Battles involving England - Battles involving James II

Charles I was executed by Oliver Cromwell during the English Civil War, and England became the Commonwealth. When Oliver Cromwell died, there was no obvious successor, so Charles II was restored as king. One of the grievances during the English Civil War was religious freedom and a deep suspicion of Catholicism. The brother of Charles I, James II, became the next king in 1685, and he was a Roman Catholic.

Monmouth Rebellion 1685 (location)

James, Duke of Monmouth, an illegitimate son of Charles II, rebelled against James II and claimed the throne. The rebellion ended with the defeat of Monmouth's forces in 1685 at the Battle of Sedgemoor, near Bridgwater, Somerset. Monmouth was executed for treason, and many of his supporters were executed or transported in the "Bloody Assizes" of Judge Jeffreys. James II remained king.

The Glorious Revolution 1688

In 1688, James II was overthrown, and William of Orange was invited by Parliament to become king. He reigned jointly with his wife, Mary, as they were both had a right to the throne. More importantly, both were Protestant. The Bill of Rights established a constitutional monarchy.

Siege of Derry 1689 (location)

James II had fled England when William of Orange arrived. There was support for James II in Ireland, since it was mostly Catholic. However, in Derry, thirteen apprentice boys seized the city keys and locked the gates against the Catholic forces. There was a seige which was eventually relieved by the Royal Navy. The seige is still commemorated annually by the Apprentice Boys of Derry.

Battle of Boyne 1690 (location)

The armies of William of Orange and James II met on opposite sides of the River Boyne, just outside the town of Drogheda on Ireland's east coast. William won the battle and James II had to give up his hope of regaining the throne.

Battle of the Boyne, by Jan Wyck, c. 1693
Battle of the Boyne, by Jan Wyck, c. 1693

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