Let me explain right away that I am not an expert on beadwork! I have seen some in museums, and became fascinated by it. I am a lacemaker, so the techniques below use my lace-making equipment. I am sure that you could adapt the technique without that.
 Equipment Pattern Methods Third method in detail Finished result

## Pattern

 A pattern is merely to tell you which coloured beads to use. It is not used to make the finished work directly (unlike lace). So it can be any size. You can even leave it on the computer! In fact, for a simple design, you may not even need a pattern. You will need to work out how many rows your beadwork will have. The length matters less, but the number of rows needs to be established from the start. Here are my designs with 9 rows: The first is my name (first attempt, and not very successful - see below!) The next was a request. The third is a formula called Euler's identity, with a spiral galaxy either side. (I don't know if galaxies have anything to do with Euler's formula! Never mind.) The colours are chosen for the bead colours I had, and special beads indicated, possibly not with the right colour! Here is a design with 11 rows:

## Different methods

 The weft thread is threaded through the beads (using a needle). Looking at a piece of beadwork, it looked as if the warp threads didn't. That sounds reasonable. A bead only has a hole going in one direction! If the warp threads are to remain fairly straight, they must pass between the beads.

Since the warp threads don't go through the beads, that means that where the warp crosses the weft, you can't just have one weft and one warp thread. Otherwise they would just pull apart. I suppose that the warp could go over the weft in one direction and under in the next row in the other direction, but this would be very loose. I don't think it would hold the beads in position, especially since the beads are of different sizes! So I think that either you have two weft threads for each row of beads, or two warp threads between two beads.

To start with, I tried two warp threads between each bead, and one weft going through the beads. The weft thread had to do between the two warps. The problem was that since the warps went between the beads, not through them, there wasn't anything really holding them in place until the whole thing was tightened. In fact, tightening tended to make the beads jump into the wrong slot! The end result was floppy. Not recommended. See the bottom of the page - the design "Joanna" for the end result.

So we obviously need two weft threads going through each bead, trapping the warp thread between them. This locks each bead in place. The problem is how to do it...

If both wefts are going in the same direction, then they create a zigzag effect. They both go right in one row, then they both go left. The beads are in the correct place OK, but tightening creates a coggled effect. Also not a success!

So for the last method - the one I think worked. I will describe it in detail below. but essentially there are two wefts, on different needles. If you have the strip going downwards, then one weft goes from left to right, and the other goes from right to left, for the same row. When I tighten the two wefts for one row, they pull in different directions, tightening the whole strip up nice and tight (but not too tight.)