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David I

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Introduction --- Kings of Alba --- Macbeth --- David I --- Robert --- Stewarts

This family tree overlaps the previous tree slightly. The numbers in brackets are the dates of the reigns, so anyone without numbers was not a king. This is all AD, of course.

                             David I (1124-1153)
                                    |
                                Earl Henry
                                    |
              ---------------------------------------
             |                      |                |
   Malcolm IV (1153-1165)  William I (1165-1214)  David Earl of Huntingdon
                                    |
                        Alexander II (1214-1249)
                                    |
                       Alexander III (1249-1286) 
                                    | 
          Margaret, wife of daughter of King Eirik II of Norway
                                    |
                            Margaret (1286-1290)            

David Earl of Huntingdon is mentioned in the family tree, since both John of Balliol and Robert the Bruce claimed descent from him, and hence from David I (see next page).

NameReignedLength of reignAge at startMarried
David I1124-115329 41Maud of Huntingdon
Malcolm IV1153-116512 12
William I1165-121449 23Ermengarde de Beaumont
Alexander II1214-124935 16Joan of England, Marie de Coucy
Alexander III1249-128637 8Margaret of England, Yolande de Dreux
? Margaret1286-12904 3

Before he became king, David I spent time in the English court of Henry I where he acquired Norman and Anglo-French culture. He married Maud, Countess of Huntingdon, which made him a powerful English lord. He became Prince of the Cumbrians, which included land south of the Tweed, now part of England. When he became king, there were people with a better claim under primogeniture (oldest son inherits - which was gradually being accepted), such as the son of Alexander I, who was supported by the King of Moray. However David managed to defeat them. He gained control of the area round Renfrew, and drove north for control of Caithness. The Norweigan king opposed him and stopped him going into the Orkneys. David also led raids into England, some successful, some not.

David founded several burghs (settlements with defined boundaries and guaranteed trading rights), several monasteries such as Melrose Abbey, and introduced feudalism through immigrant French and Anglo-French knights.

David's son, Earl Henry, died before he did. His grandson, Malcolm IV, became king, but died young and unmarried. Malcolm's brother, William I, had a long reign. William inherited the title of Earl of Northumbria, but had to give it up to Henry II of England. He was part of a wide-spread revolt against Henry in 1173-1174 to regain Northumbria, but lost, and had to swear fealty to Henry as part of the peace treaty. William also had to marry Ermengarde de Beaumont, a grand-daughter of Henry I.

Alexander II married Joan of England, who was sister of Henry III of England. Alexander managed to gain control over Argyll. He tried to claim Northumberland, but a treaty set the boundary between Scotland and England to run between the Solway Firth and the mouth of the River Tweed, similar to the modern boundary. Alexander died while trying to secure the Western Isles, which still owed a nominal allegiance to Norway.

Alexander III was only 8 years old when he became king, so regents ruled until he was 21. He managed to gain control of the Isle of Man and the Western Isles, but Norway kept control of the Orkneys and Shetlands. Alexander married Margaret, daughter of Henry III of England. They had three children, but all died before Alexander did. He then married Yolande de Dreux, a French noble woman, but she didn't manage to produce an heir. So Margaret, Maid of Norway inherited the crown. She was daughter of King Eirik II of Norway and Margaret, daughter of King Alexander III. But the Maid of Norway died young. She was also never crowned, so there is some dispute whether she should be considered as Queen of Scotland. Certainly her death led to competition between the various claimants to the throne.

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