William III and Mary II

Previous king: James II (father of Mary)       Reigned: 1688-1702       Next queen: Anne (sister of Mary)

William III William III (see left) and Mary II (see right) are usually known as just William and Mary. Mary was the daughter of James II, but William, her husband, was also descended from Charles I. So they reigned as joint monarchs. William is also known as William of Orange.

James II had been driven out of England because of his autocratic rule, and his Roman Catholicism. Parliament passed a Bill of Rights which restricted the powers of the monarch. He could no longer suspend laws, levy taxes, or maintain a standing army during peacetime without Parliament's permission. This meant that William and Mary became constitutional monarchs, which is the reason why this is called the Glorious Revolution.

The deposed James II had gathered an army in Ireland. William fought him at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690. James was defeated and fled to France. His son and grandson continued his attempts to regain the crown in future reigns.
Mary II

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