Battles involving England - Second Barons' War

King Henry III was only 9 years old when he became king in 1217. At first, regents ruled England for him, but when he grew up, he became more autocratic, and ignored Magna Carta which his father King John had signed. Simon de Monfort led the barons who opposed the king. In 1258 the barons barons forced Henry to agree to the Provisions of Oxford which abolished the absolutist Anglo-Norman monarchy, giving power to a council of fifteen barons to deal with the business of government and providing for a three yearly meeting of parliament to monitor their performance. However, civil war broke out in 1264.

Battle of Evesham 1265 (location)

Simon de Monfort and the barons were successful at first, and at the Battle of Lewis, King Henry and his oldest son, Edward, were captured. Henry was reduced to a figurehead king, and Simon de Montfort broadened representation to include each county of England and many important towns, that is, to groups beyond the nobility. The barons thought that he had gone too far. In 1265, Edward escaped from captivity, and killed Simon de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham. In 1272, King Henry died, and Edward became king, Edward I.

Death and mutilation of Simon de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham, unknown artist, late 13th century Death and mutilation of Simon de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham, unknown artist, late 13th century

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