Maud Charlesworth (1865-1948) seems to have had a happy, if mischievous, childhood. She respected her father, Rev. Samuel Charlesworth, loved her mother Maria Charlesworth and had a close friendship with her sister Florence Charlesworth. In 1881, her mother died and her sister married and left home, leaving Maud with an empty hole in her life. (That was true for her father as well, but you couldn't expect the teenage Maud to appreciate that.) Maud's parents had always had a strong interest in religion, and in helping the poor. The Salvation Army was starting up in her father's parish with a similar, if more interesting, version of that, and Maud started going to their meetings. Gradually the Booth family of the Salvation Army replaced her own family as the emotional focus of her life.
In 1883, Maud Charlesworth accompanied Catherine Booth, the daughter of General Booth, head of the Salvation Army, on a trip to Geneva. She was 17 years old (not 16 as is claimed below). She describes this in her book "A Rector's Daughter in Victorian England":
We went to Switzerland and opened the work, and a marvelous revival took place. ... Two thousand people would gather there in the cold wintery dawn, while as many more would be outside unable to get in. These meetings were really pentecostal experiences. Hundreds of converts were gathered in from among the infidel, careless, churchless masses. One would think that Geneva, city of early Reformation fame, would have rejoiced at such scenes. Alas! The fair city was in the hands of a very corrupt political ring.The Chief of Police was hand in glove with the saloons and white slave traffic. The people, whose poor victims were wrested from them and whose traffic was fearlessly attacked, became very bitter against the little band of Salvationists. ... Apart from my joy at the glorious work being accomplished, I was also thrilled by the excitement of the police persecution. We discovered that we were being shadowed everywhere by detectives. The police raked up an old law that had not been enforced for a hundred years, having been used against the Jesuits. The law stated that no public meetings of a religious order could be convened without permission from the police.
What follows gets reported in The Times:
The Times (London, England), Thursday, Feb 1, 1883
The Salvation Army in Switzerland. Geneva, Jan 31.
The proceedings of the Salvation Army in this part of Switzerland are attracting considerable attention and much angry controversy. Here at Geneva, where their meetings have been interrupted and their processions attacked by organized bands of rioters, M. Hérider, head of the Department of Justice and Police, has peremptorily refused them the protection of the law. When questioned on the subject in the Great Council, he declared that he would not move a single gendarme to help people who were so stupid as to give themselves military titles and seek to obtain converts by talking about blood, battles, and fire; and his declaration was warmly applauded by a majority of the members. At Neuchàtel, a man who had been arrested by the police for disturbing a meeting was rescued by the crowd; and an Englishman, wrongly suspected of belonging to the army, was hunted through the streets and seriously maltreated. Similar scenes have been enacted at Chaux-de-Fonds and Bienne.
The Times (London, England), Friday, Feb 2, 1883
The offices of the Salvation Army here were this afternoon attacked by a mob, who broke the windows, and committed other excesses; but nobody seems to have been hurt. The gendames only appeared after the rioters had dispersed. No arrests were made.
The Times (London, England), Friday, Feb 2, 1883
The Salvation Army
To the Editor of the Times
Sir, - We observe with astonoshment your report in connexion with our work in Switzerland. No procession has ever been proposed in Switzerland, the greatest difficulty being to secure halls large enough for the crowds of attentive hearers when we gather. The disorder created by some young men at first was soon put down by a voluntary association of gentlemen who did not want their country to be disgraced by any appearance of intolerance. It is quite true that the attention of Switzerland is remarkablt aroused, and that there have been disturbances at Brienne and perhaps other towns, where none of our people have even yet been, upon the mere supposition that they were there. The same attempts to create disorder at Neuchâtel, where our announcements were of the quiestest sort, as at Geneva, shows that the character of our bills has nothing at all to do with the matter. And that all this should occur in quiet Switzerland, after one month's services, all held inddors, mostly in small rooms, shows how entirely they are mistaken who represent our processions and so on as the cause of disorder in England. It is the same story everywhere; we are in the front of a life and death stuggle against unbelief, drunkedness, and other vices which National Assemblies fear to grapple with, but which must be overcome if the nations are not to be handed over to ruinous debauchery and ruffianism.
The Sémaine Religieuse of Geneva admits that we have already in that city from 300 to400 adherents, and that ladies from the foremost Swiss families attend our ladies' meetings. The Journal de Genève has also, in leader after leader, defended us from the strange attacks which find such asatonishing sympathy it seems in England; and the Minister of Justice and Police may find it less easy that he imagines to stifle the expression of a revived faith in the old truths which so many would now consign to oblivion if they could, but which, faithfully proclaimed, are bringing to disturbers and sceptics in Switzerland, as in England, a new life.
I am, your faithfully, William Booth.
The Salvation Army Head-quaters - 101, Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C., Feb 1
The Times (London, England), Tuesday, Feb 6, 1883
The Salvation Army in Switzerland. Geneva, Feb 5.
The Cantonal Government here have followed up their declaration, that it is not the duty of the State to protect the Salvation Army from outrage,by interdiciting their meetings. The Salvationists intended to hold a meeting on Friday night; but shortly before the hour for opening a proclamation was issued, stating that, in view of reports received from the Department of Justice and Police, by which it appears that the religious opinions held by a group calling themselves "the Salvation Army," acting under the direction of foreigners not domiliciled in the canton, have been preceded by convocations of a nature to agitate the population, that the proceedings of the individuals in question have given rise to much opposition, and that the public tranquility is thereby continually disordered, the exercises of the Salvation ARmy are ordered to be temporarily suspended.
The proclamation, which emanates from the Council of State, is issued in virtue of a law passed in 1876, which vests in the lieutenant of police the inspection of cafés, cabartes, and other places of public resort. On the other hand, the Federal Costitution guarantees to Swiss citizens, all cantonal laws to the contrary notwithstanding, all rights of public meeting; and had the meetings of the Salvationists been convoked by natives of the country, the Council of State could not have intedicted them. Switzerland, so far as concerns its own people, is perhaps the freest country in Europe; but foreigners live here only on sufferance, and it would be quite competent for the Government to expel every leader of the Salvation Army from the canton tomorrow, on the groun, true or false, that their presence has a disturbing effect o the public mind.
No charge whatever has been made against the Army; and the disturbances which have no doubt taken place are due, not to any proceedings of theirs, but to the apathy of the police, an apthy of which, as I have already informed you, the Head of the Department a few days ago warmly expressed his approval. On Friday the Government organ coolly informed the Salvationists that as they had sown the wind, they must reap the whirlwind. The Salvationists have not been the only victims. Inoffensive persons (including friends of my own) have been hustled, insulted, and chased through the streets, to the cry of "Throw the mummers into the lake!" merely because, being English, they might be Salvationists. AS to the conduct of the authorities, the Journal de Genève, one of the most moderate and influential papers in Switzerland, stignatizes it in terms which, if I was to use them, would expose me to charges of prejudice and exaggeration. It says:-
"The proclamation of the Council of State does not contain one word of blame for the individuals who, for the last 15 days, have been dishonouring our city by disturbing meetings held in private rooms, and attacking inoffensive people in public streets. The Government manifesto keeps all its severities for the victims of these outrages; for those strangers or citizens who have been attacked, chased, insulted, and maltreated by ruffians stillremaining unpunished; and the victory which they have gained over our laws is decisive and complete. The Government, charged to execute the law, has lowered its flag before evildoers, and made itself sunservient to them; while we blush with shame when we contrast the language of our Council of State with the Cantonal Council of Neuchâtel."
The journal then charges the Government with having deliberately encouraged the rioters, in order to attain the end avowed by the Great Council by M. Héridier - the silencing of men whose religious practices and opinions are displeasing to them - and concludes with demanding for geneva liberty equal to that enjoyed by Neuchâtel.
The Journal de Genève is probably quite right in attributing the action of the Council of State to dislike of the religious views of the Salvation Army. The Government of Geneva is at present in the hands of doctinaire Jaconbins, of the same class as those who have just voted the prescription of the French Prince. While demnading the widest tolerance for themselves, they would deny to to all who differ from them. Religion is their bête noire; and the same men who two years ago expelled two French priests, because they had been announced to preach in a Catholic chapel, have suppressed the meetings of the Salvation Army because they agitate people's minds.
The Times (London, England), Wednesday, Feb 7, 1883
The Salvation Army in Switzerland. Geneva, Feb 6.
A protest, signed by a number of the most respectable citizens of Geneva, has been addressed to the Council of State against the suppression of the meetings of the Salvation Army. The protest points out that to interdict the assmebling of any religious body is a violation of the letter ad the spirit of the Cantonal, as well as of the Federal Constitution; and that the Law of 1816, which is held to justify the action of the police, was virtually repealed by the Constitution of 1847. The fact is also dwelt upton, that, although the meetings of the Salvation Army were convened by two or three foreigners, the audience were almost entirely Swiss citizens; and Swiss citizens have an unquestionable right to meet and worship without let or hindrance.
Whether these representations will have any effect it is impossible to say, but grave doubt are entertained in well informed quarters as to the legality of the course which the Council have thought fit to adopt. "Coloel" Clibborn, of the Salvation Army, has had a interview on that subject with the British Minister at Berne; and it is probable that steps will be taken to test the point. The refusal of the Geneva police to protect English subjects from the attacks of the mob will form a separate subject of complaint, as showing the extreme inconsistency of the Government on this matter. It may be mentioned that the placards convening the meetings, which it is now alleged were of a nature to agitate the public mind, had the sanction of the authorities; for no advertisements whatever can be placaded on the walls of the city without being first seen and approved by the police. They have, moreover, one measure for the Amarchists and another for the Salvationists. While the latter are allowed to convoke meetings which they are then forbidden to hold, the former are permitted to hold meetings which they had not been permitted to convoke.
The Times (London, England), Thursday, Feb 8, 1883
The Salvation Army in Switzerland. Berne, Feb 7.
The Bernese Government have forbidden any meeting of the Salvation Army within the Canton.
The Times (London, England), Saturday, Feb 10, 1883
The Salvation Army in Switzerland. Geneva, Feb 9.
It is not the fact that any members of the Salvation Army have left Geneva and Neuchâtel for Berne, or that their meetings are Neuchâtel have been prohibited. The police of Neuchâtel simply requested "Captain" Beckett to discontinue his evening services for a few days, until the public exceitement had somewhat abated - a request with which he willingly complied - but the daily services are ging on as usual. There are only six English officers of teh Salvation Army are present in Switzerland, three are here and three at Neuchâtel. Their converts, at both places, number about 350.
Appeals for redress have been lodged with the Consuls of France, Belgium, and Germany by citizens of those States who were maltreated during the general lawlessness that prevailed last week. Two French gentlemen depose that they were stoned through one of the main thoroughfares, and that several gendames who were at hand made no effort to protect them. An English midshipman, whose uniform was mistaken for that of the Salvation Army, was savagely attacked by several of the rioters; but he made such vigorous use of his fists that his cowardly assailants were glad to leave him in peace.
The statement that the Government of Berne has resolved not to permit the Salvation Army to enter the canton requires confirmation, and is in itself hisghly improbable.
The Times (London, England), Tuesday, Feb 13, 1883
Miss Charlesworth, a young lady of 16, who has acted as Miss Booth's secretary, was yesterday expelled from the canton of Geneva, at six hours' notice; and to-day Miss Booth has shared the same fate. The grounds of Miss Charlesworth's expulsion, as stated in the decree of the Council of State, the original of which I have seen, are that she could not produce the written permission of her parents to reside in the canton, and had refused to undergo a police interrogation on Sunday morning. On Saturday, although her knowledge of French is very slight, she was examined three hours in camerâ; a Genevan gentleman, by whom he was accompanied, not being allowed to be present. She was invited to attend at the Hôtel de Ville a second time on Sunday; whereupon she said that if were all the same to the police she would rather present herself on Monday. At noon she received an order to leave the canton before 6, and left accordingly for Coppel.
The reason for Miss Booth's Expulsion is that she could not, at a moment's notice, produce an account of a collection which was made two months ago at a meeting of the Salvation Army. There may be some show of reason for suppressing Salvationist meetings, but this war against women and children is unworthy even of the Radicalist Liberal Government of Geneva. So long as it is in power, foreigners living here have no rights whatever; and minors would do well to provide themselves with the properly-attested authorization of their parents to reside in the canton, lest they, too, be summarily expelled.
The Times (London, England), Thursday, Feb 15, 1883
The Salvation Army in Switzerland
The expulsion of Miss Booth and Miss Charlesworth is naturally the almost exclusion topic of conversation here. Although the suppression of the Salvationist meetings was a measure far from unpopular and is approved by many people of position and culture, on the grounds that Geneva is sufficiently supplied with churches and sects already, the expulsions are approved only by the more fanatical supports of the Government. Mr. Auldjo, Her Majesty's Consul here, presented yesterday to the Council of State a protest, the text of which has been approved by the Minister at Berne; against the treatment of the two English ladies. The extraordinary conduct of the local authorities is in some measure explained by the fact that, four members of the Council being either ill or absent, M. Héridier, head of the Department of Justice and Police had it all his own way.
The Journal de Genève stigmatizes the whole proceedings of the police as nothing less than a veritable coup d'État. It says:-
"Every house where Salvationists are suspected of assembling, or in which any sort of religious meeting is supposed to be proceeding, is beset by detectives and gendarmes, who seek to obtain entrance, either by stratagem or force, failing which they peer through windows and peep through keyholes. They even watch houses in which operatic and other airs are being sung, in the belief apparently that they might be hymns of the Salvation Army. Genevan citizens ought to learn that they are no longer masters in their own homes, and that M. Héridier's police, worthy emulators of the Second Empire, presume to prohibit religious exercises and prayers in the sanctuary, heretofore reputed inviolable, of the domestic hearth. It is thus that fanatical politicians respect in our canton the constitutional guarantees of personal liberty, inviolability of domicile, and freedom of worship. Never before were strangers, yung girls, almost children, treated as these English ladies have been treated; and the measure dealt out to them is one reserved for rogues, vagabonds and ladies of easy virtue."
This is all very good, and very true; yet though everybody professes to be very indignant, nobody seems disposed to make the least effort, either to resist the tyranny of the Council of State or to test the legality of their measures.
Maud Charlesworth gives an explanation of the next Times account in her book "A Rector's Daughter in Victorian England":
During my two days of lonely exile [after having been expelled, and before the others turned up], I wrote an account, including a rather intimately funny description of the police examination, to General William Booth in London. It was meant just as a personal letter. As it had not been mailed, la Marechale [Catherine Booth] told our friend of the Times to look it through and then to mail it for us.
Silly Maud! He promptly published it!
The Times (London, England) Monday, Feb 19, 1883
The Salvation Army at Geneva - A Lamb Among Wolves
Our Geneva Correspondent writes:-
"Miss Charlesworth, who is now at Coppet, has been good enough to give me the following account of her expulsion and events which preceded it. Her artless narrative is both interesting in itself and valuable for the vivid light which it throws on the ways of Geneva justice - to foreigners. According to the Journal de Genève, M. Heridier, Councillor of State charged with the Department of Justice and Police, was present at Miss Booth's and Miss Charlesworth's examinations, but behind a curtain, 'After the manner of all Grand Inquisitors.'
"'On Saturday afternoon,' says Miss Charlesworth (who, it may be mentioned, is just 16 years old) 'a man came to the house of M. Lenoir, where we were staying, and said that Maud Charlesworth, aide-de-cap to Miss Booth, was to go at once and see the Chief of Police at the Hôtel de Ville. I went at once, taking M. Lenoir with me, as I did not like to go alone. When we arrived M. Lenoir sent in to ask the Chief of Police,M. Heridier, if he might ne allowed to accompany me. We waited half an hour, and then the answer was that I must go alone. So there was nothing else for it, and I had to follow a savage-looking magistrate up stairs into a small and very hot office, where I was asked to sit down. I suppose that they thought that this exceedingly cross-looking officer was not enough to question me, for two others, with equally unsaved (sic) looking faces, came in to help him. I had been with Katie (Miss Booth) both the times when she had to appear before the police, so I was quite prepared for the sort of questions they were going to ask me. The last thing Katie said to me was, 'Do not sign anything,' and I answered that I would sooner let my right hand be cut off; and when I got into that little room I made up my mind that when they came to the end and asked me to sign I would refuse unless they would allow M. Lenoir to come up and read the paper through.
"'Well, they began and asked me about the private meeting at which I had been present. They said it was a public meeting because three detectives had got in without being asked at the door for their cards of invitation. I denied the false statement, and made them write down my answer plainly. The point on which I laid the most stress was that we, the four Salvation officers, had been invited to a private meeting in a private house, to which others (strangers to us) had also been invited; that we spoke, prayed, and sang, as did others who did not belong to the Salvation Army, and that if people who were not invited made their way in it was not our fault; we were only guests. Then they asked how I dare wear my uniform at the meeting when I had been told of the law forbidding the wearing of a religious dress. Now, I know this law by heart. It says that no one is to wear a religious dress on the public highway. My answer was that I did not think the words 'public highway' could apply to the kitchen of a cottage in which a private meeting was held. I must tell you that my questioners, or rather persecutioners (of whom most of the time there were five) were very unsaved and all possessed very quick tempers. Their object was evidently to frighten me as to make me answer unwisely, and catch me in my speech. But they were disappointed, for they had never had to do with a Salvationist before, and could not make out why I was so calm and answered so clearly. They were also disappointed to find that I understood their language, and no matter how fast they read I was always ready with an answer. Every now and then one or another went into a passion. But worse was to come.
"'Have you got a passport or "leave to stay" in Geneva?" asked one of the crossest of the examiners (with whom I was now quite alone), and I could see by his manner that he thought I had not got my papers. I answered that I had my leave to stay; and that my passport was in the hands of the police. You should have seen the rage he gt into. He rose, threw down his chair, stamped out of the room, shouted for some under officer, and asked the man what he meant by saying I was not provided with a passport. This man also lost his temper, went off to look for the passport, and in a few minutes returned and saw I was quite right, that they had my passport and my "leave to stay". The inspector then flew into a greater rage than before, and scolded the man who had misled him. When he was more composed he continued. But now he came to personal questions, which I told him he had no right to ask, and I inquired what law authorized him to ask them. He said that was not his affair; he had been told to ask these questions, and I must answer. He asked me if I had my father's leave to remain in Geneva, and when I said "Yes" he wanted letters to prove it. I asked him how he dared to doubt my word, and told him to write down that Miss Booth had letters from my father authorizing me to stay. A little later he said that I had prayed in a private meeting according to the form of the Salvation Army. I insisted that the Salvation Army had no form of payer, and asked him in what way their prayers differed from other prayers. He said they differed very much, but he could not tell me how; he repeated that we had a form of prayer, and bagan to storm and rave so loudly that an inspector ran in from the next room, saying "Gently, gently, there is somebody outside." ... At last, after a gret deal more questioning my paper was finished. I knew all my answers were true,and that there was little harm in putting my nae to it; but then I remembered my promise to Katie, so I refused, unless I might go down and fetch M. Lenoir, and I said that I would not sign the paper until he had read it. Of course, they raved at me, but it had no effect; so they went off for M. Lenoir; but unfortunately he had gone away' as they came back in triumph to tell me. I still refused to sign, and said that I would not sign until "Captain" Bouillat (a member of the Salvation Army) had read it through. They were angy, and tried to frighten me, all talking as fast as they could at the same time. Then they said they would read the paper all through again, which they did three times; but nothing could move me. I said that I would go with Zitza and fetch Bouillat. They answered that I might go, but not with Zitza (a Salvationist, who was waiting to be examined), but I said that I could not think of such a thing - that it would be very improper for a young lady to walk through the streets after dark, especially as I knew there was a plot on foot to do us harm.'
"In the end two gendarmes were sent for Bouillat, Miss Charlesworth and Zitza waiting meanwhile in the hot little office."'All at once it struck me,' she continues,' that we would have a prayer meeting. "Zitza," I said, "we will pray. Let us go down on our knees and pray for these people, for if ever we wanted the Lord with us it is now." So down we went, and prayed out loud for about ten minutes, and it did us good. The inspector was much surprised; he cleared his throat, grunted, and finally got up and went to the door of the outer office. I said to Zitza that we would tell the Correspondent of The Times, and I wondered what the English would think of the way in which their country-women were treated. This was overheard, and seemed to make an impression, for two men came and said I was quite free to go if I liked, or if hey could fetch me anything they would do so. I wanted to fetch Bouillat, but when I found that I should either have to go alone or walk between two policemen I preferred to wait.
"At length Bouillat came, and on his recommendation she signed her deposition.
"'The great fun was,' she goes on, that ll these cross magistrates and inspectors were kept from their dinners. So were we; but as I told them, that was a very secondary consideration to us. We left that office and half past 7 singing "Glory to His Name." I had been there four hours. The whole town knew it. A lawyer at once took all that had passed down in French, because he was so indignant.
"'On Sunday I received a paper which told me that before 6 o'clock I was to be out of the Canton, because, first I had broken the law by speaking in a public meeting (lie No. 1); secondly, because I had nothing to show that my parents had consented to my being with Miss Booth (lie No. 2); thirdly, because that morning I had not appeared when sent for by the police. (We sent a letter to say we could not go on a Sunday.)
"'Before the man who brought the letter went away I made him tell me who ese was expelled, and I found that Bouillat, Zitza, and Emile (all foreigners) had shared tha same fate. We sent for them to come up that we might arrange where to go, but they did not come, and we found that they had been fetched out of their room, put into a cab with a policeman, and driven away without a moment's notice. So these three are gone, I know not whether, and Miss Booth sent a Swiss lass with me, as, of course, I could not go alone.'"
Poor Maud! She says:
I was overwhelmed when I read the papers and found myself public property. ... I wept with shame over "Lamb among the Wolves" though the newspaper comments were friendly, even almost fatherly.
The Times (London, England), Tuesday, Feb 20, 1883
The Salvation Army in Geneva - "General" Booth had an interview with Lord Granville yesterday afternoon with reference to the expulsion of Miss Catherine Booth and Miss Maud Charlesworth from the Canton of Geneva. The "General" desires (1) permission for his officers to live in the Republic until they have been convicted of some offence against the laws of the country; (2) liberty for his representatives to hold meetings, and for any one to attend; (3) permission to use the building hired in Geneva as a bookshop; (4) liberty to sell publications in any other part of the Republic; (5) that a declaration be made by the Government to convince authorities abroad that the Salvation Army is "a movement which ought to command the respect and sympathy of every reasonable man."
The Times (London, England), Tuesday, Feb 20, 1883
Englishmen cannot help watching with some curiosity the fortunes of the Salvation Army and other foreign countries which, to keep up their own metaphor, they have invaded. Such an invasion in itself is somewhat of a phenomenon. It is not much more than a year ago that the doings of the Salvation Army were hardly thought worthy of serious public comment. Yet Mr. Booth and his colleagues in command have already sent out flying columns into distant regions, as if this country were at their feet and they needed fresh worlds to conquer. This rapid development need not be construed as an omen of endurance and long life. On the contrary, one might take it as an additional ground for believing that the existence of the "Army" will not be much less ephemeral than that of similar movements. In the case of a commercial enterprise, to extend the sphere of an operation abroad before consolidating the hole business is regarded as a symptom of unhealthy inflation. Mr. Booth can hardly claim to have converted an appreciable proportion of his countrymen to his peculiar modes of worship. Yet he fits out expeditions to countries where, comparatively speaking, he has not the slightest chance of achieving any permanent success. It is not, however, with the prospects of the "Army" in foreign countries with which we are now concerned, but with the treatment which it is now experiencing in those countries. The animosity which M. Daudet has given such striking expression in his latest fiction, "l'Evangéliste," is a sentiment entertained by Frenchmen merely in private. In Switzerland, and particularly in Geneva, the Salvation Army has met with persecution more real than that which consists in invective. Not only have the usual crowds of rioters attacked the processions, and attacked them with impunity, but the Genevan authorities have interdicted the Salvationist meetings, and to crown all, suddenly expelled from the canton Miss Booth and another young lady, who acted as Miss Booth's secretary. The reasons assigned for this summary proceedings were flimsy to a degree.
The whole story was narrated in a letter which we printed yesterday from our Geneva Correspondent. Miss Charlesworth, who is the heroine and narrator, is only sixteen years of age, but it will be seen that she displays the self-possession of a veteran in the trying cross-examination to which she was subjected by the police authorities. There is, indeed, a quaintness almost Puritanic when she dwells upon the "cross and unsaved" faces of her examiners, and on the way they lose their temper while she remains imperturbable. The Salvationist "General", as we all know, has a keen sense of humour, and it would seem that he possesses the art of passing it to his lady disciples. The upshot of the examination appeared on the Sunday following, when Miss Charlesworth, together with other Salvationists, received warning to quit the canton before 6 o'clock, on the alleged grounds that she had contravened a recent order by speaking at a public meeting, that she could not show any authorization from her parents allowing her to stay in Geneva, and that she disobeyed the summons of the authorities to attend at the police bureau upon that same Sunday morning. Of these grounds, the first two, it appears, were unfounded - Miss Charlesworth stigmatizes them by an un-Salvationist name - and the last is explained by the scruples entertained by the young lady against the violation of the Sabbath. It is evident that the expulsions of the Salvationists from Geneva was not due to any infringement of the law, but to some rooted dislike on the part of the authorities. One M. Héridier, the head of the Department of Justice and Police appears to lead a powerful section in the Genevese Council of State, which cherishes a deadly hostility towards religion and religious propagandism. This gentleman is represented by our Geneva Correspondent as having been present at the examination of Miss Charlesworth, but concealed behind a curtain. He and his party have been successful for the present in winning a glorious victory over child opponents, but it is possible that even now the diplomatic pressure which is being applied by the representatives of those Governments whose subjects have thus been summarily expelled may induce the cantonal authorities to recind their ill-advised order.
There can be no doubt, however, that the Salvationists have earned a great deal of unpopularity in Geneva and the other places in Switzerland where they have established themselves, and that the Swiss authorities, so long as they merely confine themselves to refusing to give special protection to the members of the "Army" against mob violence, will be supported to a considerable extent by the less educated portion of the Swiss population. We are not disposed to deny that there is a certain amount of aggressiveness in the proceedings of the "Army", irritating to both those whose religion is of a different complexion and, still more, to the wholly irreligious. In India, this aggressiveness became a positive element of public danger, because of the religious fanaticism of the native population was uncontrollable. The interdiction of the Salvationist demonstrations there was a necessity. But a little more intelligence and moderation may surely be expected from an enlightened population than from Hindoos and Mahomedans. The treatment of the Salvationists in Geneva, however, seems to proceed rather from irreligious tendencies than from any tenderness for the susceptibilities of the Genevese mob. It is, in fact, something approaching real persecution; and for this very reason, it is exactly what the Salvationists court with ardour. They are, doubtless, only too glad to light upon substantial persecutors in this age of stubborn toleration. They would like nothing better than a revival of the age of martyrdom, in which they might be proscribed of the whole world. We English cannot entirely plume ourselves upon the mode in which we treated Mr. Booth and his followers when they first came into prominence. But experience has taught us that the function of the authorities is to preserve the peace, and insure that the "Army" shall not be the butt of lawless violence - and, that insured, to leave the movement to run its course. This policy will, it may be hoped, ultimately adopted by the Genevese. To treat the movement as seriously, as a sort of State conspiracy, is only to endue it with vitality; but left to itself, the Salvation Army is probably destined to grow and die as so many religious movements have grown and died before.
The Times (London, England), Wednesday, Feb 21, 1883
The Salvationists in Switzerland - Geneva, Feb 20.
The council of State to-day replied to the protest made by Mr. Auldjo, the British Consul, on the 12th inst., against the expulsion of Miss Charlesworth, to the effect that complaints of this nature should pass through the diplomatic channel of the British Legation at Berne, which would communicate with the Federal Council on the subject. A similar reply has been given to the representations of "Colonel" Clibborn and Mr. Richard Greville, which had reached the Council of State direct through Mr. Auldjo's intermediary.
Here is Rev. Samuel Charlesworth, Maud's father, joining in:
The Times (London, England), Wednesday, Feb 21, 1883
The Salvation Army in Geneva.
To the Editor of The Times.
Sir, - I have been greatly distressed this morning on reading in The Times an account purporting to have been given by my daughter, Maud Charlesworth, to your Geneva Correspondent resecting the part which she has been so unwisely allowed to take in the proceedings of the Salvation Army in Geneva.
I feel it due myself as a clergyman and to my family to ask permission to state briefly the circumstances under which my youngest daughter had been so unfortunately mixed up with these proceedings of the Army. I ask this favour of you, because her name has appeared so prominently in The Times in the intelligence items from Switzerland.
Twelve years since the Rev. William Booth was carrying on a most useful, successful work in the East of London by means of an organization called the Christian Mission, originated and supported by him. One of the principal stations being in my then parish, the work drew forth the interest and sympathy of myself and my family.
A few years later Mr. Booth adopted a different organization and plan of operations in carrying on his work, an alteration in which I could not accord when it assumed its present form of the Salvation Army. About two years since, my daughter, then in her 16th year, was taken to some of the London meetings of the Salvation Army, and there introduced to members of Mr. Booth's family. Being of a very impressible and somewhat excitable nature, deeply imbued with strong religious convictions and feelings, the Salvation Army took a strong hold upon her imagination, and she became fascinated with its meetings and work. Eventually she was so absorbed in the movement that all other interests seemed entirely to merge with her conception of the importance of the Christian work carried on by the Army. When I first became aware of the intense absorbtion and enthusiastic feeling to which she had yielded I was alarmed for the consequence, both as to health of body and mind. I saw it was needful that I should act most cautiously with her, and I accompanied her to two or three of the Army holiness meetings, that I might judge for myself of their effect upon her.
I shrank with trembling from the responsibility of allowing a child of so sensitive a nature and impulsive disposition to be subject to the intense excitement called forth in those meetings, the whole work being so essentially based and carried on by exciting appeals to the feelings. But I found with sorrow that my daughter had been already so wrought upon by the system that no other form of worship satisfied her spiritual cravings.
Mr. Booth's family were entirely unknown to me. I wrote to two of them with whom my daughter seemed most associated with very earnestly appealing to them not for the present, while she was so young and a school-girl, to do anything which would tend to encourage the excitement or the all-engrossing influence of the Army meetings and work. I regret to say that my appeal met with no responsive sympathy - indeed, I must add that, both with respect to my child and to other young persons of whom I have heard of whom I have heard, I fear the Army influence has a direct tendency to wean converts from home associates and interests, under the idea that its work is paramount in importance to all other pursuits and obligations, and even to the known wishes of parents. At ll events, I then discovered, to my deep sorrow, that one of the most loving and devoted children had found stronger interests and more absorbing pursuits in the arena of the Army than in her own home.
In the very painful dilemma in which I was placed with a motherless daughter to watch over, feeling that my child's happiness, and health of body and mind, probably depended on her continuance in the Army work, and yet dreading the excitement of the work as carried on in London, I took her to Paris, having the impression that the work among the Parisian poor was of a less exciting nature. I attended several meetings, and was greatly pleased by the earnestness of all the workers, and the moderation and propriety which pervaded all the proceedings under the superintendence of Miss Booth.
By my daughter's desire I arranged with Miss Booth to leave her for a time in Paris, that she might assist Miss Booth in her arduous work among the poor; but expressly stipulating that she was only to be regarded as a young friend and visitor, and that she should not become an officer of the Army or wear their uniform.
Shortly afterwards Miss Booth went to Geneva to open a station there, and took my daughter with her. Thus she has so injudiciously and to me most lamentably placed in the very forefront of an aggressive movement in a foreign land; not only in direct contravention to both the spirit and letter of my express stipulations, but also opposed to the course which ought to have been taken even if unexpressed, with reference to one of such a tender age and so inexperienced. Any judicious parent reading the statements contained in The Times on the Geneva proceedings must have felt what a sorrowful and unwise position that young Christian girl had been drawn into.
With regard to the Salvation Army itself, which is the real and principal question of public importance, and of interest to your readers, I wish I could be silent. So long as I could do conscientiously I heartedly desired to note only the good it effects, and be silent, on what might appear to me, its defects or mistakes. It has undoubtedly been accomplishing a great work in the conversion of thousands of the most ignorant and depraved. But, in common with many of my clerical brethren and Christian friends, I now tremble for its future, because there seems to be creeping into it so much of te material and worldly element, as though in its great success and widespread influence the self-sacrificing and self-ignoring spirit were giving place to autocratic rule and exacting obedience - even the spirit of Rome and of the Jesuit rule, in a modified form, superseding the spirit of love and humility. I have come so reluctantly to this conclusion, the result in prat of observing closely its present mode of operation, but more especially from learning of the avowed doctrines and principles upon which its government and mode of procedure are based, as distinctly set forth in the printed code of orders and regulations drawn up for the guidance of the officers of the Army.
I am most deeply pained and grieved to write this letter, but the publicity given to my young daughter's position and proceedings in the Army operations at Geneva, seems to me to demand such an explanation, if only as a caution to other parents.
I have the honour to be, Sir, your very obedient servant, Samuel Charlesworth.
Clapham Common Feb 19.
The Times (London, England), Wednesday, Feb 21, 1883
A story is told of Archbishop Manners Sutton which illustrates with some vividness the mode in which the rational men of two generations ago regarded religion. He had just consecrated the new Bishop of Calcutta, and at the luncheon at Lambeth which followed the ceremony he proposed, as was fitting, the health of the new missionary Prelate. Ending his speech with a few words of paternal counsel, "Remember," he said, "remember, my Lord Bishop, that your Primate on the day of your consecration defined your duty for you. That duty is - to put down enthusiasm, and to preach the Gospel." It is to be feared that the opinion of the Archbishop as to the duty of religious men will hardly command the assent of General Booth and his Salvationists, who would be slow to make that trenchant opposition between the Gospel and enthusiasm. Enthusiasm, indeed, is the material with which they work; and when they find it they have very little scruple in making use of it, whatever may be said by those who might claim, in each individual case, to be consulted. A better example of this has seldom been given than in the letter in which the Rev. Samuel Charlesworth this morning completes the curious story of his young daughter's proceedings, which have been attracting so much attention during the past fortnight. We yesterday commented upon the conduct of the Geneva authorities in rudely expelling this lass of seventeen from the town where Calcin dwelt and from the Canton which harboured Voltaire; but her father's letter suggests other considerations, quite independent of the political aspect of the matter. It may be remarked, in passing, that the Swiss officials seem accidentally to have stumbled upon the truth in their search for a technical justification for Miss Charlesworth's expulsion. She was in Geneva without her father's permission, and, in fact, against his will, as his letter this morning explains. The history of the case is very simple. Mr. Charlesworth is a clergyman who was lately incumbent of a parish in the East of London, in which was situated one of the stations of "the Christian Mission," carried on, in a useful and unpretending way, by a Nonconformist preacher who called himself the Rev. William Booth. After a while, as everyone remembers, the idea entered Mr. Booth's mind that he would adopt for his fight against evil the language and trappings of military life, and the Salvation Army sprang into life. Miss Charlesworth, an excitable and religious-minded girl of fifteen, was taken to some of the meetings, fell in with Mr. Booth's family, and was fascinated b the novelty and the charm of the meetings and the work. Her father saw the danger and protested; but it was too late, and his remonstrances with Mr. Booth's family met with no response. He felt himself, as he said, in a painful dilemma. To remove his child from the work of the Army might injure, he thought, both her happiness and her health; to let her continue would not only alienate her from her home, but would probably over-excite her brain, and end disastrously. In his difficulty he adopted what he thought was a middle course of taking her to Pairs, to help Miss Booth in her work among the poor, "expressly stipulating that she was to be regarded as a young friend and a visitor, and that she should not become an officer of the Army or their their uniform." But just as his former wishes had been disregarded, so this stipulation was held of no account. Miss Booth found her young, eager recruit too valuable for the position of a mere camp-follower; and accordingly, when the "invasion" of Geneva was determined on, Miss Charlesworth was taken to that city and invested with all the prominence of which we have lately heard too much.
"I fear," says Mr. Charlesworth, "that the Army influence has a direct tendency to wean the converts from home associations and interests, under the idea that its work is paramount in importance to all other pursuits and obligations, and even to the known wishes of parents." That this danger is not imaginary will be evident to any who reflect on the essential sameness of all religious movements, Christian or non-Christian, Catholic or Protestant. The claim of religion over the individual is always, in its essence, the same. It asks for the surrender of the whole man. In all ordinary cases this claim is more or les logically harmonized with the claims of the present; otherwise, as Chaucer's monk puts it, "How shall the world be served?" But in the case of the enthusiasts, of those who are subject to one dominent impulse, everything has to yield to the religious passion. That passion which is stronger than all others - stronger than love, or ambition, or avarice - must find its satisfaction, at whatever cost of personal discomfort, or the feelings of others, or of the the claims of so-called minor duties. In Catholic countries the root of all dissension, and the primary ground of the popular dislike to the Church, lies in the claim of the Church to interfere with family order, to forbid mixed marriages or control the children of them, and to "direct" devote wives. In the semi-Catholic system which has lately spread over so large a porton of English life, the difficulty is the same; and many parent has been shocked at hearing of the attempts of an over-zealous schoolmaster to make his boy "confess", whether such a thing was approved at home, or not. The Salvation Army has done little else than re-assert the claims and copy the methods of older religious bodies. All alike aim at the complete direction of the converts by the Church - that is to say, by the officials of the Church, whether ordained priests or self-constituted "captains". Miss Charlesworth, who appears to be the living counterpart of poor Eline Ebsen in M. Daudet's last novel, is but the Protestant reflection of many a Catholic maiden who has taken to the cloister as the place where she can best satisfy her religious fervour; and if the Protestant votary prefers a religious career that is more exciting and more in contact with mankind than that of her Catholic sister, the two are alike in their remoteness from the life of the family. Whatever may be said in their praise, to neither can the poet's words be applied, that she is "true to the kindred points of Heaven and home."
The religious passion is so strong and so incalculable that it is always rash to prophesy a speedy end to any "movement," however extravagant. Mr. Booth's army, however, is a phenomenon in which there is so very little essential novelty that its horoscope may be drawn with tolerable certainty. In so far as it is called an Army, and has grades, titles, and regulations, it is new; but in so far as its object is "conversion," it does not differ from the thousand revivalist schemes that have been started in England and America from the days of Whitefield downwards. It may safely be said that a short time will suffice to wear out the fantastical externals of the scheme, and that what is vital in it will remain. As fae as concerns the outward organisation, indeed, there is much to be urged in dispraise of its latest manifestations. Of the processions and the hostile feelings which they arose enough have been said already; but for the rest, its success has been too sudden and personal to last. A City missionary, who had a dozen years carried on services in the East End with mediocre success, all at once dubs his congregation an Army, and works the metaphor into elaborate detail. In a short time he has shops in prominent thoroughfare for the sale of his newspaper and his uniforms, his own bust, a score of times repeated, occupying a prominent place in the window, Simultaneously the financial side of the organization assumes great proportions, and large purchases of premises are made in great thoroughfares. How long will all this last? That religious and exquisite writer, Madame de Gasparin, believes that it cannot last long. Her pamphlet, from which our Geneva Correspondent lately sent us some striking extracts, and which he describes as, "as far as the Continent is concerned, likely to prove the death blow of the Salvation Army," is not, indeed, very likely to touch General Booth and his followers, but it will have great influence outside. The chief criticism that might be passed upon it is that it perhaps takes the movement too seriously. It assumes that the idea of an Army, with flags, trumpets, and processions at work in the cause of religion, can touch any but the very young and ignorant. It makes too much of the comparison, at which students of history smile, between Mr. Booth and Loyola - between the General of the Salvationists and the General of the Jesuits. Loyola succeeded because what he had formed was an army within an already existing army, a band of praetorians within a highly organized church. M/ Booth's fantastic parody, which could not have succeeded for a moment among any people except the English, will have its day, like other extravagances, and all that will survive of it will be the genuine devotion to the good of others which in many of the performers unquestionably underlies the disguise in which they choose to masquerade.
The Times (London, England), Wednesday, Feb 21, 1883
The Salvation Army.- Mr. William Booth writes:- "We neither had, nor proposed to have, any open air meetings or procession in Geneva. In India we have been allowed to procession with singing and music (as natives of all religions are) in Calcutta, Delhi, Allahabad, Cawnpore, Lucknow, Benares, and a number of other cities. In Bombay alone have authorities refused us permission to do that which is permitted to natives of all religions in that city, and which we are legally advised the police have no power to interdict, except temporarily and under circumstances which it is notorious do not exist. The native population there and everywhere have shown themselves most undeniably friendly to the new missionaries who have stooped to wear their dress and court their favour."
The Times (London, England), Thursday, Feb 22, 1883
The Salvation Army in Switzerland. Geneva, Feb 20.
A meeting of the Salvation Army convened by "Colonel" Clibborn, was held on Sunday evening, near Ferney, and close to the Swiss frontier. Most of the Genevan Salvationists were present, and although the population of the neighbourhood is almost exclusively Catholic, the assembly was not interfered with, either by the people or by the authorities. It is intended to hold a series of similar meetings just outside the frontier, on both sides of the lake.
Mr. Clibborn has had meetings with the British Minister at Berne and the President of the Confederation, touching the expulsion of Miss Booth and Miss Charlesworth from the canton of Geneva. There can be little doubt that the expulsion of these ladies was a violation of international law and of the treaty rights of British subjects residing in this country. There has long existed a convention between England and Switzerland whereby the natives of each State in the territory of the other are placed by that other on the footing of citizens - that is to say, an Englishman domiciled or merely travelling in Switzerland enjoys precisely the same rights as a Swiss and vice versa.
That the reasons alleged for the expulsion of Miss Charlesworth were the merest pretexts is proved by the fact that she was in possession of a regular permis de séjour, and that when it was granted to her on the exhibition of Foreign Office passport, nothing was said to her about her being under age r concerning the supposed necessity for parental permission to travel - a requirement in the case of minors provided with passports or accompanied by friends absolutely unheard of. In refusing to go to the Hôtel be Ville on Sunday or any other day in response to a mere request of the police, Miss Charlesworth, not being charged with any offence known to the law, was quite within her rights. The demand for particulars of a certain collection, for the non-production of which Miss Booth was sent away, was made under an obsolete law. Collections are taken all the year round in every church in Geneva without let or hindrance. Nevertheless, she offered, if a little time were given her, to produce the desired information; but she was expelled the same afternoon. It is of great importance to British subjects living in this country that their position in relation to the police should be exactly defined, for if the expulsions of Miss Booth and Miss Charlesworth can be justified, nobody is safe from one day to another.
The Times (London, England), Thursday, Feb 22, 1883
The Salvation Army in Switzerland. Geneva, Feb 21.
The Geneva Government is bound by Cantonal laws to allow an appeal on the part of Misses Charlesworth and Booth. The Government will appoint a commissary to hear the appeal and report upon it.
General Booth replies to Rev. Samuel Charlesworth's letter:
The Times (London, England), Thursday, Feb 22, 1883
The Salvation Army in Geneva.
To the Editor of The Times.
Sir, - I cannot congratulate those who has chosen the moment when my daughter is exiled and silenced to heap reproaches upon her. I ask, at least, to be allowed a word on her behalf pending completer replies, which will doubtless be forthcoming, if necessary. As the impression produced by Mr. Charlesworth's letter than his daughter was in Geneva contrary to his will, I content myself with the following quotation from a letter addressed by him to Miss Booth on the 31st January, in reply to one in which she consulted him as to his daughter remaining in Switzerland during her own visit to England next month:-
Dear Miss Booth, - I will leave entirely to your own judgment and the convenience of your arrangements whether my child remains at Geneva or at Paris during your absence in England. Let her be where she will be most helpful to you and most useful in the Lord's service. If you intend to return to Geneva, her remaining there will save both the fatigue and expense of a long double journey. I can quite trust to your arrangements for my child. I know that you will counsel her and enforce rules for her guidance in your absence."
I have only to call attention to the fact that this letter was written after Miss Charlesworth was in Switzerland, and after repeated reports had shown clearly what her position in the army was. Indeed, so great is the contrast between this letter of the 31st of January and the one now appearing in your columns that I can only attribute it to some unfriendly influence behind the scenes.
I am placed in an extremely delicate position when a father, in order to condemn the salvation Army, represents his daughter to the world as undutiful and untruthful. But having failed to obtain any redress from My. Charlesworth himself, I am bound to protect the army against such as attack, especially as my daughter has been so heartily and devotedly assisted by a number of young ladies in both France and Switzerland.
I perfectly sympathize with r. Charlesworth in the regret that his daughter should have been placed in so public a position; but it is to the Genevan Government that complaints on this score should be addressed. One might expect sympathy, instead of reproaches, from all fathers under such circumstances. But perhaps the scandalous statements recently made under respectable auspices as to our system of government have removed us in the opinion of some people from the range of human feelings and sympathy.
Be that as it may, my daughter will certainly remain at her post in the "very forefront of an aggressive movement in a foreign land" no matter to what outrages and misrepresentations she may be subjected.
I am, Sir, yours faithfully, William Booth
101 Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C.
Rev. Samuel Charlesworth's letter replies to General Booth (I do think it might have been more sensible not to reply immediately, but wait until he had regained his temper):
The Times (London, England), Saturday, Feb 24, 1883
The Salvation Army in Geneva.
To the Editor of The Times.
Sir, - I regret that the letter of the Rev. William Booth, which I have just read in The Times of today, necessitates a reply from me; but I ask the indulgence of being allowed a further space in your column, with less reluctance because I feel that your just and very discriminating comments on my former letter have removed the subject out of the limited range of my own personal trial to the wider sphere of a question of national importance.
My former letter was, I hope, moderate in tone and free from any personal invective; yet Mt. Booth's reply is so destitute of Christian candour and courtesy that I must no longer use reticence or mild terms, but fully unmask the dangerous principles and practise of a sect which, in endeavouring to obtain a world-wide influence is subverting much that we hold dear in our Christian faith and home life.
Mr. Booth, in his letter, when most ungenerously asserting that I was representing my daughter to the world as undutiful and untruthful, a statement for which my letter yields no shadow of a foundation, for a more truthful, loving, and devoted child no father could have, goes on to say, - "Having failed to obtain any redress from Mr. Charlesworth himself, I am bound to protect the Army against such an attack."
It will hardly be credited that when he wrote those words, he had lying before him a courteous letter of explanation, written to him in reply to the first and only letter I have received from him, sent yesterday to my residence by a special messenger who waited for my answer.
Mr. Booth quotes from a letter written by me on the 31st of January last to his daughter, to prove that I was willing my daughter should remain in Switzerland; but he conceals the all important fact that I had expressed a desire that she should be placed under the care of a dear and valued friend of mine in Switzerland, in whom I had perfect confidence. Also he passes over the fact that I knew nothing of the troubles existing at Geneva, but thought that my daughter was working quietly with Miss Booth in a most successful and unimpeded manner. I give a verbatim quotation from Miss Booth's letter, to which mine must have been a reply.
Dear Mr. Charlesworth, - permit me to say, in the interests of your precious child, that I do not think you know of the great nervous strain the question of working in the Army has been to Maud. She is no strong; her heart is given to this work; and I have grave reason to fear that if she be taken away the inward suffering, which we know is worse than any other kind, will undermine her health for the future. If Maud stays with me, she shall not leave my side under any consideration. I think you can trust me to care for her in all those many particulars, as a mother would. She is a dear sister to me. I love her too well not to check her when I see i needful. Yet I fear the Lord himself has called her, and marked her, and will use her in a wonderful way, for his Glory. I watch over her for Him and her sainted mother. The meetings here are very much blessed. Such a wonderful work has broken out, and should all round are seeking pardon. Your child's simple words are mighty through the Spirit to the breaking of hard hearts. Last evening a meeting for women, of over 2000 present. Maud prayed."
Not a word in this letter about any difficulties or disturbances. In leaving my daughter in Paris, I had stipulated that she should not be under any circumstances separated from Miss booth. Yet her father dares to give that quotation from my letter in reply to justify my child having been set in the very forefront of all those unwise collisions with the municipal authorities in Geneva and being thrown into the midst of the conflict. I was not first consulted whether she should go, but actually being there, I thought it better she should remain, if placed under the care of my friend or left with Miss Booth; and at Miss Booth's request, I wrote to Mr. Adams the British Ambassador at Berne, saying that I fully concurred in my daughter being at Geneva with her, but adding, "only as a young friend and visitor, not to be officially connected with the army or to wear the uniform." And yet she is set in battle array with the Government of the Canton; and one of the charges against her, for which she was banished from Geneva under the risk of imprisonment, is that, contrary to the laws, sh wore the uniform of the army.
After this explanation, may I not say that my confidence was abused, and that when Mr. Booth makes suppressio veri his chief weapon, he is an unworthy antagonist for a wronged parents to enter the lists within newspaper controversy.
When I left my daughter in Paris, I did so under the most strict injunctions that she was not to be in any way used or exposed as an officer of the army. I even stipulated that she should, at my cost, always ride home with Miss Booth in a private conveyance from the evening meetings. Yet to my dismay I learned accidentally that she had been sent out into the streets in front of the Bourse, the Opera House, and the Madeleine to sell the Paris War Cry, En Avant. Imagine a delicate young English girl of a very pleasing exterior, in her 18th year, with a bundle of papers, running after and soliciting the roués of that gay city to buy a paper, and then read Miss Booth's promise to me, as repeated in her before-quoted letter. But I will quote Mr. Booth;s own description of what my dear child was exposed to, as found in his book, "The Salvation War," page 104:-
"Three o'clock in the afternoon, outside the Bourse, three English girls, in full Salvation uniform, each wearing a large satchel strung across the shoulder well packed with French War Cries. Holding two open, they begin at once to work by saying in a loud, clear voice, 'En Avant, un sou'. Their bright uniform and strange appearance attract attention. One man hurries towards them, calling out to his companions, "Why, what's this? What pretty little paper sellers. Let's see what they've got.' The wide flight of steps and pavement in front of the building are covered like an arena; but, instead of looking towards the building or entering in, they have all their eye-glasses up, gazing at something. What? Three little English girls selling, or rather trying to sell, En Avant. At last one comes forward and buys, then another, who says 'Do you think I want this journal? No, it is only to please you that I buy it: your uniform amuses me, it is so charming, so attractive.'"
No less than three pages are devoted to this jocose description of what three young English ladies are refinement and modesty were thus subjected to. Oh! shame upon any father who could thus expose three young girls of tender age to temptations and insult.
Directly I heard of t I wrote to my dear child, saying that I must come and fetch her home at once. Clerical engagements kept me in England for two days, and before I could start I received a most heartrending letter from my daughter, entreating that I would allow her to continue. If I could insert that letter it would bring tears to eyes of many a loving English father and mother, even as I wept over it. There was such tenderness of love and devotion to me, such willingness to yield to my wishes, but so pleading to remain in the Lord's work and service. Yet running it all there was the mournful evidence that she was the captive of the Salvation Army; that a father's love, a daughter's duty, a sweet home in which there was every indulgence and comfort, were not to be set in the scale against work in the Salvation Army. It was marked "strictly private," but I must give one brief quotation. "It was your own kind, loving act to bring me to Paris, and surely you will not now break my heart by recalling me. I will always do what God tells me, and I intend till death, to stick to my colours, come what may. Precious father, if you love me, which I do, leave me with Miss Booth."
Mr. Booth, you may be working for the Lord Jesus Christ, to win souls for Him; but I tell you that in your work you, and your family, and your system, have torn from my widowed home of of the most loving and devoted children, the sunbeam of life, the cheer of my declining years; and you know that I am not the only sufferer in having my home made desolate by those terrible principles of your system, that all home interests, rights and duties, and all relationship obligations are to be subservient to the interests of the Salvation Army. It is so written in you secret book of orders and regulations for your officers, and I challenge you to make that book public - not the book to which you refer when these orders are spoken of, and which is only the general orders and regulations for the members of the army, but the book given to your trusted, initiated officers for their guidance and instruction, with an express direction not to show it. In that book, you make yourself the autocrat of an order as despotic as that of the Romish Jesuits. In that book you ignore the holy Sacraments of the Christian Church; you set at naught the obligations and duties of married life; if they interfere with the interests of your army; you assert that the Bible does not contain the full relevation of God's mind and will to men, but that the words of your army teachers, under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, are of equal authority. In the issue between us I am willing to abide upton the judgment which any Christian men may form of your system as indicated in that book. I decline to have any further public controversy with you or any of your people. I simply leave you and your system to the honest and right-minded judgment of the British Christian public. By your journals, placards and platform speeches, you have travestied our holy religion.
I am going to fetch my daughter home if I can now wean her back to her father's house and heart, and therefore I may not see the public journals. You speak in your letter of your exiled and silenced daughter having reproaches heaped upon her. I never reproacher her, or you until I leaned in that letter of yours today that you were insensible to the rights and duties existing between a father and child if they clashed with the success of your religious system.
I trust, Sir, I may be forgiven for thus seeking again to occupy so much space in your over-pressed column, as it is for the last time.
I have the honour to be your very obedient servant, Samuel Charlesworth
Clapham Common, Feb 22.
The Times (London, England), Monday, Feb 26, 1883
The Salvation Army in Geneva.
Our Geneva Correspondent writes:-
"The letter from Mr Charlesworth which you printed on Wednesday, wherein it is said, or rather implied, that his daughter was taken to Geneva against his wish has naturally occasione considerable excitement among the Salvationists here, the more especially as they have so repeatedly and emphatically affirmed the very opposite. Miss Booth, as I am informed, feels the imputation keenly, and ay 'Colonel' Clibborn's request, I telegraphed to you that he had in his possession letters from Mr. Charlesworth explicitly authorizing his daughter to come here and remain here. AS the Salvationists, or to be more precise, Miss Booth and Colonel Clibborn, feel that their honour is concerned in this matter, and the Genevan authorities may not improbably seek to justify their recent doings by quoting Mr. Charlesworth's statements, I propose to give some extracts from the letters in question, which I take for granted are genuine. The first, dated 'Maitland House, Clapham Common, January 13, 1883,' and sign 'Samuel Charlesworth, Clerk in Holy Orders of the English Episcopal Church,' is, in effect, a certificate, and was, I believe, shown to the police when application was made for Miss Charlesworth's permis de séjour. It runs as follows:-
"'I hereby certify that my daughter, Maud Elizabeth Charlesworth, now staying at the Hotel Pin, 8, Quai Pierre Flatio, Geneva, with her friend, Miss Katherine Booth, is a British-born subject, and that she was 17 years of age on the 13th day of September last.'
"Miss Booth and Colonel Clibborn contend that if Mr. Charlesworth had not been quite willing for his daughter to accompany the Salvationist leaders to Geneva, he would not have given her a certificate for the purpose of enabling her to procure a permis de séjour, which is necessary only when a stay of some duration is contemplated.
"The second letter, like the first, purports to be written at Maitland House, Clapham Common, and bears date January 31, 1883. Omitting passages which are purely private and irrelevant, the missive is thus couched:-"
"'My dear Miss Booth, I will leave entirely to your judgment and the convenience of your arrangements whether my child remains at Geneva or at paris during your absence in England. Let her be where she will be most useful to you and useful in the Lord's service. If you intend to return to Geneva her remaining there will save both the fatigue and expense of a long double journey ... I am sorry that you have the fatigue and expense of so long a journey. May our covenant God preserve you in your going out and coming in. When I think of your burden of suffering and care I feel ashamed that I should be downcast, but the joy of your work gives you strength in the Lord... I know that you will counsel my dear child and enforce rules for her guidance in your absence... Believe me to be, yours very sincerely, Samuel Charlesworth.'"
"Miss Booth is of the opinion that the letter from which I have made the following extracts shows that at a time not very remote she enjoyed Mr. Charlesworth's fullest confidence, and out of his own mouth she is cleared of the charge he now brings against her of contravening 'both the letter and spirit' of his express stipulations.
"The third letter, dated Feb. 17, and like the others, signed by M. Charlesworth, was forwarded to Colonel Clibborn for transmission to the British Minister at berne in support of the official protest against the expulsion of the two English ladies, and is now, I believe, in possession of the Minister. The following is its purport:-"
"'At the request of Miss Booth and of my daughter, Maud Elizabeth Charlesworth, I write to mention to your excellency that my daughter accompanied Miss Booth to Switzerland with my full concurrence... I am anxious to have it understood that my daughter is not officially connected with the Salvation Army, but is only with Miss Booth as a young friend and visitor, taking great interest in the work carried out among the poor in England and on the Continent.'
"In answer to my inquiries on that point, Colonel Clibborn informs me that, although Miss Charlesworth is a soldier of the Salvation Army, carries a soldier's pass and wears a uniform, she had, in fact, no official position in the movement here, but in her devotion to the work 'gave herself the brevet rank of aide-de-camp to la Maréchale (Miss Booth).' As I attended none of the Salvationist meetings, I am unable to say whether or not she took part in them, but certainly until her expulsion her name was not brought before the public, and it is solely to the police of Geneva that Miss Charlesworth owes the celebrity she has lately acquired and to which her father so much objects. No one has ever ventured to doubt that she is a modest English girl, and during her long and trying examination at the Hôtel be Ville, which she has herself so graphically described, she displayed qualities of courage, constancy, and intelligence of which her father may well be proud.'"
General Booth replies to Rev. Samuel Charlesworth's second letter:
The Times (London, England), Monday, Feb 26, 1883
To the Editor of The Times
Sir: - Were it a matter of merely private or personal interest, I should not trouble you with a further reply to Mr. Charlesworth; but seeing that I represent a great movement, in which truth and righteousness are of paramount importance, I ask you to be good enough to insert this letter.
I am glad that it is now admitted by Mr. Charlesworth that we had his full consent to his daughter's remaining in Geneva as a helper to Miss Booth, and that this consent was given after he knew that she was taking a prominent part in meetings attended by 2,000 people there. If Mr. Charlesworth had given us the date of Miss Booth's letter from which he quotes, we should also have seen that it was written before the interference in any way of the authorities, and it would have been impossible for him to have represented, as he has done, that my daughter deceived him.I repeat that I failed to obtain any redress from Mr. Charlesworth. It is quite true that, in reply to a most courteous letter asking for an interview in order to obtain some explanation for this extraordinary attack, I received by my messenger a repetition of the statements to which I referred. That was not redress. As to the friend in Geneva to whom Mr. Charlesworth refers, I have not before heard of this person, and, indeed, Mr. Charlesworth himself says that his daughter "should not, under any circumstances, be separated from Miss Booth," and even in the letter of the 31st of January, from which I quoted in my last, he leaves it entirely to Miss Booth to make arrangements for her during her own absence in England. "Let her be," he says "where she will be most helpful to you and most useful in the Lord's service."
The extract from the "Salvation War," describing the sale of En Avant in the streets of Paris, does not refer to Miss Charlesworth, who was not in Paris at that time, and the moment that Mr. Charlesworth raised objections to his daughter's joining in this work with other young ladies of equal social standing with herself, and chiefly through whose efforts 200,000 copies of En Avant have been sold during the last 12 months, his wish, then expressed for the first time, was acceded to. How unfair then to represent that she had been allowed to take part in this work contrary to his expressed desire.
As to the wearing our uniform, I have only to say that Miss Charlesworth wore our "S.S." and badges in England; wore them in fact, when sitting with her father and speaking in his presence in our meetings.
The truth is let out, however. Mr. Charlesworth has changed his mind owing to some pretended revelations about the Army, which I feel I ought to notice. I have great pleasure in submitting to you a copy of the book said to be secret, which has long been noticed in some of the public journals, has been sent by us to many of the clergy and dignitaries of Mr. Charlesworth's own Church, and was recommended to the perusal of his clergy by his Lordship the Bishop of Durham in his charge delivered on the 19th of December last. It was originally intended for cadets, but 2,000 copies of it have been issued, and it never has been, in any sense, as Mr. Charlesworth suggests, secret. You will observe (1) that it is not a book of orders and regulations at all, but merely a catechism mainly as to doctrine; (2) that not one of the monstrous theories referred to by Mr. Charlesworth can be found in it.
It is notoriously true, thank God, that we do teach men to look upton all their own interests and those of their families as subordinate to those of their Lord and of His Kingdom. I do not fear the judgment of any honest man as to either our teaching or our practice, and had already intended to issue a second edition of the little book for sale.
I have refrained from doing so in the past, only because if it was publically sold it might be taken as an attack upton the teachings of others, and we have always striven to avoid anything of the kind, although of course we cannot send out officers without giving them to understand in the plainest possible English what we consider the sort of teaching likely to produce godly living, for the good of the world, and what to produce inconsistency, selfishness, and half-heartedness.
I know that in eagerness to denounce the pretence that a study of the scriptures or mental acceptance of certain truths is sufficient to ensure salvation, without a radical change of heart and life, and a complete self sacrifice for the lost, we have used language that may be easily twisted and distorted to convey an entirely different meaning to that which was intended, but we have no fear of honest and straightforward criticism.
The Salvation Army has nothing to conceal, and misrepresentations of it cannot long succeed in days when everyone reads.
Yours faithfully, William Booth
Headquarters of the Salvation Army, 101, Queen Victoria Street, London E.E.
Rev. Samuel Charlesworth did not reply.
The Times (London, England), Tuesday, Feb 27, 1883
The Salvation Army. - Yesterday, General Booth, who is in Sunderland, received from his daughter a telegram to the effect that she had been temporarily recalled to Geneva, the Genevan Government having appointed a Commission of Inquiry into the circumstances attending the expulsion of Miss Booth and Miss Charlesworth.
The Times (London, England), Thursday, Mar 1, 1883
The Salvation Army. - Speaking on Tuesday at Regent's Hall Oxford Street, Mrs. Booth said that the Geneva correspondent of The Times had abundantly vindicated the army from charges which had been preferred against it by the Rev. Mr. Charlesworth concerning his daughter. The "General" and herself (Mrs. Booth) deplored the circumstances which had thrust their daughter so prominently before the public as much as Mr. Charlesworth could deplore the cawse of his daughter. Her own eager earnestness, which her father admitted he himself could not suppress in England, had placed Miss Charlesworth in the prominent position she found herself. She was not an officer in the army, but it pleased her to wear its uniform, and to sign herself "A.D.C." to Miss Booth. Their expulsion from Geneva was by the law journals condemned as contrary to international law. Within, however, the last two months, 2,000 copies of the book of instructions had been publically circulated, and it was one of the publications of the army which the Bishop of Durham commended to the considerations of churchmen. With respect to the opinions and fears of the Rev. Mr. Charlesworth, Mrs. Booth said she would leave God and time to answer them. God and time had done a good deal for the army during the 17 years of its existence, and would yet do a great deal more. Meanwhile the slanders and misreprehensions which were abroad concerning the army had affected the state of its coffers, and she appealed for a liberal collection.
The Times (London, England), Monday, Mar 5, 1883
Switzerland, Geneva, March 3
The text of the resolution adopted yesterday by the Council of State for the Canton of Geneva, rejecting the appeal of Miss Catherine Booth against her expulsion from the canton, is as follows:-
Considering the appeal of Catherine Booth against the decree of expulsion, dated 12th ult., issued against her by the Department of Justice and Police, which withdrew the permission for her stay in the Canton;
Considering that Miss Booth has openly declared that she holds the highest hierarchical position in the Salvation Army, and is in that quality responsible for the proceedings of the persons acting under her orders;
Considering that the Salvation Army has been the cause of serious disorders at Geneva and that several of its members have contravened the decree of the Council of State of the 2d ult. suspending the meetings of the Army;
Considering Article 28 of the Law of February 1844, which enacts as follows:-
"The Council of State, in virtue of its supreme administrative power, has always the right of expelling from the Canton foreigners whose presence might be prejudicial to the country's interests or the safety of the State;"
The Council of State, having heard the report of the Commissary appointed to make inquiry in conformity with Article 5 of the Law of February 9th, 1844, upon the police supervision of foreigners, decides to reject the appeal of Miss Catherine Booth.
Considering the appeal of Miss Charlesworth against the order of expulsion issued on the 11th ult. by the Department of Justice and Police, withdrawing from Miss Charlesworth permission to reside in the Canton;
Considering the report of the Commissary appointed to make inquiry in conformity with Article 5 of the Law of February 9th, 1844, on the police supervision of foreigners;
The Council of State rejects Miss Charlesworth's appeal.
The above resolution was not unanimously adopted by the five members of the Executive Council who were present at the time.
The Times (London, England), Tuesday, Mar 6, 1883
The Salvation Army.- Mr. Booth, addressing a large meeting of the Salvation Army at Sheffield last night, announced the receipt of the following telegram from his son in London:- "Miss Booth and Miss Charlesworth have arrived safely in London. Miss Charlesworth is here (at Mr. Booth's private house) with her father's consent. Not one soldier lost in Geneva or in Paris through the opposition." Mr. Booth referred to the efforts made by Lord Granville on behalf of the expelled Salvationists, and said that he had fulfilled a promise made in a personal interview the other day. Lord Granville said he would ascertain the facts of the case, and lay them before the Law Officers of the Crown and if they formed a sufficient reason for the interference of the British Government he would take the necessary steps. Mr. Booth adverted to the Charlesworth correspondence in The Times, adding that he had received a letter this evening to the effect that the REv. S. Charlesworth had given his daughter into the care of Miss Booth,and that, hand in hand, they were going on to fight for jesus. Both would appear and speak at Exeter Hall next Monday.
Maud says in her book:
My father's church friends blamed him for leaving me unprotected in Switzerland. They inveighed against the Salvation Army. There I was with an angry parent shocked and demanding that I leave the work I loved and had given my life to. ... These experiences brought about along and sad separation and a breaking of old family ties. That bitter newspaper controversy ostracized me except from Florrie, who never deserted me. The next time I visited my father's home, he called the servants up as I left to witness that I was never to return. My few possessions were packed and sent after me.
Maud continued living with the Booths, and here she is, a few years later, taking part in a triumphal procession. The Times report seems neutral or even approving, compared with its previous attitude (see above). It still puts the Salvation Army ranks in inverted commas some of the time, but forgets elsewhere.
The Times (London, England), Monday, May 31, 1886
The Salvation Army - An international congress of this army from various parts of the world - which is to extend over a week - began on Friday at Exeter Hall under the presidency of General Booth, who was supported by all the members of his family. The hall was crowded. The General said that in 1882 there were only 320 corps and 766 officers; now there were 1,552 corps and 3,602 officers. In 1882 they held 6,222 services weekly, or 323,000 a year, but these figures had now advanced to 28,200 and 1,466,400 respectively. The newspaper of the army was printed in 19 different languages, and the Salvation banner waved in 19 different countries and colonies. Testimonials were given by representatives of the army from many parts of the world as to the good work it was carrying on, and the proceedings were of a very enthusiastic and congratulatory kind throughout, the Salvationists from abroad receiving a cordial welcome. A remarkable demonstration of the Army in connexion with the congress now being held was witnessed in Hackey on Saturdy afternoon by many thousands of spectators. A "grand triumphal procession," as it was called, was the main feature of the demonstration, and it was as remarkable in its composition as it was long in its extent. To use the phraseology of the official programme, "the ranks comprised 5,000 troops of the Army of Jevovah, gathered from all parts of the earth, on horse and on foot, with 30 brass bands, brakes, and chariots, representatives of most of the nations of the earth, including England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, New Zealand, China, Australia, Italy, La Maréchale Booth and French force, India, Germany, South Africa, Switzerland, Sweden, Holland, Germany [sic], the United States battalion on war steeds," &c. Each nationality had its brake or serios of conveyances, and the occupants, who appeared in their native costumes, rendered still more brilliant by the profusion of sashes, collars, shields, and medals, presented an exceedingly picturesque appearance. The bands played lively hymn tunes, and some of them betokened really good musical talent. The "chariots" attracted most attention. The occupants of these were Mr. Bramwell Booth, chief of staff, and Mrs. Bramwell Booth, Commissioners Railton and Tucker (from India), Misses E. M. and Eva Booth, Miss Charlesworth, Marshal Booth (from Australia), while "General" Booth and Mrs. Booth were in a special triumpal car, escorted by several hundreds of the "Salvation Life Guards in heavy marching order," and followed by the "Cavalry corps fort," "The Integrity," with its special occupants. Mr. and Mrs. Booth were loudly cheered at intervals, and constantly bowede their acknowledgments to the immense crowd all along the line of route.
Maud became engaged to a son of General Booth, Ballington Booth (he is the "Marshal Booth" from Australia in the previous article). As she was still under age, General Booth wanted her father, Samuel Charlesworth, to consent to the marriage, but as you can imagine, this did not happen. So the pair had to wait until Maud was 21, and got married without his permission. Samuel Charlesworth refused to attend the ceremony, but (I am glad to say) both her sister Florence Barclay and Florence's husband did come.
The Times (London, England), Friday, Sep 17, 1886
The Salvation Army. - Nearly 4,000 persons assembled in the Congress Hall at Clapham yesterday morning to witness the marriage of Mr. Ballington Booth, second son of General Booth, with Miss Maud Charlesworth, daughter of the Rev. Samuel Charlesworth. Once before there was a wedding in the family of General Booth upon strict Salvation Army lines, the bridegroom Mr. Bramwell Booth. The proceedings yesterday differed very little from the first. Many of the vast audience had paid their shillings for admission to the service, while others were invited as friends. Outside the hall flags and banners were flying, but inside there was little to mark the event out as different from any service, except an occasional motto like, "God bless the union." On the platform the General sat in the centre, with his wife, and sons and daughters. The bride sat between Mrs. Booth and her sister, Mrs. Barclay, who with the Rev. Mr. Barclay was also present, and a number of staunch supporters of the army. Hymns were sung, to the accompaniment of a band, prayers were offered, and a portion of scripture was read. The the General read the form of marriage in the army, and expounded it. Where it differed from any other form is chiefly in the fact that in enjoins upon the contracting parties life-long devotion to the army as well as to each other. Then the bride and bridegroom stood upon either side of the General and repeated their declarations after him in a firm voice, accepting each other as lawful and wedded husband and wife and "continuous comrades in this war". The General clasped the hands of each together, and they were pronounced man and wife in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, amid the ringing "Amens" of the Salvationists present. During this formal part of the ceremony two flags of the army were held over the heads of the contracting and officiating parties. Mrs Booth and the bride both addressed the meeting, and after a collection the ceremony ended.
Ballington and Maud went to America to work for the Salvation Army there.
The Eagle, Oct 17, 1912 (American newspaper giving a life of Maud Ballington Booth, née Charlesworth):
The crowning joy of Mrs. Booth's work came in the reconciliation with her father, whom she discovered in the audience one night in Brooklyn when she was making one of her powerful appeals. The rapt affection and pride in his face filled her with happiness, and after the meeting he came to her with his blessing. He had crossed the sea to seek the daughter whose early religious undertakings had displeased him so much. The "wayward girl of goodness" received the paternal benediction at last.
It would be easy to stigmatise Rev Samuel Charlesworth as a rigid and humourless authoritarian Victorian father, demanding complete obedience to his commands. However, I think that he deeply loved his daughter, and was furious with the Salvation Army. In his eyes, he had placed her in their care, and they had put in her in very real danger. Tweaking the nose of the police of a foreign country is not a sensible thing to do. His letters to the Times were deeply unwise, and his handling of his daughter abysmal. He should have praised her courage and wit rather than shouting at her, which he obviously did. But he was not only angry about the past, he was frightened about the future. He tried in every way he knew to withdraw Maud from the Salvation Army, but he failed.
However, he was wrong. Maud had worked out at a very young age what she wanted to do with her life, what her talents were, and how to use them. The Salvation Army suited her perfectly, and so did life in America. I like to think that eventually Rev. Samuel Charlesworth realised this. To admit being wrong is hard for someone as rigid and self-righteous as him, and I honour him for it.
Is that the end of the story? No. The Epilogue of Maud's book "A Rector's Daughter in Victorian England" says that in the end Maud and her husband got fed up with General Booth. He tried to interfere with the Salvation Army work that they were doing in America, and eventually ordered them back to England. They refused to go, which meant that in 1896 they left the Salvation Army. They had no money, and their house belonged to the Salvation Army, so they had to move out. Also they had two young children. They were desperately short of money. They were helped by their American friends, but when Rev. Samuel Charlesworth in England heard of their plight, he promptly sent money to help them survive. I'm sure that this was done in love, just as his reconciliation was, but if there was a smallest hint of "I told you so", who can blame him? He had warned of the dangers of the autocratic nature of General Booth in these letters to the Times.
Ballington and Maud went on to co-found the Volunteers of America. She became an American citizen. Maud was also known for working to improve the conditions of prisons in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and was interested in the legalization of euthanasia. She toured on the Chautauqua circuit, including one tour with her sister Florence Barclay.
Maud is buried in Ferncliff Cemetery and Mausoleum, New York, USA.
See The Barclay Voice for a comment about an inherited family trait!
There are accounts of Samuel Charlesworth, which might explain his character, and his part in the row above:
From The Life of Florence L. Barclay by one of her daughters, four separate quotes:
The Reverend Samuel Charlesworth was a man of reserved, undemonstrative nature. He had married very late in life, and had already acquired the habits of a confirmed bachelor.
Mr. Charlesworth was a man of few words.
Sometimes Mr. Charlesworth would come out of his usual seclusion, and calling his three small daughters together spend an evening with them, discussing books or sometimes Biblical questions.
Three ideas in particular Mr. Charlesworth left so deeply impressed on his daughter that she never forgot them. One was a most profound reverence for the Bible, as being the inspired word of God. Apart from the mind's veneration, he insisted on outward reverence being paid to the book. He would allow no other book - not even a prayer-book - to be placed upon a copy of the Bible. ... Another principle her father taught her was an uncompromising regard for truth. He considered no kind of untruthful speaking ever justifiable. ... The third lesson she learnt from her father was that of always, on principle, being perfectly courteous to everyone, of whatever social standing.
The reference for the Bible and the disgust of lying is expressed in his letters above. He seemed to have dropped being "perfectly courteous" when he assumed that someone was being rude to him!
The other book is earlier - a life of Samuel's father, Rev. John Charlesworth. Samuel is one of the children mentioned here:
Here, however, was to be seen the best of religion as to its practical results. The simple Pastor in his family; the simple manners and habits of that family. In how many cases is the influence of a godly Pastor weakened, when the villagers observe the flippant modern manners, and the showy dress of his daughters? The children, under the gentle and even course of treatment, were in cheerful subjection; they were usefully occupied.
Mr. C. [Rev. John Charlesworth] not only forbade books of any known vicious character to be read (that which most parents would do) but he forbade books of a frivolous or trifling character. He forbade (as he told me) the "Newspapers" to his children. ... Such a family, under such truly Christian influence, was a new thing for myself to witness. It was what a "home" ought to be; the peace, the simplicity, the constant doing of good in a quiet way, made up an edifying contrast to the mixed emotion that a young seeker for truth feels in the "religious" movements of London life, ...
And then Maud joins one of the '"religious" movements of London life' and gets her name plastered all over the Times!
Accounts of Maud's life
Wikipedia article on Maud Ballington Booth (née Charlesworth)
Wikipedia article on Ballington Booth
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