME. lǫmb, lamb, n., NE. lam.]

land, n. (94), land, cuntry, region; Mk. V, 1. 10, Lu. II, 8. (ata bisunjan land, the cuntry round about; Lu. IV, 37); landis (215), gen. uzed adverbially, a portion of land, far away. [OE. lǫnd, land, n., ME. land, NE. land.]

lasiws (42, n. 1), adj. (124), feebl, weak. [< stem las-[**P2 insert full stop?] Cf. OE. l̂ssa, compar. adj., ME. lesse, NE. less.]

lan, wv. (190), to invite, call, w. acc.; Mk. II, 17. [OE. laian, ME. laie, OHG. ladn, MHG. NHG. laden, to invite, summon.]

lans, f. (103, n. 1), a calling, invitation, consolation; Lu. II, 25. redemption; Lu. II, 38. [< lan.]

*lauan (22, n. 2; 26, n. 2), rv. (179, 4), to revile.

-laubjan (31), only in ga-, us-l. [< a sb. = OE. laf, f., ME. lve, NE. leav, permission, (ge-)liefan, -lfan, (< *-lafian), ME. (i-.[**P2 probably a faint comma] be-)lve, NE. believ.]

laufs (56, n. 1), m. (91), leaf, the leavs, foliage. [OE. laf, n., ME. lf, NE. leaf.]

laugnjan (31), wv. (188), to deny. [< -laugns (in ana-l.), adj., hidn. OE. lgnian(?), lŷᵹnian, (< *lagnian), ME. leine, laine, OHG. louginen, lougnen, MHG. lugenen, NHG. lugnen, to deny.]

lauhatjan, wv. (187, n. 1), to lighten.

lauhmuni (-moni; 14, n. 3), f., (98) {184}lightning. [< lauhmun- (+ suff. -j) < √ of liuha + suff. -mun-.]

Lauidja (26, n. 1), f. (97) pr. n.; in dat. -ai. [< Λωις, dat. Λωιδι.]

laun, n. (94), pay, reward; Mt. VI, 1. [OE. lan, n., ME. lean, OHG. MHG. ln, m. n., NHG. lohn, m., pay, reward.]

laus (78, n. 2), adj. (124), empty. [< √ of liusan. OE. las, ME. ls, empty, free from, false, NE. -less, ON. lauss, free, > ME. los, NE. loose.]

lausa-wards (88a, n. 1), adj. (124), speaking loose words, talking vainly. [-wards < ward.]

laus-handus (88a, n. 1), adj. (131, n. 1), empty-handed.

lausjan, wv. (188), to loose, redeem, deliver, w. acc. and af w. dat.; Mt. VI, 13.—Cpd. ga-l. [< laus. OE. lŷsan, lsan, ME. lese,[** , superfluous] (NE. loose, ME. lose < los; s. laus), OHG. lsen, MHG. lœsen, NHG. lsen, to loose.]

laus-qirs (88a, n. 1), adj. (124), with empty stomach, fasting.

-leiban (56, n. 1), stv. (172, n. 1), in bi-l. [OE. (be-)lfan, OHG. (bi-)lban,[** re-joined] MHG. blben, NHG. bleiben, to remain, stay.]

leihts, adj. (124), light; II. Cor. IV, 17. [OE. lht, ME. liht, NE. light.]

leihts, m. (? 90), lightness; II. Cor. I, 17. [< leihts, adj.]

leiƕan, stv. (172), to lend; l. sis, to borrow; Mt, V, 42. [OE. lon (< lhǫn), to lend, OHG. lhan, MHG. lhen, NHG. leihen, to lend, also borrow.]

leik, n. (94), body; Mt. V, 29. 30. VI, 22. 23. 25. Mk. V, 29. II. Cor. IV, 10. V, 6. 8. 10; flesh; II. Cor. I, 17. IV, 11. V, 16. [OE. lc, n., ME. lik, lich, NE. like (obs.), person, corpse, lich- (in lichgate, lichwake, etc.), Lich- (in Lichfield), OHG. lh (hh), f. n., body, flesh, MHG. lch, lche, f., body, corpse, NHG. leiche, f., corpse, leich- (in leichdorn, corn on a toe, leichnam, corpse; s. -hamn).]

-leikan, wv. (193), to please, in ga-l. [< -leiks. OE. lcian, ME. like, NE. like (obs.), to please. The signification of the simpl v. seems due to the compound.[** . redundant?] (s. ga-leikan).]

leikeins, adj. (124), bodily, fleshly; II. Cor. I, 12. III, 3. [< leik + suff. -eina-.]

-leikjan, wv. (188), in silda-l. [< -leiks.]

-leikn, wv. (190), in in-ga-l. [< (ga-)leiks; s. galeik.]

-leiks; s. galeik.

leitils, adj. (124; 138), litl, short; Mt. VI, 30. Mk. I, 19. [Cf. OE. lŷtel, ltel, ME. litel (infl. litl-), NE. litl.]

-leian, stv. (172, n. 1), to go, in af-, bi-, ga-, us-l. [OE. lan, ME. lie, to go, > the OE. caus. l̂dan, ME. lede, NE. lead.]

leiu, n. (? 106; n. 1), a strong drink. [OE. l, m. (o-stem), potion, wine, OHG. ld, MHG. lt, ld-, n. m., a wine-like drink.]

lkeis (leikeis, 7, n. 2), m. (92), fysician; Mk. II, 17. V, 26. [OE. l̂ce, m., ME. lche, NE. leech, physician[** elsewhere fysician] (now obs.), a blud-sucking wurm.]

ltan (leitan, 7, n. 2), rv. (181), w. acc., to let, suffer, permit, allow, leav; Mk. V, 19.—Cpds. af-, fra-l. [OE. l̂tan, ME. lete, NE. let, to permit (let, to hinder, = Goth. latjan < lats, slothful, lazy).]

lw, n. (94, n. 1), opportunity, occasion; II. Cor. V, 12. [Cf. OE. l̂wa, m., betrayer; s. lwjan.]

lwjan, wv. (188), to betray.—Cpd. ga-l. [< lw. OE. l̂wan, ME. be-lewe, to betray.]

libains, f. (103, n. 1), life; II. Cor. II, {185}16. IV, 11. 12. V, 4; world; Mk. IV, 19. [< liban + suff. -ai-ni-.]

liban, wv. (193), to liv; Mk. V, 23. II. Cor. I, 8. III, 3. IV, 11. V, 15 (the first); w. dat. of advantage; II. Cor. V, 15 (the second); w. mi w. dat.; Lu. II, 36. [OE. libban, lifian, ME. libbe, livie, live, NE. liv.]

-lifnan, wv. (194), to remain, in af-l. [Cf. -leiban, pp. libans.]

ligan, stv. (176, n. 1), to lie, w. ana w. dat.; Mk. II, 4. II. Cor. III, 15; du w. dat.; Lu. II, 34; in w. dat.; Mk. I, 30. Lu. II, 16; arei; Mk. V, 40. [OE. licgan, ME. ligge, lie, NE. lie.]

ligrs, m. (91), couch, bed; Mk. IV, 21. [< ligan + suff. -ra-. OE. leger, m., couch, ME. leir, NE. lair.]

-linnan, stv. (174, n. 1), to cease, in af-l. [OE. linnan, ME. linne, NE. lin (obs.; cpd. blin = *be-lin, OE. blinnan, ME. blinne), to cease.]

lisan, stv. (176, n. 1), to gather, collect, w. in w. acc.; Mt. VI, 26.—Cpd. ga-l. [OE. lesan, ME. lese, NE. lease, to glean, = G. lesen, to gather, read.]

lists (30), f. (? 103, n. 2), wile, craftiness. [< lis- (seen in lis-ans, pp. of lais) + suff. -ti-. OE. ME. list, skil, cunning, OHG. MHG. list, m. (f.), wisdom, craftiness, NHG. list, f., craft, cunning.]

lius, m. (105), lim, member; Mt. V, 29. 30. [< √ of leian. OE. liou- (only in cpds.), m., li, n. (o-stem), ME. lith, NE. (Scot.) lith, lim.]

liudan, stv. (173, n. 1), to grow, grow up; Mk. IV, 27. [OE. lodan, to grow. Its √ appears also in OE. lod, m. f., pl. lode, ME. leode, lede, OHG. liut, m. n., pl. liuti, MHG. liute, NHG. leute, peple, men, servants.]

liufs (gen. liubis; 31; 56, n. 1), adj. (124, n. 2), beluvd, dear; Mk. I, 11. [OE. lof, ME. lf, NE. lief (poet.), OHG. liob, MHG. liep, lieb-, NHG. lieb, beluvd, dear.]

liugan (31), stv. (173, n. 1), to lie. [OE. logan, ME. lyȝe, liȝe, NE. lie.]

liugan, wv. (192, n. 1; 193), to marry, w. acc.; Mt. V, 32. [< liuga, f., marriage.]

liugn (31), n. (94), lie. [< liugan + suff. -na-.]

liugnja (31), m. (108), liar. [< liugn + suff. -jan-.]

liuhadei, f. (113 and n. 2), light, illumination; II. Cor. IV, 4 (-eins, partit. g., in A; -ein in B; s. note). 6. [< liuha.]

liuhadeins, adj. (124), ful of light, shining, bright; Mt. VI, 22. [< liuha + suff. -eina-.]

liuha, gen. liuhadis, n. (94), light; Mt. VI, 23. Lu. II, 32. II. Cor. IV, 6. [< √ liuh + suff. -ada-.]

liuhtjan, wv. (188), to giv light, to light, shine; II. Cor. IV, 4. 6. [< *liuhts (< √ of liuha + suff. -to-), adj. (= OE. loht, ME. licht, NE. light). OE. lŷhtan, ME. lihte, NE. light.]

-liusan, stv. (173, n. 1), in fra-l. [OE. (for-)losan, ME. (for-)lse, NE. leese (obs.), to lose, pp. (for)-[**misplaced hyphen? -P2]lorn.]

liuta, m. (108), dissembler, hypocrit; Mt. VI, 2. 5. 16. [Prop. weak form of the adj. liuts < √ of OE. ltan, ME. lute, loute, NE. lout (obs.), to bend, bow, stoop. Cf. also OE. lyteg (w. suff. -eg), ME. luti, shrewd, cunning.]

lfa, m. (108), the palm of the hand. [ON. lfi, Scot. loof, the palm of the hand.]

lubains (31), f. (103, n. 1), hope. [< *luban[**should be bold F1], to hope, (+ suff. -ai-ni-), < √ of liufs.]

lubja-leisei (30), f. (113), wichcraft. [< lubjaleis, adj., skild, < lubja- (= OE. lyb, f.?, poison; cf. also cse-lib, ME. cheselep, NE. {186}cheeselep. The orig. meaning of lubja- was probably 'a strong essence, vegetabl juice') + -leis < √ of lais.]

-lub (31), f. (111), in brru-(-a-?) lub,[**P2 re-join with brru-(-a-?) on previous line?] brotherly luv. [< √ of liufs. OE. lufe (later lufu, a-declension), f., ME. lufe, luve, love, NE. luv.]

ludja, f. (97), face, countenance; Mt. VI, 17. [< √ of liudan + suff. -j-.]

luftus, m. (105), air. [OE. lyft (i-stem), m. f. n., ME. luft, lift, NE. lift (Scot.), air.]

-lkan (15), stv. (173, n. 2), to lock, in ga-, us-l. [OE. lcan, ME. louke, luke, to lock. Its √ occurs w. abl. in -luks, m., an opening; cf. OE. loc, n., loca, m., ME. loke (> the vb. lokke, NE. lock), inclozure, lock, NE. lock.]

lukarn, n. (94), light, candl; Mt. VI, 22. Mk. IV, 21. [< Lt. lucerna, f., lamp, candl.]

lukarna-staa, m. (108), candl-stick; Mk. IV, 21. [< stem of lukarn + -staa < stas, sted, place, < √ of standan + suff. -i-.]

lns (15, n. 1), f. (102), or lun, n. (94, n. 2), ransom.

-lusnan, wv. (194), in fra-l. [< pp. stem of liusan.]

lustn, wv. (190), to desire, lust after, w. gen.; Mt. V, 28. [< lustus. OHG. lustn, MHG. lusten, to desire, NHG. lsten, MHG. lusten, lsten, (OHG. lustjan, lusten, = OE. lystan, ME. liste, NE. list, to please, < lust, f., OE. lyst, f., desire).]

lustus, m. (105), lust, desire; Mk. IV, 19. [OE. lust (a-stem), m., ME. lust, NE. lust.]

Magan, prt.-prs. (201), to be abl, be abl to do, w. inf.; Mt. V, 36. VI, 24. 27. Mk. I, 40. 45. II, 4. 7. 19. III, 20. 23-27. IV, 32. 33. V, 4. II. Cor. I, 4. III, 7. [OE. *magan, prs. mᵹ; prt. meahte (Goth. mahta), mihte, ME. prs. mai, may, prt. miht, NE. prs. may, prt. might.]

magaei, f. (113), virginity; Lu. II, 36. [< magas.]

magas, f. (103), maid, virgin. [< stem mag-a- (s. magus, stem mag-u-) + suff. -i-. OE. mg, f., virgin, OHG. magad, virgin, MHG. maget, virgin, maid, female servant, NHG. magd, f., female servant.]

magula, m. (108), litl boy, lad; Skeir. VII, a. [< magus + dim. suff. -lan-.]

magus, m. (105), boy, child, servant; Lu. II, 43. 48. [< √ of magan. OE. magu (-o), m., sun, servant.]

mahta, prt. of magan.

mahteigs, adj. (124), mighty, strong. [< mahts + suff. -eiga-. OE. meahtig, mihtig, ME. mihty, NE. mighty.]

mahts (66, n. 1), f. (103), might, strength, power, virtue; Mt. VI, 13. Mk. V, 30. II. Cor. I, 8. IV, 7. Skeir. VII, a. c. [< √ of magan + suff. -ti-. OE. meaht, miht, ME. miht, NE. might.]

maidjan, wv. (188), to corrupt, deform, falsify; II. Cor. II, 17. [< -mas[**P2 -mais? F1: typo for i, I think] (in ga-mais; cp. ME. mad, NE. mad). OE. m̂dan, to deform, confuse, ME. mde (madde), to confuse, derange, NE. mad (Shak.), to make mad.]

mahstus, m. (105), dung, dung-hil. [< √ of OE. mgan, ME. miȝe, to urin. OHG. MHG. NHG. mist (for *mihst), m., manure.]

mais, adv. (212), more, rather; II. Cor. II, 7. V, 8; w. dat., more than; Mt. VI, 25; w. another compar.; Mt. VI, 26. Mk. V, 26. filu m., much more; Skeir. VII, d; und filu m., much more, so much the more; II. Cor. III, 9. 11; ƕaiwa m., how much more; Mt. VI, 30; ƕaiwa nei m., not much more; II. Cor. III, 8. [< ma- + adv. compar. {187}suff. -is. OE. m, ME. ma, mo, NE. mo(e) (obs.), more.]

maist, adv. (212, n. 3), most. S. maiza.

maitan, rv. (179), to cut, cut off, cut down.—Cpds. af-, bi-m. [OHG. meiʒan, MHG. meiʒen, to cut, hew. Cf. also G. meissel (w. l-suff.), m., chisel.]

maims, m. (91, n), gift. [< verbal stem mai- + suff. -ma-. OE. mum, ME. maem, gift, trezure.]

maiza, compar. adj. (138), more, greater; filaus maiz, much more; Skeir. VII, b; superl. maists (138), greatest. [< stem ma- + suff. -iza. OE. mra, superl. mst, ME. mare, more, superl. most, NE. more, superl. most.]

Makadonja (or i for a, 11, n. 1), pr. n., Macedonia; dat. Makadonjai (in B; i for a in A); II. Cor. I, 16; acc. -a; II. Cor. I, 16. II, 13 (in A; i for a[**P2 same again] in B). [< Μακεδονία.]

malan, stv. (177, n. 1), to grind in a mil. [OHG. malan, MHG. maln, NHG. mahlen, to grind.]

mal, f. (112), moth; Mt. VI, 19. 20. [Lit. 'grinding insect', < √ of malan.]

mammna, m. (108), mammon, riches; Mt. VI, 24. [< μαμμωνᾶ(ς) < the Hebrew.]

managdus, f. (103), abundance [< manags + suff. -du-i-.]

managei, f. (111; 113), crowd, multitude, the peple; Mk. II, 4. III, 9. IV, 36. V, 27. 30. An adj., ptc., or prn., referring to m., uzually agrees w. it in gender and number; Mk. V, 31. Lu. II, 10. 31. 32. The v. either agrees w. m.; Mk. III, 20. Lu. II, 13. Skeir. VII, c[**P2 e?]; or m. stands in the sg. and the v. in the pl.; Mk. III, 32; so all, or filu, m., Mk. II, 13. III, 7. 8. IV, 1. V, 21. 24. [< manags. OE. menigu (orig. -), f., ME. manye, NE. many (sb.; as, a great 'many').]

managnan, wv. (194), to increase, abound; II. Cor. IV, 15. [< manags.]

manags, adj. (124), often uzed as sb., much, many; Mk. I, 34. II, 2. 15. III, 10. IV, 2. 5. V, 9. 26. Lu. II, 34. 35. 36. II. Cor. I, 11. II, 4. III, 12. Skeir. VII, a. b; swa m., so many; Skeir. VII, b; swa m. sw, as many as; Mk. III, 11; swa m. swasw, as many as; Mk. III, 28; swaleikai m. swasw, many such as; Mk. IV, 33; ƕaiwa m., how many; II. Cor. I, 20.—compar. managiza (136), more, greater; Mt. V, 20. II. Cor. II, 6. 7. IV, 15; w. dat. (as abl.); Mt. V, 37; ƕ m., what (i. [**P2 space?]e. in what degree or manner) more; Mt. V, 47. [OE. manig, mǫnig, ME. mani, NE. many. Cp. managei.]

mana-marrja (88a, n. 3), m. (108), man-slayer, murderer. [-marrja < marr + suff. -jan-.]

mana-ss (88a, n. 3; gen. -sdais), f. (103), 'man-seed', peple, multitude; world; II. Cor. V, 19. [ss < √ of saian + suff. -i- (-di-). OE. ŝd, m. n., ME. sd, NE. seed.]

man-leika (88a, n. 3), m. (108), image. [Prop. weak adj. uzed as sb.; -leika[** should be bold] < -leiks[** should be bold]. OE. manlca, m., ME. manliche, effigy, image.]

manna, m. (117), man; Mt. V, 19. VI, 1. 2. 5. 14. 15. 16. 18. Mk. I, 17. 23. II, 10. 27. 28. III, 1. 3. 5. 28. IV, 26. V, 2. 8. Lu. II, 14. 15. 25. 52. II. Cor. III, 2. IV, 2. 16. V, 11. Skeir. VII, b; ni m. or m. ni, no man, nobody; Mt. VI, 24. Mk. II, 21. 22. III, 27. V, 3. 4. 43. [< stem mann-. OE. mǫnna, manna, and mǫn(n), man(n), ME. man, NE. man.]

manna-hun, indef. prn. (163), always {188}in neg. sentences: ni m., no one; Mk. I, 44.

manwjan, wv. (188), to prepare, make redy, w. acc.; Mk. I, 3. 19. Lu. II, 31. Cpd. ga-m. [< manwus.]

manwuba, adv. (210), in rediness. [< manwus + adv. suff. -ba.]

manwus, adj. (131), redy.

marei, f. (113), sea; Mk. IV, 41; du marein, to the sea; Mk. III, 7; far, or fara, marein, near the sea; Mk. I, 16. II, 13. V, 21; hindar marein, on the other side of the sea; Mk. V, 1. 21; in marein (dat.), in the sea; Mk. IV, 1 (the second), acc., to, or into the sea; Mk. I, 16. IV, 1 (the first). [OE. mere, m. (orig. n.), ME. mere, sea, lake, NE. mere, a pool or small lake, OHG. mari, meri, m. n., MHG. mere, NHG. meer, n., sea.]

Maria (Marja), pr. n., Mary; Lu. II, 19. dat. Mariin; Lu. II, 5. 34; acc. Marian; Lu. II, 16. [< Μαρία.]

marikreitus, m. (119), perl. [Coind < μαργαρίτης, perl. So, also, OE. meregreot < the Lt. margarita > ME. margarite, NE. margarite (obs.), perl.]

marka, f. (97), border, boundary, coast; Mk. V, 17. [OE. mearc, f., ME. merk, mark, NE. mark, border, boundary.]

Markus, pr. n., Mark; acc. -u; Mk. superscr. [< Μάρκος.]

martyr (39), m., martyr. [< μάρτυρ, witness.]

marzjan, wv. (188), to offend, w. acc.; Mt. V, 29. 30.—Cpd. ga-m. [OE. -merran, -myrran, in -m., to provoke, offend, ME. merre, marre, NE. mar.]

matjan, wv. (188), to eat; (1) abs.; Mk. V, 43 (matjan as obj.). Skeir. VII, c. (2) w. acc.; Mt. VI, 25. 31. Mk. I, 6. II, 26. III, 20; mi w. dat.; Mk. II, 16. [< mats.]

mats, m. (101), meat, food. S. also nahta-m. [OE. mete, m., ME. mete, NE. meat[**should be italicised?].]

Mataius, pr. n., Matthew; acc. -u; Mk. III, 18.

mal, n. (94, n. 2), assembly, market, market-place. [OE. mel, n., council, meeting.]

maudjan, wv. (188), to remind.—Cpd. ga-m.

margins, m. (91, n. 1; 214), morn, morning. [OE. morgen, mergen, ME. morȝen, morn (> morning, w. suff. -ing, NE. morning), morwe, NE. morn, morrow.]

marnan, wv. (194), to be anxious or trubld; Mt. VI, 27. 31; w. dat.; Mt. VI, 25. [OE. murnan, ME. murne, mourne, NE. mourn.]

marr, n. (94), murder. [< √ mar + suff. -ra-. OE. moror (muror), n., ME. morther, morder, NE. murder, murther (obs.).]

marrjan, wv. (188), to murder, kil; Mt. V, 21. [< marr. OE. myrrian, ME. murd(e)re, NE. murder.]

mawi (42), f. (94), maid, maiden, damsel; Mk. V, 42. [< magw-[** should be bold (unless it's Proto-something not Gothic, and then it should be asterisked)] = magu-, stem of magus.]

mawil, f. (112), yung maiden, damsel; Mk. V, 41. [< mawi + suff. -ln-. OE. mowle (< *mewil), yung maiden, maid.]

mgs, m. (91, n. 1), sun-in-law. [OE. mg, m., m̂i, mai, OHG. mg, MHG. mc (g-), NHG. mage, m., kinsman.]

meina, pers. prn. in gen.; s. ik. [OE. mn, dat. mĕ; acc. mec, mĕ (prop. dat.); ME. gen. wanting; dat. acc. me; NE. dat. acc. me.]

meins, poss. prn. (151), (alone or) w. a following or preceding sb., w. or without the art.; Mk. I, 2. III, 33. 34. 35. V, 23. Lu. II, 30. 49. [< meina. OE. ME. mn, m, NE. mine, my.]

ml, n. (94), (orig. point or mezure {189}of time or space), time (hour, season, in pl., writings, scriptures); Mk. I, 15. [OE. m̂l, n., time, mezure, (food taken at one time; hense) meal, ME. ml, NE. meal.]

mla, m. (108), mezure, bushel; Mk. IV, 21.

mljan, wv. (187), to write, w. acc.; in pass. the nom. (implied); Lu. II, 3; and dat. of pers. (indir. obj.); II. Cor. I, 13.—Cpds. ana-, ga-m. [< ml, pl. mla, writings. OE. m̂lan, to mark, OHG. maln, -n, (of different conjugations), to mark, paint, MHG. mlen, to paint, write, NHG. malen, to paint.]

mna, m. (108), moon. [OE. mǫ̂na, m., ME. mone, NE. moon. Cf. mns and Brgm., II, 123, p. 393.]

mns, m. (117), month. [OE. mǫ̂na, ME. mone, m., ME. month.]

mria, f. (97), fame, report; Mk. I, 28. [< -mrs. OE. m̂ru, m̂r, f., fame, glory.]

mrjan, wv. (188; mrjands, m.; 115), to make known, proclaim, noiz abroad, preach, (1) abs.; Mk. I, 7. 38. 39. III, 14. V, 20; w. in w. dat.; Mk. I, 39. (2) w. acc.; Mk. I, 4. 14. 45. II. Cor. IV, 5. (3) w. an obj. clause and in w. dat.; Mk. V, 20.—Cpds. wala-, waja-m. [< -mrs. OE. m̂ran, OHG. mren, MHG. m̂ren, to make known, praise.]

*mrs, adj. (130, n. 2), known, famous, in wala-m., praisewurthy, of good report. [OE. m̂re, ME. mere, famous, OHG. mri, famous, > mr, f., mri, n., rumor, fame, MHG. m̂re, n. f., tale, NHG. mre, f., news, tidings, report, > mrchen (w. dimin. suff. -chen), n., tale, story, fable.]

ms (8), n. (94), table. Cf. OE. mse (gen. -an), f., table, perhaps < Lt. mensa (mse < *mense), f., table.]

midjis, adj. (122, n. 1; 125), midl; Lu. II, 46. [OE. ME. mid(d), adj., midl, NE. mid- (as in midday, midnight, etc.).]

midjun-gards, m. (101), erth, world; Lu. II, 1. [Prop. 'midl-world', between heven and hel. midjun- < stem of midjis. OE. middaneard for middangeard, m., ME. middaneard, world.]

*miduma, f. (97; 139, n. 1), midst; Mk. III, 3. [Prop. superl. adj. uzed as sb., < mid- (cp. midjis) + superl. suff. -u-ma-n-. OE. meoduma.]

midumnds, m. (115), mediator. [Prop. prsp. of *midumn < miduma.]

mik; s. ik, meina.

mikildus, f. (103), greatness. [< mikil- (< mikils) + suff. -dui-.]

mikilei, f. (113), greatness. [< mikils.]

mikiljan, wv. (185), to magnify, glorify, praise, w. acc.; Mk. II, 12. Lu. II, 20. [< mikils.]

mikilnan, wv. (194), to becum great. [< mikils.]

mikils, adj. (138), great, much; Mt. V, 19. 35. Mk. IV, 32. 39.[** typo 37.] 39. 41. V, 42. Lu. II, 9. 10. Skeir. VII, a. b; strong, loud; Mk. I, 26. V, 7. [OE. micel, mycel, ME. mikel, mychel, muchel, NE. mickle (Sc.).]

mildia, f. (97), mildness, kindness. [< -milds (in friawa-, un-m.), adj., mild, kind, + suff. -i--.]

milhma, m. (108), cloud.

mili, n. (94), huney; Mk. I, 6. [Cf. OE. mele-, mil-, huney, in mele-, mil-daw, m., ME. wildew[**typo? mildew -P2], NE. mildew.]

miluks, f. (116), milk. [OE. meolc, f., ME. NE. milk.]

*mims (mimz; 78, n. 1), n. (94), flesh, meat.

minnists, superl. adj. (138), very small, least; Mt. V, 19. 26. Mk. IV, 31. [< stem minn- (< minw-; {190}cp. Brgm., I, 180) + superl. suff. -ista-. OHG. minnist, MHG. minnest, NHG. mindest (the d from the compar.; cp. Kl. W., minder), least.]

minniza, compar. adj. (138), smaller, less. [< stem minn- (s. minnists) + compar. suff. -iza. OHG. minniro, MHG. minner, minre, NHG. minder (w. eufonic d), smaller, less.]

mins (minz; 78, n. 1), adv. (212, n. 1), less. [< minn- (s. minnist) + adv. compar. suff. -s for -is.]

mis; s. ik, meina.

*missa-ds (-dds), f. (103), misdeed, trespass, sin; Mt. VI, 14. 15. II. Cor. V, 19. [miss(a)- = OE. ME. NE. mis- (not = mis-, as in mischief, < Lt. minus).]

missa-leiks, adj. (124), various, divers; Mk. I, 34.

miss, adv. (211, n. 1), reciprocally, one another, w. a pers. prn.; sis m.; Mk. I, 27. IV, 41. Lu. II, 15. [< missa- + adv. suff. -.]

mitan, stv. (176), to mezure; Mk. IV, 24.—Cpd. us-m. [OE. metan, ME. mete, NE. mete.]

mitas, f. (116), mezure; Mk. IV, 24. [< mitan + suff. -a-i-(-di-).]

mitn, wv. (190), w. acc., to consider, reason upon, think over, think; Mk. II, 8; and refl. dat.; Mk. II, 8; to purpose, intend; II. Cor. I, 17. [Perhaps < a lost sb. OHG. meʒn (< meʒ, n., mezure, way, manner), to mete, moderate.]

mitns, f. (103, n. 1), consideration, thought; Lu. II, 35. [< mitn + suff. --ni-.]

mi (mid; 74, n. 1), (1) prep. w. dat. (217), (a) denoting 'accumpaniment, community, connection', with, together with, among, amid; Mt. V, 25. 41. Mk. I, 13. 20. 29. 36. II, 16. 19. 25. 26. III, 6. 7. 14. IV, 10. 36. V, 18. 24. 40. Lu. II, 5. 13. 36. 51. II. Cor. I, 1. 21. IV, 14; (b) 'way' and manner'; Mk. III, 5. IV, 16. (2) adv., along (with). [Cf. OE. ME. mid, prep. and adv., with, along, NE. mid- (in midwife).]

mi-ana-kumbjan (54, n. 1), wv. (188), to lie down together with, sit at table with; Mk. II, 15.

mi-garda-waddjus (88a, n. 2), f. (105), partition wall, midl wall.

mi-an-ei, conj. (218), (lit. 'with that that'), when, while, as; Mk. IV, 4. Lu. II, 6. 27. 43. II.[**typo fixed][**P2 not typo, restored] Cor. III, 15. 16.

mi-wissei (30), f. (113), a 'knowing with', conscience; II. Cor. I, 12. IV, 2. V, 11. [< *miwiss < mi + -wiss (in un-wiss, not known, uncertain), prop. an old ptc. in -to-, < stv. witan (ss < tt < d-t). -wiss = OE. -wis, in ge-wis (ge = Goth. ga), adj., certain, ME. (i-)wiss, adj., certain, and adv., certainly, NE. ywis (obs.), certainly.]

mizd, f. (112), reward; Mt. V, 46. VI, 2. 5. 16. [OE. meord, md (by lengthening of e + z to ; cp. Brgm., I, 538), ME. mede, mde, NE. meed.]

mdags, adj. (124), wroth, angry; Mt. V, 22. [< ms + suff. -aga-. OE. mdig (w. later suff. -ig, for orig. -eg = Goth. -ags. Cp. my remarks on this point in 'Transactions of the Wis. Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters', vol. VIII, p. 167), adj., proud, brave, ME. mody, NE. moody.]

*mjan (26), wv. (187), in af-m. [OHG. muo(j)an, MHG. me(j)en, to trubl, make angry, NHG. mhen, to trubl.]

Mss, pr. n., Moses; Mk. I, 44. II. Cor. III, 13 (in B). 15; Msz; II. Cor. III, 13 (in A); gen. Mszis; Lu. II, 22. II. Cor. III, 7. [< Μωσῆς.]

mta, f. (97), toll, custom; the place where customs ar paid, receipt of {191}custom; Mk. II, 14. [OHG. *muoʒa, MHG. muoʒe, NHG. (Bavarian) mŭess, toll, multure, (LG. mta >) OHG. mta, MHG. mte, NHG. maut, f., toll, custom.]

-mtan, prt.-prs. (202), in ga-m. [OE. *mtan, prs. ind. mt, may; prt. mste, ME. prs. mot, mt, may, must, 2nd prs. most (OE. mst); prt. most(e) > NE. must.]

mtareis, m. (92), toll-taker, publican; Mt. V, 47. Mk. II, 15. 16. [< mta + suff. -arja-.]

-mtjan, wv., to meet, in ga-m. [< *mt (= OE. mt, n., ME. mt, meeting). OE. mtan, ME. mete, NE. meet.]

ms (gen. mdis; 74, n. 2), m. (91, n. 2), wrath, anger; Mk. III, 5. [OE. md, n., mind, curage, pride, ME. md, NE. mood.]

mka-mdei (15), f. (113), meekness. [mka- = ON. mjkr > ME. meoc, meke, NE. meek.]

-mljan (15), wv. (188), in far-m. [< mla-, n., mouth, cf. OHG. mla, f., MHG. ml, mle, n., mle, f., NHG. maul, n., mouth.]

munan, prt.-prs. (200), to mean, suppose, think.—Cpd. ga-m. [OE. (ge-)munan, prs. ind. man, mǫn, prt. munde, ME. (i-) mune, prs. man, prt. munde, remember, think.]

munan, wv. (200, n. 1), to think, intend. [< muns. OE. mynnan, ME. mynne, munne, to remember.]

muns, m. (101), thought, mind, purpose; counsel, device; II. Cor. II, 11. [< stv. munan. OE. myne, memory, luv, ME. mune, mind, memory.]

Naen (6), pr. n., Nain. [Ναΐν.]

-nah, in bi-, ga-; s. -nahan.

nahta-mats (88a, n. 3), m. (101), supper (lit. 'night-food'); Skeir. VII, b.

nahts, f. (116), night; gen. nahts, in the night, by night; Lu. II, 8; dat. sg. naht, by night; Mk. IV, 27; dat. pl. nahtam, by night; Mk. V, 5. Lu. II, 37. [OE. neaht, niht, ME. niht, NE. night.]

naiteins, f. (103, n. 1), blasfemy; Mk. II, 7. III, 28. [< -naitjan (in ga-n.), to blasfeme, + suff. -ei-ni-.]

naqas, gen. naqadis, adj. (124), naked; II. Cor. V, 3. [OE. nacod (w. an unlabialized guttural), ME. naked, NE. naked.]

namnjan, wv. (187), to name, call. [< stem of nam (for the mn, s. Brgm., I, 215). OE. nemnan (beside namian, ME. name, NE. name), ME. nemne, OHG. MHG. nemmen, nennen, NHG. nennen, to name, call.]

nam, n. (110, n. 1), name; Mt. VI, 9. Mk. III, 16. 17. V, 9. 22. Lu. II, 21. 25. [OE. nǫma, nama, m., ME. nome, name, NE. name.]

naseins, f. (103, n. 1), salvation; Lu. II, 30. II. Cor. I, 6. [< nasjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

nasjan, wv. (185), to save; Mk. III, 4.—Cpd. ga-n. [Caus. of -nisan. OE. nerian, nergan, to save, OHG. ner(j)an, MHG. nerigen, nern, NHG. nhren, to nurish.]

nasjands, m. (115), the Savior; Lu. II, 11. [Prop. prsp. of nasjan. OE. nergend, m., savior.]

nati, n. (95), net; Mk. I, 16. 18. 19. [OE. net(t), n., ME. NE. net.]

Naan (70), pr. n., Nathan. [< Ναθάν.]

Nabambar (54, n. 1), November. [< Lt. November.]

naudi-bandi (88a), f. (96), fetter, lit. 'need-band'; Mk. V, 3. 4. [naudi- < stem of naus.]

Nal (26, n. 1), pr. n. [< Νῶε.]

nah, adv., stil, yet; Skeir. VII, c; ni nah, not yet, not as yet; Mk. IV, 40. [< nu + -uh. OHG. MHG. noh, NHG. noch, yet, stil.]


-nahan, prt.-prs. (201), in bi-, ga-n. [OE. -nugan, in 3d pers. sg. -neah (= Goth. -nah), in be-, ge-n., it suffices.]

nah-anuh, adv., stil, yet; Mk. V, 35.

naus, m. (101, n. 3), a ded man, corpse.

naujan, wv. (188), to force, press, compel, in ana-n. [< naus. OHG. ntan, nten, MHG. nten, nœten, to urge, compel.]

naus, f. (103), need, necessity. [OE. ned, nad, nd, f., ME. nede, nd, NE. need.]

Nazara, indecl. pr. n., Nazareth; Mk. I, 9. Lu. II, 4. 39. 51. [< Ναζαρέτ.]

Nazrnus, pr. n., one of Nazareth. voc. (onse in) -ai (Gr. infl.); Mk. I, 24. [< Ναζωρηνός.]

n, adv. (216), no, nay; Mt. V, 37. II. Cor. I, 17. 18. 19. [Cf. ni.]

(64), adv., near. [OE. nah, nh, ME. neih, neiȝe, NE. nigh.]

nƕa, adv. (216), near; uzed as prep. w. dat., near; Mk. II, 4. [< .[**P2 add closing bracket]

nƕis, compar. adv. (212), nearer. [< stem of + adv. compar. suff. -is.]

nƕjan (sik), wv. (188), to draw near, approach.—Cpd. at-n. [< . OHG. nhan, nhen, MHG. nhen, to bring near, beside nhen, NHG. nahen, to approach, be near.]

nƕundja, m. (108, neighbor; Mt. V, 43. [< stem of + suff. -und-jan-.][**P2 join up with -und- on previous line?]

nei, interr. particl, not?; II. Cor. III, 8. [< ni + ei.]

neiwan, stv. (172, n. 3), to hav a quarrel against.

ni, neg. part. (216), not, (1) joind to vs. (a) in declarativ sentences; Mt. V, 17. 18. 26. 34. 36. 39. VI, 1. 15. 18. 26. Mk. I, 7. 34. 45. II, 2. 12. 17. 18. 19. III, 9. 12. 20. 24. 25. 26. IV, 5. 6. 12. 13. 17. 22. 25. 27. 34. V, 19. 37. 39. Lu. II, 7. 26. 37. 43. 50. II. Cor. I, 8. 9. 23. II, 1. 3. 5. 11. 13. 17. III, 7. 10. 13. IV, 1. 2. 4. 16. V, 4. 16. 21. Skeir. VII, b. d; so also w. a pred. ptc.; Mk. II, 24. 26; or a prs. ptc.; Mk. II, 4. Lu. II, 45. II. Cor. IV, 18. V, 19; (b) in prohibitiv sentences; Mt. V, 7. 8. 17. 21. 27. 33. 42. VI, 2. 3. 5. 7. 13. 16. 19. 25. 31. Mk. V, 7. 36. Lu. II, 10. (2) joind to other words (sbs., adjs., ptcs. uzed as adjs., etc.), chiefly in antithesis and hypothetical sentences, and often w. other particls; Mt. V, 20. 30. VI, 15. 24. Mk. I, 22. II, 27. IV, 40. V, 26. II. Cor. I, 12. 13. 24. II, 4. 5. III, 3. 5. 6. IV, 5. 7. 8. 9. V, 3. 7. 12. 15. 16. Skeir. VII, a. b. c. [OE. ME. ne, NE. ne (obs.), adv., not. Also containd in no, neither, not, etc.]

niba, nibai (10, n. 2), conj. (218),[**P2 semicolon? probably just a speck on the scan] except, but, if not, unless, save; (1) w. sbs.; Mk. II, 7. 26. V, 37. II. Cor. II, 2. (2) w. vbs.; Mt. V, 20. Mk. III, 27; nibai ƕan, lest at any time; Mk. IV, 12. [< ni + iba, ibai.]

nidwa, f. (97), rust; Mt. VI, 19. 20.

nih (20, n. 1; 62, n. 3), conj. (218), and not, not even; Mt. VI, 29; in a negativ sentence it merely intensifies the negation or is either copulativ or disjunctiv:[**P2 all these ellipses proofed according to the guideline for English] ni ... nih, not ... and not, not ... nor, (or not even, not as much as); Mt. VI, 20. 25. Mk. II, 2. III, 20. Skeir. VII, a; ni ... nih ... nih, not ... nor ... nor; Mt. VI, 26; nih ... ak, not ... but; II. Cor. I, 19. Skeir. VII, a; nih an ... ak jah, for not ..., but also; Skeir. VII, c; ni ... nih ... ak, not ... nor ... but; II. Cor. IV, 2; nih allis ƕa ... nih ... ak, for nothing ... neither ... but; Mk. IV, 22; nih ... nih, neither ... nor, not ... nor; Mt. VI, 20. 28; ni ... allis ni ... nih ... nih ... nih, not at all, {193}neither ... nor ... nor ... neither; Mt. V, 34. 35. 36. [< ni + -h, i. e. -uh. OHG. nih-, in nih(h)ein, nechein, MHG. nehein, nechein, nekein, short hein, kein, NHG. kein, adj., not any, no.]

Nikadmus (23, n. 1), pr. n., Nicodemus.

niman, stv. (170; 175), to take, accept, receiv, take away, w. acc.; Mt. V, 40. Mk. II, 9. 11. IV, 16. Skeir. VII, b.—Cpds. af-, and-, ga-, us-n. [OE. niman, ME. nime, to take, seiz, NE. nim (Shak.), to steal.]

-nisan, stv. (176, n. 1), in ga-n. [OE. gi-nesan, to be saved, OHG. gi-nesan, MHG. genesen, to remain alive, be saved, be deliverd (of a child), NHG. genesen, to recuver.]

nian, stv. (176, n. 1), to help. [Its √ (w. abl.) appears in OHG. ginda, f., mercy, grace, MHG. gnde, gende, NHG. gnade, f., grace, etc.]

nijis, m. (92), kinsman, cuzin. [OE. ni- in pl. nias, m., persons, men.]

nij, f. (112), female cuzin. [Extended < stem of nijis.]

ni-u, interr. part. (216), in dir. questions, not? (= Lt. 'nonne'); Mt. V, 46. 47. VI, 25. 26. Mk. IV, 21. 38. Lu. II, 49; ni aiw, never?; Mk. II, 25.

-niujan, wv. (187), to renew, in ana-n. [< niujis.]

niuja-satis (88a, n. 1), pp. uzed as sb., m. (134), a novice. [satis < satjan.]

niujis, adj. (126), new, yung; Mk. I, 27. II, 21. 22. II. Cor. III, 6. V, 17. [OE. newe, nwe, < nowe (+ suff. -ja-), ME. niwe, new(e), NE. new.]

niu-klahei, f. (113), puerility, pusillanimity; Skeir. VII, a. [< niuklahs, adj., under age, childish; niu- = OE. no-we; s. niujis.]

niun, card. num. (141), nine. [OE. nigon (the g being intrusiv), nigen, ME. niȝen (infl. niȝene > the contracted)[** flyspeck not ,] nine, NE. nine.]

niunda, ord. num. (146), ninth. [< niun. OE. nigoa (< *nigona), ME. niee, nynt, NE. ninth (by influence of 'nine').]

niunthund, num. (143), ninety. [< niun + -thund. Cp. Brg.[** Brgm. elsewhere], III, 179.]

niutan, stv. (173, n. 1), to enjoy. [OE. notan, OHG. gi-nioʒan (= Goth. ga-n.), MHG. genieʒen, NHG. geniessen, to enjoy.]

-nhjan, wv. (188), in ga-n. [< (ga)-nhs.]

nta, m. (108), hinder part of a ship, stern; Mk. IV, 38.

nu, (1) adv. (214, n. 1; 218), now, even now, just now; Lu. II, 29; uzed as sb.: fram amma nu, henseforth; II. Cor. V, 16. (2) conj. (218: so never at the beginning of a sentence), now, then, therefore; Mt. V, 19. 23. 48. VI, 2. 8. 9. 22. 23. 31. II. Cor. I, 17. III, 12. IV, 12. 13. V, 6. 11. 20. [Cf. OE. n, ME. nu, nou, NE. now.]

nuh, adv. (216; 218), occurring always in questions, now, then, therefore. [< nu + -h, i. e. -uh-.]

-numja (33), m., one who takes, in arbi-numja, heir. [< niman + suff. -jan-.]

nunu, conj. (218), now, then, therefore. [< nu + nu.]

nuta, m. (108), cacher, fisher; Mk. I, 17. [< niutan.]

, interj. (219), o! oh!

gan (35), prt.-prs. (202), to fear, be afraid, (1) abs.; Mk. V, 15. 33. Lu. II, 10; gan agisa mikilamma (instr. dat.), to fear exceedingly; Lu. II, 9. (2) w. refl. dat. (sis) and a cognate acc. (agis mikil).[** should be ,] to fear exceedingly; Mk. IV, 41. [< *agan; s. unagands.]


gjan (35), wv. (188), to terrify, frighten. [Caus. of gan.]

htdun, prt. of gan.

sanna (61), Hosannah. [< ὠσαννά, pray, help!, < the Hebrew.]

Paida (51), f. (97), coat; Mt. V, 40. ([** paren typo for bracket]Prob. a foren w. (51, a). OE. pd, f., OHG. pheit, MHG. pheit, pfeit, f., gown.]

pantkust (13, n. 1), Pentecost. [< πεντηκοστή, fiftieth (i.e. the 50th day after the Passover.]

Patrus, pr. n., Peter; Mk. III, 16; acc. -u; Mk. V, 37. [< Πέτρος.]

paraskaw (39), f. (113), the day of the preparation. [< παρασκευή, f., preparation.]

paska, f. (97), (the feast of) the Passover; Lu. II, 41. [< πάσχα < the Hebrew.]

Pantius (24, n. 5), pr. n., Pontius. [< Πόντιος.]

parpura, parpara (24, ns. 2. 5), f. (97), purpl. [< Lt. purpura.]

Pawlus, pr. n., Paul; II. Cor. I, 1. [< Παῦλος.]

peika-bagms (51), m. (91), date-palm.

Peiltus (5, a), pr. n., Pilate. [< Πειλᾶτος.]

Phaeba (52), pr. n.

pistikeins (51), adj. (124), genuin, pure. [< πιστικός, faithful, honest, + Goth. suff. -eina-.]

plapja, f. (97, n. 1), street; Mt. VI, 5. [Occurs only onse, in gen. pl. plapj, which is prob. an error, for *platj < Lt. platea < Grk. πλατεῖα, a broad way, street.]

plats, m. (91, or 100? or plat, n., 94?), a piece of cloth, pach; Mk. II, 21. [< Old Slavonic platu, pach.]

plinsjan (51), wv. (188), to dance. [< Old Slavonic plesati, to dance.]

-praggan (51), rv. (178), in ana-p. [< Old Slavonic. Cf. Dutch prangen, to press.]

praitrian, n. (120, n. 2), Pretorium. [< πραιτώριον, Pretorium.]

prafteis, f. (92), profetess; Lu. II, 36. [< προφήτις, profetess.]

praftus (prafts), m. (105; 91), profet; dat. -au; Mk. I, 2; acc. pl. -uns; Mt. V, 17. [< προφητής, profet.]

puggs (51), m. (91; or pugg, n., purse. [Borrowd < ? Cf. OE. pung, m. (?), ME. pung, purse.]

pund (51), n. (94), pound. [< Lt. pondo, indecl. sb.; pound; cf. Lt. pondus, weight.]

Q. See K.

Radagaisus (21, n. 1), pr. n.

raginn, wv. (190), to guvern, be guvernor; Lu. II, 2. [< ragin (= OE. regn-, in composition), n., judgment, decree, counsel, (> also ragineis (92), m., counselor). OE. regnjan, to plan, arrange.]

rahnjan, wv. (188), to reckon, count, w. acc. of th. and dat. of pers., to impute anything to; II. Cor. V, 19.

rahtis, adv. conj. (218) uzed as an enclitic, for, however, indeed; Mk. IV, 4. [< rahts + adv. compar. suff. -is; s. 212.]

rahts, adj. (124), straight, right; Mk. I, 3. [Prop. an old ptc. in -to-, < √ of reiks. OE. riht, ME. ryght, riht, NE. right.]

-raisjan, wv. (188), to cause to rize, to raiz, in ur-r. [Caus. of -reisan. OE. r̂ran (r < z < s), ME. rere, NE. rear.]

raka (indecl.), raca; Mt. V, 22. [< ῥακά < Hebrew rk, wurthless fellow.]

-rakjan, wv. (188), to strech, in uf-r. [OHG. recchen, MHG. NHG. recken, Du. rekken, to strech, > NE. rack.]

rann, prt. of rinnan.

-rannjan (32), wv. (188), to cause to run, in ur-r. [Caus. of rinnan. {195}OHG. rennan, rennen, MHG. rennen, to cause to run (especially a horse), NHG. rennen (intr.), to run, race.]

rasta, f. (97), stage (of a jurney), mile; Mt. V, 41. [< √ ras, to stay (> also razn (w. suff. na), n., house) + suff. -t-. OHG. rasta, MHG. raste, rast, f., rest, stage of a jurney, NHG. rast, f., rest, repose. Cf. OE. rest, rst (w. suff. -ti-), ME. NE. rest.]

-rajan (?), stv. (177, n. 2), in ga-r.

raj, f. (112), number, account. [< √ of -rajan + suff. -jn-. OHG. redia, reda, MHG. rede, f., account, speech, NHG. rede, f., speech. ra-- = E. -red; s. hund. (Cp. Brgm., I, 214; II, 300.)]

-raubn, wv. (190), to rob, in bi-r. [OE. (bi-)rafian, ME. (bi)reve, NE. (be-)reav.]

raupjan, wv. (188), to pluck, w. acc.; Mk. II, 23. [OHG. roufen, MHG. roufen, rufen, NHG. raufen, to pluck, pul.]

*raus (gen. raudis; 74, n. 2), adj. (124), red. [OE. rad, ME. rd, NE. red.]

Reccard (6, n. 2), pr. n.

-rdan, rv. (181), (only in cpds.), to counsel, deliberate. [OE. r̂dan, ME. rede, reade, to advise, rule, NE. rede, read (Shak.), > OE. r̂d, m., ME. rede, reade, NE. (obs.) read, rede, advice, counsel, > OE. r̂dan (wv.), ME. rde, to interpret, NE. read.]

reiki, n. (95), power, authority, rule. [< reiks, sb. OE. rce (rci), n., ME. riche, rike, reign, kingdom, NE. -ric (ME. -rich, OE. -rce), in bishopric.]

reikinn, wv. (190), to rule, guvern. [< reiks, sb.]

reiks, m. (117), ruler, prince. [Stem reik-, reika-, < Keltic rg-, ruler. Cp. reiks, adj.]

reiks, adj. (130, n. 2), mighty, noble, honorabl; superl. (sa) reikista, (the) mightiest, prince; Mk. III, 22. [OE. rce, powerful, mighty, of high rank, ME. riche, rice, powerful, also rich (by confusion w. the Fr. riche), NE. rich. Cp. reiks, sb.]

reiran, wv. (193), to trembl; Mk. V, 33.

-reisan, stv. (172, n. 1), to rize, in ur-r. [OE. rsan, ME. rise, NE. rize.]

rignjan, wv. (188), to rain; Mt. V, 45. [< rign, n. (= OE. regn, m., ME. rein, NE. rain). OE. regnian, ME. reine, NE. rain.]

rikan, stv. (176, n. 1), to heap up, collect. [Its √ appears (w. abl.) in OE. raca, m. (or racu, f.?), ME. rake, NE. rake, an instrument for scraping erth.]

riqis, riqiz (78, n. 1), n. (94), darkness; Mt. VI, 23. II. Cor. IV, 6. [ON. rkkr, n., darkness.]

riqizeins, adj. (124), dark, darkend; Mt. VI, 23. [< riqis + suff. -eina-.]

rinnan, stv. (174, n. 1), to run; Mk. V, 6; w. in w. acc.; Mk. V, 13.—Cpds. ga-, ur-r. [OE. rinnan, uzually irnan, eornan, iernan, ME. rinne, renne, rynne, eorne, NE. run.]

rinn (32), f. (112), brook. [< rinnan. OHG. rinn, f., aqueduct, MHG. rinne, f., aqueduct, gutter, NHG. rinne, f., gutter.]

*riureis (127; or riurs?; 130 and n. 2), adj., temporal, mortal; II. Cor. IV, 11. 18. [ON. ryrr, adj., small, poor.]

rdjan, wv., (188), to speak, (1) abs.; Mk. I, 34. V, 35. II. Cor. IV, 13; so w. dat. of pers.; Mk. IV, 34; or bi w. acc., and in w. dat.; Lu. II, 38; or us w. dat., and in andwarja w. gen.; II. Cor. II, 17; or du w. dat. of pers.; Lu. II, 20. (2) w. acc. of th. (in pass. the nom.; s. also below); Mk. II, 7. V, 36; and bi w. acc.; Lu. II, 33. (3) w. acc. of th. and dat. of the {196}pers. addrest; Mk. II, 2; or du w. dat. of the pers. addrest; Lu. II, 17. 18. 50; and instr. dat.; Mk. IV, 33. [OE. rdan, ME. rede, to speak[** should be italic].]

Rma (15, n. 2), pr. n., Rome. [< Ῥώμη.]

Rmneis (15, n. 2), pr. n., Romans. [< Ῥωμαῖοι.]

-rmnan (78, n. 4), wv. (194), in ur-r. [< rms[** should be bold].]

rms (15), m. (? 91), room, place; Lu. II, 7. [OE. rm, n., ME. roum, NE. room. Cp. Brgm. I, [** " " missing; it's on p. 47. Other references to Brugmann in the glossary specify or p.; references in the grammar proper omit it, but they're always by page number]59.]

rna (15), f. (97), mystery, counsel; Mk. IV, 11. [OE. rn, f., mystery, counsel, rne, ME. roune, NE. roun (obs.; rne < the Scand.).]

runs (32; 49), m. (101, ns. 1. 2.[** . anomalous]), a running, issue; Mk. V, 25. [< rinnan. OE. ryne, m., a running, course, ME. rune, NE. run.]

Sa, m., s, f.; ata, n. (153), (1) dem. prn. (for οὗτος, ἐκεῖνος, etc.), this, that, (for ἀυτός) he, she, it, -self—(S. my Gothic Syntax, 63 et seq.)—, (a) uzed alone; Mt. V, 30. 32. 37. VI, 8. 26. 29. 32. Mk. I, 19. 25. 27. 31. 42. II, 7. 8. 21. III, 35. IV, 4. 7. 18. 20. 30. 41. V, 12. 23. 32. 43. Lu. II, 6. 12. 34. II. Cor. I, 12. 17. II, 16. V, 2. 5. 15. Skeir. VII, a. d. For in is inuh is, s. in, (1); (b) w. sbs. or adjs. (follg. or prec.); Mt. V, 19. Mk. IV, 13. Lu. II, 15. 17. 19. 25. 38. 51. II. Cor. I, 15. III, 10. IV, 1. 4. 7.—ata silb, this same thing; II. Cor. II, 1. 3; (c) w. a rel. prn.; Mt. V, 32. Mk. V, 15. Lu. II, 33. II. Cor. V, 21. Skeir. VII, d. (2) art. (for ὁ, ἡ, τό), the, (a) w. sbs. (unmodified; cp. b, β, and e, β, below), (α) appellativs; Mt. V, 20. 25. 47. VI, 2. 23. Mk. I, 10. 13. 15. 20. 22. 29. 31. 34. 42. 45. II, 4. 5. 6. 9. 10. 16. 20. 21. 22. 28. III, 9. IV, 7. 15. 16. 17. 19. 20. 27. 28. 33. 36. 39. V, 4. 8. 11-14. 22. 29. 31. 35. 36. 38-42. Lu. II, 7. Skeir. VII, b. c; (β) pr. ns. (where the E. often omits it, especially when the pr. n. occurs alone); Mt. V, 20. Mk. I, 16. III, 6. 17. Lu. II, 7. 10. 13. 15. 17. 20. 25. 27. 40. 43. 50. II. Cor. I, 4. 11. 12. III, 16. IV, 1. 2. 7. V, 1. 4. 5. 8. 17; (b) w. adjs. (poss. prns. or is), (α) alone (chiefly uzed as sbs.; so, sumtimes, w. other adjs. or ptcs.); Mt. V, 21. 33. 37. 39. 47. Mk. III, 27. V, 15. 16. II. Cor. II, 6. 7. III, 10. IV, 15. 17. V, 10. 17; (β) w. sbs. (the art. prec. the adj. and its sb.); Mt. V, 26. 35. Mk. I, 24. II, 21 (sc. plat). Lu. I, 8. II. Cor. I, 6. III, 13. 18. IV, 13. V, 1. Skeir. VII, d. (the art. standing between the sb. and its adj.) Mt. V, 19. 29. VI, 11. Mk. I, 11. 26. 27. II, 22. IV, 20. V, 7. 13. Lu. II, 26. II. Cor. I, 6[** . missing?] (or between the adj. and its sb.) Mk. V, 33. Lu. II, 19[** . missing?] (the art. standing before the sb. and its adj.) Mk. II, 9. III, 5. 9. 27. V, 34. Lu. II, 41. 48. II. Cor. I, 18. III, 5. (the art. prec. the first of two qualifying adjs.) Skeir. VII, d; (c) w. nums., (α) alone; Mk. IV, 10; (β) attributivly; Skeir. VII, b; (d) w. advs. or adv. (prep.) frases, (α) without sb.: Mk. I, 7. 19. 36. 38. II, 25. 26. IV, 10. 11. 15. 16. 18. 31. V, 40. II. Cor. I, 4. 20. V, 2. 16; (β) w. other words; Mt. V, 45. 48. VI, 1. 23. Mk. I, 38. IV, 19. 31. V, 4. II. Cor. III, 10. IV, 16; (e) w. a ptc. (chiefly uzed as sb.; so sumtimes w. an adj.), (α) without sb.; Mt. V, 40. 44. 46. Mk. I, 32. II, 17. III, 22. 34. IV, 3. 14. 16. 20. 24. V, 14. 32. Lu. II, 18. 21. 38. 47. II. Cor. I, 1. 20. II, 2. 14. 15. III, 11. 13. {197}IV, 3. 4. 13. 14. 18. V, 4. 12. 18; (β) w. sbs. or adjs. uzed as sbs. (the art. preceding the sb. and its ptc.) Mk. V, 30. 33. 36. Lu. II, 16. (and another art. before the ptc.) Mk. III, 3. II. Cor. I, 1. (or the ptc. and its sb.) Skeir. VII, d. (the art. standing between the sb. and its ptc.) Mk. III, 22. IV, 15. Lu. II, 15. 21. II. Cor. I, 1. 8. 9. III, 7; (f) w. a sb. or prn. in the gen., a sb. being easily understood; Mt. V, 46. VI, 7. Mk. I, 19. II, 14. III, 17. 18. Lu. II, 49; (g) a n. art. may precede any word or words and even a hole sentence uzed substantivly (cp. b, α, and d, abuv); II. Cor. I, 17. 20. II, 6. [This prn. refers to two Indo-Germanic stems, so-: s- and to-d. The former is found in sa, s, and in OE. sĕ (chiefly art., but occasionally and orig. dem. prn.), m., ME. se. See also si and ata.]

sabbat (indecl.) or sabbatus, m. (120, n. 1), the Sabbath; Mk. II, 27; dat. sg. -; Mk. II, 28; gen. pl. -; Mk. I, 21. II, 23,[**typo? 23.] 27. III, 2. [< σάββατον < Hebrew shabbth, rest, sabbath-day.]

sa-ei, rel. prn. (157) m.; f. sei, sei (157, 3); n. atei (for *ataei); that, who, whosoever, (1) for ὅς; Mt. VI, 8. Mk. I, 2. 7. 44. II, 4. 24. 26. III, 13. 17. 19. IV, 9. 16. 24. 31. V, 3. 33. 41. Lu. II, 11. 15. 20. 25. 31. 50. II. Cor. I, 4. 6. 10. 13. 17. 19. II, 3. 4. 10. IV, 4. V, 4. 10. Skeir. VII, a. b. c. d. (2) for ὅς ἄν (w. subj.), w. prs. indic.; Mt. V, 21. 22. Mk. III, 35. IV, 25; w. prs. opt.; Mk. IV, 22. (3) for ὅστις; Mk. IV, 20. Lu. II, 4. 10. (4) for the Gr. art. (w. prs. ptc.), w. prs. or prt. indic. or opt.; Mt. VI,[**P2 comma unclear] 4. 18. Lu. II, 33. II. Cor. I, 4. II, 2; (w. aor. ptc.) w. prt. indic.; Mk. V, 16. 18. Lu. II, 17. II. Cor. IV, 6. V, 5. (w. sb.), w. prs. opt.; Mt. VI, 12.—When a rel. clause contains two vs., both may occur in the indic. mood, or the first stands in the indic. and the second in the opt.; Mt. V, 19.—The rel. saei is sumtimes preceded by the dem. (art.) sa; see sa, (1), (c).—It is uzually assimilated to the case of its antecedent; Lu. II, 20.—For its function as a conj., s. afar; in, (1) and (2), (c); arh; und; also ammei, izei, and atei.

saggws, m. (101), song, singing. [< siggwan. OE. sǫng, m., ME. songe, sang, NE. song.]

sa-h, dem. prn. (154) m.; f. sh; n. atuh (for ata-uh), and this, and that, and he; this, that, the same; he; who, which, (1) referring to a prec. rel. clause; Mt. V, 19. (2) follg. sum other antecedent; Lu. II, 38; so often as a connectiv before accessory clauses; Lu. II, 36. 37.—sah occurs frequently with an; Mk. III, 11. Lu. II, 2. 37. II. Cor. I, 17. IV, 15. [< sa + uh.]

sa-ƕaz-uh, indef. rel. prn. (164, n. 1); s. isƕazuh.

sai, interj. (204, n. 2; 219), see! behold! lo!; Mk. I, 2. II, 24. III, 32. 34. IV, 3. V, 22. Lu. II, 10. 34. 48. II. Cor. V, 17; suns sai, immediately; Mk. I, 12. [< sa + -i (a mutilated form of -ei), prop. a dem. particl attacht for emfasis.]

saian (saijan; 22 and n. 1), rv. (182), to sow, (1) abs.; Mt. VI, 26. Mk. IV, 4. (2) w. acc. (nom. in pass.); Mk. IV, 14. 15 (nom. implied). 32. (3) w. instr. dat. (fraiwa); Mk. IV, 3.—Followd by ana w. dat.; Mk. IV, 16. 20; or acc.; Mk. IV, 31; in w. acc.; Mk. IV, 18;—prs. ptc. (uzed as sb.) saiands, sower; Mk. IV, 3. 14.—Cpd. in-s. [OE. swan; (cp. waian), ME. sowe, NE. sow.]


sahs, card. num. (141), six. [OE. seox, six, ME. NE. six.]

sahsta, ord. num. (146), sixth. [< sahs. OE. sixta, ME. sixte, NE. sixth (the th by influence of the numerals w. regular th).]

saƕan (34, n. 1), stv. (176, n. 1), to see, look, behold, take heed, take heed to, (1) abs.; Mt. VI, 4. 6. 18. Mk. IV, 12. (2) w. acc.; Mt. V, 28. Mk. IV, 24. V, 22. 32. Lu. II, 15. 26. 30; and a ptc. in acc.; Mk. V, 31. (3) w. farrar (afar, afar off); Mk. V, 6. (4) w. du w. inf.; Mt. V, 28. (5) w. an indir. question; Mk. IV, 24. V, 14. (6) w. a clause introduced by ei; Mk. I, 44.—Cpds. at-, bi-, ga-, in-, arh-, us-s. [OE. son (< *sehwǫn), ME. see, NE. see.]

-sailjan, wv. (188), to cord.[**P2 should be ,] in in-s. [< *sail (= OE. sl, m., ME. sl, OHG. MHG. NHG. seil, n., rope, cord). OE. ŝlan, to fasten with a cord.]

sir (20, n. 2), n. (94), sorrow, travail. [Prop. n. adj. uzed as sb. (m. *sairs = OE. sr, ME. sore, NE. sore, painful, >) OE. sr, n., pain, ME. sore, NE. sore.]

saiwala, f. (97), soul, life; Mt. VI, 25. Mk. III, 4. Lu. II, 35. [OE. swol, sul, f., ME. sawle, soule, NE. soul.]

saiws, m. (101, n. 1), sea, lake, marsh. [OE. ŝ (infl. also ŝw-), m. f., sea, lake, ME. s, NE. sea.]

sakan, stv. (177, n. 1), to strive, quarrel, rebuke.—Cpds. and-, ga-s. [OE. sacan, ME. -sake (in cpds.), to strive, contend. Cp. frisahts and sakj.]

sakj (35), f. (112), strife. [< sakan + suff. -jn-. Cf. OE. sc(c), f. (j-stem), strife, contest; sacu, f. (-stem), strife, hostility, ME. sake, strife, litigation, gilt, cause, (for ... sake =) NE. (for ...) sake.]

sakkus (58, n. 1), m. (105), sack, sackcloth. [< Lt. saccus (or) < Grk. σάκκος < Hebrew saq, sackcloth, sack for corn.]

salbn, wv. (189), to salv, anoint; w. acc.; Mt. VI, 17. II. Cor. I, 21. [< *salba (= OE. sealf, f., ME. salfe, salve, NE. salv, sb.). OE. sealfian, ME. salfe, salve, NE. salv, vb.]

salbns, f. (103, n. 1), salv, ointment. [< salbn + suff. --ni-.]

saltan, rv. (179, n. 1), to salt. [OE. sealtan, OHG. salzan, MHG. salzen, (NHG. salzen, wv., but pp. gesalzen), rv., to salt. Cf. OE. sealt, ME. salt, n. (also adj.), NE. salt > ME. salte, NE. salt, wv.]

sama, adj. prn. (132, n. 3; 156), same, the same, (1) without sb., and with the art.; Mt. V, 46. 47. Skeir. VII, d. (2) w. a sb., and with the art.; Lu. II, 8. II. Cor. I, 6. III, 14. IV, 13. [ON. samr, adj., > ME. same, NE. same. Cf. OE. sǫme, same, adv.: sw s., just as.]

sama-frajis, adj. (126), like-minded.

sama-laus (74, n. 1), adj. (124), of the same size or quantity, as much. [-laus < √ of liudan.]

sama-leik, adv., equally,[**P2 comma unclear] likewise; Mk. IV, 16. Skeir. VII, c. [< sama-leiks = OHG. samolh, samelh, MHG. same-, seme-, sem-lch, alike, agreeing together. For -leiks, s. galeik.]

sama, adv. (213, n. 2), to the same place, together. [< sama + suff. -. OE. sǫmod, samod, ME. samed, OHG. samet, MHG. NHG. samt, adv., together, and prep., together with,[**typo? with. ]]

sandjan (74, n. 3), wv. (187), to send.—Cpds. in-, us-s. [Causal of *sinan, to go. OE. sendan, ME. sende, NE. send.]

Satana, pr. n., Satan; Mk. III, 26; or Satanas; Mk. III, 23. IV, 15; {199}dat. -in; Mk. I, 13. II. Cor. II, 11; acc. -an; Mk. III, 23. [< Σατανᾶς < Hebrew stn, enemy.]

satjan, wv. (187), to set, place, put; Mk. IV, 21.—Cpds. af-, at-, ga-, fara-ga-s. [Causal of sitan. OE. settan, ME. sette, NE. set.]

sas, gen. sadis (74, n. 3), adj. (124), sated, ful; s. waran, to be fild; Skeir. VII, d. [Prop. an old ptc. in -to-. OE. sd, ME. sad, sed, NE. sad (obs.) satiated.]

sahts (58, n. 2), f. (103), sickness, disease; Mk. I, 34. III, 15. [< √ of siuks + suff. -ti-. OE. suht (?), f., ME. suht, disease, ilnes, OHG. MHG. suht, NHG. sucht, f., disease, malady.]

sauil (26), n. (94), sun; Mk. I, 32.

Salamn, pr. n., Solomon; Mt. VI, 29. [< Σολομών.]

-sauljan (24, n. 1), wv. (188), to soil, in bi-s. [Cp. OE. sylian (< sol, orig. *sul-, n., mire), ME. sulie, NE. sully.]

-saulnan (24, n. 1), wv. (194), in bi-s.

Sar (24, n. 5), pr. n., a Syrian; dat. pl. -im; Lu. II, 2. [< Σύρος.]

sarga, f. (97), care; Mk. IV, 19. sorrow, grief; II. Cor. II, 1. 3. 7. [OE. sorh, sorg, f., ME. sorwe, NE. sorrow.]

sargan, wv. (193), to sorrow, be grievd; II. Cor. II, 4; w. bi w. acc., to be anxious about, take thought for; Mt. VI, 28. [< sarga. OE. sorgian (transferd to the Second Conjugation), ME. sorwe, NE. sorrow.]

saus, m. (101), sacrifice. [ON. saur, m., sheep, prop. an animal to be immolated, a victim, < √ of sja (prt. sau) = OE. soan (prt. sa), ME. sethe, NE. seeth.]

sei, f. prn. (157, n. 3); s. saei.

Seidna, pr. n. f., Sidon; acc. -a; Mk. III, 8. [< Σιδών.]

Seimn, Seimnus, pr. n., Simon; Mk. I, 36; gen. -is; Mk. I, 16. 29. 30; dat. -a; Mk. III, 16; acc. -a (Gr. infl.); Mk. III, 18; or -u; Mk. I, 16. [< Σίμων.]

seina, refl. prn. gen.; dat. sis, acc. sik, uzed for all genders and numbers, (I) alone, (1) where the Gr. has no corresponding prn., (a) m., (α) sing.; Mt. V, 42. VI, 29; (β) pl. Mk. II, 6. IV, 12. 41. Lu. II, 20. 43; (b) fem., (α) sg.; Mk. III, 20; (β) pl.; Mk. IV, 1. V, 21; (c) n., (α) sg. (not found in our 'Selections.'[**P2 right paren missing] (β) pl.; Lu. II, 39. 45; (2) for ἑαυτω, ἁυτω, αυτω, etc., (a)[**P2 we never get a corresponding (b)] m., (α) sg., Mk. II, 26. III, 14. 25. 34. V, 4. 5. 30. 37. 40. II. Cor. V, 19. Skeir. VII, a; (β) pl.; Mk. II, 8. 19. IV, 17. II. Cor. V, 15. (II) w. silba, m., (α) sg.: sis silbin, sik silban, himself; Mk. III, 26. V, 30; (β) pl.: sis silbam, (sik silbans), themselvs; II. Cor. V, 15. (III) w. miss: seina miss, one another; sis miss, one another; m. pl.; Mk. I, 27. IV, 41. Lu. II, 15. [Wanting in E., but see under seins. OHG. gen. sg. (only m. n.) sn; dat. wanting; acc. sih (sg. and pl.), MHG. gen. sg. sn, acc. sg. and pl. sich, NHG. gen. sg. sein (poet[**P2 full stop missing]); dat. acc. sich (for all genders and numbers).

seins, poss. prn. (151), uzed for all genders and numbers, his, theirs, their, etc., (1) alone, referring to a f. in sg.; Mk. V, 26. (2) w. a sb., referring, (a) to a m. in sg.; Mt. V, 22. 28. 32. 45. VI, 27. 29. Mk. I, 6. 41. III, 7. 9. IV, 2. 3. 34. Lu. II, 3. 28. II. Cor. II, 14. Skeir. VII, c. d; (b) to a m. in pl.; Mt. VI, 2. 5. 7. 16. Mk. I, 5. 20. II, 6. V, 17. Lu. II, 8. 39; (c) to a f. in sg.; Lu. II, 7. 19. 36. 51. [< stem of seina. OE. sn (referring to all genders and numbers; OHG. sn {200}(referring to a m. or n. sg. only), MHG. sn, NHG. sein, his, its.]

seiteina (17, n. 2).

seius, adj. (131), late. [Cf. -seis (s. anaseis).]

sls, adj. (130), good, kind. [OE. ŝl, ME. sel, adj., good, > -ŝlig, ME. seli, happy, blessed, (NE. silly)[** should , come after parenthesis? Not that I understand why it's parenthesised] OHG. slig, MHG. ŝlec (-g-), NHG. selig, adj., happy, blessed.)[**typo for square bracket]

stun, prt. of sitan.

si, pers. prn.; s. is. [Cf. OE. so (< si + the fem. ending -u), ME. sche, NE. she. (Cp. Brgm., II, 110.)]

sibja, f. (97, n. 1), relationship. [OE. sib(b), f., ME. sib, sibbe, NE. sib (obs., but dial.), relationship, frendship, luv, peace.]

-sibjn, wv. (190), in ga-s. [< stem of sibja. OE. ge-sibbian, wv., to appease, please.]

sibun, indecl. num. (141), seven; Lu. II, 36. [OE. seofon, ME. seven, NE. seven.]

sibunthund, num. (143), seventy. [< sibun + thund. Cp. Brgm., III, 179.]

sidn, wv. (190), to practis. [< sidus. OHG. (gi-)sitn, to do, prepare.]

sidus, m. (105), custom, manner. [OE. siodu, m., custom, manner, morality, ME. side-, in side-ful, adj., modest, OHG. situ, m., MHG. site, m., f. (rare), NHG. sitte, f., custom, manner.]

siggwan (68), stv. (174, n. 1), (1) abs., to sing. (2) w. acc. (nom. in pass.), to read (aloud); II. Cor. III, 15.—Cpd. us-s. [OE. singan, ME. singe, NE. sing.]

sigis, n. (94), victory. [OE. sigor, m. (from stem in -iz; hense orig. n.), beside sige, m. (as if < sigi-z; cp. Brgm., II, 132, Rem. 2), ME. siȝe, victory, OHG. sigi, -u, m., MHG. sige, sic [** spacing?](g-)[** should be (-g-)? cf. s.v. sls, slahs], NHG. sieg, m., victory.]

Sigis-mres (6, n. 2), pr. n.

sigqan (siggqan), stv. (174, n. 1), to sink.—Cpd. ga-s. [OE. sincan (intr.), ME. sinke, NE. sink (tr. and intr.).]

sigljan, wv. (188), to seal, w. acc.; II. Cor. I, 22. [< Lt. sigillare, to seal.]

siglj, n. (110), seal. [< sigljan.]

sihu? (20, n. 1), acc. n. (106), victory. [Cf. sigis.]

sijau, siju, sijum, etc., v. (204).

sik, refl. prn.; s. seina.

-silan, wv. (193), in ana-s. [Cognate with, or < Lt. silere, to be silent.]

silba, prn. (132, n. 3; 156), self, (1) uzed alone; II. Cor. I, 4. 9. (2) w. a poss. prn., where it stands in the gen. (like Lt. ipsius w. a poss. prn.); Lu. II, 35. (3) w. a pers. prn.; Mk. I, 44. III, 26. V, 30. II. Cor. I, 9. III, 1. 5. IV, 2. 5. V, 12. 15. (4) w. a dem. prn.; as, ata silb, this very thing; II. Cor. II, 1. 3. (5) w. a sb. Mk. IV, 28. [OE. seolf, self, ME. seolf, self (infl. -v-), NE. self.]

Silbnus (5, a; 54, n. 1), pr. n., Silvanus; acc. -u; II. Cor. I, 19. [< Σιλουανός.]

silba-wiljis, adj. (92, n. 4), of one's own accord. [-wiljis < wiljan.]

silda-leikjan, wv. (188), to be astonisht, be amazed, to wonder, marvel; Mk. I, 27. V, 20. Lu. II, 48; w. ana w. dat.; Lu. II, 33; bi w. acc.; Lu. II, 18. [< sildaleiks (= OE. sellc, for seld-lc, ME. sellich), adj., strange, wonderful, marvelous, < silda- (OE. seld, adj., rare, strange, ME. selde, pl., few; cp. OE. seldan, ME. selde, prop. dat. of seld) + -leiks.]

silubr, n. (94), silver, muney. [OE. seolfor, siolfur, ME. seolver, silver, NE. silver.]

siml, adv. (214, n. 1), onse, formerly. [OE. simle, symle, ME. simle, adv., ever, always.]


sinaps, m. (91; or sinap, n.? 94), mustard; Mk. IV, 31. [< σίναπι, n., mustard.]

sineigs (10, n. 5), adj. (138 and 139), old, elder. [< *sina- (s. sinteins), adj., old, + suff. -eiga-.]

sintein, adv., ever, always, continually; Mk. V, 5. II. Cor. IV, 10. 11. V, 6. [< sinteins + suff. -.]

sinteins, adj. (124), daily; Mt. VI, 11. [< sin- (for sina-; s. sineigs), ever, + -teina-; sin- = OE. sin- in sin-niht, f., eternal night; sin-grne, ME. sin-, sen-grene, NE. sengreen, the houseleek, lit. 'evergreen'.]

sipneis, m. (92), pupil, disciple; Mk. II, 15. 16. 18. 23. 24. III, 7. 9. IV, 34. V, 31. Skeir. VII, d.

sipnjan, wv. (187; 188), to be a disciple. [< sipneis.]

sis, prn.; s. seina.

sitan, stv. (176, n. 1), to sit; Mk. II, 6. V, 15; w. at w. dat.; Mk. II, 14; bi w. acc.; Mk. III, 32. 34; in w. dat.; Lu. II, 46.—Cpds. bi-, ga-s. [OE. sittan (< *sittjan; the j occurs in the prs. tense only; prt. st, etc.), ME. sitte, NE. sit.]

siujan, wv. (187), to sew; Mk. II, 21. [< a lost sb. OE. siowian, seowian, ME. sewe, NE. sew.]

siukan, stv. (173, n. 1), to be sick, be il, be weak.

siuks, adj. (124), sick, il, diseast, weak. [OE. soc, ME. sk, sek, sic, NE. sick.]

siuns (42, n. 3), f. (103), the sense of sight, sight; II. Cor. V, 7. [< saƕan + suff. -ni-; cp. Brgm., I, 441.]

siu = siju; s. sijau.

skaban, stv. (177, n. 1), to shave. [OE. sceafan, scafan, ME. schave, NE. shave.]

skadus, m. (105), shade, shadow; Mk. IV, 32. [OE. sceadu (follg. a- or wa-stems[**P3: space before 'stems'?], but orig. < stem in -u-), f., ME. schadowe, schade, NE. shadow, shade.]

-skadweins (14, n. 1), f. (103, n. 1), a shading, in ga-sk. [< skadwjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

-skadwjan (14, n. 1), wv. (188), to cast a shade or shadow, in ufar-sk. [< skadus. OE. sceadwian, ME. schadowe, NE. shadow.]

skaidan, rv. (179), to sever, separate, put asunder. [OE. sc(e)dan, ME. shede, wv., NE. shed, to part, pour, spil.]

-skaidnan, wv. (194), to becum parted, in ga-sk. [< skaidan.]

skalkinn, wv. (190), to serv, do service; Mt. VI, 24. [< skalks.]

skalks, m. (91), servant; Lu. II, 29. II. Cor. IV, 5. [OE. scealc, m., ME. schalk (= NE. -shal, in marshal < French < G.), OHG. scalch, servant, MHG. schalc, servant, bondman, NHG. schalk, m., wag, rogue.]

skaman, wv. (193), always w. sik, to be ashamed, w. inf.; II. Cor. I, 8. [< *skama, f. (= OE. sceomu, sceamu, ME. schame, NE. shame). OE. sceǫmian (of the Second, orig. Third Class), sceamian, ME. schame, NE. shame.)[** paren typo for bracket]

-skapjan, stv. (177, n. 2), to shape, make, in ga-sk. [OE. scieppan (< scieppjan; ie < ea < a), scyppan, ME. scheppe, schape, stv., schapie, wv.,[**P2 speck not semicolon] NE. shape.]

skattja (80), m. (108), muney-changer. [< skatts + suff. -jan-.]

skatts (69, n. 1), m. (91), muney, coin. [OE. sceat(t), scat, m., ME. scat, OHG. scaz, m., coin, muney[**P2 comma missing] MHG. schaz (-tz-), NHG. schatz, m., trezure, sweet-hart.]

skajan, stv. (177, n. 2), to do scath, do wrong. [OE. scean, sceaan, str. and wv., to harm, > sce, n., sceaa, m., ME. scathe, NE. scath, harm.]

skauda-raips, m. (91; or -raip, n.? {202}94), shoe-lachet; Mk. I, 7. [Lit. a string for fastening a cuver, < skauda- (cp. MHG. NHG. schte, f., husk, pod) + -raips = OE. rp, m., ME. rp, NE. rope.]

skauns, adj. (130, n. 2), beutiful. [Lit. wurth seeing, noticeabl (cp. Brgm., 95; also us-skaus and the follg. w.), OE. scone (for *scane) > scene, scne, ME. schene, adj., NE. sheen, adj. (beutiful, fair; poet.) and sb.]

-skawjan (42, n. 2), wv. (188), to behold, see, in us-sk. [< -skaus; s. us-skaus.]

skeinan, stv. (172, n. 1), to shine; II. Cor. IV, 6.—Cpd. bi-sk. [OE. scnan, ME. schine, NE. shine.]

skeireins, f. (103), a making clear, explanation, interpretation. [< skeirjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

-skeirjan, wv. (188), to make clear, in ga-sk. [< skeirs.]

skeirs (78, n. 2), adj. (129, n. 1), clear, evident, plain. [< √ of skein-an. OE. scr, ME. shire, bright, clear, pure; cp. ON. skrr, sheer[** should be inside italic? It's not an ON. word. (But it's not a translation of the ON. word either; perhaps it shouldn't be here at all)], bright, > ME. schere, NE. sheer.]

skwjan, wv. (188), to go, walk; Mk. II, 23. [Cf. ON. skva, to go, stride along.]

skip, n. (94), ship, boat; Mk. I, 19. 20. III, 9. IV, 1. 36. 37. V, 2. 18. 21. [OE. scip, n., ME. schip, NE. ship.]

-skiuban (56, n. 1), stv. (173, n. 1), to shuv, push, in af-sk. [OE. scfan (irreg. only in the pres., but later also scofan), ME. shuve, (NE. shuv < ME. (schowwyn =) schove, OE. scofian, to shuv[**should be ital F1]), OHG. scioban, MHG. schieben, NHG. schieben, to shuv.]

skhs, m. (91 ?[**spacing?]), shoe; Mk. I, 7. [OE. sceh, sch, m., ME. sh, NE. shoe.]

-skreitan, stv. (172, n. 1), to shred, tear, rend (tr.), in dis-sk. [OS. scrtan, to tear. Cp. Swiss schrssen, to pull, tear.]

-skritnan, wv. (194), to rend (intr.), in dis-sk. [< -skreitan.]

skuggwa (68), m. (108), mirror. [< √ of skaus, which is containd also in OE. scwa, m., shade, and in OHG. scchar, mirror.]

skula, m. adj. (132), gilty; sb. (108), detter; Mt. VI, 12; sk. wisan w. acc. of th.: atei skulans sijaima, that for which we ow, our dets; Mt. VI, 12; the crime being indicated by the gen.: to be gilty of, be in danger of; Mk. III, 29; the punishment being indicated by the dat.; Mt. V, 21. 22; or in w. acc.; Mt. V, 22.[**,/.? P3: . clear in IA image] [< skulan. OE. (ge-)scola, OHG. scolo, MHG. schol, ge-schol, m., detter.]

skulan, prt.-prs. (200), (1) w. inf., to be about to be, to be one's duty, to be obliged, ow, shal, must; Lu. II, 49. II. Cor. II, 3. V, 10. (2) skuld ist, it behoovs, it is lawful; Mk. II, 24. III, 4. 26. [OE. sculan, prs. indic. sceal, prt. sceolde, ME. schal, prt. scholde, schulde, NE. shal, should.]

skra (15), f. (97), shower; sk. windis, storm of wind; Mk. IV, 37. [Cf. OE. scr, m., ME. shur, schowre, NE. shower,[**typo? shower. ]]

slahan, stv. (177, n. 1), to strike, beat, smite. [OE. slan < *slahǫn < *slahan, to strike, slay, ME. sl (= sl̂), NE. slay.]

slahs, m. (101), stroke, stripe; plague; Mk. V, 29. 34. [< slahan. OE. slege, m., ME. sleȝe, blow; OHG. slag (a-stem; in comp. also i-stem: slegi-), MHG. slac (-g-), NHG. schlag, m., blow.[**,] stroke.]

-slaujan, wv. (188), to cause to slide, in af-s.

-slaunan, wv. (194), in af-s. [Correlativ to -slaujan.]


slawan, wv. (193), to be silent, hold one's peace.—Cpd. ga-s.

slpan (78, n. 3), rv. (179), to sleep, fall asleep, be asleep; Mk. IV, 27. V, 39; w. ana w. dat.; Mk. IV, 38. [OE. sl̂pan (st. and wv.), ME. slepe (st. and wv.), NE. sleep (wv.), OHG. slfan, MHG. slfen, NHG. schlafen, stv., to sleep.]

slps, m. (91, n. 2), sleep. [< slpan. OE. sl̂p, m., ME. slep(e), NE. sleep.]

-slindan, stv. (174, n. 1), to devour, in fra-s. [OHG. (far)-slintan, MHG. ver-slinden, NHG. verschlingen (ng for nd by influence of schlingen, to wind, twist), to devour.]

sliupan, stv. (173, n. 1), to slip. [OE. slpan (for *slopan; cp. -skiuban), ME. (t)-slupe, OHG. sliofan, MHG. sliefen, NHG. schliefen, to slip. Cp. also E. slip.]

smakka (58, n. 1), m. (108), fig. [A foren word. Cp. Old Bulgarian smoky, fig.]

smals, adj. (124), small, litl. [OE. sml, ME. smal, NE. small.]

-smeitan, stv. (172, n. 1), in ga-s. [OE. smtan, to strike, be-s., to soil, pollute, ME. smite, to strike, be-s., to soil, pollute, NE. smite.]

snaga, m. (108), garment; Mk. II, 21.

snaiws, m. (91, n. 1), snow. [OE. sn(w), m., ME. snow, NE. snow.]

sneian, stv. (172, n. 1), to cut, reap; Mt. VI, 26. [OE. snan, ME. snie, OHG. sndan, MHG. snden[** poorly printed snden?], NHG. schneiden, to cut.]

sniumjan, wv. (188), to hasten, make haste; Lu. II, 16. [< an adj. = OHG. sniumi, quick, fast (sniumo, adv., = OE. snome, snome, adv., quickly, immediately), < √ of sniwan.]

sniumunds, compar. adv. (212, n. 2), more quickly. [< sniumund, adv., quickly, (< adj. stem sniumunda- + adv. suff. [** - missing?]) + compar. suff. -is, < sniumun- (+ suff. -da-) < √ of sniwan + suff. -mun-.]

sniwan, stv. (176, n. 2), to hasten, go. [Cf. ON. sna, stv., to turn; and OE. sneowan, wv., to hasten.]

snutrs, adj. (124), wise. [< stem snut- + suff. -ra-. OE. snot(t)or, snoter, ME. snoter, adj., wise, prudent.]

sh, f. of sah.

skjan (35), wv. (186), to seek, seek for, ask for, desire, long for, (1) w. acc.; Mt. VI, 32. Mk. I, 37. III, 32. Lu. II, 44. 45. 48. 49. IV, 42[** . or ; missing?] (2) w. mi w. dat., to question with; Mk. I, 27. [OE. skan, ME. seke, (bi)seche, NE. seek, beseech. Cp. sakan.]

skns (35), f. (103), serch, inquiry, question. [< √ of skjan + suff. -ni-. OE. scen (w. suff. -na-)[** , missing?] f., ME. soken, a seeking, inquiry.]

spakultur (5, a; 24, n. 2), m., spy, executioner. [< Lt. speculator, spy.]

sparwa, m. (108), sparrow. [OE. spearwa, ME. spar(o)we, NE. sparrow.]

spards, f. (116), stadium, furlong, race-course. [OHG. spurt, f. (?), a stadium.]

spdumists, superl. adj. (139, n. 1), the last. [< stem *spduma(n)- (< sps + suff. -u-ma-n-) + suff. -ista; sps = OHG. spti, MHG. sp̂te, NHG. spt, adj., late.]

speiwan, stv. (172, n. 1), to spit. [OE. spwan, ME. spiwe, OHG. spwan, span, MHG. spen, NHG. speien, to spit. Cp. also OE. spiwian, speowan, ME. spewe, NE. spew.]

spilda, f. (97), (writing-) tablet; II. Cor. III, 3. [Cf. OE. speld, n., ME. speld, splinter, chip.]

spilln, wv. (189), to tel a tale, tel, narrate; Mk. V, 16; to bring (good) {204}tidings; Lu. II, 10. [< spill (= OE. spell, n., a saying, narrativ, story, ME. spell, speech, preaching, NE. spel, an incantation). OE. spellian, ME. spelle, NE. spel.]

spinnan, stv. (174, n. 1), to spin; Mt. VI, 28. [OE. spinnan, ME. spynne, NE. spin.]

spraut, adv. (211, n. 1), quickly, soon; Mt. V, 25.

stafs (56, n. 1), m. (101), element, rudiment. [OE. stf, m., ME. staf, twig, staff, letter, NE. staff.]

staiga, f. (97), path, way, highway; Mk. I, 3. [< steigan. OHG. steiga, MHG. steige, f., an ascending road, NHG. steige, f., stile, staircase.]

stainahs, adj. (124), stony; Mk. IV, 5. 16. [< stains + suff. -ha [** spacing?](:ga). OHG. steinag, -ac, MHG. steinec (-g-), NHG. steinig, adj., stony.]

staineins, adj. (124), of stone, stony; II. Cor. III, 3. [< stains + suff. -eina-. OE. st̂nen, ME. stenen, OHG. steinn, MHG. steinen, NHG. steinen (uzually steinern, w. dubl suff. -er-n), of stone.]

stains, m. (91), stone, rock; Mk. V, 5. II. Cor. III, 7.—Also uzed as a pr. n., Peter; Skeir. VII, a. [OE. stn, m., ME. stn, NE. stone.]

starn, f. (112), star. [OE. steorra (rr < rn), m., ME. sterre, NE. star, OHG. sterno, sterro, MHG. sterne, sterre, also stern, a-stem, m., NHG. stern, m., star.]

-staldan, rv. (179), in ga-st.

standan, stv. (177, n. 3), to stand, stand firm; Mk. III, 24. 25; w. in w. dat.; Mt. VI, 5; w. ta; Mk. III, 31.—Cpds. af-, and-, at-, ga-, -twis-[** typo, shouldn't have leading hyphen], us-st. [A nasalized form < √ stat extended < sta. OE. stǫndan, standan, ME. stande, NE. stand. The orig. √ is seen in OHG. MHG. stn, stn, NHG. stehen, stv., to stand; and in stas.]

stas, gen. stadis (74 and notes), m. (101), sted, place; Mk. I, 35. 45. II. Cor. II, 14. Skeir. VII, b; an inn; Lu. II, 7;—jainis stadis (215), unto the other side (of the lake); Mk. IV, 35. [< √ of standan + suff. -i-. OE. stede, m., ME. stede, NE. sted (insted = in sted).]

*stas, gen. stais, m. (? 91, n. 2), shore, land; Mk. IV, 1. [< √ of standan + suff. -a- or -i- (?). OE. st, n., bank, shore, ME. stae, NE. staith.]

staua (26), f. (97), judgment; Mt. V, 21. 22. [< √ stw: stw; cp. stjan.]

staua (26), m. (108), judge; Mt. V, 25. [< staua, f., + suff. -an-.]

staua-stls, m. (91), judgment-seat; II. Cor. V, 10.

-starran, wv. (193), in and-st. [< a lost adj. (cp. OE. styrne, = Goth. *star-ni-, ME. sterne, NE. stern). OHG. storrn, MHG. storren, to be rigid, stand forth stif.]

stautan, rv. (179, n. 1), w. acc. and bi w. acc., to strike, smite; Mt. V, 39. [OHG. stʒan, MHG. stʒen, NHG. stossen, to thrust, push.]

steigan, stv. (172, n. 1), to mount, climb up.—Cpds. ufar-, us-st. [OE. stgan, ME. stie, styȝe, NE. sty, to mount, ascend.]

stibna, f. (97), voice; Mk. I, 3. 11. 26. V, 7. [OE. stefn, f., ME. steven, voice, NE. steven (obs.), an outcry.]

-stiggan, stv. (174, n. 1), to sting, in us-st. [OE. stingan, ME. stinge, NE. sting.]

stigqan (gg; 67, n. 1), stv. (174, n. 1), to thrust, strike. [ON. stkkva (for *stekkva), to jump, leap.]

stilan, stv. (175, n. 1), to steal; Mt. VI, 20. [OE. stelan, ME. stele, NE. steal.]

stiur (78, n. 2), m. (91, n. 4), steer, calf. [OE. stor, m., ME. str, NE. steer.]


stiwiti, n. (95), endurance, patience; II. Cor. I, 6.

-stdjan, wv. (188), only in the cpds. ana-, du-st. [< √ of standan.]

stjan (26), wv. (186, n. 2), to judge, in ga-st. [< staua (cp. Brgm., I, 179). OHG. stwan, stouwan (prt. stwida), MHG. stouwen, to scold, accuse.]

stls, m. (91), stool, seat, throne; Mt. V, 34. [< √ of standan + suff. -la. OE. stl, m., ME. stl, NE. stool.]

straujan (42), wv. (187), to strew, spred. [< a sb. = OE. stra(w), North. str, n., ME. str(we), NE. straw. OE. strge, strawian, ME. streȝe, strewe, NE. strew.]

striks, m. (91 or 100?), stroke, title; Mt. V, 18. [< √ of *streikan (= OE. strcan, to move, go, ME. strike, NE. strike). OHG. strih, MHG. NHG. strich, m., stroke, line.]

stubjus, m. (105), dust. [OHG. stuppe, MHG. (ge)stppe, (ge)stuppe, NHG. gestpp, n., dust.]

-suljan, wv. (188), in ga-s. [< √ of OE. syll, f., ME. sille, NE. sil; and of Goth. sulj (prob. not < Lt. solea).]

suman, adv. (214, n. 1), onse, in times past. [< stem of sums.]

sums, indef. prn. (162), (1) alone, sum one, pl. sum; II. Cor. III, 1. (2) adj., certain, sum. (3) w. partit. gen., certain, sum; Mk. II, 6. V, 25.—sums ... sums-u [** invisible hyphen?]an, the one ... the other; II. Cor. II, 16; sum rahtis ... anaru-an ... jah sum, sum ... other ... and sum; Mk. IV, 4-8.—bi-sumata, in part; II. Cor. I, 14. II, 5. [OE. ME. sum, NE. sum.]

sundr, adv., asunder, alone, privately; Mk. IV, 10. 34. [Cf. OE. sundor, ME. sunder, adv., especially, apart, OHG. suntar, MHG. sunder, adv., separately, especially; conj., but, rather; prep., without, NHG. sonder, prep., without.]

sunja, f. (97, n. 1), truth; Mk. V, 33. II. Cor. IV, 2; acc. sg. is uzed adverbially (215). [< sunjis.]

sunjaba, adv. (210), truly, verily. [< sunjis + suff. -ba.]

Sunjai-frias (88a, n. 2), pr. n.

sunjis, adj. (126), tru. [stem sunja- for *sundja- < *sund- (< √ of im, sijau; s. wisan) = OE. s (for sǫn), ME. sth, NE. sooth.]

sunjn, wv. (190), to verify, excuse. [< sunja.]

sunn, f. (112), n. (? 110, n. 2), sun; Mt. V, 45. Mk. IV, 6. [OE. sunne, f., ME. sunne, NE. sun.]

suns, adv., soon, at onse, suddenly, immediately; Mk. I, 10. 12. 18. 20. 21. 28-31. 42. 43. II, 2. 8. 12. IV, 5. 15. 16. 29. V, 2. 13. 42. [Prop. compar. adv., < *sunis (cp. mins) < stem suna- + adv. compar. suffix -is. Cf. OE. sǫ̂na, ME. sone, NE. soon.]

suns-aiw, adv., soon, immediately, straightway; Mk. III, 6. V, 29. 30. 36.

suns-ei, conj. (218), as soon as, when.

sunus, m. (104), sun; Mt. V, 45. Mk. I, 1. 11. II, 10. 19. 28. III, 11. 17. 28. V, 7. Lu. II, 7. II. Cor. I, 19. [OE. sunu, m., ME. sune, sone, NE. sun.]

suts (15, n. 1), adj. (130), sweet, suitabl, patient. [OE. swte (jo-stem), ME. swete, NE. sweet.]

swa, adv., so, (1) alone[** shouldn't be italic]; Mt. V, 19. VI, 9. 30. Mk. II, 7. 8. 12. IV, 40. Lu. II, 48. (2) correlativ: swasw..swa jah, as ... so also; II. Cor. I, 5; swa..swasw, so ... as; Mk. IV, 26. (3) w. an adj. or adv.; Skeir. VII, a. b. c. (4) swa sw, w. an adj. or adv. between them: swa filu sw, as much as; Skeir. VII, c; swa lagga ƕeila sw, as long,[** , redundant?] as; Mk. II, 19; swa managai {206}sw, as many as; Mk. III, 10; swa manags sw, Mk. III, 28. [OE. sw, ME. swa, swo, so, NE. so.]

swa-ei, conj. (218), so that, that, therefore, (1) w. prs. indic.; Mk. II, 28. (2) w. prt. indic.; Mk. I, 27. Skeir. VII, c. (3) w. prt. opt.; II. Cor. III, 7. (4) w. acc. and inf.; II. Cor. II, 7.—wherefore, therefore; II. Cor. IV, 12. V, 16. 17.

-swaggwjan, wv. (188), to cause to swing, in af-sw. [Caus. of *swiggwan (= OE. swingan, ME. swinge, NE. swing). OE. swengan, ME. swenge, NE. swinge (for *swenge, as singe for *senge).]

swahra, m. (108), father-in-law. [Cf. OE. swor (< sweohor < *swehur, a-stem), m., father-in-law, OHG. swehur, m., father-in-law, later also brother-in-law, MHG. sweher, NHG. schwher, m., father-in-law.]

swahr, f. (112), mother-in-law; Mk. I, 30. [Extended < stem *swahr-. Cf. OE. sweger, f., OHG. swigar, MHG. swiger, NHG. schwieger (rare; uzually schwiegermutter), f., mother-in-law.]

-swarban, stv. (174, n. 1), to wipe, in bi-sw. [OE. sweorfan, to rub, file, polish, ME. swerve, NE. swerv, to turn aside.]

swa-laus, adj. (161), so great, so much, such. [For -laus, s. sama-laus.]

swa-leiks, adj. (161), (1) alone; so w. the art., such a one; II. Cor. II, 6. 7. (2) w. a sb., without the art., such; Mk. IV, 33. II. Cor. I, 10. III, 4. [OE. swelc, swilc, < sw-lc, ME. swiche, swuch, NE. such.]

swamms (swams; 48; 80, n. 1), m. (91), spunge. [OE. swam, m., fungus, OHG. MHG. swam (mm), NHG. schwamm, m., spunge, fungus.]

swaran, stv. (177, n. 1), to swear, w. bi w. dat.; Mt. V, 34. 35. 36.—Cpds. bi-, ufar-s. [OE. swerian (the i, = j, occurs in the prs. tense only; prt. swore, pp. sworen), ME. swere, NE. swear.]

swar, adv., without a cause, in vain; Mt. V, 22.

swartis (in A) or swartizl (in B), n. (? 94), that which is black, ink; II. Cor. III, 3. [< swarts + suff. -iz- (-zla- = NHG. -sal, -sel).]

swarts, adj. (124), black; Mt. V, 36. [OE. sweart, ME. NE. swart.]

swa-sw, (1) adv., as, just as, as it wer, in like manner as, like, (a) uzed alone; Mt. V, 48. VI, 2. 5. 7. 12. 16. Mk. I, 22. II. Cor. II, 17. III, 5. Mk. I, 22. IV, 33. Lu. II, 20. 23. II. Cor. I, 5. 14. II, 17. III, 5. 13. 18. IV, 1; swasw jah, even as, as also; II. Cor. I, 14; swasw qian ist, as (= according to that which) is said; Lu. II, 24; (b) correlativ: swasw..jah, as ... (so) also; II. Cor. I, 7. (2) conj. (218), so that, insomuch that, (a) w. prt. ind.; Mk. I, 45. II, 2. 12. III, 10. 20. IV, 32. 37; (b) w. prt. opt.; II. Cor. I, 8; (c) w. acc. and inf.; Mk. IV, 1.

sw, (1) adv., (a) in comparison, as, just as, like; Mt. VI, 29. Mk. I, 2. 10. 22. IV, 27. 31. II. Cor. II, 17. III, 1. V, 20. Skeir. VII, b;—analeik sw, in like manner; Skeir. VII, a; sw..jah; Mt. VI, 10; (b) before numerals, about; Mk. V, 13. (2) conj. (218; temporal), as, when; Mk. IV, 36.

swgnjan, wv. (188), to rejoice, triumf. [< a lost adj. or sb. *swgna- < sweg- (Cf.[** should be l.c. c?] OE. swgan, to sound, rustl; swg, m., sound) + suff. -na-.]

sweiban (56, n. 1), stv. (172, n. 1), to cease. [Cf. OHG. (gi)-swiftn, to bi[** typo be?] stil, be quiet; MHG. swiften (= OHG. *swiftjan), to silence, {207}appease, stil; NHG. be-schwichtigen (prop. Low G., w. ch for f), to silence, appease, stil.]

swein, n. (94), swine, pig; Mk. V, 11-14. 16. [Orig. adj., < *s (= OE. s, f., ME. sowe, NE. sow) + suff. -na-. OE. swn, n., hog, (wild) boar, (pl. swine), ME. swin, NE. swine.]

swrs (78, n. 2), adj. (124), hevy, weighty; hense, grave, honord. [OE. sŵr, adj., hevy, difficult, OHG. swri, MHG. sŵre, adj., hevy, grave, noble, NHG. schwer, adj., hevy, difficult, grievous.]

sws, adj. (124, n. 1), one's own; II. Cor. V, 10 (See[** should be l.c. s?] note). [< sw- (allied to sei-na) + suff. -sa-. OE. sŵs, adj., one's own, domestic, intimate.]

sw-uh, adv. and conj. (218), yet, indeed, however; jabai sw. jah (s. jabai); II. Cor. V, 3; unt sw., for indeed, II. Cor. V, 19.

-swikunjan, wv. (188), in ga-sw. [< swikuns.]

swikuns, adj. (124), evident, manifest, open; II. Cor. V, 11; sw. waran[** wairan?], to becum or be made manifest, appear; Mk. IV, 22. II. Cor. IV, 11. [< the pref. swi- (allied to sws) + kuns.]

swiltan, stv. (174, n. 1), to die.—Cpd. ga-sw. [OE. sweltan, to die, ME. swelte, to faint, die, > the freq. sweltere, to faint away, NE. swelter, to be overcum with heat.]

swinnan, wv. (194), to grow strong; Lu. II, 40. [< swins.]

swins, adj. (124), strong; Mk. III, 27. hole, helthy; Mk. II, 17.—Compar. swinza, mightier; Mk. I, 7. [OE. sw (< *swin), ME. swi, strong, OHG. *swind (in pr. ns.), MHG. swint (d-), strong, quick, NHG. schwind (obs., but dial.), ge-schwind, quick.]

swistar, f. (114), sister; Mk. III, 32. 35. [OE. sweostor, swustor, ME. suster and sister (by influence of ON. systir), NE. sister.]

swgatjan, wv. (188), to sigh, groan; II. Cor. V, 2. 4. [Intensiv v. < swg- in (OE. swgan, ME. swowe > swoȝne, swoune, NE. swoon) -swgjan, to sigh; -atjan = OE. -ettan, NHG. -ezzen.]

swumfsl (80), n. (94), swimming-bath, pool. [For swumsl (so in MS., an amended form of swumslf. But the f is merely eufonic[** you know you're a Goth when you find swumfsl more euphonic than swumsl]) < swimman (+ suff. -sla) = OE. swimman, ME. swimme, NE. swim.]

Symain[** typo Syman?] (39), pr. n., Simeon; Lu. II, 25. 34. [< Συμεών.]

synagga-fas, gen. -fadis, m. (101), ruler of a synagog; Mk. V, 22. 35. 36. 38. [< synagg + -fas (only in cpds.), chief, master; s. br-fas.]

synagg (39), f., synagog; (gen. -ais)[** should be -ais;) vel. sim.?] dat. (-ai; or) -ein; Mk. I, 29 (-n for -ein; 17, n. 1); or - (Gr. infl.); Mk. I, 23; acc. (-ein; or) -n (Gr. infl.); Mk. I, 21. III, 1; dat. pl. -im; Mk. I, 39. [< συναγωγή, congregation.]

Syria, pr. n., Syria; gen. -ais; Lu. II, 2. [< Συρία.]

Tagl, n. (94), a singl hair, hair; Mt. V, 36. Mk. I, 6. [OE. tᵹ(e)l, m., ME. tayl, NE. tail.]

tagr, n. (94), tear; II. Cor. II, 4. [OE. tar, teagor (< *taur, for *tahur), m., drop, tear, ME. tere, tr, NE. tear.]

tahjan, wv. (188), to tear, rend, w. acc.; Mk. I, 26.

tahswa, f. (prop. str. adj.; Mk. XVI, 5. Col. III, 1), the right hand. [< tahsws.]

tahsws, adj. (124; uzually weak; 132; so also without the art.; cp. prec. word), right (not left); Mt. V, 29. 30. 39.—[** < ->?]tahsw (sc. {208}handus), the right hand; Mt. VI, 3. [OHG. zeso (infl. zesw-), MHG. zese (infl. zesw-, zesew-), adj., right.]

tahun, card. num. (141), ten. [OE. tn (< *teen for *tehen), to (North.), ME. ten, NE. ten (-teen; s. fimf).]

tahunda, ord. num. (146), the tenth. [< tahun + suff. -da. [OE. toa (for *tona), ME. tene (by influence of ten), NE. tenth.]

tahun-thund and -tahund, card. num. (143; cp. 148), a hundred.

taiknjan, wv. (188), to betoken, point, show.—Cpd. us-t. [< taikns. OE. tcnian, ME. tokne, to show, betoken, signify, NE. token (Shak.), to foretel, betoken, to make known.]

taikns, f. (103), token; sign, wonder, miracl; Lu. II, 12. 34. [< taik- (= OE. tc- in *tcian, to show, = t̂can, ME. teche, teache, NE. teach) + suff. -ni-. OE. tcen (w. suff. -no-), n., token, mark, wonder, ME. tokne, NE. token.]

tainj, f. (112), a basket of twigs, basket; Skeir. VII, c. d. [< tains + suff. -jn-. OHG. zein(n), f., MHG. zeine, f. m., a basket of twigs.]

tains, m. (91), twig, branch. [OE. tn, m., twig, rod, staf, ON. teinn > ME. tein[** ,] staff[** .]]

taran, stv. (175, n. 1), only in dis-, ga-t. [OE. teran, ME. tere, NE. tear.]

tatk[**P2 taitk? F1: no, fool!], prt. of tkan.

taleia, f. (97), damsel; Mk. V, 41. [< ταλιθά < the Chaldean.]

talzjan, wv. (188), to teach, instruct.—[** < ->?]talzjands, m. (prop. prsp.; 115), teacher. [< -tals (in un-tals, indocil, disobedient) < √ tal seen in OE. talu, number, narrativ, speech, ME. tale, NE. tale.]

-tamjan (33), wv. (187), to tame, in ga-t. [< an adj. = OE. tam, ME. tame, NE. tame; < √ of -timan. OE. tamian, temian, ME. tame, teme, NE. tame.]

taui (gen. tjis; 26), n. (95), deed, work. [< taujan.]

taujan (26), wv. (187), (1) w. acc. (sumtimes understood), to do, make; Mt. V, 19. 46. 47. VI, 3. Mk. II, 24. III, 8. V, 32; armain t., to do alms; Mt. VI, 1. 2. 3. (2) w. dubl acc., to make; II. Cor. IV, 2. (3) wala t., to do wel, do good; Mt. V, 44. (4) w. bi w. acc., to do, make; Lu. II, 27. (5) w. acc. and inf., to make, cause; Mt. V, 32. (6) iu t., to do good; Mk. III, 4; uniu t., to do evil; Mk. III, 4; galiug t., to falsify, handl deceitfully; II. Cor. IV, 2.—Cpd. ga-t. [< √ of OE. tl (w. instr. l-suff[** Uncertain.].), n., ME. tl, NE. tool. Cf. OE. tawian, to prepare, dress, get redy, ME. tawe, to work, act upon, NE. taw, to prepare skins, curry, toil.]

-tarnan, wv. (194), to rend (intr.), in ga-t. [< pp. stem of taran.]

tawiddeina, prt. of taujan.

-teihan, stv. (172, n. 1), to show, in ga-t. [OE. ton (for ton, for *thǫn), OHG. zhan, MHG. zhen, NHG. zeihen, to accuse of, charge with.]

Teimaaus, pr. n., Timotheus; II. Cor. I, 1; acc. -u; II. Cor. I, 19. [< Τιμόθεος.]

Teitus, pr. n., Titus; acc. (-u or) -an (Gr. infl.); II. Cor. II, 13. [< Τίτος.]

tkan (ei for ; 7, n. 2), rv. (181), to tuch, w. two dativs; Mk. V, 30.—Cpd. at-t. [ON. tka (prt. tk) > ME. take, NE. take.]

Theodemr, Theodomirus (6, n. 2; 70, n. 1), pr. n.

Theodoricus (18, n. 1; 70, n. 1), pr. n.

Theudes (18, n. 1), pr. n.

Theudicodo (18, n. 1), pr. n.


*tigus, m. (142), a decad, in num. cpds. [OE. -tig, ME. -tiȝ, -ti, NE. -ty.]

-tiln, wv. (189), to aim, fit, in and-t. [< -tils (in ga-tils, adj., convenient; < √ ti + suff. -la-. Cp. til, n., aim, fit time, opportunity, = OE. til, n. fitness; and ON. til, prep., to, > ME. NE. til) = OE. til, adj., fit, suitabl. OE. tilian, to aim, strive for, labor, ME. tile, NE. til, to cultivate.]

-timan, stv. (175, n. 1), to be fit, in ga-t. [OHG. (ga)-zeman, MHG. (ge)zemen, stv., NHG. (ge)ziemen, wv., to be fit, behoov. Cp. -tamjan.]

timrja, m. (108), builder, carpenter. [< *timr (= OE. timber (the b being eufonic), n., material to build with, building, ME. NE. timber) + suff. -jan-.]

tiuhan, stv. (173), to pul.—Cpds. at-, inn-at-, us-t. [OE. ton (< *tohan), ME. te, to pul, draw, OHG. ziohan, MHG. ziehen, NHG. ziehen, to pul, draw, bring up.]

-tjis (26, a), adj. (126), doing, only in cpds. [< √ of taujan.]

trauains, f. (97), trust, confidence; II. Cor. I, 15. III, 4. [< trauan + suff. -ai-ni-.]

trauan (26), wv. (179, n. 2; 193), to trust; w. du (in) w. dat.; II. Cor. I, 9.—Cpd. ga-tr. [OE. trwian (26, b), orig. *trwan, (the w being eufonic, as in) OHG. trwn, beside trn, MHG. trwen, NHG. trauen, to trust, believ. OE. trowian, to trust, believ, < trowe = Goth. triggws.]

Trauas (26, n. 1), pr. n., Troas; dat. Trauadai; II. Cor. II, 12. [< Τρῳάς, gen. Τρῳάδος.]

trausti, n. (95, n. 1), cuvenant. [Extended < stem *trausta- (in OHG. MHG. NHG. trst, m., consolation), < √ traus- (by-form of trau-; cp. trauan) + suff. -ta-[** should be bold].]

triggwa, f. (97, n. 1), cuvenant; II. Cor. III, 6. 14. [OE. trow, f., ME. trewe, OHG. triuwa, MHG. triuwe, NHG. treue, f., faithfulness.]

triggws (68), adj. (124), tru, faithful, reliabl; II. Cor. I, 18. [OE. trowe, ME. trewe, NE. tru. Cp. trauan.]

-trimpan, stv. (174, n. 1), to tramp, tred, in ana-tr. [Its corresponding prt. stem occurs in ME. trampe, NE. tramp.]

triu, n. (94, n. 1), tree. [OE. tro(w), ME. tre, NE. tree.]

trudan, stv. (175, n. 2), to tred. [Cf. OE. tredan (Fifth Ablaut Class), ME. trede (pp. also troden, as if belonging to the Fourth Ablaut Class), NE. tred.]

tuggl, n. (94), constellation, star. [OE. tungol, n. m., constellation, star.]

tugg, f. (111), tung. [OE. tunge, f., ME. tunge, NE. tung.]

tulgjan, wv. (188), to confirm, establish, w. acc.; II. Cor. II, 8.—Cpd. ga-t. [< tulgus.]

tulgus, adj. (131), stedfast, firm, strong. [Cf. O. S.[** usually OS.] tulgo, adv., very.]

tunus, m. (105), tooth; Mt. V, 38. [< √ of itan (cp. Brgm., II, 126). OE. t ( < ǫn < an; pl. t), m., ME. to (pl. te), NE. tooth [**P2 (]pl. teeth).]

twai, card. num. (140), f. tws, n. twa, two; Mt. V, 41. VI, 24. Mk. V, 13. Lu. II, 24. Skeir. VII, a. b. d (= .b.[** b in the text]). [Cf. OE. twegen, m., tw, f., t, tw, n., ME. tweien, two, twa, for all genders, NE. twain, two. Cp. Brgm., I, 142; III, 166.]

twalib-wintrus (88a, n. 1), adj. (131), twelv years (lit. 'winters') old; Lu. II, 42. [-wintrus < wintrus, m. (= OE. winter, m. n., ME. NE. winter). OE. twelfwintre, twelv years old.]


twalif (56, n. 1), card. num. (141), twelv; Mk. III, 14. IV, 10. V, 25. 42. Skeir. VII, c (= .ib.[** elsewhere printed as ib]; so in) d. [OE. ME. twelf, NE. twelv.]

tweifls, m. (91, n. 2), dout. [OHG. zwfal, MHG. zwvel, m., uncertainty, distrust, despair, NHG. zweifel, m., dout.]

tweihnai, distrib. num. (147), two apiece. [< tweih- (= OE. twh, uzually betwh, between) + suff. -na-. Cf. OE. twone, dubl, two, > twonum (prop. dat. pl.), uzually betwonum, -an, ME. betwenen, NE. between.]

twis-standan (twistandan; cp. 78, n. 5), stv. (177, n. 3), w. dat., to depart from one, bid farewel to; II. Cor. II, 13.

Tykekus[** typo Tykkus] (6, n. 1), Tychicus. [< Τυχικός.]

Tyra, pr. n., Tyre; acc. -a; Mk. III, 8. [< Τύρος.]

addaius, pr. n., Thaddeus; acc. -u; Mk. III, 18. [< Θαδδαῖος.]

adei, adv. (213, n. 1), where, wheresoever, whither. [< *a (-d-; < stem of ata + -; cp. ƕa) + -ei.]

agkjan (gg; 67 and n. 1), anv. (209; prt. hta; 5, b), to think, consider, ponder, reason; w. acc. and af sis silbin; II. Cor. III, 5; w. a dir. question (so w. sis); Mk. II, 6; w. acc. (understood) and in hartin seinamma; Lu. II, 19; w. a dependent clause introduced by atei, and bi w. dat., to purpose; II. Cor. I, 17.—Cpd. and-. [OE. encan, (prt. ǫ̂hte; ǫ̂ < ǫn < an), ME. enche, enke (prt. ohte), NE. think (by influence of ME. inke, NE. methinks; s. ugkjan).]

ahan, wv. (193), to be silent, be stil, hold one's peace; Mk. I, 25. III, 4. [OHG. dagn, MHG. dagen, to be silent, be stil.]

h (5, b), f. (112), clay, πηλος. [OE. ǫ̂ (< *ǫ̂-e < ǫ̂he < *anhe), f., OHG. dha, MHG. dhe, the, (weak) f., NHG. (than, tahen, then < the oblique cases; later) thon (str.), m., clay.]

ai, aiei, aih, nom. pl. of sa, saei, sah.

aim, aim-ei, dat. pl. of sa, saei.

arh, prep. w. acc. (217), (1) of space: thru, thru the midst of; Mk. II, 23. II. Cor. I, 16. IV, 15. (2) indicating the 'instrument' or 'means', 'author' or 'agent': thru, by, by means of, (a) w. names of persons; Mk. superscr. II. Cor. I, 5. 11. 19. 20. II, 14. III, 4. IV, 14. V, 18. 20; (b) w. names of things; II. Cor. I, 1. 4;—. ei, because of; Skeir. VII, a; (c) denoting a state or condition: with, by; II. Cor. II, 4. III, 11. V, 7.—Occurs also in eight compound vs. [Cf. OE. urh, ME. urgh[** should be urȝ??], uruh, NE. thru, thuro.]

arh-gaggan, anv. (173, n. 3; 207), to go thru, to pierce thru; Lu. II, 35; w. arh w. acc., to go thru; Mk. II, 23; w. und w. acc., to go on, proceed to; Lu. II, 15.

arh-saiƕan (34, n. 1), stv. (176, n. 1), to see thru, behold as in a glass, w. acc.; II. Cor. III, 18.

arh-wakan (63, n. 1), stv. (177, n. 1), to keep wach (thruout); Lu. II, 8.

ark, n. (110), a hole thru (anything), the ey of a needl. [Allied to arh.]

-arsan, stv. (174, n. 1), to wither, in ga-. [The corresponding √-form (ars) of the pret. occurs in OHG. darra (rr < rz: rs), MHG. NHG. darre, f., a kiln for drying grain, meal, etc. Cp. -arsnan.]

amma, amm-uh, dat. sg. m. and n. of sa, sah.

amm-ei, dat. s. m. and n. of saei. {211}Sumtimes uzed as conj.; so w. in, because; II. Cor. II, 13.

an, adv. and conj. It is often preceded by the enclitic -uh (s. especially under (II), below). There is no distinction in sense between an and -uh an; the latter, like an (which occurs oftener), stands after verbal forms of any kind; -uh an, never an, is inserted between a sb. and its prep., also between a prep. and a v., and is frequently found after sums, anar, ni, rarely after sbs. or adjs. (I) adv., (1) dem., then, thereupon; Lu. II, 42; jah an, and then; Mk. II, 20; (2) rel., when, whenever, as long as, (a) w. prs. ind.; Mk. II, 20. IV, 16. 31. 32. (Cp. Lu. II, 42);—jah an, and when, but when; Mk. IV, 15; (b) w. prt. ind.; Mk. I, 32. II, 25. III, 11; (c) w. prs. opt.; Mt. VI, 2. 5. 6. (II) conj. (continuativ), therefore, then; but, farther, also; Mt. V, 31. 37. VI, 7. 29. Mk. I, 6. 28. 32. II, 5. 6. III, 32. IV, 5. 6. 35. V, 6. 11. 13. Lu. II, 1. 4. 6. 17. 47;—jah an, and then; Mk. III, 6. 31; and also; Lu. II, 35; for; II. Cor. II, 10; and; Mk. IV, 36;—[** dash followed by hyphen]-uh an, for; Mt. VI, 32; but, and, now; Mt. V, 31. 37. VI, 7. 29. Mk. I, 6. II, 6. IV, 5. V, 11. 13. II. Cor. II, 16. Skeir. VII, c;—sah an, and this, and he, etc.; Lu. II, 2. 37. II. Cor. I, 17; for this; II. Cor. IV, 15. [< stem of ata. Cf. OE. ǫnne (for anne), ǫn (for an), ME. anne, an, NE. than, then.]

ana, anei, acc. s. m. of sa, saei.

ana-mais, adv. (153, n. 2), further, henseforth, yet, stil; Mk. V, 35. [ana- < stem of ata.]

ana-seis, adv. (212, n. 1), longer, stil; ni ., no more, no longer; ni (= nih-h) an ., no more, no longer; II. Cor. V, 15; ni . ni, no more, no longer; II. Cor. V, 16. [ana < stem of ata; -seis (for *seiis, compar. adv. to seius) = OE. s (< *siz), compar. adv., later, late; also prep., sinse, ME. si, NE. sith (Shak.), OHG. sd, adv., later, MHG. st, prep., adv., conj., NHG. seit, prep. and conj., sinse.]

and (andei), conj. (218), (1) if (prop. causal: sinse); Mt. VI, 30. (2) because, sinse, for; Lu. II, 30. ((3) while, until). [OHG. dant, therefore, because. Cf. OE. enden, endǫn, while, until, meanwhile.]

-anjan, wv. (187), to strech, in uf-. [OE. ennan, ME. enne, OHG. MHG. den(n)en, NHG. dehnen, to strech.]

an-nu, conj. (218), then, so then, therefore, so that, for; Mk. IV, 41. II. Cor. V, 15.

an-uh, adv. and conj. (218), (1) adv., then. (2) conj., but; Mk. IV, 29. Skeir. VII, d; therefore, then; Skeir. VII, d.

ans, acc. pl. m. of sa.

anz-ei, acc. pl. m. of saei.

ar, adv. (213, n. 1), there. [< stem of ata + loc. suff. -r. Cf. OE. ̂r (= Goth. *r), ME. ere, NE. there.]

ar-ei, adv., where; Mt. VI, 19. 20. 21. Mk. II, 4. IV, 5. 15. V, 40. II. Cor. III, 17.

arihs (20, n. 1), adj. (124), not yet fuld, new.

ar-uh, adv. and conj. (218), (1) adv. there; Mt. VI, 21. II. Cor. III, 17. (2) conj. (continuativ, for καί, οὖν, δέ), and, then, so, therefore, but; Lu. II, 25.

ata, dem. prn. n.; s. sa [< stem a-t- + -a (as in an-a, in-a, ƕan-a), which caused the retention of the originally final t (See[** should be l.c. s?] sa; cp. also ar). OE. t, ME. at, NE. that.]


at-ain-ei, adv., only; Mt. V, 47. Mk. V, 36. Skeir. VII, b. [< atain (< at-a + the n. sg. of ains), that one, that only, + -ei.]

ata-ƕa-h, nom. sg. n. of saƕazuh.

at-ei, n. sg. of saei, uzed as conj. (218), (1) that; so after vs. of 'saying, thinking, knowing, perceiving (seeing, hearing, etc.)', and the like, chiefly w. ind. Like ὅτι, it often introduces a dir. discourse; Mt. V, 20-23. 27. 28. 31. 32. 33. 38. 43. VI, 5. 16. 29. 32. Mk. I, 15. 37. 40. II, 1. 8. 10. 12. III, 11. 21. 22. 28. V, 23. 28. 29. 35. Lu. II, 11. 23. 49. II. Cor. I, 7. 12. II, 3. III, 3. IV, 14. V, 1. 6. 15. Skeir. VII, d. (2) causal, because, for, that; Mk. II, 16. Lu. II, 49;—ni atei w. opt., not that, not because, not as; II. Cor. I, 24. III, 5. (3) afar atei w. a finite v., after; Mk. I, 14. Skeir. VII, c.

ar, adv. (213, n. 1), (1) local, thense. (2) temporal, afterwards, then. [< stem of ata + suff. -r.]

ar-h, adv. (213, n. 1), (1) local, thense. (2) temporal, sinse that time, afterwards, then; Mk. IV, 17. 28. [< ar + -h = -uh. (Cp. also 62, n. 3).]

au, uh (i. e. au + -uh), (1) conj. (218), (a) after a compar., than; Mt. V, 20; (b) introducing the second part of a disjunctiv question, or; Mk. II, 9. (2) adv. (216), perhaps, stil; or untranslatabl; in the apodosis of a conditional sentence (in most cases for ἄν): ni au w. prs. ind.; Mt. V, 20. VI, 15. [OE. ah, ME. eh, eh, oh (by influence of ON. , contracted < uh), NE. tho.]

uh-jabai, conj. (218), even if, tho; II. Cor. IV, 16.

arban, prt.-prs. (199), to hav need, to need, want, lack, (1) abs.; Mk. II, 25. (2) w. gen.; Mt. VI, 8. 32. Mk. II, 17. II. Cor. III, 1. [OE. (be)urfan (cp. 56, n. 3), ME. (be)urfe, to hav need, to need, want, OHG. (bi)durfan, to hav need, to want, lack, MHG. drfen, durfen, to hav reason or cause, to need, want, dare, be permitted, be-d., to need, want, NHG. drfen, to dare, be permitted, be-d., to want, need.]

arfts (56, n. 4), f. (103), need, necessity. [< arban + suff. -ti-. OHG. MHG. durft, f., NHG. -durft (in composition), f., need, want.]

arnus, m. (105), thorn; Mk. IV, 7. 18. [OE. orn, m., ME. orn, NE. thorn.]

arp, n. (94, n. 2), field. [OE. orp, n., village, ME. orp, NE. thorp, a small village, now chiefly uzed in names of places (-thorp, also -throp).]

-arsnan (32), wv. (194), to dry, wither, in ga-. [< arsus. ON. orna, to wither.]

arstei (32), f. (113), thirst. [< *arst, adj., thirsty, + suff. -ein-, < √ of -arsan, arsus, -arsnan, + suff. -ta-. Cf. OE. urst (w. orig. tu-suff.), yrst (w. suff. -ti-), m., ME. urst, NE. thirst.]

arsus (32), adj. (131), dry, witherd. [< √ of -arsan (pp. -arsans). OE. yr, OHG. durri (ja-stem), MHG. durre, NHG. drr, adj., dry, witherd.]

, instr. of ata. [Cf. the OE. instr. ŷ, North. y, , ME. i, , NE. the in 'the more'.]

-ei, conj. (157, n. 1; 218), that, for the reason that, always w. ni, not that; II. Cor. II, 4.

ei, (1) rel. prn. (= atei; 157, n. 2); so after ataƕah, isƕaduh, isƕah, isƕaruh, isƕazuh (164, n. 1). (2) conj., that; in order that; Mt. VI, 26. [< *a (a by-form of ata) + -ei.]


eihan, stv. (172, n. 1), to thrive, profit, increase, advance, w. (loc.) dat.; Lu. II, 52. [OE. (ge)on (for *on, contr. < *hǫn), ME. ee, NE. thee (Spenser), to thrive, prosper.]

eiƕ, f. (112), thunder; Mk. III, 17.

eina, gen. sg. of u.

eins, poss. prn. (151); f. eina; n. ein, einata, thy, thine, (1) alone (predicativ); Mt. VI, 13. Mk. V, 19. (2) w. a prec. sb., (a) without the art.; Mt. V, 23. 29. 30. 33. 36. 40. 43. VI, 3. 4. 6. 10. 17. 18. 22. 23. Mk. I, 44. II, 5. 9. 11. 24. III, 32. V, 19. 34. 35. Lu. II, 29. 30. 32; ƕa nam ein, what (is) thy name?; Mk. V, 9; (b) w. art.:[** sic, semicolons elsewhere in this entry] sa ... eins; Mt. V, 24. VI, 4. Mk. II, 9. 11. III, 5. V, 34. Lu. II, 48. (3) w. a follg. sb., (a) without art.; Lu. II, 35; (b) w. art.; Mk. II, 18; (c) between adj. and sb.; Mt, V, 30. 39. [< eina. OE. n, ME. in, i, NE. thine, thy.]

-insan, stv. (174, n. 1), to draw, in at-. [OHG. dinsan, MHG. dinsen, to draw, pul, expand, NHG. *dinsen, pp. gedunsen (uzed as adj.), bloated, puft up.]

is, gen. sg. m. n. of sa, ata.

is-ƕaduh, adv. (164, n. 2); w. adei or ei, withersoever[** elsewhere mostly whither-], wheresoever. [< is (here adv.), < stem of ata, + ƕaduh < ƕa (-d-) + -uh.]

is-ƕammh, dat. s. m. n. of is-wazuh[** typo is-ƕazuh].

is-ƕaruh, adv. (164, n. 2); w. ei, wheresoever. [< is (s. isƕaduh) + ƕaruh < ƕar + uh.]

is-ƕazuh, prn. (164, n. 1) m.; is-ƕah, n. (164, n. 1); folld. by the rel. ei, ei, or saei; uzually w. opt.: . ei, whoever; . ei, whosoever, n. whatsoever; . saei, whosoever, whatsoever; Mk. IV, 25. [< is (s. isƕaduh) + ƕazuh.]

iubj, adv. (211), secretly, in secret. [< stem iubja-, secret; cp. iufs.]

iubs, s. iufs.

iuda, f. (97), peple, nation; in pl. (uzually) 'the Gentiles';[** comma + flyspeck? but cf. 225.png] Mt. VI, 32. Lu. II, 32; ai iud, those of the heathen; Mt. V, 46. VI, 7. [OE. od, iod, f., ME. ede, peple, population, OHG. diot(a), MHG. diet, peple, NHG. *diet; cp. Diedrich, pr. n.]

iudan-gardi (88a, n. 1), f. (98), kingdom; Mt. V, 19. 20. VI, 13. Mk. I, 14. 15. III, 24. IV, 11. 26. 30. [-gardi < gards.]

iudann, wv. (190), to be king, to rule, reign. [< iudans.]

iudans, m. (91), king; Mt. V, 35. [< iuda + suff. -ana-, OE. oden, m., king.]

iudinassus, m. (105), kingdom; Mt. VI, 10. [< iudann (-in- for -an- by influence of the sbs. in -in-assus w. regular -in-, formd < vs. in -in-n the -in- of which refers to the weakend suff. of stems in -an (cp. fraujinassus < fraujinn < frauj-in-, weakend stem of frauja.]

iufs, iubs (56, n. 1), m. (91), thief; Mt. VI, 19. 20. [OE. of, m., ME. f, NE. thief.]

iu-magus (88a, n. 1), servant.

*ius, m. (91, n. 3), servant. [OE. o (contr. < *e-u, for *ew < ewo-, gen. eowes, contr. < e-uwes, the u having developt itself before the w; hense also nom.) ow, m., ME. eow, servant, OHG. deo, m., servant, cpd. deo-muoti, MHG. demuot, NHG. demut, f., humility, humblness.]

iu, n. (94), good, in pl. good things; II. Cor. V, 10; . taujan, to do good; Mk. III, 4.

iui-qiss (88a, n. 2), f., blessing.

iujan, wv. (187), to bless, (1) w. acc.; Mt. V, 44. Lu. II, 34. (2) w. dat.; Lu. II, 28;—pp. iuis, {214}blest; II. Cor. I, 3.—Cpd. ga-. [< iu.]

iwi, f. (98, n. 1), maid-servant, hand-maid. [< stem of ius + suff. -j-. [OE. ME. owe, f., female servant, maid.]

izai, izai-ei, dat. sg. f. of sa, saei.

iz, iz-ei, gen. pl. m. n. of sa, sa-ei.

iz-ei, gen. sg. m. n. of sa-ei; s. also in (1).

iz, izs, gen. pl. and sg. f. of sa.

iz-uh, gen. sg. m. n. of sa-h.

-lihan, rv. (179, n. 1), to cherish, fondl, in ga-l. [Cf. OHG. flhan, flhn (fl < l), to caress, flatter, entreat, MHG. vlhen, to entreat, NHG. flehen, to beseech, entreat. Root flaih is also seen in OE. flh, adj., deceitful, crafty.]

laqus, adj. (131), soft, tender.

liuhan, stv. (173, n. 1), to flee.—Cpd. ga-l. [OE. flon (contr. < *flohan; fl < l; cp. lihan), ME. flee, NE. flee.]

, -ei, acc. s. f. and nom. acc. pl. n. of sa, sa-ei.

s, z-ei, nom. acc. pl. f. of sa, sa-ei.

mas, pr. n., Thomas; acc. -an; Mk. III, 18. [< Θωμᾶς.]

rafstjan, wv. (188), to console, cumfort.—Cpd. ga-r.

ragjan, wv. (188), to run. [OE. rgan, to run, race.]

raheina, prt. of reihan.

ramstei, f. (113), locust; Mk. I, 6.

reihan, stv. (172, n. 1), to throng, crowd round, press upon, afflict; Mk. III, 9. V, 24. 31. II. Cor. I, 6; pp. rahans, trubld; II. Cor. IV, 8. [< *rinhan. OE. ringan, ME. ringe, OHG. dringan, MHG. NHG. dringen, to urge, press.]

reis, card. num. (140), three; Lu. II, 46. [OE. r, m., ro, f. n., ME. r, NE. three.]

ridja, ord. num. (146; 149, n. 1), third. [< ri-, the short form of the stem of reis) + -dja. OE. ridda, North. irda, ME. ridde, thyrde, NE. third.]

riskan, stv. (174, n. 1), to thresh. [OE. erscan (for *rescan), ME. reshe, NE. thresh.]

-riutan, stv. (173, n. 1), to urge, trubl, in us-r. [OE. -rotan ( = us), to be weary, OHG. bi-, ir-drioʒan, MHG. be-, er-, beside ver- (= Goth. far-), drieʒen, to excite disgust or weariness, NHG. ver-driessen, to griev, vex. The √ of OE. rat (prt., = Goth. *raut) occurs also in OE. rat, m., ME. rete, NE. thret.]

ruts-fill (15, n. 1; 88a, n. 3), n. (94), leprosy; Mk. I, 42; r. habands (for λεπρός), leper, lit. (one) having leprosy; Mk. I, 40. [< ruts, prob. < √ of -riutan. Cf. OE. rstfell; also ON. rtinn, swoln.]

u, pers. prn. 2nd pers. (150), thou, uzed alone or w. vs., for emfasis, (1) sg., (a) nom. u; Mt. VI, 6. 17. Mk. I, 11. 24. III, 11; w. a prec. voc.; Mt. VI, 9; (b) gen. eina (or, tho for σοῦ, poss. prn.; s. note); Mt. VI, 13; (c) dat. us; Mt. V, 26. 29. 30. 40. 42. VI, 2. 4. 6. 18. 23. Mk. I, 2. 24. II, 5. 9. 11. V, 7. 19. 41; (d) acc. uk; Mt. V, 23. 25. 29. 30. 39. 41. 42. VI, 3. Mk. I, 24. 37. 44. III, 32. IV, 38. V, 7. 19. 31. 34. Lu. II, 48. (2) dual.[** . redundant], (a) nom. (wanting); (b) gen. iggkara (wanting in our 'Selections'[** )?]; (c) dat. igqis, iggkis (wanting in our 'Selections'[** )?]; (d) acc. igqis; Mk. I, 17. (3) pl., (a) nom. jus, ye, you; Mt. V, 48. VI, 8. 9. 26. II. Cor. I, 14. III, 2; (b) gen. izwara; Mt. VI, 27. II. Cor. I, 23. II, 3. 10. IV, 15; (c) dat. izwis; Mt. V, 18. 20. 22. 28. 32. 34. 39. 44. VI, 2. 5. 14. 16. 19. 20. 25. 29. Mk. III, 28. IV, 11. 24. Lu. II, 10. 11. 12. {215}II. Cor. I, 2. 11. 12. 13. 15. 16. 18. 19. 21. II, 1. 3. 4. III, 1. IV, 12. 14. V, 12. 13; (d) acc. izwis; Mt. V, 44. 46. VI, 30. Mk. I, 8. II. Cor. I, 6. 8. 16. II, 2. 5. 7. 8. [OE. , gen. n, dat. , acc. ec, (prop. dat.); ME. ou, u, gen. in, dat. acc. e[** , missing? but the "the" seems redundant] the; NE. thou, dat. acc. thee.—For du. and pl., s. igqara and jus.]

ugkjan, anv. (209), (1) impers.: ugkei mis, 'methinks', I think; so w. ei, that; Mt. VI, 7. (2) pers. (not in our 'Selections'): to think, suppose, intend, seem. [OE. yncan (< *uncjan), prt. hte (< *unhte, pp. ht); m ynce, it seems to me, ME. unche, inche, inche; me inc, NE. methinks (cp. agkjan).]

-hts (15, b), adj., thinking; s. huh-, mikil-hts. [Prop. pp. of ugkjan.]

htus (15, b), m. (105), thought, wisdom. [< *unhtus < √ of ugkjan + suff. -tu-.]

uk; s. u.

ulains, f. (103, n. 1), sufferance, patience, suffering; II. Cor. I, 5. 6. 7. [< ulan + suff. -ai-ni-.]

ulan, wv. (193), to tolerate, suffer, bear.—Cpd. ga-. [OE. (ge)olian (transferd to the Second Weak Conjug.), ME. (i)ole, to suffer, endure. Cp. the verbal abstr.: OHG. gedult (w. t-suff.), MHG. (ge)dult (-d-), NHG. geduld, f., patience.]

us; s. u.

sundi (15), card. num. (145), a thousand, uzually f. sb. (98); Mk. V, 13. Skeir. VII, b. [OE. send, n., ME. usend, NE. thousand.]

sundi-fas (88a), m. (101), leader of a thousand, captain, high captain.

uz-ei, dat. of u-ei (158).

wahan, stv. (177, n. 1), to wash, w. acc.; Mt. VI, 17;[** comma + flyspeck? but cf. 223.png] to wash one's self. [OE. wan (contr. < *waǫn, for wahǫn), OHG. dwahan, MHG. twahen, zwahen, zwagen, NHG. (dial.) zwagen, to wash (cp. zwehle, w. l-suff., f., towel).]

-wastjan, wv. (188), to secure, in ga-w.

-u, an enclitic uzed in asking a question (216 and n. 1), (I) in simpl questions, (1) dir., (a) attacht to a v.: skuldu (ptc.) ist, is it lawful?; Mk. III, 4; (b) to a prn.; (c) to an adv. (2) indir., w. opt., affixt to a v.; II. Cor. II, 9. (II) in disjunctiv questions, both dir. and indir.;—abu (= af + u) us silbin u ata qiis, sayest thou this (thing) of thyself?; Jo. XVIII, 34.—After the pref. ga-: ga-u-laubjats, believ ye?; Mt. IX, 28; ga-u-ƕa-sƕi, if he saw aught; Mk. VIII, 23.—Cp. niu.

Ubadamirus (40, n. 1), pr. n.

Ubadila (40, n. 1), pr. n.

ubilaba, adv. (210), evilly, il; u. haban, to be il, be sick; Mk. II, 17. [< ubils + suff. -ba-.]

ubils, adj. (124; 138), evil, il, bad, useless; Mt. V, 45.—The n. ubil is often uzed as sb.; so also ata ubil, the evil, an evil thing; Mt. V, 37. VI, 13; ubil haban, to be il, be sick; Mk. I, 32. 34. [OE. yfel, ME. yfel, ivel, evel, NE. evil.]

ubil-tjis, adj. (126), evil-doing, mischievous.

ub-uh, i. e. uf-uh.

uf (56, n. 2), prep. (217), (1) w. dat., (a) local, under, beneath; Mk. IV, 32; (b) temporal, in the time of; Mk. II, 26. (2) w. acc., local, under; Mk. IV, 21.—Occurs also in numerous cpds. [Cf. OE. ufe- (in ufeweard, higher), OHG. oba, MHG. obe, ob, NHG. ob, prep. (rare), over, ob-, prefix in cpds., over.]


uf-aieis (56, n. 2), adj. (130, n. 2), under an oath.

ufar, prep. (217), (1) w. dat., local, over, abuv, beyond; u. himinam, 'over (the) hevens', hevenly; Mt. VI, 14. 26. 32. (2) w. acc., trop., abuv; II. Cor. I, 8. Skeir. VII, b; u. filu wisan, to be 'over much', to abound; II. Cor. I, 5.—Occurs also in numerous cpds. [< uf + compar. suff. -ar. OE. ofer, ME. ofer, over, NE. over.]

ufarassjan, wv. (188), to cause to abound, increase excessivly, w. acc.; II. Cor. IV, 15. [< ufarassus.]

ufarassus, m. (105), overflow, abundance, excellency; II. Cor. IV, 7. 17. u. wulaus, abundance of glory, glory that excels; II. Cor. III, 10.—The dat. ufarassau is uzed adverbially: abundantly; II. Cor. I, 8. 12. II, 4.—ufarassus wisan w. gen. and in w. dat., to abound in (the gen. becuming the subj. in E.); II. Cor. I, 5. [< ufar + suff. -assu-.]

ufar-hafnan (35), wv. (194), to exalt one's self.

ufar-hamn, wv. (190), to put on clothes over, be clothed upon, w. (instr.) dat.; II. Cor. V, 2.

ufar-ist, 3d pers. sg. prs. ind. of ufarwisan.

ufar, (1) adv. (211, n. 1), abuv, thereon. (2) uzed as prep. (217), (a) w. gen., upon, abuv; (b) w. dat., over, abuv; Lu. II, 8. [< uf + compar. suff. -ar + adv. suff. -. Cf. OHG. obaro, MHG. obere, NHG. ober(e), upper.]

ufar-skadwjan (14, n. 1), wv. (188), to overshadow.

ufar-steigan, stv. (172, n. 1), to mount over, grow higher, grow up; Mk. IV, 7.

ufar-swaran, stv. (177, n. 1), to overswear, forswear; Mt. V, 33.

ufar-wisan, stv. (176, n. 1), to be over, exceed, abound; II. Cor. III, 9.

uf-bauljan (24, n. 1), wv. (187), to pul up, blow up, be highminded.

uf-blsan, rv. (179, n. 1), to blow up, puf up.

uf-brinnan, stv. (174, n. 1), to burn up, scorch, (intr.); Mk. IV, 6.

uf-graban (56, n. 1), stv. (177, n. 1), to dig up, dig after, dig thru; Mt. VI, 19. 20.

uf-hausjan, wv. (187), to listen with submission, to obey, be subject to, w. dat.; Mt. VI, 24. Lu. II, 51;—uf-h. in allamma, to be obedient in all (things); II. Cor. II, 9.

uf-hrpjan, wv. (188), to cry out, cry; Mk. I, 23. w. (instr.) dat.; Mk. I, 26.

uf-kunnan, wv. (prt. ufkuna, onse ufkunnaida; 199 and n. 1), to recognize, acknowledge, know, (1) abs.; II. Cor. I, 13 (second). (2) w. acc. of th.; II. Cor. I, 13 (first); and an interr. sentence; II. Cor. II, 9; or in w. dat.; Mk. V, 30. (3) w. acc. of pers. and bi w. dat.; II. Cor. V, 16. (4) w. atei and ana w. dat.; Mk. V, 29; or (loc.) dat.; Mk. II, 8.

uf-rakjan, wv. (188), to strech out, strech forth, put forth, w. acc.; Mk. I, 41. III, 5.

ufta, adv. (214, n. 1), oft, often; Mk. V, 4. [Cf. OE. oft, ME. oft, extended ofte, often, NE. oft, often.]

uf-anjan, wv. (187), to strech.

uf-wpjan (63, n. 1), wv. (187), to cry out.

-uh, -h (the h being frequently assimilated to the initial consonant of a follg. word; 24, n. 2; 62, ns. 3 and 4), enclitic particl (218), but, and, now, therefore; Mk. II, 11. V, 41; inuh is, on this account; II. Cor. II, 8. IV, 16. V, 9.—With prns. and other particls it often ads intensity to the signification; s. andizuh, duh (s. du), (ƕanuh), nih, nuh, sah, sumzuh (= sums-uh), {217}(swah), ar-h, anuh, aruh, au-h.—Modifications by means of -uh (164 et seq.) ar seen in ƕarjizuh, ƕaaruh, ƕazuh, ƕh, izƕaduh[** typo isƕaduh], isƕaruh.—For uh an (or u an), s. an.

hteig (15, n. 3), adv. (211), in season, at a fit time. [< hteigs + -suff. -.]

hteigs, htiugs (15; 19), adj. (124), in season, at leisure for. [< ht- (s. htw) + suff. -eiga-, -iuga-.]

htw (15), f. (112), day-break, dawn; ir htwn, before day-break; Mk. I, 35. [< *unhtw-, -tw-n- being suff. (cp. Brgm. III, 61). OE. hte (ht-, in cpds.), n., ME. uhte, dawn.]

ulbandus, m. (? 105), camel; Mk. I, 6. [< Lt. elephantus < ἐλέφαντ-, stem of ἐλέφας, elefant, < Hebr. aleph, eleph, ox.]

un-, inseparabl particl, in meaning = our un-, in-, dis-, -less. [OE. ME. un-, NE. un-.]

un-agands (35), ptc. adj. (202, n. 2), not fearing, fearless. [-agands, inf. *agan, stv., prt. *g; s. gjan.]

un-and-hulis, ptc. adj. (134), not uncuverd; II. Cor. III, 14.

un-and-sks (35), adj. (130, n. 2), irrefutabl. [-sks < √ of sakan (prt. sk).]

und, prep. (217), (1) w. dat., in return for, for; Mt. V, 38. (2) w. acc., denoting 'direction toward', or 'the point' or 'goal at which anything, in its direction, arrives', unto, to, until, as far as, up to, down to, (a) of space; Lu. II, 15; (b) of time; II. Cor. I, 13. III, 14. 15;—und atei (218), til, until, as long as, while; Mt. V, 18. 25. Mk. II, 19; (c) of degree; und filu mais, so much the more, much more; II. Cor. III, 9. 11. [OE. un- (for *und; s. Sk., unto), ME. un-, NE. un- (as in unto, until).]

undar, prep. w. acc. (217), under; Mk. IV, 21. [< und + compar. suff. -ar. OE. ME. under, NE. under.]

undar, adv. (211, n. 1), below, beneath; uzed as prep. w. dat. (217), under. [< undar + adv. suff. -.]

und-greipan, stv. (172), to gripe, seiz, take, lay hold on, w. acc.; Mk. I, 31.

un-furs, adj. (130), not wel-behaved (for φλύαρος, tatler).

un-frs (35; 74, n. 4), adj. (124, n. 2), unwise, foolish.

un-ga-hbains (35), f. (103, n. 1), incontinency. [ga-hbains < gahaban (w. -abl) + suff. -ai-ni-.]

un-ga-laubjands, ptc. adj. (133), unbelieving; II. Cor. IV, 4.

un-ga-saƕans, ptc. adj. (134), not seen, invisibl; II. Cor. IV, 4. 18. [OHG. ungesehan, MHG. NHG. ungesehen, not seen.]

un-handu-warhts, ptc. adj. (124), not wrought by hand, not made with hands; II. Cor. V, 1. [-handu-warhts < stem of handus + pp. of warkjan.]

un-hrains, adj. (130), unclean; Mk. I, 23. 25. 26. 27. III, 11. 30. V, 2. 8. 13. [OHG. un-(h)reini, MHG. unreine, NHG. unrein, adj., unclean.]

un-hul, f. (112), evil spirit, unclean spirit, devil; Mk. I, 32. 34. 39. III, 15. 22. V, 12. [Prop. weak form of the adj. *unhuls (< un- + huls, gracious, = OE. ME. hold, OHG. hold, MHG. holt (-d-), NHG. hold, adj., gracious, affectionate) = OE. ME. OHG. unhold, MHG. unholt (-d-), adj., ungracious, hostil, NHG. unhold, adj., disaffectionate, ungracious. OHG. unhold, MHG. unholde, f., fiend, sorceress, wich.]

un-karja, weak adj. (132, n. 3), careless, neglectful; Mk. IV, 15. [karja < kara + suff. -ja-n.]

un-kareins, f. (103, n. 1), a refraining from being a burden, a thing {218}without charge. [-kareins < karjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

*un-ls (74, n. 2), adj. (124), poor. [OE. un-l̂d(e), ME. unlede, adj., poor, wreched.]

un-mana-riggws (68), adj. (124), inhuman, fierse.

uns; s. ik.

unsar, poss. prn. (124, ns. 1 and 4; 151), our, (I) uzed alone. (II) w. sbs., (1) prec., (a) without art.; Mt. VI, 9. 11. Mk. I, 3. II. Cor. I, 2. 3-6. 8. 12. 14 (ƕftuli understood). 22. III, 2. IV, 3. 6. 10. 11. 17. V, 2; (b) w. art.: sa ... unsar, our; Mt. VI, 12. II. Cor. I, 18. III, 5; (2) follg., (a) without art.; (b) w. art., II. Cor. V, 1. [< stem of unsara (= OE. ser, re; dat. s; acc. sic, us (prop. dat.), ME. gen. ure; dat. acc. us; NE. us. OE. ser, re, ME. ure, oure, NE. our).—Cp. ik, weis.]

unsara; s. ik, also unsar.

unsis; s. ik.

un-sls, adj. (130), wicked, evil; Mt. VI, 23; uzed as sb.; Mt. V, 39.

unt, conj. (218), (1) temporal, (a) til, until, (as long as, while), w. prs. ind.; Mt. V, 18. 26; (2) causal, because, for, sinse; Mt. V, 34. 36. 45. VI, 5. 13. 14. 24. Mk. I, 22. 34. 38. III, 30. IV, 6. 25. 29. 41. V, 4. 8. 9. 28. Lu. II, 10. II. Cor. I, 5. 8. 12. 13. 14. 19. 24. II, 2. 11. 15. 17. III, 6. 10. 14. IV, 6. 17. 18. V, 2. 7. 10. 13. 14. 19. 21.—ni unt ... ak unt, not because ... but because; Lu. II, 7.

un-iu, n. (94), evil; Mk. III, 4. II. Cor. V, 10.

un-whs (5, b), adj. (124), blameless. [-whs < stem *wanha-. OE. wǫ̂h (wǫ̂g), ME. woh, adj., crooked, wrong, > wǫ̂gian, to woo, lit. to incline, ME. wowe, NE. woo.]

un-weis, adj. (124), unlernd, ignorant; II. Cor. I, 8. [< un + -weis (= OE. ME. ws, NE. wise.—Germanic stem wso- < wt-to, prop. verbal adj. to witan, to know). OE. ME. unws, NE. unwise.]

un-witands, ptc. adj. (133), unknowing, ignorant; II. Cor. II, 11. [witands is prsp. of witan, to know.]

ur-; s. us.

ur-raisjan, wv. (188), to raiz up, raiz, lift up, w. acc.; Mk. I, 31; to rouse up, wake; Mk. IV, 38; to raiz, raiz up (the ded); II. Cor. I, 9. IV, 14.

ur-rann, prt. of urrinnan.

ur-rannjan, wv. (188), to cause to rize (lit. to cause to run out); Mt. V, 45.

ur-reisan, stv. (172, n. 1), to arize; Mk. II, 9. 11. 12. III, 3. IV, 27. 39. V, 41. 42. II. Cor. V, 15.

ur-rinnan, stv. (174, n. 1), to run out, go out, w. du w. inf.; Mk. IV, 3; w. us w. dat. and in w. acc.; Lu. II, 4; to go up, rize (said of the sun); Mk. IV, 6; to spring up, grow up (said of seed); Mk. IV, 5. 8. 32; to go out (i. e. to be issued); Lu. II, 1.

ur-rists (30), f. (103), arizing, resurrection. [< ur-reisan + suff. -ti-. OHG. urrist, f., resurrection.]

ur-rmnan (78, n. 4), wv. (194), to expand, enlarge (intr.).

ur-runs (78, n. 4), m. (101, n. 1), a running out; hense outlet, draft; also dayspring, east.

us (uz- before , , u; 78, c; ur- before r; 78, n. 4; sumtimes u- for us- before s; 78, n. 5), prep. w. dat. (217), (1) of space, out, out of, from, forth from; Mk. I, 10. 11. 25. 26. 29. III, 7. 8. V, 2. 8. 10. 30. Lu. II, 4. 35. II. Cor. I, 10. V, 8. (2) indicating a going out or forth, a cuming or springing out of any thing, and the like, from, of, out of, with, by; Lu. II, 4. 36. II. Cor. II, 2. 16. 17. III, 1. 5. {219}IV, 6. 7. V, 1. 18. Skeir. VII, d. (3) designating 'circumstances, way, and manner in which anything takes place or with which it is connected', of, out of, with, in; Mt. V, 37. II. Cor. II, 4. III, 9 (in B). V, 2.—Occurs also in many cpds. [OE. or-, -, ME. or-, a-, NE. or- (cp. ordeal), a- (cp. arize).]

us-agjan (35; 78, n. 4), wv. (188), to frighten utterly.

us-agljan (14, n. 1), wv. (188), to trubl exceedingly.

us-alan, rv. (179, n. 1), to grow old.

us-anan (78, n. 4), stv. (177, n. 1), to breath out, giv up the ghost.

us-baran, stv. (175), to carry out, bring forth; to exclaim, answer; Skeir. VII, a.

us-beidan, stv. (172, n. 1), to expect patiently, abide for, w. acc.; Lu. II, 38.

us-beisns (75, n. 1), f., expectation. [< usbeidan + suff. -sni[** elsewhere -sni-]; cp. Brgm., II, 95.]

us-bruknan, wv. (194), to break off (intr.), be broken off.

us-daudjan, wv. (188), to strive, endevor, labor, w. inf.; II. Cor. V, 9. [< usdaus.]

us-daus (74, n. 2), adj. (124), diligent, zelous, forward.

us-dreiban (-drbi; 10, n. 5), stv. (172, n. 1), to drive out, cast out, send away, w. (instr.) dat. and us w. dat.; Mk. V, 10.

us-drusts, f. (103), a falling away, (said of) a ruf way. [< us-driusan, to fall out, fall away, + suff. -ti-.]

us-farina, wa. (132, n. 2), without fault, blameless.

us-filma, wa. (132, n. 2), amazed, astonisht, w. ana w. dat.; Mk. I, 22. [-filma-, -an-, < -fil- (s. -fill) + suff. -ma-.]

us-fulljan, wv. (188), to (fil completely, fil up, supply, accomplish)[** , missing, maybe before ) ?] fulfil; Mt. V, 17.

us-fullnan (180), wv. (194), to becum ful; to be fulfild, accomplisht; Mk. I, 15. Lu. II, 6. 21. 22.

us-gaggan, anv. (179, n. 3; 207), to go out, cum out, go forth, go up, cum up; Mk. I, 35. 45. II.[** typo ,] 12. V, 13; w. and w. acc.; Mk. I, 28; du w. dat.; Mk. I, 5; in w. acc.; Lu. II, 42; us w. dat.; Mk. I, 10. 26. 29. V, 2. 8. 30; t us w. dat.; Mk. I, 25; jainr; Mt. V, 26; w. inf.; Mk. III, 21.

us-gaisjan, wv. (188), to strike agast; in pass. to be beside one's self; Mk. III, 21.

us-geisnan, wv. (194), to becum or be amazed, agast, astonisht, affrighted; Mk. II, 12. II. Cor. V, 13; w. (instr.) dat.; Mk. V, 42; w. ana w. dat.; Lu. II, 47.

us-giban (56, n. 1), stv. (176), to giv out, giv away, w. dat. (indir. obj.), to reward; Mt. VI, 4. 6. 18.;[** . redundant] w. acc. (dir. obj.), to giv, pay; Mt. V, 26; w. both dir. and indir. obj., to giv, render, perform; Mt. V, 33.

us-graban (56, n. 1), stv. (177, n. 1), to dig out, to break up or thru; Mk. II, 4.

us-grudja, wa. (132, n. 2), weary, faint; II. Cor. IV, 1. 16.

us-gutnan, wv. (194), to be pourd out, be spild, flow out; Mk. II, 22.

us-hafjan, stv. (177, n. 2), to take up, lift up, w. acc.; Mk. II, 12.

us-haista (69, n. 2), wa. (132, n. 2), very poor.

us-hlaupan, rv. (179, n. 1), to leap up, rize quickly.

us-iddja, prt. of us-gaggan.

us-kannjan, wv. (188), to make known; w. dat. (indir. obj.) and acc. (dir. obj.), to commend one to one; II. Cor. V, 12.

us-kuns, adj. (124), wel known, evident, manifest; II. Cor. IV, 10.

us-qiman, stv. (175, n. 1), to kil, (1) {220}abs.; II. Cor. III, 6. (2) w. (instr.) dat.; Mk. III, 6.

us-qistjan, wv. (188), to destroy, kil, w. acc.; Mk. III, 4.

us-qian, stv. (176, n. 1), to proclaim, w. acc.; Mk. I, 45.

us-laubjan (31), wv. (188), to permit, suffer, giv leav, w. dat.; Mk. V, 13.

us-leian, stv. (172, n. 1), to go out, cum out, go away from, (1) w. gen. of aim; Mk. IV, 35. (2) w. hindar w. acc.; Mk. V, 21; us w. dat.; II. Cor. V, 8;—to pass away; Mt. V, 18. II. Cor. V, 17.

us-lia, m. (108), one with useless lims, one sick of the palsy; Mk. II, 3. 4. 5. 9. 10. [Prop. wa. uzed as sb.; cf. lius.]

us-lkan (15), stv. (173, n. 2), to unlock, open, w. acc.; Mk. I, 10. Lu. II, 23. II. Cor. II, 12; pp. uslukans (uzed as adj.), opend, open; Mk. I, 10.

us-mt (34), n. (94), manner of life, conversation, behavior. [< us-mitan. -mt = late MHG. mʒ, NHG. mass, n., mezure, degree, manner.]

us-mitan, stv. (176), to behave; II. Cor. I, 12.

us-niman, stv. (170; 175), w. acc., to take out, take away; Mk. IV, 15.

us-saƕan (34, n. 1), stv. (176, n. 1), to look out, look round about on, w. acc.; Mk. III, 5.

us-sandjan (74, n. 3), wv. (187), to send out, send forth, w. acc.; Mk. I, 43.

us-siggwan (68), stv. (174, n. 1), to read (lit. 'to sing out'), w. an indir. question; Mk. II, 25.

us-skaus (42, n. 2; 124, n. 3), cautious, wakeful, awake. [Its √ appears in OE. scawian (tr. and intr.), ME. schewe, NE. shew, show.]

us-skawjan (42, n. 2), wv. (188), w. sik, to awake; in pass. to recuver one's self.

us-standan, stv. (177, n. 3), to stand up, rize up, arize; Mk. I, 35. II, 14; w. ana w. acc., to rize up against; Mk. III, 26.

us-stass, f. (ustass; 78, n. 5), f. (103, n. 3), a rizing up or again, resurrection; Lu. II, 34. [stem -stassi- < stat-ti- < √ stat (s. standan) + suff. -ti-.]

us-steigan (ust-; 78, n. 5), stv. (172, n. 1), to mount up, go up, ascend, w. in w. acc.; Mk. III, 13.

us-stiggan, stv. (174, n. 1), to pluck out, w. acc.; Mt. V, 29.

ustaig = us-staig (s. us)[** , missing?] prt. of us-steigan.

us-taiknjan, wv. (188), (1) w. acc. of pers., to point out, appoint.—us-t[** . missing] sik du w. dat., to commend one's self to; II. Cor. IV, 2. (2) w. acc. of th. and ana w. dat., to show, designate; Skeir. VII, c. (3) w. dubl.[** . redundant] acc., to show, expose, make; II. Cor. II, 14.

us-tahun, prt. of ustiuhan.

us-tiuhan, stv. (173), w. acc. (sumtimes understood; in pass. the nom.), (1) to lead out, put forth; w. acc. and in w. acc., to drive into; Mk. I, 12. (2) to perform, finish, accomplish, fulfil; Lu. II, 39. 43.

us-riutan, stv. (173, n. 1), to trubl, uze despitefully, w. acc.; Mt. V, 44.

us-warpan, stv. (174), to cast out, (1) w. acc. (in pass. the nom., or pers. pass.); Mk. I, 34. 39. III, 15. 23. (2) w. (instr.) dat.; Mk. III, 22. V, 40.

us-wakjan, wv. (187), to wake up, awake from sleep.

us-wandjan, wv. (188) w. dat., to turn one's self away from; Mt. V, 42.

us-warhts, adj. (124), just, righteous; Mk. II, 17.

us-warpa (32), f., a casting away.


t (15), adv. (213, n. 2), out, always w. vbs. of motion; Mk. I, 25. [OE. t, ME. out, ut, NE. out.]

ta, adv. (213, n. 2), out, without; Mk. I, 45. III, 31. 32. IV, 11. [OE. te, ME. ute, NE. out, without, abroad.]

tana, adv. (213, n. 2), without, on the outside, from without; sa tan unsara manna, our outward man; II. Cor. IV, 16. [OE. tane, tan, ME. uten, outside, eternally[** typo externally], NE. -out, in about, ME. abute, abouten, OE. a-, ǫn-btan (ǫn < an = Goth. ana), prep., about.]

tar[** unclear], adv. (213, n. 2), from without. [< ta + suff. -r-.]

-u-; s. -uh.

uz-ta (us-ta? 78, n. 4), m. (108), manger, lit. 'a thing to eat out of'; Lu. II, 7. [< us + -ta < √ of itan.]

uz-u, uz-uh, i. e. us + -u, -uh.

-Waddjus (73, n.), f. (105), wall, in bargs-, grundu-, migarda-w. [< primitiv Germanic wajus (w. suff. -ju-). Cf. ON. veggr (m. i-stem); OE. wg, wh, m., ME. waghe, wowe, wall. Cp. Brgm. I, 142, p. 127.]

wadi, n. (95), pledge, ernest; II. Cor. I, 22. V, 5. [OE. wed (for *wedd, stem *wadjo-), n., ME. wed, pledge, NE. wed- (in wedlock).]

wadja-bks (88a), f., bond, handwriting.

*waggareis, m. (92; or waggari, n., 95—[** a separator, not a range-indicating dash, I think]?), pillow; Mk. IV, 38. [< *wagg (= OE. ME. wange, wǫnge, n., cheek, jaw, NE. wang, rare or vulgar; cpd. wang-tooth, obs., jaw-tooth) + suff. -arja-. [OE. wangere, m., ME. wonger, pillow.]

wahsjan, stv. (177, n. 2), to wax, grow, increase; Mt. VI, 28. Mk. IV, 8. Lu. II, 40. [OE. weahsan, ME. waxe, NE. wax, to grow.]

wahstus, m. (105), a waxing, growth, increase; Mt. VI, 27. Lu. II, 52. [< wahsjan + suff. -tu-. ON. vǫxtr, m., growth. Cf. OE. wstm (for *whstm, w. an additional m-suff.), m., ME. wastme, growth, fruit.]

*wahtw (58, n. 2), f. (112, or -a; 97—[** as above]?), wach; Lu. II, 8. [< wakan + suff. -twn- (or -tw-). OHG. wahta (by loss of w), MHG. wahte, waht, NHG. wacht, f., wach.]

wai, interj. (219), woe! [OE. w, ME. wa, wo, NE. wo.]

waian (22), rv. (182), to blow. [OE. wwan (cp. saian). Cf. OHG. wjan, wen, MHG. ŵjen, ŵn, NHG. wehen,[** , should follow (wv.)] (wv.) to blow.]

wai-ddja (21, n.[** IA image shows . plus flyspeck] 2), m. (108), woe-doer, evil-doer, malefactor. [-ddja < ds + suff. -jan-.]

wai-farƕjan, wv. (188), to wail; Mk. V, 38.

wahsta, m. (108), corner; Mt. VI, 5.

wahts, f. (116 and n. 1), a whit, thing, (in our 'Selections') always w. ni (or a negativ v.): ni w. or w. ni, sumtimes separated by other words, no whit, naught, nothing; Mk. I, 44.—ni (in) wahtai or w. ni, in nothing, nothing at all; Mk. V, 26. Skeir. VII, b (ni ... w.)[** another . wanted here?] c. d. ni waht (116, n. 1) mikilis, no great thing, lit. 'nothing of great'; Skeir. VII, a. [OE. wiht, wuht, f., ME. wight, wiȝt, NE. wight, person, creature. To the Goth. waht, n. (s. waht in my 'Compar. Glossary'), answers OE. wiht, n., ME. wiht, NE. whit (for *wiht the h of which had lost its sound).]

wala (20, n. 3), adv., wel; s. under galeikan, hugjan, taujan. [Cf. OE. ME. NE. wel.]

wala-mrjan, wv. (188), to bring glad tidings, proclaim, preach the gospel; w. acc. (in pass. the nom.), to preach, w. in w. dat.; II. Cor. I, {222}19 (mrjada, as in A, seems preferabl).

wala-wizns, f. (103), wel-living, food; Skeir. VII, b. [-wizns < wisan, to eat, feast, be merry, + suff. -ni-; cf. wizn, to liv (I. Tim. V, 6).

war, m. (91, n. 4), man; Skeir. VII, b. [OE. wer, m., ME. were, wer-, NE. wer-, were- (in werewolf, ME. werwolf, OE. were-wulf, lit. 'man-wolf').]

warpan, stv. (174), to cast, throw, (1) w. acc. and in w. acc.; Mk. I, 16; and af w. dat. (the dir. obj. being understood); Mt. V, 29. (2) w. (instr.) dat. and ana w. acc.; Mk. IV, 26.—Cpd. us-w. [OE. weorpan, ME. werpe, OHG. werfan, MHG. NHG. werfen, to cast, throw.]

wars, compar. adv. (212, n. 1), wurse; Mk. V, 26. [For *wars-s (cp. 78, n. 2), i. e. *wars-is (-is being adv. compar. suff.), OE. wiers, wyrs, ME. wurs, wers, NE. wurse.]

warsiza, compar. adj. (138), wurse, wurser; Mk. II, 21. [< wars- + compar. suff. -iz-an-. OE. wiersa, wyrsa, ME. wurse, werse, NE. wurse (> wurser, a dubl comparison).]

waran, stv. (174, n. 1), (I) principal v., (1) to be born, arize, becum, cum forth, appear; Mk. IV, 37. 39. (2) to cum to pass, happen, be done or fulfild; Mt. V, 18. VI, 10. Mk. IV, 11. V, 14. 16. Lu. II, 15 (second). Skeir. VII, c; sumtimes the prs. must be renderd by the future in E.; Lu. II, 10; the impers. war (prt.) often introduces a narration, either without a connectiv or folld. by jah: it came to pass; Mk. I, 9. II, 15. IV, 4. Lu. II, 1. 6. 15. 46; so w. dat. and inf.; Mk. II, 23.—Of time: to cum, cum on; Mk. I, 32. IV, 35.—With dat., to be givn to, cum to; II. Cor. I, 8. (3) to be, w. in w. dat.; II. Cor. III, 8; mi w. dat.; Lu. II, 13. (4) to becum, be, (a) w. a pred. adj. (especially wa. discharging more or less the function of a sb.); Mt. V, 20. 21. 22. VI, 16. 22. 23. Mk. I, 22. 36. 41. 42. II, 21. IV, 22. 32. Lu. II, 2. II. Cor. I, 7. III, 7. IV, 1. 11. 16. V, 17. Skeir. VII, d;—w. twalib-wintruns (sc. aleis), to be twelv years old; Lu. II, 42; (b) w. a pred. sb.; Mt. V, 45. Mk. I, 17. II. Cor. V, 21. Skeir. VII, c; (c) w. adv.: sundr; Mk. IV, 10; ja jah n ... ja; II. Cor. I, 19. (II) auxiliary v., w. a pp.; Mk. I, 14. II. 27. III, 26. II. Cor. IV, 1.—Cpd. fra-w. [OE. weoran, ME. wure, worthe, NE. wurth, to becum, be, as in frases: 'woe wurth the day', or 'the man' (indir. obj.)[** another . needed?]]

warida, f. (97), wurthiness, dignity, sufficiency; II. Cor. III, 5. Skeir. VII, a. [< wars + suff. -i-d- (72). OHG. wirdida, f., wurthiness.]

-wairnan[** typo -warnan], wv. (194, n. 1), in ga-ga-w.

wars, adj. (124), wurth, wurthy, able, w. du w. dat.; II. Cor. II, 16; w. inf.; Mk. I, 7. II. Cor. III, 5; w. a clause introduced by ei; Mt. III, 11;—warana briggan w. gen., to make or count wurthy, make able; II. Cor. III, 6. [OE. weor, wur (the u by influence of the w), adj., ME. worth, wurth, NE. wurth.]

wait, prs. of the prt.-prs. witan.

waja-mreins, f. (103; 113, n. 1), a blasfeming, blasfemy. [< waja-mrjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

waja-mrjan (21, n. 2), wv. (188), to blasfeme, w. acc.; Mk. III, 28. 29. [waja- < wai.]

wakan, stv. (177, n. 1), to wake, wach.—Cpd. arh-w. (63, n. 1). {223}[OE. wacan, to arize, cum to life, be born, ME. wake, NE. wake. The wv. refers to OE. wacian, prt. wacode, ME. wakie, prt. wakede.)[** paren typo for bracket]

-wakjan, wv. (187), to wake (tr.), in us-w. [OE. ()wecc(e)an (< *wacjan), ME. (a)wecche, OHG. (ir)wecchen, MHG. NHG. (er)wecken, to wake up, rouse from sleep.]

-waknan (35), wv. (194), to awake, in ga-w. [< pp. stem of wakan. [[** redundant bracket]OE. wcnan (intr.), to arize, be born, ME. wakne (intr.), NE. waken (tr. and intr.).]

Valamir[**sp?] (6, n. 2; 40, n. 1), pr. n.

waldan, rv. (179, n. 1), to wield, rule, guvern. [OE. wealdan, ME. wealde, welde (rv.), NE. wield (wv.).]

waldufni, n. (95, n. 1), power, might, authority; Mk. I, 22. 27. Skeir. VII, a; — w. haban w. inf.; Mk. II, 10; or du w. inf.; Mk. III, 15. [< waldan + suff. -ufnja-.]

waljan, wv. (187), to choose, be willing, w. inf.; II. Cor. V, 8. [OHG. wellen, MHG. weln, wellen, NHG. whlen, to choose, elect.]

waltjan, wv. (188), to roll, beat upon, dash; Mk. IV, 37. [OE. wyltan, weltan (< weoltjan < weolt, prt. of wealtan, ME. walte, = OHG. walzan, MHG. walzen, stv., NHG. walzen, wv., to roll, revolv), OHG. MHG. welzen, NHG. wlzen, to (cause to) roll.]

wamba, f. (97), womb, belly; Lu. II, 21. [OE. wamb, wǫmb, ME. wombe, NE. womb.]

wamm, n. (94), spot. [Prop. n. adj. (cf. ga-, un-wamms). OE. wamm, n. m. (adj. wam, wǫm), spot, > OE. wemman, ME. wemme, to stain, defile, < wemme, wem, NE. wem (obs.), spot, blemish.]

wandjan, wv. (188), to wend, turn, w. dat. of pers. and acc. of th.; Mt. V, 39.—Cpds. ga-, us-w. [Caus. of -windan. OE. wendan (prt. wende, for *wend-de), ME. wende (prt. wende, wente), to turn, turn one's self, go, NE. wend (rare; prt. went), to go.]

waninassus, m. (105), want; Skeir. VII, c. [Like wanains (w. suff. -ai-ni-), a waning, diminishing, < *wanan (< *wans, lacking, wanting, = OE. wan, wǫn, ME. wan, ON. vanr, n. vant, deficient, > ME. want, adj., deficient, and sb., NE. want) + suff. -inassu-.]

*war (s. 78, n. 2), adj. (124, n. 1), wary, cautious, sober. [OE. wr, ME. war, adj., cautious, NE. ware (obs., but in beware = be-ware), extended wary (w. suff. -y).]

-wardjan, wv. (188), in fra-w. [Caus. of fra-waran, to go to ruin, corrupt (intr.). [OE. wyrdan (< *weardian), werdan, ME. werde, to spoil.]

warei, f. (113), wariness, craftiness; II. Cor. IV, 2. [< war + suff. -ein-.]

wargia, f. (97), condemnation, judgment; II. Cor. III, 9. [< -wargs (in launa-wargs, an unthankful person. -wargs = OE. wearg, m., outlaw, criminal, wolf, ME. wari, weri, villain.) + suff. -i-. OE. wergu, f., condemnation, punishment.]

warjan, wv. (187), to forbid, thwart. [OE. werian, ME. wer(i)e, to defend, ward off, OHG. werian, weren, MHG. wern, to hinder, protect, defend, NHG. wehren, to protect, defend.]

warmjan, wv. (188), to warm, cherish. [< *warms (= OE. wearm, ME. warm, NE. warm). OE. wyrman (< *wearmjan), ME. werme, warme, NE. warm.]

war, prt. of waran.

was, prt. of wisan.

wasjan, wv. (187), to vest, clothe, put on, dress, (1) tr., w. acc. and {224}swa; Mt. VI, 30. (2) intr., w. instr.; Mt. VI, 25. 31.—Cpd. ga-w. [OE. werian (< *wazian), ME. were, wv., NE. wear (stv., by influence of bear).]

wasti, f. (98), garment, cloak; Mt. V, 40. Mk. V, 27. 28. 30; in pl. also raiment; Mt. VI, 25. 28. [< wasjan + suff. -tj-.]

was-u-an; s. the components.

wat, n. (110, n. 1), water; Mk. I, 8. 10. [Cf. OE. wter (w. r-suffix), n., ME. water, NE. water.]

ward, n. (93), word; Mt. V, 37. Mk. I, 45. II, 2. IV, 14-20. 33. V, 36. Lu. II, 15. 17. 19. 29. 50. 51. II. Cor. I, 18. II, 17. IV, 2. V, 19. [OE. ME. word, n., NE. word.]

-wardjan, wv. (188), in filu-w. [< ward. OHG. -wurten, in ant-wurten (= Goth. and-wardjan), MHG. and-wrten, NHG. antworten (by influence of antwort, f., answer), to answer.]

warkjan, anv. (209), (1) abs., to work (intr.), becum effectiv, w. in w. dat.; II. Cor. IV, 12. (2) w. acc. (in pass. the nom.), to work (tr.), do, make, produce, prepare, and dat. of pers.; Mk. III, 35. II. Cor. IV, 17; w. dubl. acc.; Mk. I, 3. Skeir. VII, b.—Cpd. ga-w. [OE. wyrcan (prt. worhte, pp. worht), ME. werke, worche (prt. wrohte, pp. wrocht, wrogt), NE. work (prt. and pp. wrought and worked).]

warms, m. (101), serpent. [OE. wyrm, wurm, serpent, ME. worm, wurm, NE. wurm.]

warstw, n. (94), work, deed. [For *warhstw < warkjan + suff. -s-twa-.]

warstweigs, adj. (124), effectiv, effectual; II. Cor. I, 6. [< warstw + suff. [** -]ei-ga-.]

warstwja, m. (108), workman, laborer. [< warstw + suff. -jan-.]

warts, f. (103), wurt, root; Mk. IV, 6. 17. [OE. wyrt, f., herb, plant, root, ME. wort, NE. wurt.]

warum, prt. of waran.

wgs, m. (91, n. 5), a violent movement, as of billows; hense tempest; in pl. billows, waves; Mk. IV, 37. [< wigan. OE. ŵg, m., wave, billow, flud, sea, OHG. wag, MHG. wg(-g-), m., flud, wave, river, sea, NHG. woge, f., wave, billow.]

weiha, m. (108), priest. [< weihs.]

weihan, stv. (172), to fight, strive, contend. [OE. wgan (the g, for h, being due to the forms with grammatical change), OHG. whan (wgan), MHG. wgen, to contend, fight. The prsp. (uzed as a m. sb., = Goth. weihands) is seen in OE. wgend, OHG. MHG. wgant, NHG. weigand, m., warrior; cp. also OE. wg, m., ME. wiȝ, fight, batl.]

weihnan, wv. (194), to becum holy, be hallowd; Mt. VI, 9. [< weihs.]

weihs, adj. (124), holy; Mk. I, 8. III, 29. Lu. II, 25. 26. II. Cor. I, 1; w. gen.; Mk. I, 24. Lu. II, 23. [OHG. wh, MHG. wch (-h-), NHG. weih-, adj., holy, in weihnachten, Christmas, (lit. 'holy nights'), weihrauch, incense (lit. 'holy smoke').]

wein, n. (94), wine; Mk. II, 22. [< Lt. vinum > also OE. wn, n., ME. win, NE. wine.]

weina-basi (88a, n. 1), n. (95), wine-berry. [-basi = OHG. beri (r < s = z), n., MHG. bere, n. f., NHG. beere, f., berry; an extended form is OE. berige, f., ME. berie, NE. berry.]

weina-triu (88a, n. 1), n. (94, n. 1), 'wine-tree', vine.

wein-drugkja (88a, n. 1), m. (108), wine-drinker, wine-bibber.

weipan, stv. (172, n. 1), to crown. [OHG. *wfan, MHG. wfen (stv.), to swing, wind, prt. weif > the {225}caus. weifen, to swing, reel, NHG. weifen, to reel.]

weis, pl. of ik.

-weisjan, wv. (188), to make wise, in fulla-w. [< -weis (s. unweis). OE. wsian (prt. wsode; Second Weak Conj.), ME. wise, OHG. wsen (< wsjan), MHG. wsen, NHG. weisen, to direct, gide, show, instruct, lit. 'to make wise'.]

-weitan, stv. (172, n. 1; 197, n. 1), to see, only in fra-, in-w. [OE. wtan, ME. wte, to see, look, rebuke, NE. wite (Sp.), to reproach, blame.]

-weitjan, wv. (188), in far-w. [< -weit, in fraweit (< fra-weitan), n., revenge, MHG. ver-wʒ, NHG. verweis, m., rebuke, reproof; and id-weit, n., reproach, = OE. idwt, n., ME. edwit, reproach, blame.]

weitwdei, f. (113), witness, testimony; II. Cor. I, 12. [< weitws.]

weitwdia, f. (97), witness, testimony; Mk. I, 44. [< weitws + suff. -i-.]

*weitws, weitwds (30; 74, n. 2), m. (117), witness. [< √ of -weitan, witan. Cf. Brgm., II, 136, 5.]

wnjan, wv. (188), to hope, trust, expect, (1) w. acc. and inf.; II. Cor. V, 11. (2) w. a clause introduced by ei; II. Cor. I, 13; so w. du w. dat.; II. Cor. I, 10. [< wns. OE. wnan, ME. wene, wne, to suppose, NE. ween (obs. or poet.)[** one more . needed?]]

wns, f. (103), expectation, hope; II. Cor. I, 6. III, 12. [OE. wn, is i-uml. of , for (West-Germanic) = Goth. , f., hope, expectation, ME. wene, OHG. MHG. wn, opinion, belief, hope, NHG. wahn, m., delusion, fancy.]

wsi, wsun (-u = -uh); prt. of wisan (204).

-widan, stv. (176, n. 1), to bind, in ga-w. [OHG. wetan, MHG. weten, to bind, join, yoke. Its √ is containd also in OE. ŵd, f., ŵde, n., ME. wde, NE. weed, garment.]

widuw, f. (112), widow; Lu. II, 37. [OE. widewe, widwe, f., ME. widewe, NE. widow.]

-wigan, stv. (176, n. 1), to move, shake up, in ga-w. [OE. wegan, ME. weye, to carry, bear, move, weigh, NE. weigh.]

wigs, m. (91), way; Mt. V, 25. Mk. I, 2. 3. IV, 4. 15. Lu. II, 44. [OE. weg, m., ME. wei, wey, NE. way.]

wileis, prs. opt. of wiljan.

Wilia (40, n. 1), pr. n.

wilja, m. (108), wil; Mt. VI, 10. Mk. III, 35. Lu. II, 14. II. Cor. I, 1. [< wiljan. OE. willa, m., ME. wille, NE. wil.]

wilja-halei (88a), f. (113, n. 2), special favor. [< *wiljahals, adj., < wilja- (stem of -wiljis, in cpds., willing, < wiljan) + -hals = OE. heald, adj., inclined; cp. OHG. halda, MHG. NHG. halde, f., declivity.]

wiljan, anv. (205), to wil, wish, (1) abs.; Mk. I, 40. 41. (2) w. acc.; Mt. V, 40. Mk. III, 13. (3) w. swa filu sw; Skeir. VII, c. (4) w. inf.; Mt. V, 40. 42. II. Cor. I, 15. V, 4. Skeir. VII, c; w. acc. and inf. (wisan being understood); II. Cor. I, 8. [OE. willan (prt. wolde, wulde), ME. wille (prt. wolde), NE. wil (prt. would).]

wileis, adj. (127), wild; Mk. I, 6 (gloss). [OE. wilde, ME. wild, NE. wild.]

wilwan, stv. (174, n. 1), to plunder, rob, w. acc.; Mk. III, 27.—Cpd. dis-w.

-windan, stv. (174, n. 1), to wind, only in bi- (du-, ga-, us-)[** spacing?]w., to wind round, inwrap, swathe, w. acc.; Lu. II, 7; pp. biwundans, wrapt; Lu. II, 12. [OE. windan, ME. winde, NE. wind.]


winds, m. (91), wind; Mk. IV, 37. 39. 41. [OE. wind, m., ME. NE. wind.]

winnan, stv. (174, n. 1), to suffer, sorrow, (1) abs.; Lu. II, 48. (2) w. acc.; II. Cor. I, 6. [OE. winnan, to fight, strugl, toil, ge-w., to (obtain by fighting)[** invisible , ?] win, ME. winne, to fight, acquire, win, NE. win.]

wis, n. (94), a calm; Mk. IV, 39. [< wisan.]

wisan, stv. (176, n. 1), (1) to dwel, abide, remain; II. Cor. III, 11. 14. V, 6. (2) to be, be present, exist, liv. (In this and the follg. senses wisan supplies the defects of the sb. v.: im, is, ist, sijau, etc.; 204. It is frequently understood.—For nist, etc., s. 10, n. 2; 4, n. 1); Mt. VI, 30. Lu. II, 25. 36. II. Cor. IV, 7. Skeir. VII, b. ufarassus w., to abound; II. Cor. I, 5. (3) w. dat. (as in Gr. which sumtimes has the gen.), to be, belong or pertain to; hense to hav; so occasionally folld. by a partit. gen.; Mk. I, 24. V, 7. Lu. II, 7. (4) w. a gen. in the pred., to be of, belong to, (a) poss.; II. Cor. II, 3, (b) qualitativ; Mk. V, 42. (5) to be anything or in any manner, (a) w. an adv. in the pred.; Mt. VI, 25. Mk. IV, 26. 36; (b) w. a prep. in the pred.; Skeir. VII, a; (c) the pred. is a complete sentence or an elliptical frase (as in Gr.), (α) in a dir. quotation; Mt. V, 37. II. Cor. I, 18; (β) introduced by a rel. particl: atei; Mk. II, 16; arei; Mk. IV, 15; swasw; Mt. VI, 5; (d) the pred. is.[** . in MS clearly not intended] a prsp. denoting duration; Mt. V, 25. Mk. I, 4. 22. 39. II, 6. 18. IV, 38. V, 5. 40. Lu. II, 8. 33. 51. II. Cor. I, 9. II, 9. 11. 17. V, 19; (e) the pred. is a pp., (α) w. an act. meaning; Mk. I, 33; cp. II, 24. 26. III, 4. II. Cor. IV, 10. V, 10; (β) w. a pass. meaning; Mk. I, 6. V, 11. Lu. II, 26. II. Cor. IV, 3; preceded by the art.; Mk. IV, 16. 18. 20. V, 14; wisan being auxiliary v.; Mt. V, 21. 27. 31. 33. 38. 43. Mk. I, 2. 5. 9. III, 9. 21. IV, 11. V, 4. Lu. II, 3. 11. 17. 20. 21. 23. 24. 33. II. Cor. I, 4. 8. Skeir. VII, c; (f) the pred. is a rel. clause (cp. (c), abuv); Mk. IV, 22. II. Cor. II, 2. Skeir. VII, d; (g) the pred. is an adj.; Mt. V, 29. 30. 48. VI, 22. 23. 26. Mk. I, 7. II, 9. 25. III, 29. IV, 17. 31. 40. V, 18. 34. Lu. II, 5. 25. II. Cor. I, 18. II, 16. III, 3. 5. 10. IV, 18. V, 6. 8. 11.—Cp. also 5, e, α, abuv; (h) the pred. is a sb., either alone or w. an attribute; Mt. V, 34. 35. VI, 12. 22. 23. Mk. I, 11. 16. II, 28. III, 11. 35. IV, 38. V, 9. Lu. II, 2. 11. 12. 25. 37. II. Cor. I, 7. 12. 14. 19. 24. II, 15. III, 2. 3. 9. 17. IV, 4; (i) the pred. is a prn., (α) interr.; Mk. I, 24. 27. III, 33. IV, 41. V, 9; (β) poss.; Mt. VI, 13; (j) the pred. is a num., ([** α missing in MS]) def.; Mk. V, 13; (β) indef.; Mk. II, 15. V, 9. (6) to be, be calld, mean: at' ist, that is (to say); atei ist, which is, that is (to say); Mk. III, 17. V, 41; ƕa ist atei, how is it that?; Mk. II, 16. (7) to be, be present, be found, (a) w. an adv.: hr; Skeir. VII, a; jainar; Mk. III, 1. V, 11. Lu. II, 6; arei; Mk. II, 4. V, 40. II. Cor. III, 17; aruh; Mt. VI, 21. II. Cor. III, 17; ta; Mk. I, 45; (b) w. a prep.: ana; Mk. I, 45. IV, 1. 38. Lu. II, 25. 40; at; II. Cor. I, 17; fara; Mk. V, 21; fram; II. Cor. I, 2; in; Mt. V, 25. VI, 4. Mk. I, 13. 23. II, 1. IV, 36. V, 5. 25. Lu. II, 5. 8. 25. 44. 49. II. Cor. I, 1. V, 4. Skeir. VII, b; mi; Mk. I, 13. II, 19. 26. III, 14. IV, 36. V, 18; ufar filu wisan, to abound; II. Cor. I, 5; us; Mt. V, 37. Lu. {227}II, 4. II. Cor. III, 5; wira; Mk. IV, 15.—Cpds. at-, ufar-w. [Goth. wisan, prt. was, etc., < √ wes. OE. wesan, prsp. wesende, imper. sg. wes, pl. wesa; prt. 1st and 3d pers. sg. ws, 2nd pers. ŵre, pl. ŵron; subj. sg. ŵre, pl. ŵron; ME. inf. wese, prt. 1st and 3d prs.[** typo pers.? Elsewhere mostly prs.=present, pers.=person] sg. ws, was, 2nd pers. wre, were, pl. wren, weren; subj. wre, were; NE. prt. sg. was, pl. wer.—Goth. im, siju, sijau, etc., < √ es: -s. OE. 1st.[** . anomalous] pers. sg. eom, eam, am (North.), 2nd pers. eart, 3d pers. is, pl. sind (t), siondun, sindun, North. aron beside sint (d), sindon; subj. sg. se, s, etc.; ME. 1st pers. sg. eom, eam, am, 2nd pers. eart, art, 3d pers. is, pl. sind, sinden, aren, are; subj. sg. seo, si, pl. seon, sion, sien; NE. 1st pers. sg. am, 2nd pers. art, 3d pers. is, pl. ar.]

wissdun, prt. of witan, prt.-prs.

wit, dual of ik.

witan, wv. (197, n. 1), to look at, giv attention, observ, wach, w. dat.; Mk. III, 2; w. wahtwm ufar w. dat., to keep wach over; Lu. II, 8. [< √ of witan, to know. OHG. (ga-, ir-) wiʒn, to pay attention, observ.]

witan (30), prt.-prs. (197), to know, (1) abs.; Mk. IV, 27. Lu. II, 43. (2) w. acc.; Mk. IV, 13. V, 33. II. Cor. V, 11. (3) w. a clause introduced by atei; Mt. VI, 32. Mk. II, 10. Lu. II, 49. II. Cor. I, 7. IV, 14. V, 1. 6. (4) w. an indir. question; Mt. VI, 3. [OE. witan, 1st and 3d pers. sg. prs. ind. wt (Goth. wait), prt. wiste, ME. wite, prs. wot, prt. wiste, NE. wot, wist; to wit < ME. to wite(n), OE. t witanne, gerund.]

wit (gen. witdis), n. (94), law; Mt. V, 17. 18. Lu. II, 22. 23. 24. 27. 39. [< a lost v. witn (= OE. witian, ME. witie, to destin) + suff. -da; < √ of witan, to know.]

witubni (30), n. (95), knowledge. [< witan, to know, + suff. -ubnja[** elsewhere -ubnja-].]

witum, pl. of wait.

wira, prep. w. acc., (1) local, over against, by, near, to; Mk. IV, 1. 15. II. Cor. V, 12. (2) metaforical, (a) in a frendly sense, to, toward; (b) in a hostil sense, against, to, for; Mk. III, 24. 25. [OE. ME. wier, prep., against, NE. wither- (in the cpd. withernam, a law term in England, a second or reciprocal writ, a writ of reprisal; -nam < niman = Goth. niman), OHG. widar, MHG. wider, NHG. wider, prep., against, wieder, adv., again, back.]

wirus, m., lam. [OE. weer, m., ME. NE. wether.]

wlaitn, wv. (190), to look round about; Mk. V, 32. [< a lost sb. (= ON. leit, f., inquiry, serch) < *wleitan. OE. wltian, to look.]

wlits, m. (101, n. 1), face, countenance; II. Cor. III, 7. [< *wleitan (s. andawleizn). OE. wlite, m., ME. wlite, figure, look.]

wkains (35), f. (103, n. 1), waching. [< *wkan (+ suff. -ai-ni-), to wach, < a lost sb. < wakan.]

wkrs, m. (91, n. 2), uzury. [Apparently < √ of wakan (prt. wk) + suff. -ra-. OE. wcor, f., progeny, posterity, OHG. wuohhar, MHG. wuocher, m. n., produce, fruit, profit, uzury, NHG. wucher, m., uzury.]

wpjan, wv. (187), to cry aloud, cry out, cry; Mk. I, 3.—Cpd. uf-w. (63, n. 1). [OE. wpan (stv., w. the prs. in -jo-), to cry aloud, complain, bewail, ME. wepe (stv.), NE. weep (wv.).]

weis, adj. (128), sweet, mild, plezant; dauns wi, sweet savor; II. Cor. II, 15. [OE. we, adj., sweet, mild.]

*ws[** , missing?] wds (74, n. 2), adj. (124), {228}mad, possest; Mk. V, 15. 16. 18. [OE. ME. wd, NE. wood (obs.), mad, possest, furious.]

wrakja, f. (97), persecution; Mk. IV, 17. [< wrikan + suff. -j-.]

wratn, wv. (190), to go, ju